Reported, then Censored: Chinese Media on PRC Bank of China and Money Laundering

State Media: Bank of China Engages in Money Laundering
The state’s media, China Central Television (CCTV), reported that the Bank of China, one of the four major state banks, engages in money laundering. In violation of government control of cross-border fund transfers, it transfers large amounts of cash abroad for clients who plan to emigrate overseas.
“‘Regardless of where and how you get your money, we can help you get it out [of China].’ The staff from a Bank of China branch said that it does not matter how black or dishonorable the money is; the bank has a way to clean it and get it overseas safely.”
At a recent immigration expo in Beijing, an immigration agent explained that due to government control of fund transfers by individuals, one may be able to transfer up to $50,000 a year. In order to apply for investment immigration, one must transfer large amounts to accounts designated by foreign governments. To do that, one must go to the Bank of China. The Bank of China representative at the expo confirmed this information. “We help you convert such a large amount [of yuan] into foreign currencies and transfer it out in one transaction. That is the step we handle.” According to CCTV, the Bank of China charges its clients a 0.3 to 0.4 percent handling fee for these types of transfers.
Source: Xinhua, July 9, 2014

央视曝光中行造假洗黑钱 员工称多黑的钱都能洗白

2014年07月09日 13:26:57 来源:央视网 <!–我有话说–>

 

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  “我们不管您的钱从哪来,怎么来的,都可以帮您弄出去”中国银行某支行的工作人员称,别管您的钱有多黑,多见不得光,银行都有办法给你洗白,并且安全的弄到国外。

  银行走进移民会 外汇随便换

  中国社会科学院的一份报告称,近三年,我国年均向海外移民人数已经

  接近20万,其中海外投资移民的人数增长迅速。要想移民到欧美等国家,投资移民动辄就是几十万上百万美元,为什么数额巨大的投资门槛却挡不住一些人的移民热情,是什么人在拿投资移民做掩护,让大量不明资金外逃,银行和移民中介在当中又扮演什么样的角色?

  在北京,一到周末大大小小的移民中介就办起各个国家的移民咨询会。低端一点的场址就直接选在移民公司里,而高端大气的则要在国贸CBD附近的各大高端五星级酒店里举行。在一家五星级酒店的宴会大厅里正在举行一场大型投资移民咨询会,记者看到除了移民中介和不少客户外,竟然还有中国银行的身影。

  “你要投资移民把钱转出去肯定要走中行业务,驻展,要有需求就直接去找他们。”一位移民中介销售人员这样告诉记者,有投资移民项目的国家都要求投资移民人将一定数额的外币汇到国外项目指定帐号上,才能办理移民。由于我国控制个人换汇,每人每年最多只能换汇五万美元,要想凑够动辄几十万数百万美元的投资移民款,只能去找中国银行。

  而中国银行的工作人员也证实了这样的说法:“我们帮您做的是把您这么大金额都换成外币,一步汇走,就做这一步。”

  跑到投资移民咨询会上来开展业务,中国银行的服务可真够便民的,当然这外汇不能白帮客户换,银行还要收取一笔可观的费用,手续费大概在千分之三到千分之四,相当于汇率贵点。

  “优汇通”一项见不得光的银行业务

  按照我国外汇管理规定,每人每年最多只能换汇五万美元,那么为什么中国银行称他们可以为需要移民的客户无限额地换取外汇,并且还可以直接打到国外账户呢?在调查中记者发现,其实银行的这项换汇业务并非是光明正大的正常业务,里面还隐藏着猫腻。

  在投资移民会上,虽然银行的工作人员详细地为客户介绍着这项名为优汇通的无限换汇业务,但是记者在中国银行的官方网站上却并没有看到所谓的优汇通无限换汇业务,在中国银行的各家分支行里,也并没有相关服务的介绍。那么这个所谓的优汇通无限换汇业务到底是怎么回事呢?当记者主动问到银行的工作人员时,他们才告诉记者,确实有这项业务,属于是广东分行牵头的业务,各地的中行只有经过广东分行才能做,但是不做任何宣传。

  中国银行北京某支行的某位员工这样告诉记者:“人民币要先转到广东分行,然后换汇,这个优汇通业务我们都是和移民中介合作,不做任何对外宣传,除非客户主动来问,我们才说。”

  在中国银行深圳分行,在记者的要求下,一位工作人员才让记者看了存在她办公电脑里的优汇通业务相关资料,里面明确写着这项业务是专门针对北美、澳洲和欧洲一些国家的投资移民。记者提出拷贝一份以进行详细的了解,却被当场拒绝。工作人员告诉记者,这份材料不能外传,而这项业务不能公开。

  不做宣传,资料不能公开,客户不问就不说,银行如此隐秘的业务不免让人生疑。北京某支行的一位副行长偷偷告诉记者,这项业务其实并不符合国家相关外汇管理的规定,不是那么见得了光,所以中行只是偷偷在做,今年初就因为外管局检查而停了一段时间。

  突破管制 银行偷偷打通资金外流通道

  作为一家国有大型银行,中国银行竟然还有优汇通这样偷偷摸摸,似乎不能见光的业务,真是让人匪夷所思,那么这项无限额的换汇业务到底是如何操作,是否违规呢?记者在北京、深圳、广州等多地进行了深入的调查。

  记者先走访了北京的多家中国银行,关于优汇通业务,他们都称这项学名为跨境人民币结算的业务其实是广东分行做的,北京各家支行最终还是要找到广东的分支行去办理,人民币只有通过他们才能换成外币。

  “优汇通学名叫跨境人民币结算业务,它是金融服务项下,以前是被禁止的。”

  “你要在广东分行开个户,但你不用过去,我们帮你弄。然后钱转到那里,再换成外币汇出去。”

  为了找到优汇通业务的源头,记者来到了位于广州的中国银行广东分行,一位营业部大堂经理告诉记者,通过国内各个分支行,各地来这里办理优汇通业务的顾客很多。

  这里的大堂经理告诉记者:“移民的人确实挺多的,全国各地是往我们这来,你不能光看柜面有没有这样的客户,因为有些是远程处理的。”

  据介绍,在广东除了中国银行广东分行可以直接办理这项业务以外,它下面的很多支行也可以具体操办。一家支行的客服经理告诉记者,其实他们并不是在国内把客户的钱兑换成人民币,而是把人民币先汇到国外,再由中行的国外分支机构兑换成外币。

  “因为这个要通过海外行来做,海外行报一个汇率给我们,我们折算后汇出去的人民币,但是到那边接收的是外币,就是通过中国银行伦敦分行或者东京分行,或者是巴黎分行。”

  银行工作人员告诉记者,不在国内兑换外币,而是利用中行自己的海外分支机构兑换外币,这就是为了避开国家对外汇的管制,这样就可以想兑换多少外币兑换多少。“这虽然是人民币跨境业务,但是没有通过外管局的兑换系统,其实这么做是一个灰色地带,打一个擦边球。”

  专家:银行不只是擦边球 涉嫌违法

  银行工作人员自称优汇通业务是一种跨境人民币结算业务,不是国内换汇,而是绕开国家外管局的监管,利用银行国外分支机构换汇,他们认为这只是在灰色地带打擦边球。但是专家表示,跨境人民币结算并不允许个人投资移民,银行绕开监管,实现超额汇兑,已经涉嫌违法。

  我国从2009年开始试点实施跨境人民币结算业务,《跨境贸易人民币结算试点管理办法》中规定,国家允许指定的、有条件的企业以人民币进行跨境贸易的结算,支持商业银行为企业提供跨境贸易人民币结算服务。专家指出,跨境人民币结算只针对企业的国际贸易,而并非是针对个人的国外投资移民,个人换汇是不允许走这条通道的。

  平安证券首席经济学家钟伟表示:“现在令人疑惑的是为什么个人能通过跨境购售人民币方式,把人民币资产直接转移到海外去,他一定涉及中资银行在海外清算行做了一个配合,这已经是违反现有外汇法律法规制度的根本问题。”

  我国外汇管理条例规定,违反规定将境内外汇转移境外,或者以欺骗手段将境内资本转移境外等逃汇行为,情节严重的,处逃汇金额30%以上的罚款,构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。专家表示,绕开监管的逃汇行为危害严重,有可能会引发人民币外逃等问题。

  中信银行国际金融市场专家刘维明表示:“一个国家的外汇使用要有一个非常明确的监控,我们监控不到那就有可能出风险,比如资金外逃,或者造成热钱集中涌入,都会对金融体系造成影响。”

 

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Yale University’s Finance Professor Chen Zhiwu on China’s Economy and Its Rule-by-Law Shortcomings

Yale University School of Management Finance professor   陈志武  Chen Zhiwu’s book 非理性亢奋 [Irrational Exuberance] 2nd ed published December 2010  discusses Chinese finance and its problems. He concludes that the lack of an independent judiciary and rule of law are serious shortcomings.  Professor Chen has a web page on the Yale School of Management websitehttp://mba.yale.edu/faculty/profiles/chen.shtml and a Chinese language blog at sina.com http://blog.sina.com.cn/chenzhiwu , a blog outside the firewall at http://www.bullogger.com/blogs/chenzhiwu/ and a micro blog which has 2.4 million “fans” following it at http://t.sina.com.cn/chenzhiwu

The topics Chen addresses are familiar to undergraduate economists; the application of these ideas to analyzing the Chinese economy makes the book especially interesting.  Chen is clearly not one of those who believes in a special Chinese model that creates its own new economics as it goes along. Chen has written several other popular books on the Chinese economy including Why are Chinese Hard-working but Not Rich? http://product.dangdang.com/product.aspx?product_id=20986528

A hint of the contents can be seen from the chapters titles which include:

  • Is the Chinese stock market getting worse?
  • Irrational Exuberance — the world telecoms bust
  • The danger of a stock market bubble — explaining the US stock market crisis
  • Why does China’s economic future depend on press freedom?
  • A free media is an indispensable part of a market economy
  • A case study of the media and the market’s effectiveness in oversight of a company
  • From libel suits can be seen the legal difficulties of media speech
  • Class action suits are an effective way of protecting the rights of stockholders
  • How does the US handle the problem of insider trading?

Systematic economic critiques of the PRC system like Prof. Chen’s are apparently OK with the Party but not political critiques of the Charter o8 variety that fit in nicely with  Prof. Chen’s points. Prof. Chen, for example, says that the fact that Chinese cannot buy and sell land is a serious obstacle to individual Chinese building their wealth. If China followed Prof. Chen’s suggestions and adopted media freedom, free buying of selling of land, independent judiciary and rule of law implementing Liu Xiao*bo’s and Charter o8’s ideas would be far off.  Yet Liu Xiao*bo is in jail and Prof. Chen is welcome in China, gives lectures in China, and his books are published here. Ran Yun*fei told me last year that the difference between someone who is considered a dangerous dissident and someone considered fairly acceptable is not just their views, but their relationships with the powerful and influential in society. Perhaps there is something like that going on here? Or could it be there is some version of Senator Barry Goldwater’s old slogan “In your heart, you know he’s right?”. It didn’t work for Liu though.

Perhaps Chen’s critiques are seen as merely academic (although the book is well-written and organized and seems to attract many readers — students are passing around PDF copies online; Currency Wars did well despite is 5th rate sources such a jewwatch.com just because there is a great demand for well written books on economics and finance. ) and not subversive. SASS scholar Yu Jianrong 于建嵘 is another example of a person who makes sharp criticisms of the system but still seems to be seen as not an enemy of the people by the Party, and at most a source of contradictions among the people. That is, in the political system of the people’s democratic dictatorship.

Many websites carry the 2008 edition of Chen Zhiwu’s book; the 2010 edition that I bought in a Chongqing bookstore I also found on dangdang.com

http://product.dangdang.com/product.aspx?product_id=20986527

Prof. Chen traces the effects of lack of transparency due to an ineffective regulatory system, unwillingness of the courts to take up lawsuits on financial cases (he notes courts will generally only take a civil suit if a company has already lost a criminal case), orders by the propaganda department to media not to report a certain matter or to report it in a certain way.  This means that investors have little reliable information and make it hard to choose between good companies and bad companies, and increase the temptation of companies to cheat their investors. He mentions Economics Nobelist George Akerlof’s work on adverse selection here.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Market_for_Lemons

[This discussion of little investor information to choose between good and bad companies on the securities market because of media control and poor regulators and ineffective courts reminds me of the problem China has suppressing crazy rumors that spread quickly and find many believers.  A bit of a stretch, but perhaps there is a similar process going on in society with high media control and low trust --- an adverse selection process going on against accurate information since the authorities have low credibility and have a history of discouraging people from speaking out, especially if the "accurate information" conflicts with officially certified accurate information.]

One effect he notes is that on average in any given week the number of stocks that move together with a general market trend of up or down is about 90% on the Chinese market and about 60% on the U.S. financial markets which are much more transparent (pp. 35 – 39), not just as a result of more effective financial markets regulation, but of being embedded in a rule by law system in which information flows freely.

Chen said that state-owned monopolies can use their monopoly power to boost their incomes at the expense of average citizens, but unlike in western countries, the monopoly problem is not somewhat ameliorated by a flow of income from publicly-held monopolies back to average citizens.  This meliorating effect occurs in many western countries where stocks are widely held but not in China.   This and other problems of asymmetric information and power aggravates the skewing of the income distribution in China.   The lack of widespread participation in financial markets and the problem of land not being private (“dead capital”) in China are severe obstacles to the financial opportunities of the average Chinese.  Diversifying wealth means that savings rates can decline and people will feel wealthier; this will help increase consumption and help bring capital alive. (pp. 3  – 22)

Chen said the quality of the Chinese stock market is declining.  There was much enthusiasm after the Securities Law was passed in 1999 and in 2001 some financial magazines exposed wrongdoings of some listed companies.  In 2001, however, the first securities holder to bring a case to court was told by the court that it would not accept the case.  In 2003 there were two important cases, but the penalties imposed were relatively small, and in other cases the courts refused to hear a civil suit unless the accused company had already lost a criminal case.   During 2000 – 2005 the number of cases brought and the median penalty imposed fell steadily.  (pp.  39 – 41)

Chen devotes a long chapter (pp. 101 – 189) to explaining why media freedom is essential to the future of the Chinese economy.  中国经济前情为何离不开新闻自由
Chen begins the chapter “Although the problem of official corruption and the lack of trust in Chinese society is becoming more and more serious, and is a problem felt keenly by all sectors of society, reports on this problems are always restricted and the media is censored. The propaganda departments that manage the media are constantly sending out documents or making a phone call in order to orally “get in touch” to order that the media not report on certain topics that are  “sensitive” or “not beneficial to social stability”.   What effect does the strengthening of censorship have on the Chinese economy?  In other words, what economic benefits do we get from the media freedom?  Is media freedom worth something?  Naturally we are all happy about the rapid growth of the Chinese economy, and so might find it hard to understand why someone would say “media freedom is very important for the Chinese economy”.  Indeed, for centuries media freedom has been for centuries thought of as a completely political institution and useful for oversight of the activities of those who govern society and as a check on government power.

However, media freedom is essential for the deepening of the Chinese economy, for reducing economic corruption, and for promoting market trading.  More media freedom will also be needed to increase employment in China.  [to summarize where he goes from there,  the service sector is poorly developed in China, China’s economic growth is tied to manufacturing and construction, areas in which the quality of institutions and information symmetry are much less important than in the service sector, where the greatest opportunity for creating new jobs lies.   China’s economic model has benefited much from exporting but by becoming the “workshop of the world”, terrible pressures have been placed on China’s environment and resources…. Justice Brandeis  (p. 128) said “sunlight is the best disinfectant” and so information freedom helps fight corruption and boosts information symmetry in financial markets.

Chen also wrote a chapter on “The Law and Wealth” in which he points out that passing many laws does not equal the rule of law and that although the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress does have legislative power and the government executive departments do not, in practice laws passed by the NPC do not constrain the executive departments of government. (p. 199).  He discusses the PRC Law on Investment in Securities http://e.3edu.net/flyy/E_5227.html and issues such as under what circumstances are laws regulating a particular sector needed and the Investment law (pp. 194 – 198) and what should be the respective roles of the securities regulators, the courts and the National People’s Congress in regulating the securities sector, the discussing the experiences of the UK, the USA, and China in regulating the securities sector.

 

 

我最近正在读牙鲁大学管理学院终身金融教授陈志武先生讨论中国经济包括政治经深层问题的巨作《非理性亢奋》(新版)。

陈教授认为中国的贫富差距,股东市场一系列的问题,服务业站在国家总收入百分之比,与老百姓借款难因为在现有的制度下不能自由地买卖土地就不能用土地来担保贷款。《非理性亢奋》里面讨论的问题包括市场上信息不对称 [asymmetry of information] 经济学里的重要观念。他指的不是股东市场而已。 水果市场也如此。

陈教授介绍中国市场上的信息不对称一些原因如缺乏新闻自由与司法部不独立。

行政部门的权力大,没有有效的受法律的制裁,法律写法不当给行政部门权力太大包括招租(权利换钱)机会。

从《非理性亢奋》可以看得出来重要的论点:

  • 法治和产权保护是普及“股权致富”的基础
  • 财富是国有还是私有,决定了人们的财富
  • 为什么中国股市质量在下降?
  • 中国经济前景为何离不开新闻自由?
  • 新闻自由是中国经济未来增长的必要基础
  • 证监会,法院与人大– 如何分管证卷市场
  • 集体诉讼是保护股民有效方法

身为还没有拔脱资产阶级思想的美国人,我很注意到陈教授提出的中国经济深层问题与最近特别受党的关怀那些批评中国的一个党独大人民民主战争制度的异议分子的思想一致。 如果像我一个没有学会辩证法的美国人能看得出来,很多中国人应该比我更跟清楚。

结论好像是尊重公民权,民主,法治也是发财之道。

下面有英文述评。

http://product.dangdang.com/product.aspx?product_id=20986527

非理性亢奋(新版)

非理性亢奋(新版)

作  者:陈志武

出 版 社:中信出版社

出版品牌:中信出 版社

出版时间:2010年12月

定  价:39.00

I S B N :9787508623443

所属分类: 经管  >  经济

标  签:财经管理  经 济  经济学理论

编辑推荐

年度财经图书大奖获奖图书,《为什么中国人 勤劳而不富 有》姊妹篇,你能仅靠工资致富吗,年度财经图书大奖获得者,著名经济学家陈志武教授告诉我们,现代社会致富的基本途径是“股权致 富”。因此,必须以公正而 完善的法治保护产权,信息自由流动以加强市场平衡,完善金融市场以促进资源配置。

内容简介

你能仅靠工资致富吗?为什么现代社会出现了那 么多“富可敌 国”的富豪?他们致富靠的是什么?《非理性亢奋》告诉我们,现代社会致富的基本途径是“股权致富”。股权能通过金融市场放大自己 的价值,把未来的利润变成 现在的财产,使得财富数额不断扩大。因此,必须以公正而完善的法治保护产权,信息自由流动以加强市场平衡,完善金融市场以促进资 源配置在这些因素的共同作 用下,人们的财富才能越来越多。

作者简介

陈志武,美国耶鲁大学管理学院金融学 终身教授、北 京大学光华管理学院特聘教授、长江商学院访问教授。金融学和金融资产定价领域最具有创造力和最活跃的学者之一。获得过美国默顿· 米勒(诺贝尔经济学奖得 主)研究奖、芝加哥期权交易所研究奖等多项重大奖励。2000年,在一项颇得全球经济学家首肯的世界经济学家排名中,名列第 202位(在前1000名中, 仅有19人来自中国)。2006年,被《华尔街电讯》评为中国十大最具影响力的经济学家之一。   1990年获得耶鲁大学金融经济学博士学位,1995年获聘为俄亥俄州立大学副教授。1998年创办Value Engine(价值引擎)公司,2001年与两个合伙人创办了Zebra对冲基金公司。   先后出版了《为什么中国人勤劳而不富有》,《非理性亢奋》、《金融的逻辑》、《24堂财富课》、《陈志武说中国经济》等著 作,其中《为什么中国人勤劳 而不富有》获年度财经图书大奖,并被多家媒体推荐为当年最值得珍藏的财经图书。   主要研究方向:市场监管、资本市场、证券投资管理、公司治理、公司财务与组织战略、股票定价等。

目录

自序
  • 金融与财富
  • 股市与财富
  • 媒体与财富
  • 法律与财富

媒体评论

说到经济学理论,我没有办法跟那 些经过严格理论训练的人相比,比如钱颖一、许成刚、陈志武、白重恩等,他们常常能用现代经济学的源流把事情说得很清楚。                     ——著名经济学家、国务院发展研究中心研究员 吴敬琏   改变中国目前国富民穷的状况,一方面可以减税,另一方面,就是陈志武教授所讲的,要改变资产配置。                     ——著名经济学家、中欧国际工商学院经济学和金融学教授 许小年   陈志武教授的著作深入浅出,说理透彻,把财富创造的制度基础讲得很清楚,是难得的通俗经济学读物。                     ——著名学者,清华大学历史系教授 秦晖   陈志武教授具有健全的政治经济学视野,这样的视野在国内经济学术界是少见的。他对纷繁的现实进行了技术经济学的逻辑分析,进 而进行了法律与政治的分析,从而更为准确地解释了一个令人困惑的问题为什么中国人勤劳而不富有,甚至连基本的安宁也无从享有。                     ——独立学者,九鼎公共事务研究所研究员 秋风   陈先生一针见血地指出了财富增长的制度性内涵,使我们明白,仅有个人的机遇和聪明才智是不够的,在勤劳和富有之间还有一座必 须建造的桥梁——好的市场经济制度。                     ——著名财经媒体人、《财经》杂志主编 何力

 

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Excerpt Translation: The Qing and Yuan Dynasties were Not ‘Chinese’ Dynasties

China as a cultural zone and China as a state. What is China?  The Qing Dynasty called itself  Da Qing, not China.  Dynasty after dynasty. Are dynasties different states?  Some existed simultaneously with other dynasties within the Chinese cultural zone.  An anonymous essay had some interesting highlights, summary translated here. 

 the Chinese language article “The Qing Dynasty was not a Chinese  Dynasty”  last year noted that Sun Yatsen wrote in his “Three People’s Principles”  that that China has been politically obliterated twice in its thousands of years of history.  Once time by the Yuan (Mongol)  Dynasty and the second time by the Qing  (Manchu) Dynasty.   I summary translated a few excerpts.

 
清元朝并非是中国朝代
 
 
…..  而且按照国际惯例,判断一个已去世的人的国籍,依据的是此人生前的国籍,而不是在他死后他的出生地属于哪个国家。李白出生在寓碎叶,此地在现在的吉尔吉斯坦境内。按照他们的说法李白应该是吉尔吉斯坦人了?孙中山在《民族主义》第二讲中说过:“中国几千年以来,受到政治上的压迫以至于完全亡国,已有了两次,一次是元朝,一次是清朝。”今天中国人一厢情愿地称清朝是中国王朝,可惜人家清朝统治者们根本就不认为自己是中国人。 – See more at: http://www.backchina.com/blog/332746/article-171707.html#sthash.2vRI8Zso.dpuf
 
 
In 2004, a professor from Ulaan Bataar University in Mongolia commented on Chinese anti-Japanese sentiment at the Asian Games.  “The Chinese take the great achievements of Mongolia and our Mongolian ancestors in conquering them as the achievements of their ancestors and national heros.  They take the time when we colonized them as the most glorious period in their history.  The Chinese are a people who do seem to have an idiotic kind of logic, what right do they have to criticize your country’s (Japan’s)  view of history? What right do they have to criticize your national heros, those so-called grade A war criminals who invaded them?
 
 
 2004 年蒙古乌兰巴托大学教授额日德雷根在访问日本时接受日本NHK电视台采访时针对当年亚洲杯足球赛上中国球迷的抗议日本活动说到:“中国人把我们国家和民族的伟大英雄,征服过他们的帖木贞当作他们的祖先和英雄,把我们对他们的殖民历史当作他们最强大的历史,这样一群拥有白痴一样逻辑的民族,又有什么资格去抗议你们国家民族的历史观呢?又有什么资格去抗议你们民族的英雄,当年侵略过他们的所谓‘甲级战犯’呢?我认为他们没有那个资格。” – See more at: http://www.backchina.com/blog/332746/article-171707.html#sthash.2vRI8Zso.dpuf
 
 
Lu Xun in his “Random Notes” wrote how as a child he learned of the great heros and dynasties of Chinese history and how at 20 he heard that “our Da Qing” conquered Europe and that was the most glorious period of Chinese history.  When he turned 25, he that the “most glorious period of Chinese history” was when the Mongols invaded and made us their lackeys. Later I learned that the Mongols first conquered eastern Europe and only later conquered China.  But he conquered Russia first.  So really it should be the Russians saying “When our Genghis Khan conquered China, it was the most glorious period of our history” 
 
鲁迅在《随便翻翻》中说过 : “幼小时候,我知道中国在‘盘古氏开辟天地’之后,有三皇五帝….. 宋朝,元朝,明朝,‘我大清’。到二十岁,又听说‘我们’的成吉思汗征服欧洲,是我们最阔气的时代。到二十五岁,才知道所谓这‘我们最阔气的时代’,其实是蒙古人征服了中国,我们做了奴才。直到今年(指1934年-引者)八月里,因为要查一点故事,翻了三部蒙古史,这才明白蒙古人的征服‘斡罗思’,侵入匈、奥,还在征服全中国之前,那时的成吉思还不是我们的汗,倒是俄人被奴的资格比我们老,应该他们说‘ 我们的成吉思汗征服中国,是我们最阔气的时代’的。 ” – See more at:http://www.backchina.com/blog/332746/article-171707.html#sthash.2vRI8Zso.dpuf
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English Translation of Excerpt from Yin Shuping’s Rightist Memoir

From Yin Shuping’s Qiuwang 秋望 a memoir of Yin’s imprisonment as a rightist.

For more on the author, see Yin Shuping

124. Xu Hongru’s Character and the True and the False Shen Chong

In the drier areas of the Jiangnan agricultural station, maize, potato, millet, beets, and wheat and soybeans were interplanted between rows of corn. Rice grew on the rice paddies. Of the 1000 mu cultivated, 400 mu were in rice and over 500 mostly in maize. Many more crops were harvested than at the Nansi agricultural station even though it was several hundred mu smaller. The Jiangnan agricultural station had many more crop varieties. Perhaps not all the crops grown in China and abroad but compared with Nansi and other farms, richer and with many more varieties than at Nansi and other farms.

Therefore, the vegetables and fruits of the vegetable plots of the garden team of the Jiangnan station were well-known to all the government cadres and re-education through labor inmates of the Malan farm. Not only was the self-sufficiency of the Jiangnan agricultural station the pride of the re-education through labor inmates throughout the farm, it was also supplied the entire farm with vegetable seeds for experiments. The administrators of the farm largely ignored the sideline industry vegetable plots to go plunder the Jiangnan agricultural station. After Xu Hongru became brigade head in 1960, he introduced many new varieties that attracted more attention to the farm. It was not just the variety and deliciousness that won fame. It was more the meticulousness of the Nan garden team and its stern management style. Amidst the great famine that gripped the entire country and the steadily mounting tortures poured on the heads of the re-education through labor inmates, the vegetable garden of the Nan garden team of the Jiangnan station was a magnificent place set apart like a Garden of Eden, quiet and forbidding. The vegetation was so luxourious that each step forward brought up a different scene of many different types of fruits and vegetables arranged in impressive arrays.

Everybody saw food that can be simply picked and consumed as forbidden fruit. Even people who grow them couldn’t just pick them at will. Everyone who breaks that rule is severely punished. This was the rule of the Jiangnan agricultural station. Not only do people not dare to pick for themselves the fruits and vegetables in the gardens, but even the vegetables that grow outside the gardens along the sides of the road in plain sight are absolutely forbidden to pick. Those plants stand their in their beauty, their fat green leaves, the flowers inclined towards the sun. Yet even those in constant hunger like the those education through labor workers who have have spent some time at Jiangnan as well as new comers just getting adjusted to the system do not forget the bloody lesson taught to thieves. There were those severely punished for their picking “thievery” and those arrested for sneaking food for themselves. There were even tragedies of people who picked these forbidden fruit and then killed themselves. Indelible in memory was the sick person and so was allowed to go get medical care. On the way back he picked a corner of a sunflower that was growing on the side of the road, feeding his hunger as he walked along. His luck was bad so he was found out.

The news soon reached Ma Wenying, who immediately ordered the person back to the agricultural station, saying that “once he is back to the station I’ll settle accounts with him!” Fear grew within the thief as he walked from the fields to the Jiangnan agricultural station so at a precipice on a winding mountain road, at the Twin Dragon Pool beside the rapids on the Malan River, Shen Cong drowned himself. This incident brought great pain, fear, and sorrow to the education through labor workers at the Jiangnan agricultural station. Forever afterwards they considered it an admonition that was that day fulfilled.

Shen Chong was a weak, bookish sort of fellow. A teaching assistant in the Chinese literature department of some university. A member of the Communist Party. I don’t know whether it is an irony or a mockery of history that his name was just exactly that same as that Beijing University female student, who, shortly after victory came in the War of Resistance Against the Japanese, was insulted in Peiping by an American soldier. After the Beijing University student Shen Chong was insulted by an American soldier, the anger of the Chinese was fanned by the Communist Party and became the occasion for starting large demonstrations against the Americans and against Chiang Kai-shek. That female student Shen Chong entered the lists of the struggle between Chinese political parties as the Shen Chong incident and so became an historical figure. This incident was important in laying the foundation for the campaign of Mao Zedong’s Communist Party against the Americans and Against Chiang Kai-shek and towards its goal of ruling China.

What an achievement! Naturally after Mao’s Communist Party came to power, the Shen Chong Incident was swiftly forgotten and never again mentioned. You can only come across it in some corner of the archives where records are kept, but only to serve the political purposes of the present and future and for written and oral struggles. The Shen Chong of the Jiangnan agricultural station was better educated than that woemn student Shen Chong of Peking University. That male Sheng Chong suffered more hardships and insults yet during the great starvation under Mao’s rule that killed tens of millions of people, because he was sick an hungry, he took to eat a small corner of a roadside sunflower and was regarded as a criminal. He suffered more insults to his dignity, body and soul than were the insults and humiliation suffered by Shen Chong under the rule of the Nationalist Party. He did not get any support. Nobody spoke out for him. Isolated in a dreary existence, in fear and trembling amidst that hopelessness, he plunged into the water and drowned.

His body was found by the old Shanxi Province revolutionary Mao Hao as he cut grass alongside the Two Dragon Pool for the donkeys. Later, Ma Wenying, out of his stubborness and to uphold his rights as the local despot, forced all the re-education through labor workers to listen to his relentless criticisms of Sheng Chong’s remains at a criticism meeting. Everyone there was trembling and heart-broken, yet that some need was felt to make their state of mind even more intense, was the scene of criticism of corpse. If the spirit of the ancient sage and patriot Qu Yuan could have heard, I don’t know just what elegy for a martyr for his country he would have sung.

Ah! Shen Chong, that female college student at Peking University in the middle of the fourth decade of the twentieth century who did not believe in Marxism-Leninism nor Mao Zedong Thought was seen by Mao’s Communist Party as a treasure that could be used to stir up opposition to Chiang Kai-shek and the Americans and promote revolution. The other Sheng Chong, the university teacher who in the sixth decade of the twentieth century was a firm believer in Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought and dedicated himself body and soul to it, was nonetheless was made to be an “anti-Party” criminal by Mao Zedong’s Communist Party. He was forced into a desparate situation and in his sorrow put an end to his own life. Yet after he ended his life he was still subjected to a cruel judgement. If the blue heavens indeed has eyes, what would it make of this truth?

What disturbs me even more is this: On December 24, 1946, Mao Zedong’s Communist Party used the “Shen Chong Incident” to incite university students throughout China to join in big demonstrations against Chiang Kai-shek and the Americans. Yet the Sheng Chong of the Communist Party’s propaganda, the one who was brazenly raped by an American soldier was not the true Sheng Chong. It didn’t happen that way. Shen Chong, according to the Communist Party’s ruse, approached an American soldier, and stirred up his passion. They did not have sexual relations. Nonetheless she said that had been raped and this claim was given enormous publicity. After she had been used by the Communist Party as an Anti-Chiang and Anti-American bullet, Shen Cong knew that she was in the wrong. She was ashamed to be seen in public and so changed her name to Shen Yan and maintained her privacy ever after. Later, she married my literary and cartoonist friend Ding Cong. She deceived the people of this world for several decades with this upending of the true and the false which could not be acknowledged in public down to the present day. Whether this Shen Chong of the past, late Shen Yan, feels regret, I don’t know. Yet that Shen Chong who could not accept his humliations and killed himself as the Jiangnan agricultural station, was a true and firm believer in Marxism-Leninism Mao Zedong Thought. If heavens has eyes, this incident should serve as an example for future reference.

The Two Dragon Pools are two pools of about two meters in diameter but of unknown depth. It is a mountain spring from which water pours out of the geological depths. The two pools brush shoulders familiarly but are not connected. Warm steam vapors emerge from the pools in the winter. In the summer, the water is clear and cool. Water has been pouring out of it since before human memory and from where no-one knows. The flow continues, never ebbing and never stopping, bouncing about and then entering the rapid westward currents of the Malan River. The currents flow until they reach a small dam on the Malan river not far downstream from the Jiangnan station. Much of the water is lifted to irrigate the 400 some hectares of rice paddy of the Jiangnan station.

When the Jiangnan station was built, some men were ordered to put a stone at the end of a long ropes and put the ropes deep into the gurgling pools in order to find out how deep they were. Thirty meter ropes with heavy stones tied on them still did not touch bottom. Despite the heavy stones, the deeper the stones were lowered they more they were buffeted and taken away so that they never could reach the bottom. In one of the pools, the rope one stone was attached to was taken away in to some mysterious passageway over 20 meters down. It took several men pulling together to haul up the rope, but they never did get the stone back. Therefore the pool was called the mysterious “dragon pool”. Later the pools became known as the “Two dragon pools”.

Shen Cong. The first person to drown themselves by plunging into the two dragon pools of the Jiangnan station. The first person to put into practice the ideal that human dignity and respect are more important than life itself! Forever after, the two dragon pools in the hearts of the re-education through labor inmates of the Jiangnan station became variously something that visibly affected them as they spoke, thought of with respect, stared at yet avoided coming up close, bred a deep and mysterious fear, seemed misty like a dream and as charming as a demon.

Jiangnan station used the blood and lives of its highly educated true believers in communism of excellent character to forge its severe discipline of blood and iron. This disciplline protected all the land and water crops of the Jiangnan Station, especially the garden and vegetable areas in the Jiangnan gardens. After Xu Hongru became brigade leaders, the Jiangnan station relied more on artistic performances and propaganda to spread its fame ever further. The vegetable and fruit garden area of the Jiangnan brigade became in people’s minds even more mouth-watering yet even more a place where one would not pick or even think of picking without authorization.

In those days, Xu Hongru was like a man who had bottled up for too long all the hatreds inside him. He stared at people calmly sideways and waited for his opportunity to sudden explode on people like a wild animal. He didn’t pay particular attention to those like himself who had been set there for reform through labor. No, he paid attention to the aggressive actions of the political cadres from Jiangnan or other stations who were set on implementing the proletarian dictatorship.

Moreover, these opportunities he looked for occurred fairly often. Once, a manager-instructor and a political cadre from the Blackhorse Bay station who were armed with live ammunition came to the station from a mountain district several tens of kilometers away. After a long walk along winding roads they made passed the final mountain by the oil factory of the Jiangnan station, cut through the corn field by the oil factory trench as they hurried on down breathless. They hurried over the bridge over the Mulan River and ran hungry and thirsty in the the vegetable and fruit garden of the Jiangnan brigade. They bent down as they walked along, picking sweet turnips, rubbing them and then chewing on them.

Xu Hongru, who had been quietly watching the two of them, roared like a lion in an angry voice, “What are you doing? Put them down!” His angry voice came out like that of a director in a local play, frightening these two political cadres from the Black Horse station as of they had just heard artillery fire. They stood, looking aheard expressionless, at a loss about what to do and looking about, terrified. When they say that Xu Hongru was wearing to the uniform of someone doing re-education through labor, just the same as that of the people then working in the vegetable and fruit garden, they immediately changed their tone and recovered their dignity and composure. They adopted the attitude of people exercising the dictatorship and switch from defense to offense.

“Aren’t you a re-education through labor worker? ” the two political cadres said, shamed to anger, in an accusing voice, with an undercurrent of murderous threat.

“Yes.” Xu Hongru walked towards them, unperturbed, holding his head high. Then he added “I am an education through labor worker of the Jiangnan Station! Planting and caring for the vegetable and fruit gardens!”

“Stand at attention! We are political cadres from the Black Horse station! A person getting education through labor must know that they should be well-behaved earnest in front of a political cadre! “

“You two are the ones who are not well-behaved and earnest! I, however, according to the government’s instruction and requirements are earnest and well-behaved in asking you not to steal public property!”

“What? What gives you that right?”

“The regulations of the Malan Farm! The rules of the Jiangnan station and the orders of the managers of the Malan Farm!”

“What? We can’t just pick two turnips?”

“No. What you picked was the prestige of the Communist Party and of the proletarian dictatorship of the great leader Chairman Mao, the honor of the Malan Farm, the dignity of the Jiangnan Station. Even more serious, what you did is a challenge to and a trampling upon of the excellent tradition of ideological reform of instructor Ma of the Jiangnan station!”

“What are you going to do about it?”

“Please first return the two turnips you picked to their original places. Then come to our station. If station manager Sun and Instructor Ma agree that you do that, we will do the paperwork and you can have as much as you want. I will comply completely and work closely with you. I could even have all the reform through labor workers of the southern garden pick all that you want or even everything and pack it up and send to your Blackhorsebay station and give it to you directly!”

“We are going to the farm on urgent business. We don’t have time to go to your station for paperwork delays.”

“No, that is not acceptable!”

“Could you just convey our words to Station Manager sun and Instructor Ma?”

“No, that is not acceptable!”

“Then when we get to the farm, we’ll make a telephone call to station manager Sun and Instructor Ma and explain the situation and promise that you won’t have any problem!”

“What nonsense!” The two angry political cadres through down the turnips they had picked, backed up and hurried out of the vegetable garden and swaggered off.

“Come here!” Xu Hongru yelled in a great voice. From all directions have came over 40 workers who had been watching developments quietly.

“Are you crazy? Are you rebelling? Starting a riot?” said the two surrounded political cadres with angry eyes, breathing heavily. They pulled back their rifle bolts and nervously confronted the group.

“Whoever harms a hair on the head of these two political cadres will die! Whoever does not obey the station regulations and brigade discipline will also die! ” Xu Hongru looked all around and yelled out

“What are you going to do?”

“I already told you repeatedly — go to our station headquarters. We are making a reasonable request. We do not have the authority to offend you nor do I have the authority to let you leave.” Xu Hongru explained in a cold and matter-of-fact way.

“Fuck this. We mean to go and we will go. You are delaying us and this is your responsibility. The boss will hold you accountable!”

“Whether I am to be shot or tortured, I assume full responsibility. Please…”

Thus the two Blackhorsebay political cadres, surrounded by over 40 Jiangnan Station education through labor workers, were taken you could say as prisoners, or you could say with an honor guard, to the headquarters of the Jiangnan Station.

Those two political cadres of the Blackhorsebay station were taken to the Jiangnan Station. After they and Xu Hongru described the incident, Xu Hongru was beaten and sent back to the brigade. Later it was said that Station leader Sun and Ma Wenying entertained them, invited them to drink teac and eat the sweet desserts made by the Jiangnan station. However, their behavior in stealing the turnps was not approved by Station leader Sun and Ma Wenying.

The news spread quickly to the highest authorities of the farm. No matter how much the two cadres from the Blackhorse Bay station raged, the farm department had to tacitly approve the attitude of Xu Hongru and the attitude of the authorities of the Jiangnan station and then openly approved it. News of this incident spread far and wide, reaching all the brigades of the Malan farm, and even the authorities of the city and provincial authorities of Xi’an and Shaanxi province. The reputation of the Jiangnan station rose. Station leader Sun was serene at this news. Ma Wenying go even prouder and even called a meeting of all the education through labor workers at the station so that this incident would become more widely known.

After this victory Xu Hongru said to me quietly once something that was on his heart. “Those bastards! I wanted to get a little justice for Shen Chong and for we who are miserable here because of false accusations. After doing that, I felt so much better!…” I smiled and just couldn’t stop thinking about it. That was the fiery eruption of a terribly oppressed soul. The firery riposte of a ground down and degraded soul!

This was a glimmer of light in the kingdom of darkness! There must be then, some eternal force that pulls us towards the light, the springtime and freedom. I keep this knowledge always in sight, always as a kind of voice in my ears,  and always stored in my heart.

《秋望》殷叔平著 笔名 殷仁

香港田园书屋对秋望三部曲书与作者的介绍

【內容提要】

本書是作者在毛澤東共產黨的偽善、欺騙、終於殘暴無比地對追求正義良知和民主自由的中國知識份子實行空前虐殺下的親身經歷實錄,所有人物和事件確鑿無誤,有些人和事鮮為人知。它涉及到那些年代裏中國大陸億萬人民在極權絞肉機裏夢想破滅,人性畸變,文明與進步遽然倒退的方方面面,一如作者在自序中的直白。全書共三大部,構成了近百年來中國知識份子追求自由民主的一闕悲慘血腥的墓碑。

【作者簡介
叔平,本名殷仁,曾用名殷季子。1936年生於江蘇常州。1951年參加中國人民解放軍,之後在東北北大荒、瀋陽東北設計院、西安西北綜合勘察院為“共產主義解放全人類”而在中國廣袤的河山間忘我奮鬥。1955年開始發表文學作品,多次獲獎。1957年被劃為右派分子,被押送陝北馬欄勞教農場勞教,歷盡生死苦難;1963年又被打成現行反革命,重判後,被押解至陝北上畛子監獄農場勞改,經歷更慘。1979年獲“改正”、“平反”出獄至今,身已殘。

—-

我翻译了《秋望〉里面几个页。先原文后英文翻译。

 一二四、徐鸿儒的傲骨和真假沈崇                                                                      

江南站的农作物,旱地只有玉米、洋芋、谷子、甜菜和玉米地里套种的黄豆及山上的小麦。水田即水稻。所有一千多亩耕地中,以四百亩水稻和五百多亩玉米为大宗。比南寺站的作物单一多了。耕地少了好几百亩。但江南站的菜地,虽面积与南寺站相差无几,但蔬菜的品种天南地北,国内国外,虽不能说应有尽有,但比南寺站和农场其他所有站的蔬菜品种,就丰富繁杂多了。

因而,江南站南园队菜地里的蔬果,在马栏农场全场政府干部和劳教人员心目中,声名遐迩。它不仅是江南站劳教人员自给自足,并赖以昂首全农场的骄傲之一,也是全场各站菜籽菜种的试验供应基地;更是场部机关人员不屑于工副业站的菜地蔬菜,常常越过它,到江南站来掠取的对象。一九六O年徐鸿儒任队长之后,更引进试验着许多新的品类,因而更被全场所注目。其原因不仅仅是由于品类丰富,诱人食欲,引人遐想;更在于南园队耕作精细,管理严格。在全国大饥饿,劳教人员更备受煎熬痛苦的大背景下,江南站南园队的菜地,俨然如禁区中的伊甸园,森严幽深,一步一景,处处繁茂,片片新异,且井然有序。

大家视可以摘取生食的东西为禁果,连种植者自己也不得擅自品尝。凡违规者,必以重处,这是江南站的站规。因之,不仅菜地里的蔬果无人敢随便染指,就是菜地外属于大田边缘或道路两旁既当作物,又当田园观赏,野外无人看管的向日葵,也绝没有人敢擅摘偷掰,永远亭亭玉立,绿叶肥大,花盘向阳……永远饥

饿的老江南的那些劳教人员和新来的“江南化”了的劳教人员,谁也不会忘记那些血的教训:因“偷”摘而受重罚,“偷”食而被逮捕,“偷”掰而自杀者的姓名和惨象!尤其是那个因病准假去场部就医,归来的路上,独自偷掰了路边一株向日葵花盘的一角,边走边充饥,不幸被发现,迅速飞传到了马文英那里,在马文英勒令其迅速归站,声言“归站后再算账”的回话声中,因恐惧而扑进了由场部至江南站之间,那一条山腰公路崖下,马栏河滩边上的“二龙潭”,自溺而亡的沈崇,更是江南站劳教人员心中永远的巨创巨痛巨恐巨憾和口中永远的箴言谶语……

沈崇。文弱书生。一名大学中文系助教。共产党员。不知是历史的叹息,还是历史的嘲弄,他的姓名,同一九四六年抗日战争胜利不久,在北平城里被美国士兵奸凌的那名北京大学女生沈崇的姓名一模一样。北大女生沈崇遭美军凌辱后,中国人的义愤在共产党的煽动操纵下,掀起了以大学生为龙头的大规模反美反蒋浪潮。女学生沈崇以及由沈崇事件而登上中国党争舞台的人,都成了历史人物。为毛泽东共产党后来的反美反蒋,乃至执政中国,画了浓墨重彩的基础一笔。

可谓功莫大焉!毛共上台执政后,当然就很快将其忘却而不再提及,仅在文史资料库里的某个角落存一纸记事,以供现实与未来的政治需要和笔墨口舌之争所用而已!而江南站的这位比北大学生女沈崇文化修养更高,所受苦难与凌辱更深的男沈崇,却因为在毛共统治下全国饿死数以千万计人民的大饥饿中,因病弱与饥饿,擅自掰食了路边一株向日葵盘上小小的一角,而被视为罪犯。因恐惧在人格、身心等各方面将受到比国民党统治下的女沈崇更不堪的凌辱与折磨,而且毫无疑义地将得不到任何支持与声援,不得不在孤独凄凉的恐惧与颤栗中仰天绝望,自沉溺水而亡了!……

他的尸体,是被马号那位山西籍革命老人在“二龙潭”边采割喂马喂驴的茂草时发现的……随后,马文英为固执己见,伸张其淫威,还勒令全站劳教人员,对死者的遗体,声势凌厉地召开了批判会。当时,那人人颤栗,个个伤情,却还要强打精神,对尸体进行批判的场面,若先贤屈原天灵有知,不知将长啸出一篇怎样的《国殇》来!

哦!一个并不信仰马列主义毛泽东思想的二十世纪四十年代中期的北京大学女学生沈崇,被毛泽东共产党人视为可以大肆反蒋反美推进革命的珍宝;另一个二十世纪六十年代坚定信仰马列主义毛泽东思想并以身相许,以命相付的共产党员大学教师沈崇,却被毛泽东共产党打成“反党”的罪人,被强行置之绝境和怆然自尽,自尽之后还得遭受无情的批判!若苍天有眼,又将如何昭示这公理?

更令我唏嘘愤懑的是:一九四六年十二月二十四日,毛泽东共产党利用“沈崇事件”,挑动全国学生奋起大规模反蒋反美运动中的沈崇,并不是共产党宣传的那样,是美国大兵悍然主动强奸了她,而是沈崇按共产党之诡计,首先主动引诱挑逗了美国大兵的情欲,奸淫根本未遂,却被说成是已被美国大兵强奸而大肆宣扬。被毛泽东共产党当作反蒋反美的子弹使用了这么一回之后,沈崇自知理亏,羞于见人,便改名为“沈峻”,从此隐匿了自己。之后,嫁给了我的文友漫画家丁聪,蒙蔽了世人几十年,致使这黑白颠倒、见不得人的史事延续至今。这个过去的沈崇、后来的沈峻,有无悔意,我不知道。而因承受不了屈辱而自杀于江南站的那个沈崇,却实实在在是信仰马克思列宁主义毛泽东思想的沈崇。苍天有眼,自当明鉴!

二龙潭。是两个直径大约两米左右,深不可测,由深深的地层内部冒涌出水的山泉口。两潭并列相偎,却互不相连。冬日冒着白色的暖水汽;夏日又水温清凉。所冒溢出来的水,已不知冒溢了多少年。从无人理睬。更无人管理。永不减弱更永不枯竭地溢流出来的水,杂乱地窜流入了湍急向西的马栏河。直到江南站在不远的下游栏河筑起的小水坝处,多半被抬高引入那四百余亩江南站的水稻田……江南站建站伊始,曾命人用长绳绑了一块石头,下放到这两个汩汩涌泉的水潭里,以图探测个水深。但绑了重石的绳子下放了三十余米,仍未到底;且重重下沉的石头,越往下沉,越被旋转上翻的水流冲托阻滞,根本到不了潭底,而且在一个潭里,连绳带石头还被旋进了二十多米以下的神秘的拐道,几个人合力往上拽断了绳子,也没能将石头拽上来。因而被视若神秘的“龙潭”。久之, 便习惯地称其为“二龙潭”……

沈崇。是江南站第一个自沉亡命于二龙潭里的人。也是第一个践行了人格和尊严比生命更重要的人!自此,二龙潭,在江南站劳教人员心目中,更是谈潭色变,思而敬之,睹而远之,深邃似幻, 迷离如梦,神秘若妖……

江南站这种用高学历、高水平、高级别的无辜的共产主义信仰者的鲜血和生命所织造的森严的站规站纪,如铁血般俨然凌厉,维护着江南站的一切水旱作物,尤其严格地维护着江南站果园般的南园队蔬果区域。徐鸿儒任队长之后,江南站更凭着成功的文艺演出宣传而名声更振。南园队的蔬果区域,也就更变得令人馋涎欲滴而又更不得擅想擅为。此时的徐鸿儒,宛若一头蓄恨已久,沉静地睃视着,仅待时机和条件泄愤反扑的猛兽。他并不特别只专注于与他一样都是劳教人员的同类,而是特别专注于那些场部及外站身为政府干部的无产阶级专政执行人的入侵行为!而且,狩猎的机会总是不请自到频频出现。有一次,黑马湾站上的一名管教和另一名政府干部,两人荷枪实弹,从几十里以外的大山里赶赴场部,一路山岭鸟道,气喘吁吁地走到位于江南站油坊沟口的他们赶赴场部途中最后一个山头,便从山上直扑下来,穿过油坊沟口一小块江南站的玉米地,匆匆走过马栏河上的那座小桥,又饥又渴地直奔南园队的蔬果地,一进区域就弯腰伸手,一人拔了一个“心里美”萝卜,仅用手掌抹了一抹,就大嚼大啖起来。早已静静的注意着他俩的徐鸿儒,

这时才如狮子般一声怒吼:“干什么呢?放下!”其声音之深沉激愤,从一个功底有素的话剧导演的口中喷吼出来,如重炮般使这两名黑马湾站当局的干部吓了一跳,顿时愣怔原地,不知所措,惊恐地茫然环顾。当他俩看到徐鸿儒身穿劳教服,与正劳动在蔬果地里的劳教人员并无二致时,立刻俨然强硬起来,并拉开了专政者的架势,转守为攻了:

你是不是劳教人员?”两名恼羞成怒的政府干部的责问声,蓄涌着生杀之威。

是。”徐鸿儒缓步走近他们,昂首坦然地回答,并加重了语气:“江南站的劳教人员!种菜看菜园子的!!”

给我站好啰!我们是黑马湾站上的政府干部!一个劳教分子,难道不知道在政府干部面前规规矩矩,老老实实吗?”

不规矩,不老实的是你们俩!我倒正是按政府的教导和要求,老老实实,规规矩矩的希望你们不要偷盗公家的财物!”

呸!谁给你这样的权力?”

马栏农场的场规!江南站的站纪,马教员的命令!”

什么什么?不就拔了这么两个萝卜嘛!”

不!你们拔的是共产党和伟大领袖毛主席的无产阶级专政的威望、马栏农场的光荣和江南站的尊严,更是对我们江南站马教员优良的思想改造管理传统的公然挑衅和践踏!”

那你要怎么样?”

请你俩先把手里的东西物归原处。然后,到我们站上去!如果我们孙站长和马教员同意你们这样做。办个手续,你们要多少都可以!我绝对服从,全力效劳!我甚至可以让我整个南园队的劳教人员,将你们看上的,想要的,这地里的所有东西,哪怕肩挑背驮,都送到你们黑马湾站去,或者直接送交给你们两位干事!”

我们赶往场部有重要急事!现在没时间到你们江南站去耽搁!”

不行!”

你把我们的话捎给你们孙站长和马教员就行了!”

不行!”

那我们到了场部,给你们孙站长和马教员打个电话,说明情况,保证你没事!”

不行!”

岂有此理!”盛怒了的这两名政府干部扔下各自手里的“心里美”萝卜,三脚两步,蹦出菜地,欲上路扬长而去。

来人!”徐鸿儒雄狮般大喝一声,四面八方立即窜出来四十多个久已在各自的劳动岗位上静观事态发展的南园队人员,迅速密匝匝地拦住了这两名气急败坏甚至已狼狈不堪的政府干部的去路……

你们他妈的,造反呀?暴动呀?”两名被围的政府干部气红了眼,断喝厉呼,并拉动了枪栓,紧张地对峙着。

谁如果碰了这两位政府干部的一根汗毛,谁就去死!谁不遵守站规队纪,也要去死!”徐鸿儒环顾四周,向队员们高吼。

你到底想怎么样?”

已经再三向你俩报告过了:去我们站部!我的请求正当合理。因为我没权冒犯你俩,也没权就这么让你俩离开!”徐鸿儒冷峻地, 无可指责地,不紧不慢地解释。

他妈的!去就去!耽误了的事,你负责!老子一定要追究你!”

该杀该剐,我全认!请……”……

就这样, 这两名黑马湾站的干部, 在四十多名江南站南园队劳教人员的远远包围下, 既可以说是被押解, 又可以说是被欢送到了江南站部……

]

第四章:马栏劳教农场江南站 457

这两名黑马湾站的干部,到了江南站部,在和徐鸿儒交替陈述了事件的全过程之后,徐鸿儒就被打发回队了。随后,据说孙站长和马文英款待了他俩,请他俩喝了茶,吃了江南站自制的杂糖点心,但他俩擅自拔取“心里美”的行为,却始终没得到孙站长和马文英的认可……

消息很快传到了场部最高当局。任那两名黑马湾站干部怎样诉怒诉怨,场部当局对徐鸿儒的“壮举”和江南站当局的态度也不得不予以默认,并公开作了肯定。此事立即不胫而走,轰动地传遍了偌大的马栏农场全场各站,甚至传到了西安省市当局。江南站的声名居然更为之一振……对此,孙站长沉静若素。而马文英,分明更加得意自傲,甚至还专门召开了一次全站劳教人员大会,对此作了专题张扬……胜利后的徐鸿儒,有一次在同我的接触中,心事浩茫思绪漫漫地对我悄然而语:“他妈的!总算给沈崇,给我们这些受苦受难,受冤受屈的灵魂夺回了一点公平!我心里,也好受多了!”……我舒心微笑,脑袋也不由得点个不停……这是无比压抑的心灵之火的喷发;是被迫屈辱又不甘屈辱的灵魂的油然抗争啊!……这,是黑暗王国里的一线光明!那必定要与阳光、春风、自由为伍的永恒不朽的张力,我至今历历在目,声声在耳,隽永于心……

 

发表在 社会, 文学, 中国政治名案 | Tagged , , , , , , , ,

Author of Anti-Rightist Novel, Chengdu Writer Yin Shuping Faces Bankruptcy and Persecution

In Chengdu Lonely,  Elderly Yin Shuping Took out a mortgage on his apartment to publish his book in Hong Kong, “Autumn Hope” Becomes Despair”

Photo: Chengdu writer Yin Shuping, Chengdu 2011

[中文原文在英文翻译之后]Image

http://www.rcdr.org.cn/content-191866-1.html

by Dark Star   January 5, 2014   02:46:36

In October 2010, Chengdu writer Yin Shuping, born 1936 and imprisoned as a ‘rightist’ in 1957 and now a lonely old man took out a 100,000 RMB mortgage on his apartment, adding to it 20,000 RMB he had on hand, sent  120,000 RMB to a Hong Kong publisher to publish his nearly 1.7 million word novel “Qiuwang” [Autumnal Hopes]  (a three part tune).

 

The novel takes place in Chengdu, Sichuan and in the Malan Reform Through Labor farm.  The novel describes the sufferings of Chinese before and after the 1957 anti-rightist campaign. Not only will those who went through thought reform in Sichuan and Shaanxi provinces in those days, who suffered the physical punishments, who had to endure insults  on their characters and self-respect recognize themselves in the stories.  So too will those who in their blind ignorance participated in these political campaigns and their descendants see themselves or their relatives.

This novel is a call of the bloodied and the moaning of the helpless.  The author put his all into this book.  The true names of the people, organizations, work units and places are called out in this book.  Important  not only as an historical document, Qiuwang moves us as well as a work of philosophy and of art.  After reading these volumes,  you will not only be angered but wonder who could such deplorable events occur in a socialist republic.

That is why some perceptive people have been calling Qiuwang (A Three Part Tune0 China’s Gulag Archipelago.  (Gulag Archipelago was a lengthy work written by the former Soviet Union’s Alexander Solzhenitsyn.  “Gulag” refers to the initials of the “Re-Education and Reform Through Labor Management Bureau”. The events in the book take place between 1958 and 1968. In addition to his own story, the author interviewed 227 other people involved.  This memoir bravely revealed the darkness and inhumanity of the former Soviet Union’s re-education through labor system. The great influence of this book which awakened the conscience of the world, led to the author being expelled from his country and deprived of his citizenship.)  As a result, Qiuwang could not be published in mainland China and so the author hand no alternative to sending it to Hong Kong, where there is freedom of publication and freedom of speech.

 

The Hong Kong publisher did not strongly promote the book and so most readers never heard of it.  Hong Kong did have some exciting book shows in recent years but Yin’s book wasn’t on the shelves there.  Although the book was acquired by the Chinese section of the UN Library and by several foreign universities,  but the Hong Kong book market and the kinds of books Hong Kong readers prefer tend to be about current affairs, practical and not historical or looking ahead.  Moreover, books published in Hong Kong cannot be sold in Mainland China.   Mainland readers visiting Hong Kong bookstores may not necessarily go to the bookstore selling Yin’s book.  A long book about the anti-rightist campaign in any case has a limited market.  And so Yin was not about to recoup the investment he made in the publication of his book.   Without the income, he could not pay back the loan.   This is something old Yin had not anticipated.

 

More problems:  Hong Kong bookstores as small as is their space for inventory.  The contract was for three years.  After the end of the contract, the prospects for this book once published with high hopes came down to two:  the first is that the author takes the books back to Mainland China.  The second is that the books be recycled as waste paper in Hong Kong.   Mainland China customs is very strict about printed materials brought in from Hong Kong.  A book about politics and history like Qiuwang could never get through customs.   (Well, perhaps 10 or 20 volumes might, but certainly not hundreds. Express mail could work, but the number of books that could be sent that way would be limited and expensive.)

As I said, “Qiu Wang” is an account of the author’s life, and is like a child that he raised to adulthood.  Sending the book to the trash heap is like killing one’s  own child in the cradle, or like throwing money into Victoria Harbor.  That is too cruel a blow.  Yin Shuping wants to go to Hong Kong, pile up the books in Victoria Square, invite the media to come as witnesses and set the books alight.  This is a sad and destructive decision.  However,  Hong Kong is a place that runs according to law and which maintains public order.  A citizen can’t just go to the public square and set something alight.  Setting fires would result is a big fines, and imprisonment if there were serious consequences.

At this stage, Yin Shuping isn’t thinking about consequences.  But he is already nearly eighty and has not long the physical vigor of youth.  For Old Yin to travel from Chengdu to Hong Kong would not be easy.  Moreover, if he did get to Hong Kong, he would not be able to carry so many books.  If he were to ask someone to transport them, that would be expensive.   For the impoverished elderly Yin Shuping, that would not be realistic.  Dying for his dream or going to prison – both would hard to accomplish.

 

The American writer F. Scott Fitzgerald said “Show me a hero and I will write you a tragedy.”  Five hundred and fifty thousand Chinese intellectuals were branded “rightist”.  There is a tragedy in the story of every one of them.   Yin Shuping wrote and published his book not entirely for himself.  Rather by presenting the hard experiences of his own life, he could tell the world and future generations, to tell the sceptics of just how bitter it was to have been branded a rightist and the depths of despair to which they sunk.  Yin Shuping is a lucky man. He survived.  Many branded “rightist” did not.   Some because they could not take it or would not bear it and took their own lives.  More were carried away anonymously be sickness in a reform through labor camp.  They did not live to see the day when the wrong done to them would be recognized.   The French writer Victor Hugo said “Disaster is the wet nurse of daring; tragedy is the breast milk of heroes.”   That is not right. It is nothing but an opiate.  You just come near this “wet-nurse”, you just try to taste that “breast milk”.    You will understand that death is better than that sort of life.  The feeling that everyone has been nailed to the cross – that is a feeling that never leaves you for as long as you live.

A bird that soils its own nest is not a good bird.  A government that takes the intellectuals of its own country as the enemy in the class struggle is not a good government.   Those words in the official history of the Chinese Communist Party  — “the struggle against the rightists expanded” (in the latest edition of the history of the Chinese Communist Party the period of the “anti-rightist campaign” is explained and defined as “having been expanded”. )  These words cannot erase or dim the memory of the bloody historical period.  Li Dali got it right.  He said, “This sin is the content of the secret but the secret is the hotbed of evil.”

The lonely and misery-filled life of Yin Shuping is a portrait in miniature in one man of the story of China’s intellectuals.  In their later years, they were unable to escape financial difficulty.   Although they lived on the boundary between hopelessness and despair but still they kept on, continuing to offer as they had before to their compatriots, to their hometowns and the their ancestral land their deepest love and devotion.  Just as the author wrote on the title page of his book   “After the golden autumn of hope for China had died, I present these recollections, descriptions and thoughts from  the springtime of my own life during China’s century of difficulties.   I leave behind this book for my compatriots, for my hometown and for my country!”

“The Western Lake, though small, has been a witness to history since ancient times.”  People who love to read and collect books extend your friendly hand to help Yin Shuping.  Help him escape his predicament.   He is 78 years old and cannot have many years left.  His dream is our dream.  It is the dream of all of us who write.  His suffering is our suffering and the common suffering of all intellectuals.  We might ignore the plight of one man but we must not extinguish our nearly silent conscience.  We are readers.  Ever since we  set out on the path of being readers, our loves and our hates,  the joys and sorrows that have arisen in our own lives,  we have already given to the Chinese land beneath our feet.  Yin Shuping is a dreamer who would give his life for his ideals.   Who among does not also is not a “martyr” for their dreams?

Written January 5, 2013 at 2:30 AM

Yin Shuping home telephone number  028-84853645

 

Cellphone  number :    13618003731

 

Email:  yjz0428@gmail.com

 


 

[原创]成都孤老殷叔平以房抵押贷款在港出书,秋望》成绝望

 

楼主:黑星人 时间:2014-01-05 02:46:36
    2010年10月,1936年出生于成都、1957年被打为“右派”、现为孤寡老人的殷叔平老人,以自己居住的房子向银行抵押贷款十万,加上手头二万,共计十二万元,在香港自费出版近170万字的长篇小说《秋望》(三部曲)。    小说以四川省成都市和陕西省马栏劳改农场为舞台,全面展现1957年反右派运动前后苦难中国之场景。四川、陕西那些曾经被强制思想改造、肉体遭受惩罚、人格与尊严遭受凌辱的人们,还有当年那些受蒙骗而积极参与此政治运动的人们,及其后人也许从中能看到自己或前人的影子。这部小说是带血的呐喊;是无助的呻吟。它倾注了作者一生心血,文中所用全是真名真姓,真实的机关、单位、地点。不仅具有史料价值,更具有思想与艺术的震憾力。全篇通读完毕,不由拍案愤然而起,怀疑这不是在社会主义共和国大地上发生的令人发指的事。

由于《秋望》(三部曲)被有识人士视为中国的《古拉格群岛》。(《古拉格群岛》一书是前苏联索尔仁尼琴写的长篇巨作,“古拉格”是前苏联“劳动教养与改造管理局”的简写字母。全书背景为1958年至1968年。除自己经历外,作者还对227个当事人进行了采访。这是一部大胆揭露前苏联劳教制度种种黑暗、无人性的纪实版记录之书。因影响巨大,举世震惊,作者因此被驱赶出境,剥夺国籍。)故而,这本书在大陆无法出版,作者只能拿到出*版*自*由、言*论*自*由的香港去出版。

然而,因香港那边出版社宣传不得力,此书竟然不为圈内读书人及舆论媒体所知。香港历年数次书展,场面可谓是轰轰烈烈,但未见其书在书架上与读者见面。虽然它曾被联合国图书馆中文部和海外多家大学图书馆所收藏,但香港图书市场和香港读者注重图书的通俗性、实用性,少历史性、瞻望性;加上香港出版的书大陆不能销售,大陆读者去香港逛书店,也未必一定跑到此指定销售的书店;又加上这是一本关于反右题材的长篇纪实小说,于是,销路严重成问题。没销路就收不回成本。收不回成本就无法还银行贷款。这对殷叔平老人来说,是一件未曾料到的事。

雪上加霜的是:香港书店一般经营地方都不大,库存地方更是有限。当初出书合约为三年。如今三年时间已到,这些当初带着出书者浓浓厚望的书现在面临二种选择:一是由作者本人自行带回大陆;二是在香港就地送垃圾回收站处理。由于大陆海关对来自香港的印刷品控制极严,具有政治和历史背景的此《秋望》长篇小说根本别想进关(十本二十本可能,上百本别想。快递可以,但快递数量有限,而且快递一套书成本比较高)。

我说过,《秋望》是作者一生心血浓缩的写真,也是作者苦心生养的孩子。送垃圾回收站无疑就是将自己的孩子扼杀在摇篮里;更是无疑将可怜的钱扔进香港维多利亚港河。这种打击太残忍了。殷叔平欲意亲自去香港,将这些书运到香港维多利亚公园广场,然后叫来当地媒体记者;再然后就是点上一把火。这是悲怆的就地销毁决定。但是,香港是个讲法和讲秩序的地方,任何公民都不允许在公共场合随便放火。随便放火要面临巨额罚款,若后果严重还要坐牢。

对此,殷叔平已不考虑这些后果。可问题是,他现已年近八十岁,也许已无年青时的充沛体力。大老远地从成都跑到香港,难度一定不小。然而,即便去了香港,一个人也搬不动那些书。若叫人将书从仓库送到公园广场,需要支付不小的运输费。对于现在已是身无分文的殷叔平老人来说,这是不现实的事。他想为自己的梦在香港殉身坐牢都难。

美国作家菲茨杰拉德说:“每个英雄的背后都隐藏着一段悲剧。”全国有55万个知识分子被打成右派,每个右派的背后都隐藏着一段悲剧。殷叔平写书、出书,不全为自己,他想以自己亲身苦难经历,告诉世人、告诉后代、告诉那些怀抱主义的人,沦为“右派”之人生活是多少艰辛、精神是多少的绝望。殷叔平是幸运的,因为他能活着下来,很多被打成“右派”的人因想不通或无法忍受人间折磨而自杀;更多的无名者在劳改中抱病死去,没能等到平白昭雪的那一天。法国作家雨果说:“灾难是傲骨的奶娘,祸患是豪杰的好乳汁。”那是假的;是不折不扣的蒙汉药。你试试靠近这“奶娘”;尝尝这“好乳汁”,你会体会到那种生不如死、全家背上十字架受难的滋味、一辈子难忘。

弄脏自己窝巢的决非好鸟;将自己国家的知识分子作为阶级斗争对象决非是一个好政府;仅仅在党史中说一声“反右扩大化了”(新编党史对“反右”那段历史解释并定义为“扩大化了”)决非能轻巧地抹去和淡化那段血色历史。诚如李大钊说得好:“罪恶是秘密的内容,秘密是罪恶的渊薮。”

殷叔平孤独凄惨的人生,其实是中国知识分子苦难一身的一个缩影。他们的晚年,依然无法摆脱经济的困顿;他们虽然生活在无望与绝望交绊之中;但还是执著地、一如既往奉献着他们从前对同胞、对故乡、对祖国那份最崇高的厚爱。诚如作者在《秋望》扉页上所说:“人类金秋的希望在中国破灭之后,这部书是我在生命的暮秋里对中国百年苦难的回望、陈述和思考;并以此书,留给我的同胞、我的故乡和祖国!”

“西湖一勺水,阅尽古来人。”喜欢读书藏书的同仁,伸出你们兄弟般友好之手,助殷叔平老人一把,让他早日从无边苦海中走出来。78岁的他,有生之年毕竟不多了。他的梦就是我们的梦;也是全体写作者的梦;他的苦难就是我们的苦难;也是全体知识分子的共同苦难。我们可以无视一个人的苦难存在,但不可以淡却我们几近沉默的良心。我们是读书人,当走上读书之路那一刻起,我们的爱与憎、我们人生中所有扬起的悲与欢,都已交给脚下这片土地。殷叔平是个逐梦的殉道人,我们又何尝不是一个逐梦的martyr呢?

2014-1-5晨前二点半

殷叔平家庭电话:028–84853645

殷叔平手机:    13618003731

殷叔平电子邮箱:yjz0428@gmail.com

发表在 Uncategorized, 政治, 文学 | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , | 2条评论

Chinese Spy Novel “Fatal Weakness” — The CIA Spy School

Fatal Weakness  致命弱点  [Zhiming Ruodian] is a novel about Chinese spies in the United States,  the competition between US and Chinese intelligence services, and the fatal weaknesses and susceptibility to manipulation of both services.  Fatal Weakness along with the other two novels in the series, Fatal Weapon and   Fatal Pursuit .

 Read this chapter online in Chinese through the URL http://blog.boxun.com/hero/zhiming/19_1.shtml

A Chinese wiki Baidu has an article about the trilogy at http://baike.baidu.com/view/1042391.htm

 Fatal Weakness   by  Yang Hejun 杨恒均 was published in Hong Kong by the Kaiyi Publishing House in 2004.

 Chinese reviewers of Fatal Weakness call it an excellent portrait of the government millieu of corruption and double dealing in which the intelligence agencies operate. According to the plot summary, the United States exploits corrupt Chinese officials as information sources by playing on their greed. Some friends of young Chinese former spy trainee who has departed for the private sector are caught and so he rescues his friends by playing on both the weaknesses of the Chinese Ministry of State Security and those of the Central Intelligence Agency.

According to the plot summary a US – China double agent in the book works for neither side but on his own account, and feeds false information to both sides in order to serve his own agenda — the precipitation of a US – China conflict.

The chapter on FBI counterintelligence work against Chinese espionage in the US for has dialogue in which some FBI people are worried about China’s rise and talk about the “Yellow Peril”.  So  I wonder that the US part of the book may be a bit overblown and pieced together from press reports and books and may not reflect direct knowledge.  It’s a fun novel even though it isn’t really a spy memoir!

Here is my translation of the plot outline from the boxun.com website:

Fatal Weakness, 260,000 characters in all, is divided into 26 chapters with titles such as  “Drugs Shock the Devils”, “God’s Surgical Blade”, “The Old Classmate in Washington, DC”, “Who Do You Think You Are?”,  “Infiltrating the FBI”, “Sex Spy”, “Target: Beijing Olympics” and “Double Agent”.

The main plot line follows Yang Wenfeng from university graduation to assignment to the Ministry of State Security, then after switching the private sector, to Guangdong Province.

 Disturbing things began to happen. One after another, his old classmates, one at the Shanghai Public Security Bureau, one at the Guangdong Provincial Government main office, and a third at the Jiuquan Guided Missile Launch Center were one after another were detained by State Security on suspicion of disclosing secret information.

Yang himself was taken away by the Guangdong Province Public Security Bureau. With the help of his former superior at the Ministry of State Security Intelligence Bureau, Yang discovers that the CIA is exploiting the fatal weaknesses – uncontrolled sexual desire and greed — of this classmate in carrying out its intelligence collection activities against China. In order to protect these old classmates, and in order to keep himself and his lover out of trouble, Yang Wenfeng takes advantage of the fatal weakness of the opposing intelligence service. He charges into the breach with his comrades and fights bravely.   But Yang Wenfeng isn’t the only one who understands well the fatal weaknesses of both the Chinese and US intelligence services.  When a double agent pursues a personal agenda and uses the fatal weaknesses of  the Chinese Ministry of State Security and the US Central Intelligence Agency to reach the goal – to make the 2008 Beijing Olympics a disgrace to the Chinese nation, to force the US and China into a confrontation and to make the entire world impose sanctions on China.

Summary translation of a few highlights:

The science park opened ten years ago but there are still some buildings under construction. All this construction activity made David Tian think of China which he hadn’t seen for years. Recently he had accepted the request of the Central Intelligence Agency to come twice a month to give a class for CIA China analysts.

He got out of his car and walked toward the building. The wall are made of a special material. Just in the exterior walls are planted 63 high precision cameras not to mention many infrared heat detectors, and equipment for detecting hazardous materials and gases.

After David Tian transferred to the FBI China Section last year, he was given responsibility for liaison with the CIA. Naturally he got into frequent arguments with CIA counterparts, but a senior CIA analyst Frank Buck [??], who later become the first president of the CIA Sherman Kent School invited David Tian to give a class on China intelligence analysis at the school.  David Tian reported this secretly back to China and in return his old classmates regularly fed him “material” for his class. The CIA is divided into senior administrators who might be in and out of the White House, spies who have a $30 billion a year budget, and analysts.

Analysts are trained at the Sherman Kent School.  Analysts generally are not involved in intelligence collection around the world. Thus unable to skim money off “intelligence expenses” the analysts have to get by on their regular pay.  Similarly, their chance of being promoted to the higher ranks especially to vice director or director is small. They don’t get to go on the TV news and even less get to play a role like in the glamorous Hollywood movies. 

Spending their days reading and working alone, most analysts have hemorrhoids and bad breath after a few years. Just for that reason, the CIA has them take training classes once every two years.  When you want to teach these people in class, they have this habit of lounging about in a slovenly manner with their coffee, always arguing back and forth, it is a real pain – you feel like strangling them!  

Yet it is just those people who write the most expensive and lowest circulation newspaper in the world – The President’s Daily Brief…..

The class of eleven men and ten women settled down. In addition to the regular teachers at the school who focus on basic training, the school regularly invites guest lecturers from throughout the Washington, DC area including think tankers from the Heritage Foundation, the Atlantic Council, etc. David Tian was excited at this opportunity – and Yang Wenfeng had planned it that way.  Getting into the CIA directly is difficult, but first getting into the FBI and then moving over to the CIA was much easier, especially in the post 9/11 environment. 

End of summary translation

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PRC Anti-Corruption Novel “The Wrath of God”: Insights into Official Corruption

I lived in Beijing from 1996 to 2001.  One of the better books I read during those days was a banned novel loosely based I understand on a Beijing Municipality corruption case of a few years earlier.  I bought the book under the counter in a little bookshop.  China has another of its periodic anti-corruption campaigns underway now.  With so much corruption I wonder sometimes if perhaps most of the people accused are guilty but they are being accused for political reasons.

Here is what most sticks in my mind from the book:

The novelist puts these words into the mouth of a corrupt Beijing Municipality official: “But we can’t not have an anti-corruption campaign. Not only will the masses not allow us not to do anti-corruption work but the State itself could fall as corruption deepens. Therefore, if we don’t do anti-corruption work, the State will collapse. If we fight corruption, the Party will fall; if we do not fight corruption the State will fall. We are stuck between a rock and a hard place; we can only fight corruption for a time and then let up for a while. This is the only way to save both the Party and the State. We try to survive and develop within the cracks of a policy that is constantly wavering between the left and the right. “

Here is an essay I wrote about the book back then.

PRC Anti-Corruption Novel “The Wrath of God”: Insights into Official Corruption

‘The Wrath of God — The Anti-Corruption Bureau in Action” [Tiannuu -- Fantanju zai Xingdong] is an exciting novel about big city corruption in Beijing. Free-spending officials and their even more free-spending offspring figure prominently. ‘The Wrath of God”‘ (a better translation of the title would be “The Wrath of Heaven”) is written in a fast-moving cinematic style with plenty of flashbacks and changes in perspective would made a fine movie. This novel significantly overlaps with reality. To reverse paraphrase the legal disclaimer often seen on books published in the United States, any resemblance to any person, living or dead is not at all coincidental. For example, the U.S. fast food company that fights hard to retain its long-term lease in a prime area slated for a new building complex is obviously MacDonalds’ and the complex is just east of Tian Anmen square. This novel is a mix of fact and fiction — a Chinese official familiar with the Beijing Mayor Chen Xitong corruption case says it is half fact, half fiction. The significance of this book is not the degree to which the activities of the semi-fictional characters reflect the real Beijing Mayor Chen Xitong scandal but in the story of how official corruption affects corruption in modern Chinese society. Below the surface of the novel lie many deeper truths.

The novel gives insights into official corruption, the issue that angers the average Chinese person more than any other. Not only top officials but at every level, there are also cases of bureaucrats who exceed their authority and make decisions in the name of higher officials without informing them. In some cases such as the Beijing Municipality scandal involving former Mayor Chen Xitong which inspired the novel “The Wrath of God”, both the principal and his secretary were involved.

Background: Official Corruption and the Fight Against Corruption

The Yangcheng Wanbao (September 29) and a recent issue of Beijing Youth Weekly [Beijing Qingnian Zhoubao] the weekly magazine of the youth organization of the Beijing Municipality Communist Party reported on recent anti-corruption measures taken by the Central Disciplinary Commission of the Communist Party in 1996 in response to the Beijing scandal. The Commission that personal secretaries of officials “must not use their special position or use the name of their organization or superior to develop special relationships (gao guanxi) or take advantage of personal shortcomings for their personal advantage. ” More specifically, the secretary “must not exceed their authority, or act on their own to represent leading comrades in answering queries or making decisions; they must not sign documents on behalf of their superior, write regulations or issue orders.” Beijing Municipality has now ordered that a personal secretary should not work for a superior for an overly long period.

The characters upon whom the novel “The Wrath of God” is loosely based have been sentenced to prison. Mayor Chen Xitong was sentenced to 15 years in prison for accepting a bribe of 409,000 renminbi (US$1 = 8.3 RMB). His secretary Wang Baosen was sentenced to 7 years in prison for corruption involving 10,000 renminbi and to 8 years in prison for using 640,000 in public funds in a private business. Tie Ying, the secretary of Beijing Municipality official Duan Aihua, was sentenced to 5 years in prison for abusing his official position to get a bribe of over 56,000 renminbi. He Shiping, onetime personal secretary to former Vice Mayor Huang Chao was sentenced to 16 years in prison for misusing his official position to get a bribe of 243,000 renminbi. Mayor Chen Xitong’s son Chen Xiaotong was sentenced to 12 years in prison on June 28, 1997 for accepting bribes and criminal misuse of public funds. Chen Xiaotong, arrested in April 1995 for illegal economic activities, had been the manager of a Chinese-Japanese joint venture hotel in Beijing.

New Anti-Corruption Regulations

In March 1997 “Regulations on the Reporting of Important Matters by Leading Cadres” stipulates that not only leading cadres but also their spouse and children must report important matters such as building a house, business matters, and foreign trips. Austerity orders from the PRC State Council on eliminating “luxuries and wasteful behavior” published on the front page of People’s Daily on July 11, 1997 called on party and government offices to not use public funds for eating and drinking at big feasts and restaurants and not to spend large sums on redecorating, and to very strictly manage funds spent on foreign travel and cellular telephones. Recent press reports point to some success in cutting expenses in some places such as Nanjing and rather less in others such as Anhui Province.

Recent implementing regulations on official honesty have been issued by the Central Disciplinary Commission of the Communist Party. Entitled the “Regulations for Implementing the “Rules for Honest Administration for Communist Party Officials and Cadres”” issued by the Central Disciplinary Commission of the Communist Party was carried by Xinhua (New China News Agency) on December 22, 1997 and published in People’s Daily on December 23 (p. 3). The definition of bribery includes gifts and invitations to the official or the official’s family that might influence the conduct of official business. All gifts that could conceivably influence the conduct of official business must be registered and turned over to the government; failure to register the gifts is an offense. The regulations forbid using official position or influence to obtain improper benefit; Party and leading cadres of the county level or above are forbidden to conduct business on their own account; Party official and leading cadres are forbidden to convert public property into private property; forbidden to use their official powers or influence to help friends, relatives or coworkers to obtain private advantage including foreign travel or study abroad; forbidden to receive above standard official treatment at receptions, to use public funds to buy or decorate private housing, or to convert public guest facilities for private use. Article 28 of these new regulations forbids to party officials and leading cadres “the use of official position or influence to obtain assistance from any person or organization outside China to facilitate the foreign travel, visit with relatives or study of spouse, children, other relatives or friends”. The regulations were issued by the Central Disciplinary Commission on September 23, 1997.

Novels on public and private corruption have become a popular literary genre in China today. The Arts Network (Wenyi Wang) of the Central Broadcasting Network of PRC state radio in January 1998 concluded broadcasting a dramatic series based on the best-selling novel “The Decision” (Xuanze). The novel tells the story of a factory in which the workers were forced to buy the stock in the company. Once the workers have bought the stock, the management flees and the company collapses.

“The Wrath of God” An Anti-Corruption Novel Banned in Beijing

“The Wrath of God” is banned in Beijing. Banned books are not hard to get in Beijing, however. Even the “Private Life of Chairman Mao” about Chairman Mao and his mistresses is sold on the street. “The Wrath of God” is widely available and praised by many (including some Chinese government officials) for its good literary quality and insights into big city corruption. The book opens with a death, the apparent suicide of the Beijing City Vice Mayor. The spirals out into a panoramic portrait of corruption of the young princelings who live off the official positions of their parents, the rottenest rotten egg amongst them being the son of the mayor himself. The book that spirals back in to focus on the last day of the Vice Mayor’s life to eventually reveal the corruption which reaches to the very highest level of the Beijing City government. The story is largely of police detective Chen Hu’s efforts to show that the death of the Vice Mayor was not a simple suicide despite the opposition of a concert of bad guys who would rather let dead bodies lie.

The Views of the People are the Sole Foundation of Government; If the Foundation is Solid, the State will be Peaceful. If Corruption is not Eliminated, the Country Cannot Live in Peace”

The “Wrath of God” is about endemic official corruption. Nothing makes Chinese people angrier than official corruption. The epigram on the cover (apparently a photo-reproduction of the Yuanfang Chubanshe edition printed in January 1997) proclaims the threat that corruption poses to the survival of the State. The epigram reads: “‘The views of the people are the sole foundation of government. If the foundation is solid, the state will be peaceful. If corruption is not eliminated, the country cannot live in peace’ [Min wei bang ben, ben gu bang ning, fubai bu chu, guo wu ning ri]. In the novel, detective Chen Fu is presented the epigram written by a corrupt, executed official by the official’s son. (p. 69 chapter 4/3).

Why was “The Wrath of God” Banned? A Chinese Official Comments

A Chinese official familiar with the investigation of former Beijing Mayor Chen Xitong for corruption and still works on anti-corruption matters discussed the novel “The Wrath of God” in late 1997. The official, who had had read “The Wrath of God”, said that the novel was only half true. He called it a blend of facts and inventions written by someone on the margins who melded odd bits and pieces into a novel. Asked why the novel had been banned, since the police detective hero of the novel does get the bad guys and the novel does show the system working to root out corruption, the official responded that just because it is a mix of fact and fiction it should not be published. When asked it the novel could have been published if it were a pure work of fiction, the official said no, even if it were pure fiction it could still not be published legally. Any work which is aiming at someone or something cannot be published, said the official. When asked why it seemed in the novel that the police detective hero seemed to be fighting alone against the bad guys without help from the central authorities although the authorities clearly know what is going on. The official said that that is unrealistic and impossible. In one passage in the novel a corrupt official says that “anti-corruption campaigns are needed so that the State can survive but that the campaign cannot be too prolonged or intense or the Communist Party would not survive”. The official said that is not true but allowed that anti-corruption campaigns were not very serious two years ago but the anti-corruption work now is very serious and thorough. The novel was actually published legally in Inner Mongolia in late 1996 but was soon banned.

Good Guys and Bad Guys Agree: Corruption is Rooted in the Political and Economic System

Chen Hu, the good guy investigator with nine-plus lives and the more introspective bad guys all agree: it isn’t just good guys and bad guys, it is a political and economic system that encourages or even requires corruption to get things done. From the outset of ‘Wrath of Heaven’, the reader is aware that the central authorities know that the Beijing City is corruption ridden. But the center doesn’t do anything about it. Moreover, according to the principle of centralism (all links vertical, no cross linking at the same level). Horizontal relationships among local police authorities at the same level hardly exist at all.

Corruption is endemic in Chinese society today and anti-corruption campaigns are not serious, say several characters in the novel “The Wrath of God”. Early in the novel we encounter the saying, “Anti-corruption campaign is when a tiger makes a report, the fox claps his hands laughing, the fly hums along happily and only the mice run scared in the streets”. (p. 34, 2/4) Corruption is banal. From the vice mayor who steals millions to the chauffeurs of the party and government cadres or even chauffeurs (pp. 306 – 307, 18/4) who get apartments much larger than they deserve while others wait years for an apartment, corruption runs through the entire system. One corrupt Beijing Municipality Mayor’s Office official in the novel (pp. 282 – 283, 17/2) analyzes the situation this way:

“Don’t worry, I’m not the Anti-Corruption Bureau. The anti-corruption campaign makes a lot of thunder these days and quite a bit of rain. But rainstorms always come to an end. Once we are past the dangerous part of the storm, there will still be a lot of thunder, but less rain. And then after a while you won’t hear any thunder at all. Anti-corruption work cannot be done thoroughly because more than just a few people are involved. The historical conditions are completely different from the March 5 (3-5) case for which Liu Qingshan and Zhang Zishan were executed. Can we allow the era of opening and reform to remove us from power and replace us with the capitalist classes? That absolutely wouldn’t work. One more point. We can’t push the anti-corruption campaign indefinitely. For who else can the regime depend upon for support but the great masses of middle level cadres? If they are not given some advantages, why should they dedicate themselves to the regime? They give their strong and unwavering support to the regime because they get benefits from the system. Corruption makes our political system more stable.”

“How can Chinese officials compare with Hong Kong officials? Can they compare with Taiwan officials? Or with the officials of the developed countries? The salaries of public officials in foreign countries are dozens or even more than a hundred times higher than the salaries of Chinese officials. Moreover, a long anti-corruption campaign would expose the dark side of the Communist Party. If many of these things were to be exposed, the masses would lose their faith in the Chinese Communist Party. Who could accept the historic responsibility for doing this? “

“But we can’t not have an anti-corruption campaign. Not only will the masses not allow us not to do anti-corruption work but the State itself could fall as corruption deepens. Therefore, if we don’t do anti-corruption work, the State will collapse. If we fight corruption, the Party will fall; if we do not fight corruption the State will fall. We are stuck between a rock and a hard place; we can only fight corruption for a time and then let up for a while. This is the only way to save both the Party and the State. We try to survive and develop within the cracks of a policy that is constantly wavering between the left and the right. “

Accelerating Political and Economic Reform: The Only Way to Root Out Corruption

The hero of the novel, Beijing City police detective Chen Hu makes a similar observation. He and his partner quote with approval the words of a Chinese businessman on corruption. The businessman said that the extremely slow Chinese bureaucracy takes months and years to approve matters which a company operating in a competitive market needs processed immediately. The result is that government officials are offered very large bribes. “Even spending tens of thousands or even millions of renminbi for the approval of just one document is not too much since for a company getting an early approval saves money, gives competitive advantage and opens up many opportunities. Now spending millions of renminbi on bribes is not so much bribery but investing in the government is greasing the rigid government bureaucracy. Therefore the system must change if corruption is to be rooted out. …Corruption thus has two characteristics — to ruin the social structure, to stabilize the social structure, and to promote prosperity.” Chen Hu comments, “We have to fight against both the officials accepting the bribes and the people who bribe them. ..Of course, the only way to root out corruption is to accelerate the reform of the economic and political system. That is the only way to root out the structural corruption!” [pp. 248 - 249, 15/3]

Children of High Officials The Most Repellent Characters in the Novel

In “The Wrath of God” the worst characters are the children of high party and government officials; the younger generation provides an interface between high officials and every kind of organized crime. The principal bad egg in The Wrath of God is the Jiao Dongfang , the son of Beijing Municipality Party Secretary Jiao Pengyuan. Jiao Pengyuan built a spectacular house for himself with public funds and kept women, including a TV journalist, as mistresses. Jiao Dongfang, based in a luxury hotel, coordinated very large business deals involving government money and property. Jiao Dongfang videotapes the action of himself in his father with their lovers (one of whom they share) in the luxury hotel love nest. Vast sums of money and fine houses both father and son give to their mistresses.

When things began to go bad, Jiao Pengyuan turned to a series of murders, including the murder of a vice mayor, to try to cover his tracks. The unraveling of the murder of the Vice Mayor is the heart of the novel. Jiao Pengyuan In almost a caricature of a very bad guy, Jiao tried to assassinate a prisoner in jail by taking the prisoner’s brother out shopping for toiletries to take into the jail. Then, while the brother was not looking, Jiao puts cyanide into a tube of toothpaste destined for the prisoner.

Officials evade responsibility for official actions by purposefully muddying lines of authority. One corrupt official sarcastically describes the work of an assistant to a high official as based on three pillars of wisdom “ask first, then act; act first, then ask; and finally, act and don’t ask” as an important new innovation of Marxist-Leninist ideology (pp. 50 – 51 chapter 3/4)

Who’s On Top: The Uses of Kremlinology, Chinese Style

Chen Hu, a Beijing Police (gongan ju) anti-corruption unit detective, early one concludes that the Center has strong reservations about the Beijing Municipality Party Chairman. Chen draws this conclusion in the first few pages of the book. remarking how the Beijing City Party Secretary, once a fixture on Chinese Central TV news broadcasts, now almost never appears. The mayor is still a fixture on Beijing Television however. Chen Fu to his assistant, “China’s newspapers, news broadcasts and television tell us a great deal. The order of peoples’ names, how large the type font is used and the page on which a report appears about a certain person, as well as the frequency that person appears on television news are all indications of change in the political climate. Just between you and me, I think the central leadership has already drawn its conclusions about Party Secretary Jiao. The central leadership understands what is going on. Although they don’t tell us so, if we watch the broadcast news and read the newspaper we will sense a subtle change.” (pp. 11 – 12 chapter 1/2)

Gangsters Arrange for L-1 Visas: Visa Fraud Enters A Chinese Novel

Fraud involving U.S. passports and visas get a passing mention in this best-selling Chinese novel. In an appendix to this report, three pages (pp. 416 – 418) in which fraud involving U.S. passports and visas enter this best-selling Chinese novel. The passage concerns a corrupt official on the run, a man who had run a French steel mill purchased using Beijing municipality funds.

Appendix: Visa, Passport Fraud in A Best Selling Chinese Novel

Excerpt from pp. 416 – 418 of “The Wrath of God”

“‘The Secretary of State of the United States hereby requests all whom it may concern to permit the citizen/national of the United States named herein to pass without delay or hindrance and in case of need to give all lawful aid and protection.”

Gazing at his English alias “David Sun” in the U.S. passport, Sun Qi felt happy. U.S. citizen David Sun is his new identity. Chinese gangster friends he had met at a Paris casino arranged for him to get to New York where he got the passport without any trouble.

During his time overseas, Sun heard all about the rapid growth of Chinese gangs in North America and Europe. The Chinese gangs had taken over many activities previously controlled by American or Italian gangsters such as alien smuggling and drug trafficking. Chinese ancestral wisdom and a long tradition of Chinese secret societies handed down from Taoyuan Sanjieyi, Wakangsai, Sanxia Wuyi, Qixia Wuyi, Shuibo Liangshan Yibaidan Bajiang, the Blue Gang (Qing Bang) and Red Gang (Hong Bang) made the cohesion of Chinese gangs far stronger than western gangs.

Financially much weaker than the western gangs, the Chinese gangs as ruthless killers nonetheless managed to murder their way into a piece of the action. Once most Chinese gang leaders were from Hong Kong, Taiwan, overseas Chinese living in Thailand or Laos. However as mainland China became an important international market and as more and more PRC residents moved abroad, mainland Chinese became and backbone of Chinese gangs. If you want to get into the PRC market, no matter if you are involved in alien smuggling or in drug smuggling, you need to work with mainland Chinese. Among the Chinese who left mainland, most of those from Fujian, Guangdong, Zhejiang and other provinces along the Chinese coast left China illegally. These people are underground people who have no legal status from the first minute they set foot on American soil. These people have no alternative but to fight to bet their lives on their chance to get win their own place under the American sun.

Sun Qi didn’t want to get involved with the Chinese farmers and fishermen who join the Chinese gangs. He thought of them as below him. Alien smuggling and drug trafficking doesn’t go along with his new identity either and the risk is just too great. Since he has legal status, he should do legal business activities. But he also knew that being on the run on his own, just waiting for his name to get on the INTERPOL, wouldn’t work either. He needed the protection of the gangs so that he wouldn’t be caught and sent back to China.

He chose to get his start by joining the All-America Investment group, a company run by American lawyers, a Chinese businessmen, and a highly-educated Chinese who had left China illegally. The Board of Directors wasn’t so interested in his money but in how Sun’s broad network of political and economic connections (guanxi) would enable the company to make some business and investment breakthroughs. The company invited Sun to join the Board of Directors and promised to give him protection.

The initiation ceremony blended East and West. The nine directors sat about in mahogany chairs including three American lawyers. David Sun presented three sticks of incense to the image of Guan Gong with a green robe and red face sitting in the middle of the hall and kowtowed three times. Sun then turned to face the Chairman of the Board of Directors who gave him a dagger.

A strip of paper on the incense burner carried the skull and crossbones as a symbol of death.

Sun Qi took the dagger and cut the middle finger of his left hand. He let the blood drip into the two eyes of the skull so they two red eyes appeared.

The Chairman of the Board handed Sun Qi and oath written in both Chinese and English.

That is the oath of the American gangsters. Sun Qi read it first in English, then in Chinese:

” I on my honor pledge to be loyal to the organization just as the organization will be loyal to me. This image is burning into cinders now just as my blood is bleeding from me, never to return. Just in this way I pledge my life to the organization. Just as the cinders cannot change back into paper, so I too can never leave this organization. I, David Sun, make this oath”

Once Sun Qi had read the oath, he put the paper into the incense burner where it was consumed. He watched it turn to ashes. He realized that Sun Qi had already vanished from the Earth. From now on, he would be David Sun.

The Chairman of the Board of the Directors was the first to come to him to shake his hand. The Director said, “Welcome, David Sun. You position in the All America Investment Corporation is no lower than your former position in the steel company. The main business of this company is in mainland China. Of course all our business there is legal and you will have your role to play in it. But you must remember if you ever betray us as you betrayed the steel company, your body will first be broken into pieces and then put into a grinder to make little pieces of meat. I hope that never happens.”

“Don’t worry about that, Mr. Chairman. I will certainly be loyal to the organization. Mainland China is moving towards greater reforms and opening to the outside world. The market is very big. I am sure I will be able to do a lot for the organization.”

“Welcome, David Sun” said the Director.

From that time onwards, David Sun had his own office in Chicago. The Chairman of the Board assigned him the task of finding PRC citizens who want to apply for an L-1 visa. The work was not difficult.

David Sun read carefully the U.S. INS regulations concerning the L-1 visa. Any university graduate who has no criminal record and has two or more years of managerial experience, is trustworthy, pays taxes, and is the manager of a company that has a business license can ask a U.S. company to apply for an L-1 visa to set up a subsidiary in the United States. Once the applicant has the L-1 visa, the U.S. subsidiary can operate for four years and then an application can be made to extend the visa to up to seven years. Two years after that application, the L-1 visa applicant can apply for the U.S. green card. During the seven years the businessperson can do business anywhere in the world and relatives can visit the L-1 holder in the U.S.

The American lawyer told Sun Qi that as long as the applicant has US$20,000, it doesn’t matter whether the person is educated or not, has managerial experience or not, or even whether the person has a criminal record.

Sun Qi asked, a little worried, “Once the money is paid can you really get the applicant to the U.S.?”

The lawyer replied, “That we can guarantee. The reputation of our company depends upon it. The one being cheated is not the immigrant from China but the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service. These Chinese who come to the U.S. aren’t really setting up a company. Their real intent is to immigrate and the United States is very tough on immigrants.”

Sun Qi felt that the L-1 visa would be very attractive to independent Chinese businesspeople going overseas, people who sent their capital overseas, and for people who feel that the Chinese policy of reform had gone too far and have something to be ashamed for. But is there really a lot of money to be made in this field?

The lawyer’s reply showed Sun Qi the great prospects that lay ahead.

“We only need to spend about US$2000 at most on each application. So we earn US$18,000 off each immigrant. Ten immigrants means US$180,000. One hundred means US$1.8 million. How much would we earn from a thousand or ten thousand? Mainland China has a very large population. There must be at least ten million people there who want to go to the United States. So how much money can we earn? David Sun, immigration can be called the most profitable of industries. The ratio between investment and return is 1:10. Is there any business in the world other than robbing banks with that rate of return? Moreover, the INS put no numerical limit on L-1 visas. David Sun, hurry up and open the mainland China market for our company!”

Bibliography

The Wrath of God — the Anti-Corruption Bureau in Action [Tiannu Fantanju Zai Xingdong], by Fang Wen [psuedonymn]. Hohhot, December 1996, Yuanfang Chubanshe. Printed January 1997 press run of 5000 copies. ISBN 7-80595-271-X/1 120. A photoreproduced pirate edition is available on the street in Beiijng. Several web sites have partial copies of “The Wrath of God” in the original Chinese text.

Several web sites with several chapters of “The Wrath of God” are listed in the Chinese Text section of the web site http://www.aweto.com/china/chinanet.html

Famous Criminal Cases of Modern China 1949 – 1995 [Dangdai Zhongguo Ming An -- 1949 - 1995], edited by Liu Bin and published by Zhuhai Chubanshe in September 1996. ISBN 7-80607-194-6/D 1. “Famous Criminal Cases” is a five hundred page book that covers a wide range of 561 criminal and civil offenses. Criminal cases, each discussed in one half page to a page include counter-revolutionary crimes; public security offenses; economic crimes; crimes against persons or their democratic rights including murder, kidnapping, elections (including on p. 125 the condemnation of a Hebei Province man who on defaced a write-in ballot to one year in prison), stealing weapons and ammunition, and libel; robbery; offenses against the social order; offenses against marriage and family; official corruption; criminal investigations. Civil cases include libel suits; property suits; intellectual property rights suits; suits involving marriage, family and inheritance; economic (contract) suits; maritime law cases; administrative law cases; and cases involving people falsely accused which were later reversed as much as 30 years later.

Practical Handbook for the New Criminal Law, edited by Li Jianhua and Yan Jin. Published Beijing, April 1997, by Guangming Daily Publishing House [Guangming Ribao Chubanshe]. ISBN 7-80091-982-X/D 75. The “Handbook” introduces the much revised PRC criminal law which was expanded by one-third during the March meeting of the National People’s Congress. The Handbook explains the idea of criminal responsibility, distinguishes between crimes of negligence and intentional offenses, the varieties of criminal penalties, and then the various types of crimes against national security, public order, harming the socialist economic order as well as crimes against person and democratic rights, crimes against property, the national defense, military regulations (including voluntary surrender, releasing prisoners without authorization, and harming oneself in battle).

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