英文翻译摘要:从限电引发油荒看地方变通惯性

从限电引发油荒看地方变通惯性

2010年11月08日07:15四川新闻网-成都商报我要评论(6)
字号:T|T
□马涤明
中国商业联合会石油流通委员会的调查数据显示,目前中国南部已有2000多家民营加油站因缺油而停业,在浙江、江苏、湖南等地,不少加油站实 行限量加油。主要原因为柴油减产以及突击减排造成的需求上升。

突击减排迫使企业自备柴油发电机发电,这种问题应属意料之中———中央的政策到了下面就走样,被变通,并不是什么新鲜事。所以,有保有限有压 的减排政策,到了地方就变成了简单粗暴的“一刀切”,甚至切到居民家庭、医院、马路上的红绿灯。而真正该限的高耗能、落后产业用电,在某些地区却 成了必保项目。地方对中央有对策,企业对政府也有对策,于是柴油发电机便应运而走红;大大小小的柴油发电机不但加剧了柴油供应的紧张,更与减排的 初衷南辕北辙———柴油发电的单位污染物排放要远远超过用电,能源消耗上也一样,那么限电减排或许不如不搞了。
也许有人会说,“一刀切”拉闸限电与柴油发电只是部分地区的现象。这有可能。但这种现象会在多少地区存在,取决于两方面因素:一是限电指标能 否完成,二是变通上的有无可能。后一种,应该是不必说的,媒体曝光了一些地方,比如河北安平县,马上就纠正了;然而媒体能够光顾到的地方,或说是 新闻能够达到发酵效应的曝光,毕竟是有限的;而曝光不到或“曝光不动”的地方,地方官员会绞尽脑汁完成任务,变通成为必然。再者,在地方利益最大 化的思维取向之下,如果限电指标的完成与某些利益可以兼得,比如一些招商引资来的高耗能与落后产业可以保得住,不影响到GDP指标的完成和其他相 关利益的收获,那么所有的用电户都将被绑架到这些利益当中来。
为缓解柴油荒的局面,中石化、中石油浙江分公司负责人表示,已特别向总部申请,增加供应量。油荒问题可以解决,可柴油发电应对减排的问题如果 得不到有效控制,其负面效应可能会比油荒问题更严重。
凡事都“全民”,限电也不例外,这是一个很头疼的问题。看来,唯有在地方政府与官员的考核监督上加大民意分量,才能有效地破解这种“地方变 通”。

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An Example of Local Flexibility and Inertia — How Limits on Electric Power Consumption Brought on a Kerosene Shortage

A serious shortage of kerosene at 2000 private gas stations in southern China was caused by a sharp increase in private companies using kerosene electric power generators in response to a central government policy to reduce emissions became a very inflexible measure by the time it reached lower levels and so to reduce power consumption even hospitals and traffic lights were cut off.  The response of local governments and industry was  their own countermeasure to the central government measures: they turned to kerosene generators which are much more polluting than the electric power companies power sources.

Some say this only affected some areas.  In some places where the problem was exposed in the media, it was corrected immediately.  In places were it wasn’t exposed or the officials ignored the media reports, the abuses continued.  It was limited, depending upon whether the target set on high could be met and whether flexibility was possible.  In many areas officials responded by using these “countermeasures”  and even used the rule from on high to further some local private interests.

Even if this particular abuse is corrected, the use of kerosene for electric power generation will make limiting emissions harder.  Only by getting more real citizen involvement in the evaluation of officials will it be possible from stopping officials from being flexible in ways that harm the public interest.

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