HIV in Henan Province: Chinese article “Revealing the “Blood Wound” of the Spread of HIV AIDS in Henan Province

Revealing the "Blood Wound" of the Spread of HIV AIDS in Henan Province
--- Written on the eve of the first AIDS Day of
the New Millennium

By He Aifang

November 28, 2000

(Posted on the http://bbscity.com/news/rdxw/forum.html  Corruption forum
among the postings of November 28.
http://bbscity.com/cgi-bin/anyboardc.cgi/news/rdxw/?cmd=get&cG=63030373&zu=36303037&v=2&gV=

[Translation follows]

Ever since 1995 - 1996, the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Henan Province has
alarmed Chinese health experts including the renowned Chinese AIDS
expert Zeng Yi, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
These experts warn in different ways and in different places that the
Henan AIDS epidemic is real and is serious and may well become a
national disaster.  However, Liu Quanxi, the director of the Henan
Provincial Health Department said emphatically at the time, "There is no
HIV/AIDS in Henan Province". Experts say "This is seeing the casket but
shedding no tears".HIV/AIDS has a 5 - 10 year latency period so when the
time comes can the deaths of many, many people be covered up?  Liu
Quanxi seems to think, "Well, when that time comes, it'll be time for me
to retire."Liu seems to think that so long as others do not expose my
secret it'll be all right.  Although the experts predict misfortune and
people really don't want it to come true, around the year
2000 it became clear: Henan Province has about 500,000 - 700,000 people
infected with the HIV virus. There are many more still who have
Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C.In the eastern and southern parts of Henan
Province there are many counties and cities where this year where
strangely enough many tombstones are being erected. Some villages are
already seeing 30 youths and middle aged people dying each year.  This
people have something in common. They all sold blood.

The good natured, simple people of China's central plain never imagined
that HIV/AIDS had anything to do with them. HIV/AIDS, they thought, well
that was a rich people's disease. And they see HIV/AIDS as a disease
that rich people get when they behave in certain ways and don't take
precautions. These people were poor, so when the "blood head" came to
them and said with his sly words, "Lend me some of your blood and I'll
give it right back to you.  I'll give you money to boot!", the farmers
extended their rough-hewn arms worn by years of hard work.
What they were doing in fact was giving away their lives to the Devil.
That needle and knife, that plastic tube for giving blood, that blood
bag, that centrifuge, that blood that all sloshed together, and
especially that process of transfusing blood back into you, that Yama,
the King of Hell,has already dispatched those aggressive little devils
into your body.

The blood heads want whole blood and blood plasma, of course, so they
can sell it to the biological products company and the hospitals in the
city. Those clever Shanghai people with their talent for accounts and
that Wuhan people, known far and wide for their craftiness, could not
have guessed that ever since 1992, Henan Province blood heads have been
selling large quantities of contaminated blood to biological products
companies in Shanghai and Wuhan. Those companies used the blood to make
albumin, globulin, interferon, blood [xiaoban??] factor and other drugs
in a whole line of nourishing drugs that were sold throughout China.
These nourishing drugs not only infected city people with HIV, hepatitis
B, hepatitis C and other diseases but people never even realized what
was happening. To this day, these kinds of blood collection activities
are still going strong underground in Henan.

In 1992, all of China from the top of society to the bottom was caught
up in the "get rich" craze of that overheated economy.That year a new
Henan Health Department head came into office, creating among other
things a "reform office", a "development office", a "central blood
collection station", a "Wanda Co.", a "development center", and a
"biological pharmaceuticals company". He enunciated his new way of
thinking: count on official seals for the interior, and count on selling
blood plasma for the exterior.

Counting on official seals for the interior meant making full use of the
power of the official stamp of the Henan Provincial Department of
Health.Many permits are issued in order to make a lot of money. Counting
on blood plasma for the exterior meant taking only blood plasma from
blood donors. The red blood cells are returned to the donors and the
blood plasma is sold to pharmaceutical companies. This article will
focus mainly on blood plasma collections to tell you an inside story
that will make you want to make accusations against the perpetrators.

A senior Henan Provincial Health Department official, now retired, said
that Liu Quanxi at the beginning of 1993 in a closed internal meeting of
the Henan health agencies said: We need to focus on developing the
service sector so we'll set up many blood collection stations.Henan has
a population of 90 million people, 80 % of whom are farmers. One to
three percent of them would be willing to sell blood. They could do that
once or twice a year.We can collect that blood and sell it to a
biological products company [shengwu zhipin gongsi] . We can create
products worth hundreds of millions of RMB, which at the same time could
be considered to be helping the farmers escape from poverty. Why don't
we put our heads together and think along this new line of thought. An
official should do something to help the people. I believe that setting
up blood collection stations is the way to do it.  We need to work hard
along this line so that we produce results. We need to draw on
both inner resources and make outside contacts as well. We can bring in
foreign capital. China doesn't have HIV and so its blood is very clean
so the foreigners will certainly want it.We need to assemble the capital
and mobilize all of society to set up blood collection stations.We need
to fully bring into play Henan Province's advantages and push for the
reform of the Henan health care system!

Kaifeng was the first to respond to the call by setting up a blood
collection station. The Henan Provincial Department of Health praised it
and even held a special meeting at that blood collection station.The
whole province was energized. The epidemiological stations of the
various counties and the woman and child health protection stations set
up blood collection stations. Blood collection stations were also
established in some townships and villages. Military units, distribution
companies, coal mines, and factories set up blood collection stations as
well.  Some county People's Consultative Congresses and People's
Congresses also get into the act and set up their own blood collection
stations. At one point Henan Province had set up 200 "legal blood
stations" and an unknown number of illegal blood
stations.

Some blood stations were composed of just a centrifuge, some plastic
tubes reused many times and some needles carried on a tractor. They
would
go into the village to draw blood, bringing blood collection services
right to the door and paying on the spot.  Biological products companies
from all over China came to Henan to buy blood plasma. They all shared a
common goal -- to take the blood of the central plateau rural village
country cousins in exchange for money.

In order to find even bigger buyers, Li Quanxi lead blood selling
delegations to the United States in 1993 and 1994.The second time that
he went to the United States, he had negotiations with several U.S.
blood products companies.Liu suggested to the U.S. companies that they
set up plants to do processing in Henan Province to make blood products.
This would be more convenient, would avoid problems with Chinese
Customs, which doesn't allow blood to be exported, and would be more
profitable. Liu Quanxi said to the U.S. companies, "Henan Province has
abundant and concentrated blood supplies. The blood is clean. There
isn't any HIV in Henan Province and the blood is cheap" .Considering
that at
that time Henan was China's second most populous province and that Liu
was the first Chinese official who dared to sell blood, the U.S.
companies arranged for a special plane to transport Liu Quanxi during
his visit to the United States.Later Liu on many occasions told people
in China about that special plane he used in America and how the
Americans treated him like a VIP.

The American companies visited Henan several times to study the
situation. Later,the U.S. companies were thinking of making a very large
investment that would result in the formation of a new unit at the
provincial deputy department head level, and might have been handled by
the Henan Provincial government or the Henan Province Planning
Commission (as it was called at that time). This would have put the
investment into an area, which Liu did not control, so he lost interest
and let the matter slide.

Recently, an important officials in the Luohe City Health Bureau had
this to say: Liu Quanxi set aside 200,000 RMB (USD 25,000) in capital as
well as equipment and then directed his younger sister to set up a blood
station in his own hometown of Yancheng County, Henan.With the support
of the then director of the Luohe Health Bureau Liu Xuezhou (now Vice
Director of the Henan Provincial Health Department) six blood collection
stations were established in Xiping, Shangcai, Xihua, Xuchang, Taikang
and Weishi counties. This six blood collection
stations belong to the Liu family. These stations followed no rules,
they took blood any way they pleased and even beat and cursed some of
the blood donors. For example, as one bloodhead said to a small paper
that had reported on the bloodhead's activities, "You go tell the
Department of Health. I'm not afraid!"

There was a small time bloodhead in Zhongmu County who collected blood
not far from the Liu family blood station in Weishi County. The
bloodhead wasn't finding buyers so he went to the Henan central blood
station to look for a buyer.Liu Quanxi took advantage of the bloodhead's
credulity to out the situation and address of the blood station. Then
the bloodhead trustingly lead a group of people to the blood station.
Even when that bloodhead went into prison he perhaps still didn't know
how he had been caught red-handed.This case became the basis for
the political achievements of Liu Quanxi in the later period of
suppressing the bloodheads.Liu Quanxi made himself a bloodhead. However
the position he achieved as a blood lord is a position his flunkies
created for him.

Henan Province is not developed. It neither lies on the coast nor on the
frontiers. It is the heartland of the central plain. In the early 1990s,
Henan's economic and social environment was such that there wasn't much
drug addiction or prostitution.The farmers of the central plain, like
their fathers and ancestors before them, made a living from the soil.
Whoever would have thought that the dreams of
wealth of a high official of the Henan Provincial Department of Health
would push so many people to these people towards death.

Some people say that Shangqiu Department of Health Director Zheng
Bingyin assigned important tasks to Hu Wanlin was because Zheng didn't
understand medicine and other people got him all confused.That argument
would perhaps convince people who have knowledge of the situation. If
one were to say that Liu Quanxi started out with the intention of
spreading HIV to the people of the central plains, perhaps that would
not be believed.

Liu Quanxi's problem was initially that he was in a rush to make money.
A shot at big bucks weakened his judgment. His ambitions knew no limits.
He believed that there could not possibly be HIV in Henan.Later, when
the collection of blood had gotten seriously out of control, he began to
fear for his own personal responsibility and that the Liu family blood
stations would be exposed.So he decided on a cover up, lying to those
above and suppressing those below, telling lies, and striking in revenge
against whistleblowers. LIu's story is one in which differences in
degree gradually became became fundamental differences.

In 1995 and 1996, grassroots medical workers discovered some people who
were HIV positive. In order to confirm their finding, they sent samples
to Shanghai, Beijing, Nanjing and Wuhan.The test results astounded some
Chinese experts.HIV/AIDS was already very serious in Henan Province.
When these experts want to go to Henan Province to investigate, nobody
dared take them out to the rural villages.

Recently, a physician said:In 1995,  he took blood samples near a blood
collection station sponsored by a transportation company and the local
health bureau near a certain city in eastern Henan.Three out of the ten
samples contained HIV antibodies -- positives.

He sent the samples to another city. Results confirmed. When he reported
the results to the local health bureau, criticized him, saying. "You are
an idiot. When the Health Department gave permission to set up a blood
collection station they thought of everything.It is impossible that
there is HIV. You careless talk will influence the income of our blood
station." The physician said: At this time, the three people who had
tested positive said that they regularly sold blood plasma at blood
stations in theKaifeng, Lankao, Shicheng, and Shangqiu region. Usually
this blood was sold to a big company in Shanghai.

Liu Quanxi was astonished to hear that outside experts wanted to come to
Henan to investigate HIV/AIDS.It was then that he realized the
bankruptcy of his policy: During his time as an official, he was going
to produce benefits for people. For internal matters, rely on the power
of official seals; in external matters, rely on selling blood plasma.

Liu arranged for fine food and drink when the Academician Zeng Yi
visited Henan. No problem with visiting the office, just don't let him
go down to the countryside. The Ministry of Health can collect documents
but rumors can be strenuously denied; the Provincial government can
collect reports but the guesses of individuals should not be given
credit lest they affect the economic development of our province. A
physician at the Zhoukou epidemiological station did not obey this call.
The physician bravely gave information and help to experts from
outside the province. The physician lost both job and income.

The latency period of HIV gave Liu Quanxi a hand. High officials in the
provincial government who didn't understand medicine gave him the
opportunity. Because nobody was dying just then, so it looked like there
was no problem. Moreover, provincial officials just didn't want to look
into the matter.

Recently, two Henan Province epidemiological station experts said: In
1996, under pressure from society and experts, the Henan Provincial
Department of Health mobilized "its own" forces to carry out a study of
HIV that focused on blood sellers in thirteen counties.People who went
out to the countryside to do the study were divided into six groups.They
tested 100,000 people in all. In order to ensure secrecy, Liu Quanxi
ordered that the people who participated in the survey may not exchange
data and may not reveal their results to outsiders. Each group
made its own independent report.A participant in the study of the
Shangqiu blood station said that the data there showed that 84% were HIV
positive.  Weishi, Xiping, Shangcai, and Taikang were also very serious.
The lowest survey among those counties found 67 percent HIV
positive.Since the figures for each study were never released, experts
estimate that at that time in Henan Province there were at least
100,000 people infected with HIV.But Henan at that time had one million
people who were selling blood. Moreover, the two experts said, those
people who helped Liu Quanxi with the coverup all got promoted into good
positions.

A reliable source said: The Party organization in the Henan Department
of Health held a stormy debate about the results of this survey.Liu
Quanxi insisted that the results of the survey could not be published
nor could they be reported to higher authorities. A vice director of the
Health Department who insisted that the results be reported was
criticized. Things often happen that way these days. In a situation in
which the ordinary people can?t fight those in power, when someone in
power says they want things done a certain way, even when that it is
wrong we
just carry out the order anyways.

Gao Yaojie

Gao Yaojie is a gynecologist at the Henan Chinese School of Traditional
Medicine Hospital.After she retired, she began doing research on
sexually transmitted diseases.At first she just looked into the STD
advertisements on the street and criticized them. As she got deeper into
her research, she found that the strongest opposition to her work came
not from quack doctors who were cheating people out of their money.Her
biggest opponents turned out to be an organization that she thought
originally thought would support her efforts -- the Henan Provincial
Department of Health.That strong little old lady didn't realize just who
that opponent she was going to conquer was.She frequently wrote letters
to central governmentand provincial leaders. She shared her views with
the news media. She used her small pension to print educational
materials and to go to see AIDS patients in the countryside, especially
women and small children. She won the praise of society and the
media.She won the honorary title of "The Number One Citizen Worker for
HIV Prevention". Many newspapers, television stations and websites in
both China and foreign countries reported on her activities.

Gao Yaojie's personal campaign upset Liu Quanxi's plans. As pressure
from society to clean up the blood market increased, he realized that in
choosing between money and power it is better to hold on to power. He
imagined that he could take advantage of the latent period of HIV, bring
the blood market under control, and hide the seeds of Henan's disaster
that had been planted some years before. Then, when HIV had appeared
throughout the country, Henan's problem would not look so exceptional.

The strenuous calls of Gao Yaojie and the reports of some journalists
that appeared in the Great River News (Dahe Bao), the Zhengzhou Evening
News (Zhengzhou Wanbao) and other newspapers became a background noise
blocking Liu Quanxi's further political advancement.Liu secretly put
pressure and harassment of Gao and her family.Liu used personal
connections to engineer the transfer of Wang Jiheng, the top health
reporter of the Great River News. In late 1998, Liu Quanxi heard that
the Great River News was going to print an article about HIV in Henan
Province.Liu at once ordered a person named Han who had a close
connection to the newspaper company to take 80,000 RMB to the newspaper
company and offer to replace the HIV article with a big advertisement.
Liu also used his influence to get the health reporters of several
influential Henan newspapers transferred. These reporters hadn't been
writing about HIV in just the way that Liu Quanxi wanted.
Late one night in July 1999, Zhengzhou police seized a van carrying
blood plasma to Kaifeng.When journalists got to the scene, a policeman
said that the people in the van had all run away.Did they really run
away? Later, a journalist made an undercover visit and was told in a
whisper by a policeman: "We got a phone call from a "VIP" in the
provincial government who ordered us to secretly let them
go. "There were four blood sellers involved, two men and two women. One
was the younger sister of Liu Quanxi. A journalist went to the site of
the old blood station, but it was already empty.Such a rapid move was
not something that an ordinary crook could manage. The journalist went
back to the police station and was told but a policeman, "We didn't get
a chance to interrogate them. They all ran away. Without a trace."

There is more and more HIV/AIDS in Henan. HIV is being passed along to
children.Some Beijing hospitals discovered:these days most of the people
diagnosed with HIV come from Henan Province.Although some patients don't
want to reveal their identity, they are identifiable from their Henan
accent. Their clothing shows them to be country people.Professor Zeng Yi
of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing experts have said many
times to Henan Health Department officials: Pay close attention to the
HIV/AIDS situation and set up HIV/AIDS prevention stations.If necessary,
the central government will provide assistance. Liu Quanxi response has
been negative. A director responsible for disease control at the Chinese
Ministry of Health in an informal meeting said: Liu Quanxi of Henan
Province speaks empty, false words. No truth comes out of his mouth.

Just as Gao Yaojie and some journalists were giving Liu Quanxi a hard
time, Gui Xien like a cat slunk into the heart of the central plains.He
went to Henan to see patients at the request of his student in Shangcai
County. During a simple and unannounced visit to Henan, this expert
discovered that the rate of HIV infection in Henan villages had already
exceeded 60 percent.His report astonished people at high levels in
Beijing and scared the Henan Health Department as well.

Academician Zeng Yi began to watch the HIV situation in Henan from 1995
onwards. However the social situation at that time did not allow that
scholar to get the support that would have been needed from all quarters
to stop the spread of HIV in time. He could only sigh, "Henan see the
casket but doesn't shed tears!" Gui Xien's 1999 report confirmed Zeng
Yi's deductions.Gao Yaojie, fearlessly went several times to the
countryside to see sick people and to draw attention to the problem. The
media began to pay attention to the problem.

Some of the journalists at the Great River News, the Zhengzhou Evening
News and the City Morning News (Chengshi Zaobao) were angry.They
anonymously printed articles about HIV. While reporting on Gao Yaojie's
visits to people in the countryside, they wrote veiled criticism of the
Henan Provincial Department of Health.Liu Quanxi, through the Provincial
Propaganda Department, put pressure on the newspapers and put a stop to
that kind of reporting. The journalists then began "surrounding Henan
from the exterior" [Note: by placing articles
about Henan in papers in other provinces. end note].

Intense attention from the outside forced the Henan Health Department to
send people to the countryside during 1999 and 2000 to determine what
the actual situation was. According to an official at the Henan Province
Epidemiological Station official who asked to remain anonymous, he did a
sampling survey at Shangcai County in the Zhumadian region and
discovered that the situation was even more serious than had been
reported in the newspapers.Luo Gang and Zhaodiangxiang, both to the
south of the county seat, were the most serious. Three people had died
in one household. The situation in Wenlou Village in Luogangxiang was
reported several times in the media.He said that Zhaodianxiang is more
serious that Wenlou Village. He mentioned a woman in Lipu Village who
developed an unbearable fever and so hung herself. She had been infected
with HIV when she sold blood in 1993 and 1994. She left behind two
children aged two and five. Both the two children and their father have
HIV.  He also mentioned that a Shangcai County health official opened a
restaurant but when it turned out that one of the waiters had
HIV, nobody ever dared to go to that restaurant again. The official lost
a large sum of money as a result.People in the area say that HIV came
from Ronan County since a blood station was set up there before
Shangcai. The official strongly insisted that I should never say whom I
got the information from.

According to an expert at the Henan Health Department Epidemiological
Station, HIV in Henan is concentrated in regions south of the Yellow
River such as Zhoukou, Zhumadian, Xinyang, Luohe, Kaifeng, Shanqiu,
Nanyang, Xuchang and Pingdingshan.The farmers there are relatively poor,
the population is dense and there are relatively few natural
resources.Some farmers eager to escape poverty along with some lazy
people fall for the economic enticements of the bloodheads.

They don't know what they are doing and lose their lives to the blood
disaster.  The expert estimates that now over 500,000 people are
infected with HIV in Henan Province, but it is difficult to get a more
precise idea than that. That area with very serious HIV is situated
around Luohe where the Liu family set up its blood stations. Is there a
connection? He gave the journalist a mysterious wink of an eye and said,
"No, that couldn't be." Nevertheless, the every reckless operation of
the many blood stations in southern Henan is the main reason for the
spread of HIV there.  When you consider that HIV is not as common in
northern Henan, you understand.

Recently, Gao Yaojie has noticed that why controls on her remain, some
officials are taking a more friendly interest in her family life.Her
daughter who has continually harassed at a newspaper but some officials
took the initiative to arrange a job for her at the hospital of the
Henan School of Traditional Chinese Medicine.Professor Gui Xien of Hubei
University has also been informed that he is welcome in Hunan and will
be supported in his investigations.

The condition for the support is that Gui not reveal his result to
outsiders. The Henan Province health departments want to buy his tongue.

While it is true that some families are happy and others have worries.
Some officials of the Henan Provincial Department of Health who have
spent a good chunk of youth and later life rising in officialdom
together with Liu Quanxi are coming down with hepatitis B and hepatitis
C and ending up in the hospital.Perhaps they don't even know themselves
how they got their illnesses. Could it have been from blood
products?Even if they know that blood products harmed them, do they dare
say so? Is there anyone who dares to tell them to speak up?A sickroom
nurse
in the Henan Provincial People's Hospital for senior cadres said: This
year, Liu Quanxi often came to the hospital. Sometimes it was high blood
pressure. Other times it was high blood sugar. He often had a cold and
felt weak. One hospital director flattered him saying, "Department head,
your resistance is getting a bit weak, we should transfuse some blood
proteins into you."Liu Quanxi turned pale, waved his
hands and shouted, "Don't transfuse me with blood proteins! Don't
transfuse me with blood proteins! "Really, it is as if God is playing a
joke on them.

The beginning of the deaths of those honest farmers is a sign. The end
of the HIV latent period has come.The media reports reveal the news. Liu
Quanxi's "blood wound"  can no longer be hidden. This child of a farmer
harmed many farmers and at the same time put the lives of many city
people in danger as well. Just how many people were affected by this
blood disaster is still an unsettled issue.Perhaps it will come to pass
that a high official gets HIV. Maybe it will be from nourishment
products made from blood plasma or from a prostitute. It will be hard to
say.That such an idiot has sole responsibility for the public health of
the people of China's most populous province, it is strange to think
about just what it means to say that the health of the rural and city
people is being protected. Strange, strange indeed.


Background

That hundreds of thousands of paid blood donors in Henan Province have
HIV has been a dark secret for at least the past five years. The article
below now circulates among Chinese experts in Henan Province and Chinese
patriots elsewhere who can see clearly the disaster that now threatens
their country. Just as the line goes in the wartime anthem, the "Song of
the Volunteers", the Chinese people are at the most dangerous moment
[Zhonghua minzu dao zui weixiande shike]. Some Chinese experts who have
known this story for years but have had to keep quiet are pleased that
this story is out. They agree that this story is accurate but it is not
the complete story.

Just as the press reports on HIV among blood donors first focused on the
widespread HIV infections among blood donors in Shangcai County in
central Henan, and have now widened to report that no, Shangcai is
unfortunately not an isolated case but all too typical. Yet the problem
is not confined to Henan. The problem of paid blood donors and
underground blood collection centers, as the Chinese press occasionally
reports, is serious in Shanxi, Hubei, Hebei and other provinces. Paid
blood donations and bloodheads also work in Beijing and Shanghai even if
the problem seems to be worse in the interior provinces. Southern
Weekend in October 2000 for example discussed the legion of 4000 paid
blood donors in the impoverished Dingxi region of Gansu Province. Some
of this blood from donors with high rates of hepatitis and other blood
borne diseases was sold to a blood products company in Lanzhou.There the
blood is made into various blood protein products sold in China as well
as to developing countries (the US FDA does not permit the importation
of Chinese blood products into the USA). The spread of HIV among
blood donors and especially blood plasma donors seems to be driven by
the high prices that biological products companies (some connected with
the Chinese military) pay for blood plasma and their willingness to
procure it illegally if need be.

On one level this article can be seen as a poison pen attack on the
director of the Henan Province Health Department. The anger the author
feels for the Health Department and its leaders role in the spread of
HIV and the subsequent cover-up is apparent.  Yet poison pen letters can
be true, and some Henan activists familiar with the situation vouch for
the authenticity of this article. Restrictions on the speech of some of
these activists such as Zhengzhou physician and HIV campaigner Gao
Yaojie remain although she is now praised in the official press for
drawing attention to HIV in Henan. Dr. Gao came to Beijing for a public
conference on HIV on January 8th and 9th but the authorities do not
permit her to speak. The problem is bigger than one province and bigger
than the alleged misdeeds of any one official. The Chinese government
has a well-thought out HIV strategy but getting it implemented in the
provinces is very difficult. The Ministry of Health has excellent
dedicated people working on the problem but the Ministry has only
several hundred people and just a few people working on contagious
disease policy.One theme of the article is that officials in Beijing
knew about the problem in Henan Province, very much wanted to stop it
but were unable to do so. Why? China sometimes to be not so much a
country of Big Brother but of many little brothers (some well meaning,
others not) who don?t pay much attention to each other.

China's HIV problem breaks down into management components that can be
addressed by the government such as blood collection and donation
irregularities and the spread of disease due to substandard medical
practice (also called iaotrogenic disease).  Both are very serious in
China. In fact dirty needles (the rule rather than the exception in much
of rural China, especially in the interior provinces) spread hepatitis
to ten percent of China?s people but are even higher -- near 20 percent
in the interior. Indeed, now that China seems to be on the verge of
admitting to the big problem in Henan Province, perhaps the first place
to start with strict management of medical practice to ensure safe
medical practice and no medical transmission of disease would be those
AIDS villages in Henan.  So many people have HIV there, the chances of
it spreading further must be quite high.

Now the chance of getting HIV from a dirty needle is small each time but
not if you are getting regular frequent dirty needle injections. Both
the problems of blood donation and collection and the spread of disease
by substandard medical care can be addressed by government.Other cause
of HIV spread related to behaviors such as intravenous drug injection
and prostitution can be addressed through behavioral interventions which
would take much longer.

The Chinese government in December announced a crackdown on illegal
blood collections and sales in violation of December 1996 Ministry of
Health regulations on blood collection procedures and the October 1998
law that outlawed paid blood donations.An early January press report
discussed a crackdown in Chongqing where five blood plasma collection
stations were closed and the biological products company that bought the
blood plasma is under investigation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

爱滋病在中原大地肆虐

写在新千年的第一个艾滋病日前夕

揭开河南省传播艾滋病的“血痂”

笔者:何爱芳

9596年以来,河南省艾滋病的流行一直是引起国内卫生界有关专家人士警惕和关注的

焦点,包括中国科学院院士我国最著名的艾滋病专家曾毅在内的许多专家,在不同场合以不

同方式表达着这样的警报:河南艾滋病流行情况是真实的、是严重的,有可能演变成国难。

可是,河南省卫生厅长LXX当时拍着胸脯说:河南没有艾滋病。专家们说:他这是不见棺材

不掉泪,艾滋病是有5-10潜伏期的,到时候大量死人他还能捂住吗?专家的预言尽管是不

幸的,是人们不愿意看到的,但是进入2000年后它开始兑现了:河南省目前有50-70万艾

滋病毒携带者,乙肝、丙肝的病人更多。豫东南的许多县市农村,今年莫名其妙地添起了许

多坟头,有些村竟一年之内有近30位青、中年人死亡,这些人有个共同的特点——卖过血。

善良朴实的中原农民怎么也没有想到艾滋病会与他们有关,那可是有钱人行为不检点得的不

治之症。由于贫穷的原因,在“血头”们“借点血当即还你,又给你钱”的花言巧语下,忠

厚的农民伸出了常年劳作的粗壮的手臂,其实也是将自己的生命伸给了魔鬼。这针头剪刀,

这抽血的塑料管和血袋、这离心机、这兑到一起的血液、特别是这还输你的血液,已经含带

了阎王派遣的催命小鬼进入你的体内。

血头”们要血液和血浆干什么,当然是买给城里的生物制药公司和医院。精明和善于算计

的上海人和天下以“九头鸟”著称的武汉人不会想到,自1992年以来,河南的血头就是将

这些大量的污染的血液买给了上海和武汉的生物制药公司,制成了白蛋白、球蛋白、干扰素、

血小板因子等一系列营养药后,卖向全国。这些营养药是不是又使城里人染上了艾滋病、乙

肝、丙肝等其他疾病,不得而知(可以知道,但不给报导)。这种地下卖血活动至今还在河

南地下涌动着。

1992年全国上下躁动着急于发财的经济过热气浪。发财心切的这位厅长一上台就成立“改

革办”、“开发办”、“中心血站”、“万达公司”、“发展中心”、“生物药品公司”等。提出了他

自己的全新思路:内靠公章,外靠血浆。

内靠公章就是充分发挥河南省卫生厅公章的魅力,大肆发证,目的是收钱。外靠血浆就是大

量单采血浆——采血后仅要血浆,把红血球还给卖血者,把采到的血浆买给制药公司。本文

仅以血浆的发展为主线告诉你一个令人发指的内幕。

据河南省卫生厅一位资深的退休人士说:LXX1993年初的一次卫生系统内部会议上讲:

要大力发展第三产业,大办血站。河南有9000多万人口,80%以上是农民,这7000多万农

民哪怕有1%-3%的人愿意卖血,他们平均每年卖1-2次,我们将这些血液收集起来,买给生

物制品公司,我们就能创造上亿元的价值,同时也算是帮助农民脱贫的一种办法。为什么我

们不能在这方面开阔思路、动动脑筋哪。为官一任,要造福一方。我看办血站是条路子,我

们就在这方面下大力气,抓出成效。要内引外联,将国外资金引进过来,我们国家没有艾滋

病,血液很干净,外国肯定会要。要将社会上的资金联合起来,要动员全社会办血站。要充

分发挥河南人口资源的优势,推动我省卫生系统的改革。

开封首先响应号召,率先办起了血站。河南省卫生厅积极给予肯定并召开了现场会。全省躁

动了,各县防疫站、妇幼保健站的创收血站成立了,乡村血站建成了。军队、物资、煤炭、

工厂等血站成立了,连有些县的政协,人大也加入办血站的队伍,一时间,河南成立了200

多家“合法血站”和数不清的非法血站。

有些血站就是一台小拖拉机上放一个离心机和几个反复使用的胶皮管子和针头。他们抽血进

村,服务上门,现钱交易。全国的生物制药公司都来河南收购血浆。他们有一个共同的目的

——吸取中原农村父老乡亲的血液去换钱。

为了找到更大的买主,LXX亲率卖血代表团于19931994年二次飞抵美国,与美国的几家

血液制品公司谈判卖血案。并要求美国公司在河南设厂当地加工出口,便于运输和躲避海关

不允许血液出口的检查,效益更高。LXX对美公司的诱惑是:河南血源广和集中便于采集、

血液干净没有艾滋病、血源便宜。考虑到河南是中国第二人口大省(当时),他是中国官员

敢于卖血第一人,美国方面专门派专机在美国迎送这位“中国第一大血头”。事后他和他的

随从在许多场合讲美国的专机如何如何,美国如何如何重视。

美国公司后也几次来河南考察。后因美国方投资项目太大,成立后可能要成为副厅级单位,

有可能被省政府或省计经委(当时)接管,超出LXX控制范围,LXX对此失去兴趣而搁浅。

近期,漯河市卫生局一位“要员”反映:LXX从省直卫生系统单位“引进”资金20多万元

和设备,指示自己的妹妹在自己的家乡郾城县建立血站。在原漯河市卫生局局长刘学周(现

为河南省卫生厅副厅长)的支持下,很快发展了西平、上蔡、西华、许昌、太康、尉氏等6

个采血点。由于这是刘家血站,他们无法无天,滥采乱抽,其中还有打骂卖血人员的行为。

例如曾经被有家小报暴光的一个血头声称:你们告到卫生厅我们才不怕哪。

中牟县有位小血头不知深浅,在离尉氏刘家血站不远处偷采血浆,由于找不到买主这位血头

就到河南省中心血站试找买主。结果被LXX安插在该站的亲信撞上。在假装讨价还价摸透对

方底细和地址之后,立功心切的亲信连夜带人查抄该血头的窝点。人脏具获的小血头住进大

牢可能还是不知道自己怎样栽的。该案例又成后期LXX树立打击“血头”整顿血液秩序的政

绩之一。LXX的“大血头”地位是自己闯出来的;而他的“大血霸”地位是奴才们替他打出

来的。

河南省不是发达省份、不靠沿海也不靠边疆,是地地道道的中原腹地,在90年代初,河南

的经济和社会环境不可能发生大面积的因吸毒和卖淫嫖娼现象。中原父老祖祖辈辈老实巴交

的只会在土里抛食。谁会想到河南省卫生厅的一位高官的奇特发财梦能将他们推向死亡的深

渊。

谁要是说商丘卫生局长郑炳钦重用胡万林,是由于他是外行不懂医被别人糊弄的结果,这可

能使了解情况的人相信。要说LXX开始就是要传播艾滋病暗害中原父老,不一定相信。LXX

的问题是:开始是急于发财、利令智昏、盲目自大,认为河南不可能有艾滋病;后来采血站

严重失控和出了问题,害怕自己承担责任和暴露自己刘家血站的内幕,采取捂盖子、欺上满

下、说假话、拖延战术到打击报复举报人等手段,是一个由量变到质变的过程。

19951996年河南基层的医务工作者发现当地有人艾滋病毒阳性,为了证实他们的化验,

他们将结果送到上海、北京、南京和武汉等地。检验的结果是国家的有些专家大吃一惊,河

南已经有了艾滋病而且很严重。当这些专家要到河南实地证实时,没人敢领他们到农村去调

查。

近期,一位医生讲:1995年,他在豫东某市附近的一个物资局和卫生局合办的血站采集10

份卖血人员的血样化验,结果3份艾滋病毒抗体阳性。他将样品送到南方某市复检,证实他

的化验。当他向当地卫生局报告时,卫生局长训斥他说:你怎嫩能,省卫生厅让办血站人家

都是考虑过的,那有艾滋病,你乱说影响咱血站的收入。这位医生说:当时这三个艾滋病毒

阳性的卖血人说他们经常在开封、兰考、柘城、商丘一带卖血,而且是单采血浆。平时这些

血浆卖给了上海的一所大公司。

外地专家要求到河南检测艾滋病的消息使LXX大吃一惊。也是他意识到他的:为官一任、造

福一方;内靠公章、外靠血浆的政策的破产。

院士曾毅来河南,好吃好喝安排,哪怕是你到我办公室拍桌子,就是不让你接触基层;卫生

部让汇报,矢口否认那是谣言;省政府让汇报,别听个别人的猜测,这样影响咱省的经济发

展。周口防疫站的一位大夫不听招呼,胆敢给省外专家提供情报和方便,把他小子的工作和

待遇给我挂起来。

艾滋病的潜伏期帮了LXX的忙;省里高级官员不懂医学使LXX有了可乘之机。由于当时并没

有死人,表面上看不出问题,省里的高官也不希望深究。

近日、据省防疫站两位专家反映:1996年在迫于社会和专家的压力下,河南省卫生厅抽调

自己的”力量,对全省13个县进行了卖血人员艾滋病重点普查,下去普查的人员分为6

个小组,共普查了约10万献血员。为了保证绝密,LXX要求所有参与普查人员不得交换数

据,不得向外界透露消息,每组单独汇报。据参加沈丘县调查的一位人员说:沈丘的数据是

84%艾滋病毒阳性;尉氏、西平、上蔡和太康都很严重,最低的一个县是67%。由于普查的

个别数字还是透露出来,专家们推算当时河南省有不少于10万卖血人员染上了艾滋病毒。

因为河南当时就有近100万人卖血。另外,这两位专家还说:近期凡是为LXX掩盖艾滋病实

情的人员都得到了提拔重用。

对外LXX声称河南个别地方发现了艾滋病,普查显示没有形成流行。他说有些传闻艾滋病感

染率很高,是调查中个别乡村医生不懂标本取样,误将一份阳性标本分成了若干份造成的等

等。专家们反诘说:有没有误将一份阴性标本分成若干份的情况?

据消息可靠人士讲:河南省卫生厅党组会上,围绕这次调查结果的处理展开了一次激烈的争

论。LXX坚持不能将这次调查的数据公布出去,不能上报。其中有位副厅长坚持要上报,为

此,这位副厅长受到批评。我们目前的许多事就是这样,在胳膊拗不过大腿的情况下,往往

一把手表态的事,明知是错误的,但还要执行。

高耀洁是河南中医学院一附院的一位妇产科大夫,退休后开始对性病着手研究。开始她仅仅

是对街头巷尾的性病广告进行调查和呼吁,随着她的调查深入,她发现反对她调查的主要阻

力不是只来自那些欺人骗财的假医,更大的阻力来自她原以为会支持她的政府卫生部门即河

南省卫生厅。这位倔强的老太太,以她那身小的躯体抗挣着她并不知道她要征服的对象是谁。

她频频上书中央领导、省里领导。将自己的见解和看法告诉新闻媒体。用自己微乎其微的退

休金印制宣传材料,看望乡下的艾滋病人,特别是儿童和妇女病人,赢得了社会和媒体的称

赞,她由此获得了“民间防艾第一人”的尊称,许多国内外的报纸、电台和网站给予了报道。

高耀洁的横空杀出打乱了LXX的如意算盘。在社会压力下开始整顿血液市场,他认识到在权

和钱上还是先保权。他幻想趁艾滋病这潜伏期,把血液市场整顿好,将来掩盖几年前在河南

种下的祸根,等全国各省艾滋病多起来时,河南的问题就不那么突出。

高耀洁的乱喊乱叫和大河报、郑州晚报等有些记者的报道,成了LXX迈向更高政坛的噪音。

他暗示手下对高耀洁及其家人进行压制和迫害;通过一定的人际关系将大河报爱放头炮的卫

生记者王熙衡调走。1998年末,有一天LXX听说大河报将要刊登一篇有关河南艾滋病的报

道,立即命令他手下一位与报社有密切关系的姓韩某某,拿八万元将那篇文章在开印前换成

了一副大型广告。他也使用一些不正当手段将河南某些有影响的报纸的卫生口记者调离,这

些记者没有完全觉按照LXX的意图报道艾滋病的情况。

19997月一个深夜,郑州警方在郑州通往开封的途中抓到一伙转移血浆的血贩子。当记

者闻讯赶到时,一位警官告诉记者说:昨晚这几个人全跑了。真的是跑了吗?后经密访,一

位警官悄悄告诉:是一位省公安厅的“要员”打电话叫秘密放人。这伙血贩子共4人,两男

两女,其中一位就是LXX的妹妹。记者立即来到血贩子曾经盘踞的窝点,已经是人去楼空。

转移速度之快不是一般蟊贼能够办到的。记者再次赶到处理此事的派出所,警察告诉说:没

有来得及审讯,他们就都跑了,一点“痕迹”也没留下。

河南农村艾滋病人越来越多,艾滋病传给家属孩子。北京的有些大医院发现:前来就诊的艾

滋病人多数来自河南,尽管有些病人不愿意说出他们的身世,单从口音就能辨别出这是河南

特有的口音,从他们的穿戴上就看出他们是农民。中科院院士曾毅和北京的专家多次给河南

的卫生官员说:要关注本地的艾滋病情况,建立艾滋病防治点。如果可能的话,国家将提供

帮助。LXX的反应是否定的。卫生部主管疾病控制的一位司长在一次非正式的会议上讲:河

南的LXX就会讲空话,假话。他嘴里就是没有实话。

正在LXX为高耀洁和新闻记者伤脑筋时。武汉的桂希恩象一只脚步轻盈的独脚猫进入了中原

腹地。他是应他的学生之邀到河南的上蔡县进行会诊的。简单的,悄悄地河南行程,这位专

家发现了河南农村艾滋病感染率已经高达60%以上。他的文章和资料让北京的高层吃了一

惊,也是河南省卫生厅的官员吓了一跳。

尽管曾毅是院士,他在1995年就开始对河南省的艾滋病情况给予关注。由于当时的社会背

景无法给予这位科学泰斗印证,并没有引起各方面的支持和及时控制这个病魔的蔓延。他当

时只能遗憾的留下:河南是不见棺材不掉泪呀!1999年桂希恩的秘密调查印证了曾毅的推

断。高耀洁的不怕死多次到乡间接触病人和呼吁,媒体开始关注了。

大河报、郑州晚报、城市早报的有些记者愤怒了,他们不点名的大幅刊登了艾滋病的文章,

有的借宣传高耀洁的民间防艾滋病行动隐晦的批评河南省卫生厅的捂盖子行为。LXX通过省

委宣传部给报社施加压力,制止和封杀这方面的消息。记者们开始从外围包围河南。

由于外界的强烈反映,河南省卫生厅在1999年和2000年小规模的派人到乡下摸底。据河南

省防疫站的一位不愿意暴露姓名的人员讲:他在驻马店的上蔡县实地调查抽样,了解到下面

的情况有的比报纸上说的还要严重。这个县的城南卢岗、邵店乡最为严重,有的一家竟死了

3口人。卢岗乡的文楼村曾经被媒体多次暴光。他说邵店乡的情况比卢岗更严重。他举了一

个位于这个乡十离铺村的一位妇女为例,该妇女因为9394年卖血得上艾滋病,最近发烧

发的实在忍受不住上吊自杀了,留下了5岁和2岁的小孩。小孩和小孩的爸爸也是艾滋病毒

阳性。他还举了一个该县卫生局的一位干部曾经开了一个饭店,饭店的一位服务员在体检中

被发现艾滋病阳性,吓的从此没人敢去这个饭店,这个干部为此赔了一大笔钱。当地人讲,

他们的艾滋病是由汝南县传过来的,因为那里卖血和办血站比他们先和早。这位工作人员反

复叮属,千万别说我给你们提供过情况。

据河南省卫生防疫站一位专家透露:河南的艾滋病主要发生在周口、驻马店、信阳、漯河、

开封、商丘、南阳、许昌和平顶山等黄河以南地区,这里的农民比较穷,人口稠密,自然资

源比较贫乏,有些农民急于脱贫,也有些是好吃懒做之人,加上血头的经济利诱,不知深浅

的跳进了死亡的血祸深渊。他估计目前全省感染人群至少有50万以上。更详细的情况不好

说。笔者问他:从地理位置上,这些艾滋病的严重发病地区都发生在了漯河市的不远地区周

围,是否与LXX家的亲戚办的血站有关哪?他鬼秘的闸闸眼睛说:这不会吧。但是,各地血

站普遍泛滥和操作不规范是造成艾滋病在豫南流行的主因。你看豫北的情况不就明白了。

最近,高耀洁发现在对她控制以如既往的情况下,有些官员开始对她的家庭生活热心起来。

她的那个曾见着于报刊一贯受迫害的女儿也被有些官员主动地安排到河南中医学院一附院上

班。湖北的桂希恩教授也接到河南欢迎并资助他搞调查的信息,条件是不能对外公布任何资

料数据,河南卫生部门要买断他的喉舌。

真是几家欢乐几家愁,当年轻的后生们为跟着LXX升官而弹冠相庆时,河南省卫生部门的有

些官员有的因患乙型、丙型肝炎驻进了医院,可能他们自己也说不清他们的病是如何得的,

会不会是曾经用过血液制品的原故。即是他们有证据这是血液制品的危害,他们敢说吗?有

人敢叫他们说吗?省人民医院高干病房的一位护士说:近一年,LXX经常来住院,有时是血

压高,有时是血糖高,经常感冒和无力。有位院长巴结他说:厅长你的机体抵抗力有点低,

输些白蛋白吧。LXX脸色骤变,双手摇摆着,嘴里连声喊到:我不输白蛋白,我不输白蛋白。

真的有神灵在给他们开玩笑吗!

那些老实巴交的农民的死亡开始向人们提示着:艾滋病的潜伏期已经走到头了。媒体的报道

彼露着一个信息:LXX的艾滋病“血痂”就要捂不住了。这位曾是农民养大的孩子,干着伤

害农民的勾当,同时又连带涉及到城市民众的生命安全,究竟这血祸影响到多少人的健康,

可能成了一个悬案。没准大城市的某位达官贵人有一天突然得了艾滋病,他究竟是用过由血

浆制成的品营养品哪,还是因为嫖娼传染上的,谁也说不清。

 

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