HIV in Henan Province: Chinese article “Revealing the “Blood Wound” of the Spread of HIV AIDS in Henan Province

Revealing the "Blood Wound" of the Spread of HIV AIDS in Henan Province
--- Written on the eve of the first AIDS Day of
the New Millennium

By He Aifang

November 28, 2000

(Posted on the  Corruption forum
among the postings of November 28.

[Translation follows]

Ever since 1995 - 1996, the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Henan Province has
alarmed Chinese health experts including the renowned Chinese AIDS
expert Zeng Yi, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
These experts warn in different ways and in different places that the
Henan AIDS epidemic is real and is serious and may well become a
national disaster.  However, Liu Quanxi, the director of the Henan
Provincial Health Department said emphatically at the time, "There is no
HIV/AIDS in Henan Province". Experts say "This is seeing the casket but
shedding no tears".HIV/AIDS has a 5 - 10 year latency period so when the
time comes can the deaths of many, many people be covered up?  Liu
Quanxi seems to think, "Well, when that time comes, it'll be time for me
to retire."Liu seems to think that so long as others do not expose my
secret it'll be all right.  Although the experts predict misfortune and
people really don't want it to come true, around the year
2000 it became clear: Henan Province has about 500,000 - 700,000 people
infected with the HIV virus. There are many more still who have
Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C.In the eastern and southern parts of Henan
Province there are many counties and cities where this year where
strangely enough many tombstones are being erected. Some villages are
already seeing 30 youths and middle aged people dying each year.  This
people have something in common. They all sold blood.

The good natured, simple people of China's central plain never imagined
that HIV/AIDS had anything to do with them. HIV/AIDS, they thought, well
that was a rich people's disease. And they see HIV/AIDS as a disease
that rich people get when they behave in certain ways and don't take
precautions. These people were poor, so when the "blood head" came to
them and said with his sly words, "Lend me some of your blood and I'll
give it right back to you.  I'll give you money to boot!", the farmers
extended their rough-hewn arms worn by years of hard work.
What they were doing in fact was giving away their lives to the Devil.
That needle and knife, that plastic tube for giving blood, that blood
bag, that centrifuge, that blood that all sloshed together, and
especially that process of transfusing blood back into you, that Yama,
the King of Hell,has already dispatched those aggressive little devils
into your body.

The blood heads want whole blood and blood plasma, of course, so they
can sell it to the biological products company and the hospitals in the
city. Those clever Shanghai people with their talent for accounts and
that Wuhan people, known far and wide for their craftiness, could not
have guessed that ever since 1992, Henan Province blood heads have been
selling large quantities of contaminated blood to biological products
companies in Shanghai and Wuhan. Those companies used the blood to make
albumin, globulin, interferon, blood [xiaoban??] factor and other drugs
in a whole line of nourishing drugs that were sold throughout China.
These nourishing drugs not only infected city people with HIV, hepatitis
B, hepatitis C and other diseases but people never even realized what
was happening. To this day, these kinds of blood collection activities
are still going strong underground in Henan.

In 1992, all of China from the top of society to the bottom was caught
up in the "get rich" craze of that overheated economy.That year a new
Henan Health Department head came into office, creating among other
things a "reform office", a "development office", a "central blood
collection station", a "Wanda Co.", a "development center", and a
"biological pharmaceuticals company". He enunciated his new way of
thinking: count on official seals for the interior, and count on selling
blood plasma for the exterior.

Counting on official seals for the interior meant making full use of the
power of the official stamp of the Henan Provincial Department of
Health.Many permits are issued in order to make a lot of money. Counting
on blood plasma for the exterior meant taking only blood plasma from
blood donors. The red blood cells are returned to the donors and the
blood plasma is sold to pharmaceutical companies. This article will
focus mainly on blood plasma collections to tell you an inside story
that will make you want to make accusations against the perpetrators.

A senior Henan Provincial Health Department official, now retired, said
that Liu Quanxi at the beginning of 1993 in a closed internal meeting of
the Henan health agencies said: We need to focus on developing the
service sector so we'll set up many blood collection stations.Henan has
a population of 90 million people, 80 % of whom are farmers. One to
three percent of them would be willing to sell blood. They could do that
once or twice a year.We can collect that blood and sell it to a
biological products company [shengwu zhipin gongsi] . We can create
products worth hundreds of millions of RMB, which at the same time could
be considered to be helping the farmers escape from poverty. Why don't
we put our heads together and think along this new line of thought. An
official should do something to help the people. I believe that setting
up blood collection stations is the way to do it.  We need to work hard
along this line so that we produce results. We need to draw on
both inner resources and make outside contacts as well. We can bring in
foreign capital. China doesn't have HIV and so its blood is very clean
so the foreigners will certainly want it.We need to assemble the capital
and mobilize all of society to set up blood collection stations.We need
to fully bring into play Henan Province's advantages and push for the
reform of the Henan health care system!

Kaifeng was the first to respond to the call by setting up a blood
collection station. The Henan Provincial Department of Health praised it
and even held a special meeting at that blood collection station.The
whole province was energized. The epidemiological stations of the
various counties and the woman and child health protection stations set
up blood collection stations. Blood collection stations were also
established in some townships and villages. Military units, distribution
companies, coal mines, and factories set up blood collection stations as
well.  Some county People's Consultative Congresses and People's
Congresses also get into the act and set up their own blood collection
stations. At one point Henan Province had set up 200 "legal blood
stations" and an unknown number of illegal blood

Some blood stations were composed of just a centrifuge, some plastic
tubes reused many times and some needles carried on a tractor. They
go into the village to draw blood, bringing blood collection services
right to the door and paying on the spot.  Biological products companies
from all over China came to Henan to buy blood plasma. They all shared a
common goal -- to take the blood of the central plateau rural village
country cousins in exchange for money.

In order to find even bigger buyers, Li Quanxi lead blood selling
delegations to the United States in 1993 and 1994.The second time that
he went to the United States, he had negotiations with several U.S.
blood products companies.Liu suggested to the U.S. companies that they
set up plants to do processing in Henan Province to make blood products.
This would be more convenient, would avoid problems with Chinese
Customs, which doesn't allow blood to be exported, and would be more
profitable. Liu Quanxi said to the U.S. companies, "Henan Province has
abundant and concentrated blood supplies. The blood is clean. There
isn't any HIV in Henan Province and the blood is cheap" .Considering
that at
that time Henan was China's second most populous province and that Liu
was the first Chinese official who dared to sell blood, the U.S.
companies arranged for a special plane to transport Liu Quanxi during
his visit to the United States.Later Liu on many occasions told people
in China about that special plane he used in America and how the
Americans treated him like a VIP.

The American companies visited Henan several times to study the
situation. Later,the U.S. companies were thinking of making a very large
investment that would result in the formation of a new unit at the
provincial deputy department head level, and might have been handled by
the Henan Provincial government or the Henan Province Planning
Commission (as it was called at that time). This would have put the
investment into an area, which Liu did not control, so he lost interest
and let the matter slide.

Recently, an important officials in the Luohe City Health Bureau had
this to say: Liu Quanxi set aside 200,000 RMB (USD 25,000) in capital as
well as equipment and then directed his younger sister to set up a blood
station in his own hometown of Yancheng County, Henan.With the support
of the then director of the Luohe Health Bureau Liu Xuezhou (now Vice
Director of the Henan Provincial Health Department) six blood collection
stations were established in Xiping, Shangcai, Xihua, Xuchang, Taikang
and Weishi counties. This six blood collection
stations belong to the Liu family. These stations followed no rules,
they took blood any way they pleased and even beat and cursed some of
the blood donors. For example, as one bloodhead said to a small paper
that had reported on the bloodhead's activities, "You go tell the
Department of Health. I'm not afraid!"

There was a small time bloodhead in Zhongmu County who collected blood
not far from the Liu family blood station in Weishi County. The
bloodhead wasn't finding buyers so he went to the Henan central blood
station to look for a buyer.Liu Quanxi took advantage of the bloodhead's
credulity to out the situation and address of the blood station. Then
the bloodhead trustingly lead a group of people to the blood station.
Even when that bloodhead went into prison he perhaps still didn't know
how he had been caught red-handed.This case became the basis for
the political achievements of Liu Quanxi in the later period of
suppressing the bloodheads.Liu Quanxi made himself a bloodhead. However
the position he achieved as a blood lord is a position his flunkies
created for him.

Henan Province is not developed. It neither lies on the coast nor on the
frontiers. It is the heartland of the central plain. In the early 1990s,
Henan's economic and social environment was such that there wasn't much
drug addiction or prostitution.The farmers of the central plain, like
their fathers and ancestors before them, made a living from the soil.
Whoever would have thought that the dreams of
wealth of a high official of the Henan Provincial Department of Health
would push so many people to these people towards death.

Some people say that Shangqiu Department of Health Director Zheng
Bingyin assigned important tasks to Hu Wanlin was because Zheng didn't
understand medicine and other people got him all confused.That argument
would perhaps convince people who have knowledge of the situation. If
one were to say that Liu Quanxi started out with the intention of
spreading HIV to the people of the central plains, perhaps that would
not be believed.

Liu Quanxi's problem was initially that he was in a rush to make money.
A shot at big bucks weakened his judgment. His ambitions knew no limits.
He believed that there could not possibly be HIV in Henan.Later, when
the collection of blood had gotten seriously out of control, he began to
fear for his own personal responsibility and that the Liu family blood
stations would be exposed.So he decided on a cover up, lying to those
above and suppressing those below, telling lies, and striking in revenge
against whistleblowers. LIu's story is one in which differences in
degree gradually became became fundamental differences.

In 1995 and 1996, grassroots medical workers discovered some people who
were HIV positive. In order to confirm their finding, they sent samples
to Shanghai, Beijing, Nanjing and Wuhan.The test results astounded some
Chinese experts.HIV/AIDS was already very serious in Henan Province.
When these experts want to go to Henan Province to investigate, nobody
dared take them out to the rural villages.

Recently, a physician said:In 1995,  he took blood samples near a blood
collection station sponsored by a transportation company and the local
health bureau near a certain city in eastern Henan.Three out of the ten
samples contained HIV antibodies -- positives.

He sent the samples to another city. Results confirmed. When he reported
the results to the local health bureau, criticized him, saying. "You are
an idiot. When the Health Department gave permission to set up a blood
collection station they thought of everything.It is impossible that
there is HIV. You careless talk will influence the income of our blood
station." The physician said: At this time, the three people who had
tested positive said that they regularly sold blood plasma at blood
stations in theKaifeng, Lankao, Shicheng, and Shangqiu region. Usually
this blood was sold to a big company in Shanghai.

Liu Quanxi was astonished to hear that outside experts wanted to come to
Henan to investigate HIV/AIDS.It was then that he realized the
bankruptcy of his policy: During his time as an official, he was going
to produce benefits for people. For internal matters, rely on the power
of official seals; in external matters, rely on selling blood plasma.

Liu arranged for fine food and drink when the Academician Zeng Yi
visited Henan. No problem with visiting the office, just don't let him
go down to the countryside. The Ministry of Health can collect documents
but rumors can be strenuously denied; the Provincial government can
collect reports but the guesses of individuals should not be given
credit lest they affect the economic development of our province. A
physician at the Zhoukou epidemiological station did not obey this call.
The physician bravely gave information and help to experts from
outside the province. The physician lost both job and income.

The latency period of HIV gave Liu Quanxi a hand. High officials in the
provincial government who didn't understand medicine gave him the
opportunity. Because nobody was dying just then, so it looked like there
was no problem. Moreover, provincial officials just didn't want to look
into the matter.

Recently, two Henan Province epidemiological station experts said: In
1996, under pressure from society and experts, the Henan Provincial
Department of Health mobilized "its own" forces to carry out a study of
HIV that focused on blood sellers in thirteen counties.People who went
out to the countryside to do the study were divided into six groups.They
tested 100,000 people in all. In order to ensure secrecy, Liu Quanxi
ordered that the people who participated in the survey may not exchange
data and may not reveal their results to outsiders. Each group
made its own independent report.A participant in the study of the
Shangqiu blood station said that the data there showed that 84% were HIV
positive.  Weishi, Xiping, Shangcai, and Taikang were also very serious.
The lowest survey among those counties found 67 percent HIV
positive.Since the figures for each study were never released, experts
estimate that at that time in Henan Province there were at least
100,000 people infected with HIV.But Henan at that time had one million
people who were selling blood. Moreover, the two experts said, those
people who helped Liu Quanxi with the coverup all got promoted into good

A reliable source said: The Party organization in the Henan Department
of Health held a stormy debate about the results of this survey.Liu
Quanxi insisted that the results of the survey could not be published
nor could they be reported to higher authorities. A vice director of the
Health Department who insisted that the results be reported was
criticized. Things often happen that way these days. In a situation in
which the ordinary people can?t fight those in power, when someone in
power says they want things done a certain way, even when that it is
wrong we
just carry out the order anyways.

Gao Yaojie

Gao Yaojie is a gynecologist at the Henan Chinese School of Traditional
Medicine Hospital.After she retired, she began doing research on
sexually transmitted diseases.At first she just looked into the STD
advertisements on the street and criticized them. As she got deeper into
her research, she found that the strongest opposition to her work came
not from quack doctors who were cheating people out of their money.Her
biggest opponents turned out to be an organization that she thought
originally thought would support her efforts -- the Henan Provincial
Department of Health.That strong little old lady didn't realize just who
that opponent she was going to conquer was.She frequently wrote letters
to central governmentand provincial leaders. She shared her views with
the news media. She used her small pension to print educational
materials and to go to see AIDS patients in the countryside, especially
women and small children. She won the praise of society and the
media.She won the honorary title of "The Number One Citizen Worker for
HIV Prevention". Many newspapers, television stations and websites in
both China and foreign countries reported on her activities.

Gao Yaojie's personal campaign upset Liu Quanxi's plans. As pressure
from society to clean up the blood market increased, he realized that in
choosing between money and power it is better to hold on to power. He
imagined that he could take advantage of the latent period of HIV, bring
the blood market under control, and hide the seeds of Henan's disaster
that had been planted some years before. Then, when HIV had appeared
throughout the country, Henan's problem would not look so exceptional.

The strenuous calls of Gao Yaojie and the reports of some journalists
that appeared in the Great River News (Dahe Bao), the Zhengzhou Evening
News (Zhengzhou Wanbao) and other newspapers became a background noise
blocking Liu Quanxi's further political advancement.Liu secretly put
pressure and harassment of Gao and her family.Liu used personal
connections to engineer the transfer of Wang Jiheng, the top health
reporter of the Great River News. In late 1998, Liu Quanxi heard that
the Great River News was going to print an article about HIV in Henan
Province.Liu at once ordered a person named Han who had a close
connection to the newspaper company to take 80,000 RMB to the newspaper
company and offer to replace the HIV article with a big advertisement.
Liu also used his influence to get the health reporters of several
influential Henan newspapers transferred. These reporters hadn't been
writing about HIV in just the way that Liu Quanxi wanted.
Late one night in July 1999, Zhengzhou police seized a van carrying
blood plasma to Kaifeng.When journalists got to the scene, a policeman
said that the people in the van had all run away.Did they really run
away? Later, a journalist made an undercover visit and was told in a
whisper by a policeman: "We got a phone call from a "VIP" in the
provincial government who ordered us to secretly let them
go. "There were four blood sellers involved, two men and two women. One
was the younger sister of Liu Quanxi. A journalist went to the site of
the old blood station, but it was already empty.Such a rapid move was
not something that an ordinary crook could manage. The journalist went
back to the police station and was told but a policeman, "We didn't get
a chance to interrogate them. They all ran away. Without a trace."

There is more and more HIV/AIDS in Henan. HIV is being passed along to
children.Some Beijing hospitals discovered:these days most of the people
diagnosed with HIV come from Henan Province.Although some patients don't
want to reveal their identity, they are identifiable from their Henan
accent. Their clothing shows them to be country people.Professor Zeng Yi
of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing experts have said many
times to Henan Health Department officials: Pay close attention to the
HIV/AIDS situation and set up HIV/AIDS prevention stations.If necessary,
the central government will provide assistance. Liu Quanxi response has
been negative. A director responsible for disease control at the Chinese
Ministry of Health in an informal meeting said: Liu Quanxi of Henan
Province speaks empty, false words. No truth comes out of his mouth.

Just as Gao Yaojie and some journalists were giving Liu Quanxi a hard
time, Gui Xien like a cat slunk into the heart of the central plains.He
went to Henan to see patients at the request of his student in Shangcai
County. During a simple and unannounced visit to Henan, this expert
discovered that the rate of HIV infection in Henan villages had already
exceeded 60 percent.His report astonished people at high levels in
Beijing and scared the Henan Health Department as well.

Academician Zeng Yi began to watch the HIV situation in Henan from 1995
onwards. However the social situation at that time did not allow that
scholar to get the support that would have been needed from all quarters
to stop the spread of HIV in time. He could only sigh, "Henan see the
casket but doesn't shed tears!" Gui Xien's 1999 report confirmed Zeng
Yi's deductions.Gao Yaojie, fearlessly went several times to the
countryside to see sick people and to draw attention to the problem. The
media began to pay attention to the problem.

Some of the journalists at the Great River News, the Zhengzhou Evening
News and the City Morning News (Chengshi Zaobao) were angry.They
anonymously printed articles about HIV. While reporting on Gao Yaojie's
visits to people in the countryside, they wrote veiled criticism of the
Henan Provincial Department of Health.Liu Quanxi, through the Provincial
Propaganda Department, put pressure on the newspapers and put a stop to
that kind of reporting. The journalists then began "surrounding Henan
from the exterior" [Note: by placing articles
about Henan in papers in other provinces. end note].

Intense attention from the outside forced the Henan Health Department to
send people to the countryside during 1999 and 2000 to determine what
the actual situation was. According to an official at the Henan Province
Epidemiological Station official who asked to remain anonymous, he did a
sampling survey at Shangcai County in the Zhumadian region and
discovered that the situation was even more serious than had been
reported in the newspapers.Luo Gang and Zhaodiangxiang, both to the
south of the county seat, were the most serious. Three people had died
in one household. The situation in Wenlou Village in Luogangxiang was
reported several times in the media.He said that Zhaodianxiang is more
serious that Wenlou Village. He mentioned a woman in Lipu Village who
developed an unbearable fever and so hung herself. She had been infected
with HIV when she sold blood in 1993 and 1994. She left behind two
children aged two and five. Both the two children and their father have
HIV.  He also mentioned that a Shangcai County health official opened a
restaurant but when it turned out that one of the waiters had
HIV, nobody ever dared to go to that restaurant again. The official lost
a large sum of money as a result.People in the area say that HIV came
from Ronan County since a blood station was set up there before
Shangcai. The official strongly insisted that I should never say whom I
got the information from.

According to an expert at the Henan Health Department Epidemiological
Station, HIV in Henan is concentrated in regions south of the Yellow
River such as Zhoukou, Zhumadian, Xinyang, Luohe, Kaifeng, Shanqiu,
Nanyang, Xuchang and Pingdingshan.The farmers there are relatively poor,
the population is dense and there are relatively few natural
resources.Some farmers eager to escape poverty along with some lazy
people fall for the economic enticements of the bloodheads.

They don't know what they are doing and lose their lives to the blood
disaster.  The expert estimates that now over 500,000 people are
infected with HIV in Henan Province, but it is difficult to get a more
precise idea than that. That area with very serious HIV is situated
around Luohe where the Liu family set up its blood stations. Is there a
connection? He gave the journalist a mysterious wink of an eye and said,
"No, that couldn't be." Nevertheless, the every reckless operation of
the many blood stations in southern Henan is the main reason for the
spread of HIV there.  When you consider that HIV is not as common in
northern Henan, you understand.

Recently, Gao Yaojie has noticed that why controls on her remain, some
officials are taking a more friendly interest in her family life.Her
daughter who has continually harassed at a newspaper but some officials
took the initiative to arrange a job for her at the hospital of the
Henan School of Traditional Chinese Medicine.Professor Gui Xien of Hubei
University has also been informed that he is welcome in Hunan and will
be supported in his investigations.

The condition for the support is that Gui not reveal his result to
outsiders. The Henan Province health departments want to buy his tongue.

While it is true that some families are happy and others have worries.
Some officials of the Henan Provincial Department of Health who have
spent a good chunk of youth and later life rising in officialdom
together with Liu Quanxi are coming down with hepatitis B and hepatitis
C and ending up in the hospital.Perhaps they don't even know themselves
how they got their illnesses. Could it have been from blood
products?Even if they know that blood products harmed them, do they dare
say so? Is there anyone who dares to tell them to speak up?A sickroom
in the Henan Provincial People's Hospital for senior cadres said: This
year, Liu Quanxi often came to the hospital. Sometimes it was high blood
pressure. Other times it was high blood sugar. He often had a cold and
felt weak. One hospital director flattered him saying, "Department head,
your resistance is getting a bit weak, we should transfuse some blood
proteins into you."Liu Quanxi turned pale, waved his
hands and shouted, "Don't transfuse me with blood proteins! Don't
transfuse me with blood proteins! "Really, it is as if God is playing a
joke on them.

The beginning of the deaths of those honest farmers is a sign. The end
of the HIV latent period has come.The media reports reveal the news. Liu
Quanxi's "blood wound"  can no longer be hidden. This child of a farmer
harmed many farmers and at the same time put the lives of many city
people in danger as well. Just how many people were affected by this
blood disaster is still an unsettled issue.Perhaps it will come to pass
that a high official gets HIV. Maybe it will be from nourishment
products made from blood plasma or from a prostitute. It will be hard to
say.That such an idiot has sole responsibility for the public health of
the people of China's most populous province, it is strange to think
about just what it means to say that the health of the rural and city
people is being protected. Strange, strange indeed.


That hundreds of thousands of paid blood donors in Henan Province have
HIV has been a dark secret for at least the past five years. The article
below now circulates among Chinese experts in Henan Province and Chinese
patriots elsewhere who can see clearly the disaster that now threatens
their country. Just as the line goes in the wartime anthem, the "Song of
the Volunteers", the Chinese people are at the most dangerous moment
[Zhonghua minzu dao zui weixiande shike]. Some Chinese experts who have
known this story for years but have had to keep quiet are pleased that
this story is out. They agree that this story is accurate but it is not
the complete story.

Just as the press reports on HIV among blood donors first focused on the
widespread HIV infections among blood donors in Shangcai County in
central Henan, and have now widened to report that no, Shangcai is
unfortunately not an isolated case but all too typical. Yet the problem
is not confined to Henan. The problem of paid blood donors and
underground blood collection centers, as the Chinese press occasionally
reports, is serious in Shanxi, Hubei, Hebei and other provinces. Paid
blood donations and bloodheads also work in Beijing and Shanghai even if
the problem seems to be worse in the interior provinces. Southern
Weekend in October 2000 for example discussed the legion of 4000 paid
blood donors in the impoverished Dingxi region of Gansu Province. Some
of this blood from donors with high rates of hepatitis and other blood
borne diseases was sold to a blood products company in Lanzhou.There the
blood is made into various blood protein products sold in China as well
as to developing countries (the US FDA does not permit the importation
of Chinese blood products into the USA). The spread of HIV among
blood donors and especially blood plasma donors seems to be driven by
the high prices that biological products companies (some connected with
the Chinese military) pay for blood plasma and their willingness to
procure it illegally if need be.

On one level this article can be seen as a poison pen attack on the
director of the Henan Province Health Department. The anger the author
feels for the Health Department and its leaders role in the spread of
HIV and the subsequent cover-up is apparent.  Yet poison pen letters can
be true, and some Henan activists familiar with the situation vouch for
the authenticity of this article. Restrictions on the speech of some of
these activists such as Zhengzhou physician and HIV campaigner Gao
Yaojie remain although she is now praised in the official press for
drawing attention to HIV in Henan. Dr. Gao came to Beijing for a public
conference on HIV on January 8th and 9th but the authorities do not
permit her to speak. The problem is bigger than one province and bigger
than the alleged misdeeds of any one official. The Chinese government
has a well-thought out HIV strategy but getting it implemented in the
provinces is very difficult. The Ministry of Health has excellent
dedicated people working on the problem but the Ministry has only
several hundred people and just a few people working on contagious
disease policy.One theme of the article is that officials in Beijing
knew about the problem in Henan Province, very much wanted to stop it
but were unable to do so. Why? China sometimes to be not so much a
country of Big Brother but of many little brothers (some well meaning,
others not) who don?t pay much attention to each other.

China's HIV problem breaks down into management components that can be
addressed by the government such as blood collection and donation
irregularities and the spread of disease due to substandard medical
practice (also called iaotrogenic disease).  Both are very serious in
China. In fact dirty needles (the rule rather than the exception in much
of rural China, especially in the interior provinces) spread hepatitis
to ten percent of China?s people but are even higher -- near 20 percent
in the interior. Indeed, now that China seems to be on the verge of
admitting to the big problem in Henan Province, perhaps the first place
to start with strict management of medical practice to ensure safe
medical practice and no medical transmission of disease would be those
AIDS villages in Henan.  So many people have HIV there, the chances of
it spreading further must be quite high.

Now the chance of getting HIV from a dirty needle is small each time but
not if you are getting regular frequent dirty needle injections. Both
the problems of blood donation and collection and the spread of disease
by substandard medical care can be addressed by government.Other cause
of HIV spread related to behaviors such as intravenous drug injection
and prostitution can be addressed through behavioral interventions which
would take much longer.

The Chinese government in December announced a crackdown on illegal
blood collections and sales in violation of December 1996 Ministry of
Health regulations on blood collection procedures and the October 1998
law that outlawed paid blood donations.An early January press report
discussed a crackdown in Chongqing where five blood plasma collection
stations were closed and the biological products company that bought the
blood plasma is under investigation.








































































































































































































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