翻译:(2000年)爱滋病在中原大地肆虐 写在新千年的第一个艾滋病日前夕 揭开河南省传播艾滋病的“血痂” 笔者:何爱芳

爱滋病在中原大地肆虐

写在新千年的第一个艾滋病日前夕

揭开河南省传播艾滋病的“血痂”

笔者:何爱芳

9596年以来,河南省艾滋病的流行一直是引起国内卫生界有关专家人士警惕和关注的

焦点,包括中国科学院院士我国最著名的艾滋病专家曾毅在内的许多专家,在不同场合以不

同方式表达着这样的警报:河南艾滋病流行情况是真实的、是严重的,有可能演变成国难。

可是,河南省卫生厅长LXX当时拍着胸脯说:河南没有艾滋病。专家们说:他这是不见棺材

不掉泪,艾滋病是有5-10潜伏期的,到时候大量死人他还能捂住吗?专家的预言尽管是不

幸的,是人们不愿意看到的,但是进入2000年后它开始兑现了:河南省目前有50-70万艾

滋病毒携带者,乙肝、丙肝的病人更多。豫东南的许多县市农村,今年莫名其妙地添起了许

多坟头,有些村竟一年之内有近30位青、中年人死亡,这些人有个共同的特点——卖过血。

善良朴实的中原农民怎么也没有想到艾滋病会与他们有关,那可是有钱人行为不检点得的不

治之症。由于贫穷的原因,在“血头”们“借点血当即还你,又给你钱”的花言巧语下,忠

厚的农民伸出了常年劳作的粗壮的手臂,其实也是将自己的生命伸给了魔鬼。这针头剪刀,

这抽血的塑料管和血袋、这离心机、这兑到一起的血液、特别是这还输你的血液,已经含带

了阎王派遣的催命小鬼进入你的体内。

血头”们要血液和血浆干什么,当然是买给城里的生物制药公司和医院。精明和善于算计

的上海人和天下以“九头鸟”著称的武汉人不会想到,自1992年以来,河南的血头就是将

这些大量的污染的血液买给了上海和武汉的生物制药公司,制成了白蛋白、球蛋白、干扰素、

血小板因子等一系列营养药后,卖向全国。这些营养药是不是又使城里人染上了艾滋病、乙

肝、丙肝等其他疾病,不得而知(可以知道,但不给报导)。这种地下卖血活动至今还在河

南地下涌动着。

1992年全国上下躁动着急于发财的经济过热气浪。发财心切的这位厅长一上台就成立“改

革办”、“开发办”、“中心血站”、“万达公司”、“发展中心”、“生物药品公司”等。提出了他

自己的全新思路:内靠公章,外靠血浆。

内靠公章就是充分发挥河南省卫生厅公章的魅力,大肆发证,目的是收钱。外靠血浆就是大

量单采血浆——采血后仅要血浆,把红血球还给卖血者,把采到的血浆买给制药公司。本文

仅以血浆的发展为主线告诉你一个令人发指的内幕。

据河南省卫生厅一位资深的退休人士说:LXX1993年初的一次卫生系统内部会议上讲:

要大力发展第三产业,大办血站。河南有9000多万人口,80%以上是农民,这7000多万农

民哪怕有1%-3%的人愿意卖血,他们平均每年卖1-2次,我们将这些血液收集起来,买给生

物制品公司,我们就能创造上亿元的价值,同时也算是帮助农民脱贫的一种办法。为什么我

们不能在这方面开阔思路、动动脑筋哪。为官一任,要造福一方。我看办血站是条路子,我

们就在这方面下大力气,抓出成效。要内引外联,将国外资金引进过来,我们国家没有艾滋

病,血液很干净,外国肯定会要。要将社会上的资金联合起来,要动员全社会办血站。要充

分发挥河南人口资源的优势,推动我省卫生系统的改革。

开封首先响应号召,率先办起了血站。河南省卫生厅积极给予肯定并召开了现场会。全省躁

动了,各县防疫站、妇幼保健站的创收血站成立了,乡村血站建成了。军队、物资、煤炭、

工厂等血站成立了,连有些县的政协,人大也加入办血站的队伍,一时间,河南成立了200

多家“合法血站”和数不清的非法血站。

有些血站就是一台小拖拉机上放一个离心机和几个反复使用的胶皮管子和针头。他们抽血进

村,服务上门,现钱交易。全国的生物制药公司都来河南收购血浆。他们有一个共同的目的

——吸取中原农村父老乡亲的血液去换钱。

为了找到更大的买主,LXX亲率卖血代表团于19931994年二次飞抵美国,与美国的几家

血液制品公司谈判卖血案。并要求美国公司在河南设厂当地加工出口,便于运输和躲避海关

不允许血液出口的检查,效益更高。LXX对美公司的诱惑是:河南血源广和集中便于采集、

血液干净没有艾滋病、血源便宜。考虑到河南是中国第二人口大省(当时),他是中国官员

敢于卖血第一人,美国方面专门派专机在美国迎送这位“中国第一大血头”。事后他和他的

随从在许多场合讲美国的专机如何如何,美国如何如何重视。

美国公司后也几次来河南考察。后因美国方投资项目太大,成立后可能要成为副厅级单位,

有可能被省政府或省计经委(当时)接管,超出LXX控制范围,LXX对此失去兴趣而搁浅。

近期,漯河市卫生局一位“要员”反映:LXX从省直卫生系统单位“引进”资金20多万元

和设备,指示自己的妹妹在自己的家乡郾城县建立血站。在原漯河市卫生局局长刘学周(现

为河南省卫生厅副厅长)的支持下,很快发展了西平、上蔡、西华、许昌、太康、尉氏等6

个采血点。由于这是刘家血站,他们无法无天,滥采乱抽,其中还有打骂卖血人员的行为。

例如曾经被有家小报暴光的一个血头声称:你们告到卫生厅我们才不怕哪。

中牟县有位小血头不知深浅,在离尉氏刘家血站不远处偷采血浆,由于找不到买主这位血头

就到河南省中心血站试找买主。结果被LXX安插在该站的亲信撞上。在假装讨价还价摸透对

方底细和地址之后,立功心切的亲信连夜带人查抄该血头的窝点。人脏具获的小血头住进大

牢可能还是不知道自己怎样栽的。该案例又成后期LXX树立打击“血头”整顿血液秩序的政

绩之一。LXX的“大血头”地位是自己闯出来的;而他的“大血霸”地位是奴才们替他打出

来的。

河南省不是发达省份、不靠沿海也不靠边疆,是地地道道的中原腹地,在90年代初,河南

的经济和社会环境不可能发生大面积的因吸毒和卖淫嫖娼现象。中原父老祖祖辈辈老实巴交

的只会在土里抛食。谁会想到河南省卫生厅的一位高官的奇特发财梦能将他们推向死亡的深

渊。

谁要是说商丘卫生局长郑炳钦重用胡万林,是由于他是外行不懂医被别人糊弄的结果,这可

能使了解情况的人相信。要说LXX开始就是要传播艾滋病暗害中原父老,不一定相信。LXX

的问题是:开始是急于发财、利令智昏、盲目自大,认为河南不可能有艾滋病;后来采血站

严重失控和出了问题,害怕自己承担责任和暴露自己刘家血站的内幕,采取捂盖子、欺上满

下、说假话、拖延战术到打击报复举报人等手段,是一个由量变到质变的过程。

19951996年河南基层的医务工作者发现当地有人艾滋病毒阳性,为了证实他们的化验,

他们将结果送到上海、北京、南京和武汉等地。检验的结果是国家的有些专家大吃一惊,河

南已经有了艾滋病而且很严重。当这些专家要到河南实地证实时,没人敢领他们到农村去调

查。

近期,一位医生讲:1995年,他在豫东某市附近的一个物资局和卫生局合办的血站采集10

份卖血人员的血样化验,结果3份艾滋病毒抗体阳性。他将样品送到南方某市复检,证实他

的化验。当他向当地卫生局报告时,卫生局长训斥他说:你怎嫩能,省卫生厅让办血站人家

都是考虑过的,那有艾滋病,你乱说影响咱血站的收入。这位医生说:当时这三个艾滋病毒

阳性的卖血人说他们经常在开封、兰考、柘城、商丘一带卖血,而且是单采血浆。平时这些

血浆卖给了上海的一所大公司。

外地专家要求到河南检测艾滋病的消息使LXX大吃一惊。也是他意识到他的:为官一任、造

福一方;内靠公章、外靠血浆的政策的破产。

院士曾毅来河南,好吃好喝安排,哪怕是你到我办公室拍桌子,就是不让你接触基层;卫生

部让汇报,矢口否认那是谣言;省政府让汇报,别听个别人的猜测,这样影响咱省的经济发

展。周口防疫站的一位大夫不听招呼,胆敢给省外专家提供情报和方便,把他小子的工作和

待遇给我挂起来。

艾滋病的潜伏期帮了LXX的忙;省里高级官员不懂医学使LXX有了可乘之机。由于当时并没

有死人,表面上看不出问题,省里的高官也不希望深究。

近日、据省防疫站两位专家反映:1996年在迫于社会和专家的压力下,河南省卫生厅抽调

自己的”力量,对全省13个县进行了卖血人员艾滋病重点普查,下去普查的人员分为6

个小组,共普查了约10万献血员。为了保证绝密,LXX要求所有参与普查人员不得交换数

据,不得向外界透露消息,每组单独汇报。据参加沈丘县调查的一位人员说:沈丘的数据是

84%艾滋病毒阳性;尉氏、西平、上蔡和太康都很严重,最低的一个县是67%。由于普查的

个别数字还是透露出来,专家们推算当时河南省有不少于10万卖血人员染上了艾滋病毒。

因为河南当时就有近100万人卖血。另外,这两位专家还说:近期凡是为LXX掩盖艾滋病实

情的人员都得到了提拔重用。

对外LXX声称河南个别地方发现了艾滋病,普查显示没有形成流行。他说有些传闻艾滋病感

染率很高,是调查中个别乡村医生不懂标本取样,误将一份阳性标本分成了若干份造成的等

等。专家们反诘说:有没有误将一份阴性标本分成若干份的情况?

据消息可靠人士讲:河南省卫生厅党组会上,围绕这次调查结果的处理展开了一次激烈的争

论。LXX坚持不能将这次调查的数据公布出去,不能上报。其中有位副厅长坚持要上报,为

此,这位副厅长受到批评。我们目前的许多事就是这样,在胳膊拗不过大腿的情况下,往往

一把手表态的事,明知是错误的,但还要执行。

高耀洁是河南中医学院一附院的一位妇产科大夫,退休后开始对性病着手研究。开始她仅仅

是对街头巷尾的性病广告进行调查和呼吁,随着她的调查深入,她发现反对她调查的主要阻

力不是只来自那些欺人骗财的假医,更大的阻力来自她原以为会支持她的政府卫生部门即河

南省卫生厅。这位倔强的老太太,以她那身小的躯体抗挣着她并不知道她要征服的对象是谁。

她频频上书中央领导、省里领导。将自己的见解和看法告诉新闻媒体。用自己微乎其微的退

休金印制宣传材料,看望乡下的艾滋病人,特别是儿童和妇女病人,赢得了社会和媒体的称

赞,她由此获得了“民间防艾第一人”的尊称,许多国内外的报纸、电台和网站给予了报道。

高耀洁的横空杀出打乱了LXX的如意算盘。在社会压力下开始整顿血液市场,他认识到在权

和钱上还是先保权。他幻想趁艾滋病这潜伏期,把血液市场整顿好,将来掩盖几年前在河南

种下的祸根,等全国各省艾滋病多起来时,河南的问题就不那么突出。

高耀洁的乱喊乱叫和大河报、郑州晚报等有些记者的报道,成了LXX迈向更高政坛的噪音。

他暗示手下对高耀洁及其家人进行压制和迫害;通过一定的人际关系将大河报爱放头炮的卫

生记者王熙衡调走。1998年末,有一天LXX听说大河报将要刊登一篇有关河南艾滋病的报

道,立即命令他手下一位与报社有密切关系的姓韩某某,拿八万元将那篇文章在开印前换成

了一副大型广告。他也使用一些不正当手段将河南某些有影响的报纸的卫生口记者调离,这

些记者没有完全觉按照LXX的意图报道艾滋病的情况。

19997月一个深夜,郑州警方在郑州通往开封的途中抓到一伙转移血浆的血贩子。当记

者闻讯赶到时,一位警官告诉记者说:昨晚这几个人全跑了。真的是跑了吗?后经密访,一

位警官悄悄告诉:是一位省公安厅的“要员”打电话叫秘密放人。这伙血贩子共4人,两男

两女,其中一位就是LXX的妹妹。记者立即来到血贩子曾经盘踞的窝点,已经是人去楼空。

转移速度之快不是一般蟊贼能够办到的。记者再次赶到处理此事的派出所,警察告诉说:没

有来得及审讯,他们就都跑了,一点“痕迹”也没留下。

河南农村艾滋病人越来越多,艾滋病传给家属孩子。北京的有些大医院发现:前来就诊的艾

滋病人多数来自河南,尽管有些病人不愿意说出他们的身世,单从口音就能辨别出这是河南

特有的口音,从他们的穿戴上就看出他们是农民。中科院院士曾毅和北京的专家多次给河南

的卫生官员说:要关注本地的艾滋病情况,建立艾滋病防治点。如果可能的话,国家将提供

帮助。LXX的反应是否定的。卫生部主管疾病控制的一位司长在一次非正式的会议上讲:河

南的LXX就会讲空话,假话。他嘴里就是没有实话。

正在LXX为高耀洁和新闻记者伤脑筋时。武汉的桂希恩象一只脚步轻盈的独脚猫进入了中原

腹地。他是应他的学生之邀到河南的上蔡县进行会诊的。简单的,悄悄地河南行程,这位专

家发现了河南农村艾滋病感染率已经高达60%以上。他的文章和资料让北京的高层吃了一

惊,也是河南省卫生厅的官员吓了一跳。

尽管曾毅是院士,他在1995年就开始对河南省的艾滋病情况给予关注。由于当时的社会背

景无法给予这位科学泰斗印证,并没有引起各方面的支持和及时控制这个病魔的蔓延。他当

时只能遗憾的留下:河南是不见棺材不掉泪呀!1999年桂希恩的秘密调查印证了曾毅的推

断。高耀洁的不怕死多次到乡间接触病人和呼吁,媒体开始关注了。

大河报、郑州晚报、城市早报的有些记者愤怒了,他们不点名的大幅刊登了艾滋病的文章,

有的借宣传高耀洁的民间防艾滋病行动隐晦的批评河南省卫生厅的捂盖子行为。LXX通过省

委宣传部给报社施加压力,制止和封杀这方面的消息。记者们开始从外围包围河南。

由于外界的强烈反映,河南省卫生厅在1999年和2000年小规模的派人到乡下摸底。据河南

省防疫站的一位不愿意暴露姓名的人员讲:他在驻马店的上蔡县实地调查抽样,了解到下面

的情况有的比报纸上说的还要严重。这个县的城南卢岗、邵店乡最为严重,有的一家竟死了

3口人。卢岗乡的文楼村曾经被媒体多次暴光。他说邵店乡的情况比卢岗更严重。他举了一

个位于这个乡十离铺村的一位妇女为例,该妇女因为9394年卖血得上艾滋病,最近发烧

发的实在忍受不住上吊自杀了,留下了5岁和2岁的小孩。小孩和小孩的爸爸也是艾滋病毒

阳性。他还举了一个该县卫生局的一位干部曾经开了一个饭店,饭店的一位服务员在体检中

被发现艾滋病阳性,吓的从此没人敢去这个饭店,这个干部为此赔了一大笔钱。当地人讲,

他们的艾滋病是由汝南县传过来的,因为那里卖血和办血站比他们先和早。这位工作人员反

复叮属,千万别说我给你们提供过情况。

据河南省卫生防疫站一位专家透露:河南的艾滋病主要发生在周口、驻马店、信阳、漯河、

开封、商丘、南阳、许昌和平顶山等黄河以南地区,这里的农民比较穷,人口稠密,自然资

源比较贫乏,有些农民急于脱贫,也有些是好吃懒做之人,加上血头的经济利诱,不知深浅

的跳进了死亡的血祸深渊。他估计目前全省感染人群至少有50万以上。更详细的情况不好

说。笔者问他:从地理位置上,这些艾滋病的严重发病地区都发生在了漯河市的不远地区周

围,是否与LXX家的亲戚办的血站有关哪?他鬼秘的闸闸眼睛说:这不会吧。但是,各地血

站普遍泛滥和操作不规范是造成艾滋病在豫南流行的主因。你看豫北的情况不就明白了。

最近,高耀洁发现在对她控制以如既往的情况下,有些官员开始对她的家庭生活热心起来。

她的那个曾见着于报刊一贯受迫害的女儿也被有些官员主动地安排到河南中医学院一附院上

班。湖北的桂希恩教授也接到河南欢迎并资助他搞调查的信息,条件是不能对外公布任何资

料数据,河南卫生部门要买断他的喉舌。

真是几家欢乐几家愁,当年轻的后生们为跟着LXX升官而弹冠相庆时,河南省卫生部门的有

些官员有的因患乙型、丙型肝炎驻进了医院,可能他们自己也说不清他们的病是如何得的,

会不会是曾经用过血液制品的原故。即是他们有证据这是血液制品的危害,他们敢说吗?有

人敢叫他们说吗?省人民医院高干病房的一位护士说:近一年,LXX经常来住院,有时是血

压高,有时是血糖高,经常感冒和无力。有位院长巴结他说:厅长你的机体抵抗力有点低,

输些白蛋白吧。LXX脸色骤变,双手摇摆着,嘴里连声喊到:我不输白蛋白,我不输白蛋白。

真的有神灵在给他们开玩笑吗!

那些老实巴交的农民的死亡开始向人们提示着:艾滋病的潜伏期已经走到头了。媒体的报道

彼露着一个信息:LXX的艾滋病“血痂”就要捂不住了。这位曾是农民养大的孩子,干着伤

害农民的勾当,同时又连带涉及到城市民众的生命安全,究竟这血祸影响到多少人的健康,

可能成了一个悬案。没准大城市的某位达官贵人有一天突然得了艾滋病,他究竟是用过由血

浆制成的品营养品哪,还是因为嫖娼传染上的,谁也说不清。

Revealing “Blood Wound” of Spread of HIV AIDS in Henan Province —

Written on the eve of the first AIDS Day of the New Millennium

By He Aifang

November 28, 2000

[Original in Chinese language. ]

Ever since 1995 – 1996, the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Henan Province has

alarmed Chinese health experts including the renowned Chinese AIDS expert

Zeng Yi, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. These experts

warn in different ways and in different places that the Henan AIDS

epidemic is real and is serious and may well become a national disaster.

However, Liu Quanxi, the director of the Henan Provincial Health

Department said emphatically at the time, “There is no HIV/AIDS in Henan

Province”. Experts say “This is seeing the casket but shedding no

tears”.HIV/AIDS has a 5 – 10 year latency period so when the time comes

can the deaths of many, many people be covered up? Liu Quanxi seems to

think, “Well, when that time comes, it’ll be time for me to retire.”Liu

seems to think that so long as others do not expose my secret it’ll be all

right. Although the experts predict misfortune and people really don’t

want it to come true, around the year 2000 it became clear: Henan Province

has about 500,000 – 700 000 people infected with the HIV virus. There are

many more still who have Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C.In the eastern and

southern parts of Henan Province there are many counties and cities where

this year where strangely enough many tombstones are being erected. Some

villages are already seeing 30 youths and middle aged people dying each

year. This people have something in common. They all sold blood.

The good natured, simple people of China’s central plain never imagined

that HIV/AIDS had anything to do with them. HIV/AIDS, they thought, well

that was a rich people’s disease. And they see HIV/AIDS as a disease that

rich people get when they behave in certain ways and don’t take

precautions. These people were poor, so when the “blood head” came to them

and said with his sly words, “Lend me some of your blood and I’ll give it

right back to you. I’ll give you money to boot!”, the farmers extended

their rough-hewn arms worn by years of hard work. What they were doing in

fact was giving away their lives to the Devil. That needle and knife,

that plastic tube for giving blood, that blood bag, that centrifuge, that

blood that all sloshed together, and especially that process of

transfusing blood back into you, that Yama, the King of Hell,has already

dispatched those aggressive little devils into your body.

The blood heads want whole blood and blood plasma, of course, so they can

sell it to the biological products company and the hospitals in the city.

Those clever Shanghai people with their talent for accounts and that Wuhan

people, known far and wide for their craftiness, could not have guessed

that ever since 1992, Henan Province blood heads have been selling large

quantities of contaminated blood to biological products companies in

Shanghai and Wuhan. Those companies used the blood to make albumin,

globulin, interferon, platelets and other drugs in a whole line of

nourishing drugs that were sold throughout China.These nourishing drugs

not only infected city people with HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and other

diseases but people never even realized what was happening.To this day,

these kinds of blood collection activities are still going strong

underground in Henan.

In 1992, all of China from the top of society to the bottom was caught up

in the “get rich” craze of that overheated economy.That year a new Henan

Health Department head came into office, creating among other things a

“reform office”, a “development office”, a “central blood collection

station”, a “Wanda Co.”, a “development center”, and a “biological

pharmaceuticals company”.He enunciated his new way of thinking: count on

official seals for the interior, and count on selling blood plasma for the

exterior.

Counting on official seals for the interior meant making full use of the

power of the official stamp of the Henan Provincial Department of

Health.Many permits are issued in order to make a lot of money. Counting

on blood plasma for the exterior meant taking only blood plasma from blood

donors. The red blood cells are returned to the donors and the blood

plasma is sold to pharmaceutical companies. This article will focus mainly

on blood plasma collections to tell you an inside story that will make you

want to make accusations against the perpetrators.

A senior Henan Provincial Health Department official, now retired, said

that Liu Quanxi at the beginning of 1993 in a closed internal meeting of

the Henan health agencies said: We need to focus on developing the service

sector so we’ll set up many blood collection stations.Henan has a

population of 90 million people, 80 % of whom are farmers. One to three

percent of them would be willing to sell blood. They could do that once or

twice a year.We can collect that blood and sell it to a biological

products company [shengwu zhipin gongsi] . We can create products worth

hundreds of millions of RMB, which at the same time could be considered to

be helping the farmers escape from poverty. Why don’t we put our heads

together and think along this new line of thought.An official should do

something to help the people. I believe that setting up blood collection

stations is the way to do it. We need to work hard along this line so

that we produce results. We need to draw on both inner resources and make

outside contacts as well. We can bring in foreign capital. China doesn’t

have HIV and so its blood is very clean so the foreigners will certainly

want it.We need to assemble the capital and mobilize all of society to set

up blood collection stations.We need to fully bring into play Henan

Province’s advantages and push for the reform of the Henan health care

system!

Kaifeng was the first to respond to the call by setting up a blood

collection station. The Henan Provincial Department of Health praised it

and even held a special meeting at that blood collection station.The whole

province was energized. The epidemiological stations of the various

counties and the woman and child health protection stations set up blood

collection stations. Blood collection stations were also established in

some townships and villages.Military units, distribution companies, coal

mines, and factories set up blood collection stations as well.Some county

People’s Consultative Congresses and People’s Congresses also get into the

act and set up their own blood collection stations.At one point Henan

Province had set up 200 “legal blood stations” and an unknown number of

illegal blood stations.

Some blood stations were composed of just a centrifuge, some plastic tubes

reused many times and some needles carried on a tractor.They would go into

the village to draw blood, bringing blood collection services right to the

door and paying on the spot. Biological products companies from all over

China came to Henan to buy blood plasma.They all shared a common goal —

to take the blood of the central plateau rural village country cousins in

exchange for money.

In order to find even bigger buyers, Li Quanxi lead blood selling

delegations to the United States in 1993 and 1994.The second time that he

went to the United States, he had negotiations with several U.S. blood

products companies.Liu suggested to the U.S. companies that they set up

plants to do processing in Henan Province to make blood products. This

would be more convenient, would avoid problems with Chinese Customs, which

doesn’t allow blood to be exported, and would be more profitable.Liu

Quanxi said to the U.S. companies, “Henan Province has abundant and

concentrated blood supplies. The blood is clean. There isn’t any HIV in

Henan Province and the blood is cheap” .Considering that at that time

Henan was China’s second most populous province and that Liu was the first

Chinese official who dared to sell blood, the U.S. companies arranged for

a special plane to transport Liu Quanxi during his visit to the United

States. Later Liu on many occasions told people in China about that

special plane he used in America and how the Americans treated him like a

VIP.

The American companies visited Henan several times to study the situation.

Later,the U.S. companies were thinking of making a very large investment

that would result in the formation of a new unit at the provincial deputy

department head level, and might have been handled by the Henan Provincial

government or the Henan Province Planning Commission (as it was called at

that time). This would have put the investment into an area, which Liu did

not control, so he lost interest and let the matter slide.

Recently, an important officials in the Luohe City Health Bureau had this

to say: Liu Quanxi set aside 200,000 RMB (USD 25,000) in capital as well

as equipment and then directed his younger sister to set up a blood

station in his own hometown of Yancheng County, Henan.With the support of

the then director of the Luohe Health Bureau Liu Xuezhou (now Vice

Director of the Henan Provincial Health Department) six blood collection

stations were established in Xiping, Shangcai, Xihua, Xuchang, Taikang and

Weishi counties. This six blood collection stations belong to the Liu

family. These stations followed no rules, they took blood any way they

pleased and even beat and cursed some of the blood donors. For example, as

one bloodhead said to a small paper that had reported on the bloodhead’s

activities, “You go tell the Department of Health. I’m not afraid!”

There was a small time bloodhead in Zhongmu County who collected blood not

far from the Liu family blood station in Weishi County. The bloodhead

wasn’t finding buyers so he went to the Henan central blood station to

look for a buyer.Liu Quanxi took advantage of the bloodhead’s credulity to

out the situation and address of the blood station.Then the bloodhead

trustingly lead a group of people to the blood station. Even when that

bloodhead went into prison Damu he perhaps still didn’t know how he had

been caught red-handed.This case became the basis for the political

achievements of Liu Quanxi in the later period of suppressing the

bloodheads.Liu Quanxi made himself a bloodhead. However the position he

achieved as a blood lord is a position his flunkies created for him.

Henan Province is not developed. It neither lies on the coast nor on the

frontiers. It is the heartland of the central plain. In the early 1990s,

Henan’s economic and social environment was such that there wasn’t much

drug addiction or prostitution.The farmers of the central plain, like

their fathers and ancestors before them, made a living from the soil.

Whoever would have thought that the dreams of wealth of a high official of

the Henan Provincial Department of Health would push so many people to

these people towards death.

Some people say that Shangqiu Department of Health Director Zheng Bingyin

assigned important tasks to Hu Wanlin was because Zheng didn’t understand

medicine and other people got him all confused.That argument would perhaps

convince people who have knowledge of the situation. If one were to say

that Liu Quanxi started out with the intention of spreading HIV to the

people of the central plains, perhaps that would not be believed.

Liu Quanxi’s problem was initially that he was in a rush to make money. A

shot at big bucks weakened his judgment. His ambitions knew no limits. He

believed that there could not possibly be HIV in Henan.Later, when the

collection of blood had gotten seriously out of control, he began to fear

for his own personal responsibility and that the Liu family blood stations

would be exposed.So he decided on a cover up, lying to those above and

suppressing those below, telling lies, and striking in revenge against

whistleblowers. LIu’s story is one in which differences in degree

gradually became became fundamental differences.

In 1995 and 1996, grassroots medical workers discovered some people who

were HIV positive. In order to confirm their finding, they sent samples to

Shanghai, Beijing, Nanjing and Wuhan.The test results astounded some

Chinese experts.HIV/AIDS was already very serious in Henan Province. When

these experts want to go to Henan Province to investigate, nobody dared

take them out to the rural villages.

Recently, a physician said:In 1995, he took blood samples near a blood

collection station sponsored by a transportation company and the local

health bureau near a certain city in eastern Henan.Three out of the ten

samples contained HIV antibodies — positives.

He sent the samples to another city. Results confirmed. When he reported

the results to the local health bureau, criticized him, saying. “You are

an idiot. When the Health Department gave permission to set up a blood

collection station they thought of everything.It is impossible that there

is HIV. You careless talk will influence the income of our blood station.”

The physician said: At this time, the three people who had tested positive

said that they regularly sold blood plasma at blood stations in

theKaifeng, Lankao, Shicheng, and Shangqiu region. Usually this blood was

sold to a big company in Shanghai.

Liu Quanxi was astonished to hear that outside experts wanted to come to

Henan to investigate HIV/AIDS.It was then that he realized the bankruptcy

of his policy: During his time as an official, he was going to produce

benefits for people. For internal matters, rely on the power of official

seals; in external matters, rely on selling blood plasma.

Liu arranged for fine food and drink when the Academician Zeng Yi visited

Henan. No problem with visiting the office, just don’t let him go down to

the countryside.The Ministry of Health can collect documents but rumors

can be strenuously denied; the Provincial government can collect reports

but the guesses of individuals should not be given credit lest they affect

the economic development of our province.A physician at the Zhoukou

epidemiological station did not obey this call.The physician bravely gave

information and help to experts from outside the province. The physician

lost both job and income.

The latency period of HIV gave Liu Quanxi a hand. High officials in the

provincial government who didn’t understand medicine gave him the

opportunity.Because nobody was dying just then, so it looked like there

was no problem. Moreover, provincial officials just didn’t want to look

into the matter.

Recently, two Henan Province epidemiological station experts said: In

1996, under pressure from society and experts, the Henan Provincial

Department of Health mobilized “its own” forces to carry out a study of

HIV that focused on blood sellers in thirteen counties.People who went out

to the countryside to do the study were divided into six groups.They

tested 100,000 people in all. In order to ensure secrecy, Liu Quanxi

ordered that the people who participated in the survey may not exchange

data and may not reveal their results to outsiders. Each group made its

own independent report.A participant in the study of the Shangqiu blood

station said that the data there showed that 84% were HIV positive.

Weishi, Xiping, Shangcai, and Taikang were also very serious. The lowest

survey among those counties found 67 percent HIV positive.Since the

figures for each study were never released, experts estimate that at that

time in Henan Province there were at least 100,000 people infected with

HIV. But Henan at that time had one million people who were selling blood.

Moreover, the two experts said, those people who helped Liu Quanxi with

the coverup all got promoted into good positions.

A reliable source said: The Party organization in the Henan Department of

Health held a stormy debate about the results of this survey.Liu Quanxi

insisted that the results of the survey could not be published nor could

they be reported to higher authorities. A vice director of the Health

Department who insisted that the results be reported was criticized.

Things often happen that way these days. In a situation in which the

ordinary people cant fight those in power, when someone in power says they

want things done a certain way, even when that it is wrong we just carry

out the order anyways.

Gao Yaojie

Gao Yaojie is a gynecologist at the Henan Chinese School of Traditional

Medicine Hospital.After she retired, she began doing research on sexually

transmitted diseases.At first she just looked into the STD advertisements

on the street and criticized them. As she got deeper into her research,

she found that the strongest opposition to her work came not from quack

doctors who were cheating people out of their money.Her biggest opponents

turned out to be an organization that she thought originally thought would

support her efforts — the Henan Provincial Department of Health.That

strong little old lady didn’t realize just who that opponent she was going

to conquer was. She frequently wrote letters to central government and

provincial leaders. She shared her views with the news media. She used

her small pension to print educational materials and to go to see AIDS

patients in the countryside, especially women and small children. She won

the praise of society and the media. She won the honorary title of “The

Number One Citizen Worker for HIV Prevention”. Many newspapers, television

stations and websites in both China and foreign countries reported on her

activities.

Gao Yaojie’s personal campaign upset Liu Quanxi’s plans. As pressure from

society to clean up the blood market increased, he realized that in

choosing between money and power it is better to hold on to power. He

imagined that he could take advantage of the latent period of HIV, bring

the blood market under control, and hide the seeds of Henan’s disaster

that had been planted some years before. Then, when HIV had appeared

throughout the country, Henan’s problem would not look so exceptional.

The strenuous calls of Gao Yaojie and the reports of some journalists that

appeared in the Great River News (Dahe Bao), the Zhengzhou Evening News

(Zhengzhou Wanbao) and other newspapers became a background noise blocking

Liu Quanxi’s further political advancement. Liu secretly put pressure and

harassment of Gao and her family. Liu used personal connections to

engineer the transfer of Wang Jiheng, the top health reporter of the Great

River News. In late 1998, Liu Quanxi heard that the Great River News was

going to print an article about HIV in Henan Province.Liu at once ordered

a person named Han who had a close connection to the newspaper company to

take 80,000 RMB to the newspaper company and offer to replace the HIV

article with a big advertisement. Liu also used his influence to get the

health reporters of several influential Henan newspapers transferred.

These reporters hadn’t been writing about HIV in just the way that Liu

Quanxi wanted. Late one night in July 1999, Zhengzhou police seized a van

carrying blood plasma to Kaifeng. When journalists got to the scene, a

policeman said that the people in the van had all run away. Did they

really run away? Later, a journalist made an undercover visit and was

told in a whisper by a policeman: “We got a phone call from a “VIP” in the

provincial government who ordered us to secretly let them go. “There were

four blood sellers involved, two men and two women. One was the younger

sister of Liu Quanxi. A journalist went to the site of the old blood

station, but it was already empty.Such a rapid move was not something that

an ordinary crook could manage. The journalist went back to the police

station and was told but a policeman, “We didn’t get a chance to

interrogate them. They all ran away. Without a trace.”

There is more and more HIV/AIDS in Henan. HIV is being passed along to

children.Some Beijing hospitals discovered:these days most of the people

diagnosed with HIV come from Henan Province.Although some patients don’t

want to reveal their identity, they are identifiable from their Henan

accent. Their clothing shows them to be country people.Professor Zeng Yi

of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing experts have said many

times to Henan Health Department officials:Pay close attention to the

HIV/AIDS situation and set up HIV/AIDS prevention stations.If necessary,

the central government will provide assistance.Liu Quanxi response has

been negative. A director responsible for disease control at the Chinese

Ministry of Health in an informal meeting said: Liu Quanxi of Henan

Province speaks empty, false words. No truth comes out of his mouth.

Just as Gao Yaojie and some journalists were giving Liu Quanxi a hard

time, Gui Xien like a cat slunk into the heart of the central plains.He

went to Henan to see patients at the request of his student in Shangcai

County.During a simple and unannounced visit to Henan, this expert

discovered that the rate of HIV infection in Henan villages had already

exceeded 60 percent.His report astonished people at high levels in Beijing

and scared the Henan Health Department as well. Academician Zeng Yi began

to watch the HIV situation in Henan from 1995 onwards. However the social

situation at that time did not allow that scholar to get the support that

would have been needed from all quarters to stop the spread of HIV in

time. He could only sigh, “Henan see the casket but doesn’t shed tears!”

Gui Xien’s 1999 report confirmed Zeng Yi’s deductions.Gao Yaojie,

fearlessly went several times to the countryside to see sick people and to

draw attention to the problem. The media began to pay attention to the

problem.

Some of the journalists at the Great River News, the Zhengzhou Evening

News and the City Morning News (Chengshi Zaobao) were angry.They

anonymously printed articles about HIV. While reporting on Gao Yaojie’s

visits to people in the countryside, they wrote veiled criticism of the

Henan Provincial Department of Health.Liu Quanxi, through the Provincial

Propaganda Department, put pressure on the newspapers and put a stop to

that kind of reporting.The journalists then began “surrounding Henan from

the exterior” [Note: by placing articles about Henan in papers in other

provinces. end note].

Intense attention from the outside forced the Henan Health Department to

send people to the countryside during 1999 and 2000 to determine what the

actual situation was.According to an official at the Henan Province

Epidemiological Station official who asked to remain anonymous, he did a

sampling survey at Shangcai County in the Zhumadian region and discovered

that the situation was even more serious than had been reported in the

newspapers.Luo Gang and Zhaodiangxiang, both to the south of the county

seat, were the most serious. Three people had died in one household. The

situation in Wenlou Village in Luogangxiang was reported several times in

the media.He said that Zhaodianxiang is more serious that Wenlou Village.

He mentioned a woman in Lipu Village who developed an unbearable fever and

so hung herself. She had been infected with HIV when she sold blood in

1993 and 1994.She left behind two children aged two and five. Both the two

children and their father have HIV. He also mentioned that a Shangcai

County health official opened a restaurant but when it turned out that one

of the waiters had HIV, nobody ever dared to go to that restaurant

again.The official lost a large sum of money as a result.People in the

area say that HIV came from Ronan County since a blood station was set up

there before Shangcai. The official strongly insisted that I should never

say whom I got the information from.

According to an expert at the Henan Health Department Epidemiological

Station, HIV in Henan is concentrated in regions south of the Yellow River

such as Zhoukou, Zhumadian, Xinyang, Luohe, Kaifeng, Shanqiu, Nanyang,

Xuchang and Pingdingshan.The farmers there are relatively poor, the

population is dense and there are relatively few natural resources.Some

farmers eager to escape poverty along with some lazy people fall for the

economic enticements of the bloodheads. They don’t know what they are

doing and lose their lives to the blood disaster.The expert estimates that

now over 500,000 people are infected with HIV in Henan Province, but it is

difficult to get a more precise idea than that. That area with very

serious HIV is situated around Luohe where the Liu family set up its blood

stations. Is there a connection? He gave the journalist a mysterious wink

of an eye and said, “No, that couldn’t be.”Nevertheless, the every

reckless operation of the many blood stations in southern Henan is the

main reason for the

Recently, Gao Yaojie has noticed that why controls on her remain, some

officials are taking a more friendly interest in her family life. Her

daughter who has continually harassed at a newspaper but some officials

took the initiative to arrange a job for her at the hospital of the Henan

School of Traditional Chinese Medicine.Professor Gui Xien of Hubei

University has also been informed that he is welcome in Henan and will be

supported in his investigations. The condition for the support is that Gui

not reveal his result to outsiders. The Henan Province health departments

want to buy his tongue.

While it is true that some families are happy and others have worries.

Some officials of the Henan Provincial Department of Health who have spent

a good chunk of youth and later life rising in officialdom together with

Liu Quanxi are coming down with hepatitis B and hepatitis C and ending up

in the hospital.Perhaps they don’t even know themselves how they got their

illnesses. Could it have been from blood products?Even if they know that

blood products harmed them, do they dare say so?Is there anyone who dares

to tell them to speak up?A sickroom nurse in the Henan Provincial People’s

Hospital for senior cadres said: This year, Liu Quanxi often came to the

hospital. Sometimes it was high blood pressure. Other times it was high

blood sugar.He often had a cold and felt weak.One hospital director

flattered him saying, “Department head, your resistance is getting a bit

weak, we should transfuse some blood proteins into you.”Liu Quanxi turned

pale, waved his hands and shouted, “Don’t transfuse me with blood protein

into you.”Liu Quanxi turned pale, waved his hands and shouted, “Don’t

transfuse me with blood proteins! Don’t transfuse me with blood proteins!

“Really, it is as if God is playing a joke on them.

The beginning of the deaths of those honest farmers is a sign. The end of

the HIV latent period has come.The media reports reveal the news. Liu

Quanxi’s “blood wound” can no longer be hidden.This child of a farmer

harmed many farmers and at the same time put the lives of many city people

in danger as well. Just how many people were affected by this blood

disaster is still an unsettled issue.Perhaps it will come to pass that a

high official gets HIV. Maybe it will be from nourishment products made

from blood plasma or from a prostitute. It will be hard to say.That such

an idiot has sole responsibility for the public health of the people of

China’s most populous province, it is strange to think about just what it

means to say that the health of the rural and city people is being

protected. Strange, strange indeed.

Background

That hundreds of thousands of paid blood donors in Henan Province have HIV

has been a dark secret for at least the past five years. The article below

now circulates among Chinese experts in Henan Province and Chinese

patriots elsewhere who can see clearly the disaster that now threatens

their country. Just as the line goes in the wartime anthem, the “Song of

the Volunteers”, the “Chinese nation is at at its most dangerous moment”

[Zhonghua minzu dao zui weixiande shike]. Some Chinese experts who have

known this story for years but have had to keep quiet are pleased that

this story is out. They agree that this story is accurate but it is not

the complete story.

Just as the press reports on HIV among blood donors first focused on the

widespread HIV infections among blood donors in Shangcai County in central

Henan, and have now widened to report that no, Shangcai is unfortunately

not an isolated case but all too typical. Yet the problem is not confined

to Henan. The problem of paid blood donors and underground blood

collection centers, as the Chinese press occasionally reports, is serious

in Shanxi, Hubei, Hebei and other provinces. Paid blood donations and

bloodheads also work in Beijing and Shanghai even if the problem seems to

be worse in the interior provinces.Southern Weekend in October 2000 for

example discussed the legion of 4000 paid blood donors in the impoverished

Dingxi region of Gansu Province. Some of this blood from donors with high

rates of hepatitis and other blood borne diseases was sold to a blood

products company in Lanzhou. There the blood is made into various blood

protein products sold in China as well as exported to developing

countries. The US Food and Drug Administration does not permit the

importation of Chinese blood products into the USA.. The spread of HIV

among blood donors and especially blood plasma donors seems to be driven

by the high prices that biological products companies (some connected with

the Chinese military) pay for blood plasma and their willingness to

procure it illegally if need be.

On one level this article can be seen as a poison pen attack on the

director of the Henan Province Health Department. The anger the author

feels for the Health Department and its leaders role in the spread of HIV

and the subsequent cover-up is apparent. Yet poison pen letters can be

true, and some Henan activists familiar with the situation vouch for the

authenticity of this article. Restrictions on the speech of some of these

activists such as Zhengzhou physician and HIV campaigner Gao Yaojie remain

although she is now praised in the official press for drawing attention to

HIV in Henan. Dr. Gao came to Beijing for a public conference on HIV on

January 8th and 9th but the authorities did not permit her to speak. The

problem is bigger than one province and bigger than the alleged misdeeds

of any one official. The Chinese government has a well-thought out HIV

strategy but getting it implemented in the provinces is very difficult.

The Ministry of Health has excellent dedicated people working on the

problem but the Ministry has only several hundred people and just a few

people working on contagious disease policy.One theme of the article is

that officials in Beijing knew about the problem in Henan Province, very

much wanted to stop it but were unable to do so. Why? China sometimes

seems to be not so much a country of one Big Brother but of many little

brothers (some well meaning, others not) who dont pay much attention to

each other.

China’s HIV problem breaks down into management components that can be

addressed by the government such as blood collection and donation

irregularities and the spread of disease due to substandard medical

practice (also called iaotrogenic disease). Both are very serious in

China. In fact dirty needles (the rule rather than the exception in much

of rural China, especially in the interior provinces) spread hepatitis to

ten percent of Chinas people but are even higher — near 20 percent in the

interior. Indeed, now that China seems to be on the verge of admitting to

the big problem in Henan Province, perhaps the first place to start with

strict management of medical practice to ensure safe medical practice and

no medical transmission of disease would be those AIDS villages in Henan.

So many people have HIV there, the chances of it spreading further must be

quite high.

Now the chance of getting HIV from a dirty needle is small each time but

not if you are getting regular frequent dirty needle injections. Both the

problems of blood donation and collection and the spread of disease by

substandard medical care can be addressed by government.Other cause of HIV

spread related to behaviors such as intravenous drug injection and

prostitution can be addressed through behavioral interventions which would

take much longer.

The Chinese government in December announced a crackdown on illegal blood

collections and sales in violation of December 1996 Ministry of Health

regulations on blood collection procedures and the October 1998 law that

outlawed paid blood donations.An early January press report discussed a

crackdown in Chongqing where five blood plasma collection stations were

closed and the biological products company that bought the blood plasma is

under investigation.

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