美国国会代表怎么看中国的政治制度? 看国会研究服务部为了他们写的报告

美国国会代表怎么理解中国的政治制度? 美国国会图书馆国会研究服务部为2009年低应了国会代表的邀请写了一个报告 — “Understanding China’s Political System”. 你可以一边学英语,一边理解美国国会代表受到的关于中国的信息。 报告在 http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R41007.pdf

你可以一边学英语一边多了解部分美国中国问题研究院人对中国政治制度的看法。 英文摘要:

Summary
Opaque and shrouded in secrecy, China’s political system and decision-making processes are
mysteries to many Westerners. At one level, China is a one-party state that has been ruled by the
Chinese Communist Party (CCP) since 1949. But rather than being rigidly hierarchical and
authoritarian, which is often the assumption, political power in China now is diffuse, complex,
and at times highly competitive. Despite its grip on power, the Party and its senior leaders (the
Politburo and its Standing Committee) are not always able to dictate policy decisions as they once
did. Instead, present-day China’s political process is infused with other political actors that
influence and sometimes determine policy.
Three other main actors co-exist with the Party at the top of China’s political system. Chief
among these is the muscular state government bureaucracy, whose structures closely parallel the
Party’s throughout China, operating in a largely separate but interlocking way to implement and
administer state business. Another key institution is the People’s Liberation Army, operating again
largely separately and with a tenuous distinction between civilian, military, and Party leadership.
Completing the top political institutions is the National People’s Congress, constitutionally the
highest organ of state power but in practice the weakest of the top political institutions.
Other political actors in China include: provincial and local officials; a growing body of official
and quasi-official policy research groups and think tanks that feed proposals into the policy
process; a collection of state sector, multinational, and even private business interests exerting
pressure on policy decisions; a vigorous academic and university community; a diverse media
that informs public opinion; and an increasingly vocal and better-informed citizenry that are
demanding more transparency and accountability from government. New forms of
communication and information availability also have pressured the PRC government to make
changes in its political system, and have provided the Party with new means of maintaining
political control. The political story in China today is the extent to which these multiple actors
and changing circumstances have helped blur the communist regime’s lines of authority.
Chinese politics is further complicated by other factors. In the absence of a more formalized
institutional infrastructure, personal affiliations can play a significant role in political decisions,
adding unpredictability to an already murky process. In addition, discipline between the different
levels of party and government structure can be tenuous, leading to ineffective implementation of
policy and, in some cases, serious problems with corruption.
Despite its internal problems, the PRC’s Communist Party-led political system has proven
exceedingly resilient to past and current challenges, but nevertheless is under stress and
undergoing reluctant transition. Ironically, the Party’s commitment to remaining in power appears
to be forcing it to adapt continually to changing circumstances and to make incremental
compromises with other participants in the political process when it is pragmatic to do so. A
better understanding of how China’s political system functions, as well as what are its strengths
and weaknesses, may help U.S. lawmakers make more effective policy decisions that directly
benefit U.S. interests.
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