PRC Anti-Corruption Novel “The Wrath of God”: Insights into Official Corruption

I lived in Beijing from 1996 to 2001.  One of the better books I read during those days was a banned novel loosely based I understand on a Beijing Municipality corruption case of a few years earlier.  I bought the book under the counter in a little bookshop.  China has another of its periodic anti-corruption campaigns underway now.  With so much corruption I wonder sometimes if perhaps most of the people accused are guilty but they are being accused for political reasons.

Here is what most sticks in my mind from the book:

The novelist puts these words into the mouth of a corrupt Beijing Municipality official: “But we can’t not have an anti-corruption campaign. Not only will the masses not allow us not to do anti-corruption work but the State itself could fall as corruption deepens. Therefore, if we don’t do anti-corruption work, the State will collapse. If we fight corruption, the Party will fall; if we do not fight corruption the State will fall. We are stuck between a rock and a hard place; we can only fight corruption for a time and then let up for a while. This is the only way to save both the Party and the State. We try to survive and develop within the cracks of a policy that is constantly wavering between the left and the right. “

Here is an essay I wrote about the book back then.

PRC Anti-Corruption Novel “The Wrath of God”: Insights into Official Corruption

‘The Wrath of God — The Anti-Corruption Bureau in Action” [Tiannuu — Fantanju zai Xingdong] is an exciting novel about big city corruption in Beijing. Free-spending officials and their even more free-spending offspring figure prominently. ‘The Wrath of God”‘ (a better translation of the title would be “The Wrath of Heaven”) is written in a fast-moving cinematic style with plenty of flashbacks and changes in perspective would made a fine movie. This novel significantly overlaps with reality. To reverse paraphrase the legal disclaimer often seen on books published in the United States, any resemblance to any person, living or dead is not at all coincidental. For example, the U.S. fast food company that fights hard to retain its long-term lease in a prime area slated for a new building complex is obviously MacDonalds’ and the complex is just east of Tian Anmen square. This novel is a mix of fact and fiction — a Chinese official familiar with the Beijing Mayor Chen Xitong corruption case says it is half fact, half fiction. The significance of this book is not the degree to which the activities of the semi-fictional characters reflect the real Beijing Mayor Chen Xitong scandal but in the story of how official corruption affects corruption in modern Chinese society. Below the surface of the novel lie many deeper truths.

The novel gives insights into official corruption, the issue that angers the average Chinese person more than any other. Not only top officials but at every level, there are also cases of bureaucrats who exceed their authority and make decisions in the name of higher officials without informing them. In some cases such as the Beijing Municipality scandal involving former Mayor Chen Xitong which inspired the novel “The Wrath of God”, both the principal and his secretary were involved.

Background: Official Corruption and the Fight Against Corruption

The Yangcheng Wanbao (September 29) and a recent issue of Beijing Youth Weekly [Beijing Qingnian Zhoubao] the weekly magazine of the youth organization of the Beijing Municipality Communist Party reported on recent anti-corruption measures taken by the Central Disciplinary Commission of the Communist Party in 1996 in response to the Beijing scandal. The Commission that personal secretaries of officials “must not use their special position or use the name of their organization or superior to develop special relationships (gao guanxi) or take advantage of personal shortcomings for their personal advantage. ” More specifically, the secretary “must not exceed their authority, or act on their own to represent leading comrades in answering queries or making decisions; they must not sign documents on behalf of their superior, write regulations or issue orders.” Beijing Municipality has now ordered that a personal secretary should not work for a superior for an overly long period.

The characters upon whom the novel “The Wrath of God” is loosely based have been sentenced to prison. Mayor Chen Xitong was sentenced to 15 years in prison for accepting a bribe of 409,000 renminbi (US$1 = 8.3 RMB). His secretary Wang Baosen was sentenced to 7 years in prison for corruption involving 10,000 renminbi and to 8 years in prison for using 640,000 in public funds in a private business. Tie Ying, the secretary of Beijing Municipality official Duan Aihua, was sentenced to 5 years in prison for abusing his official position to get a bribe of over 56,000 renminbi. He Shiping, onetime personal secretary to former Vice Mayor Huang Chao was sentenced to 16 years in prison for misusing his official position to get a bribe of 243,000 renminbi. Mayor Chen Xitong’s son Chen Xiaotong was sentenced to 12 years in prison on June 28, 1997 for accepting bribes and criminal misuse of public funds. Chen Xiaotong, arrested in April 1995 for illegal economic activities, had been the manager of a Chinese-Japanese joint venture hotel in Beijing.

New Anti-Corruption Regulations

In March 1997 “Regulations on the Reporting of Important Matters by Leading Cadres” stipulates that not only leading cadres but also their spouse and children must report important matters such as building a house, business matters, and foreign trips. Austerity orders from the PRC State Council on eliminating “luxuries and wasteful behavior” published on the front page of People’s Daily on July 11, 1997 called on party and government offices to not use public funds for eating and drinking at big feasts and restaurants and not to spend large sums on redecorating, and to very strictly manage funds spent on foreign travel and cellular telephones. Recent press reports point to some success in cutting expenses in some places such as Nanjing and rather less in others such as Anhui Province.

Recent implementing regulations on official honesty have been issued by the Central Disciplinary Commission of the Communist Party. Entitled the “Regulations for Implementing the “Rules for Honest Administration for Communist Party Officials and Cadres”” issued by the Central Disciplinary Commission of the Communist Party was carried by Xinhua (New China News Agency) on December 22, 1997 and published in People’s Daily on December 23 (p. 3). The definition of bribery includes gifts and invitations to the official or the official’s family that might influence the conduct of official business. All gifts that could conceivably influence the conduct of official business must be registered and turned over to the government; failure to register the gifts is an offense. The regulations forbid using official position or influence to obtain improper benefit; Party and leading cadres of the county level or above are forbidden to conduct business on their own account; Party official and leading cadres are forbidden to convert public property into private property; forbidden to use their official powers or influence to help friends, relatives or coworkers to obtain private advantage including foreign travel or study abroad; forbidden to receive above standard official treatment at receptions, to use public funds to buy or decorate private housing, or to convert public guest facilities for private use. Article 28 of these new regulations forbids to party officials and leading cadres “the use of official position or influence to obtain assistance from any person or organization outside China to facilitate the foreign travel, visit with relatives or study of spouse, children, other relatives or friends”. The regulations were issued by the Central Disciplinary Commission on September 23, 1997.

Novels on public and private corruption have become a popular literary genre in China today. The Arts Network (Wenyi Wang) of the Central Broadcasting Network of PRC state radio in January 1998 concluded broadcasting a dramatic series based on the best-selling novel “The Decision” (Xuanze). The novel tells the story of a factory in which the workers were forced to buy the stock in the company. Once the workers have bought the stock, the management flees and the company collapses.

“The Wrath of God” An Anti-Corruption Novel Banned in Beijing

“The Wrath of God” is banned in Beijing. Banned books are not hard to get in Beijing, however. Even the “Private Life of Chairman Mao” about Chairman Mao and his mistresses is sold on the street. “The Wrath of God” is widely available and praised by many (including some Chinese government officials) for its good literary quality and insights into big city corruption. The book opens with a death, the apparent suicide of the Beijing City Vice Mayor. The spirals out into a panoramic portrait of corruption of the young princelings who live off the official positions of their parents, the rottenest rotten egg amongst them being the son of the mayor himself. The book that spirals back in to focus on the last day of the Vice Mayor’s life to eventually reveal the corruption which reaches to the very highest level of the Beijing City government. The story is largely of police detective Chen Hu’s efforts to show that the death of the Vice Mayor was not a simple suicide despite the opposition of a concert of bad guys who would rather let dead bodies lie.

The Views of the People are the Sole Foundation of Government; If the Foundation is Solid, the State will be Peaceful. If Corruption is not Eliminated, the Country Cannot Live in Peace”

The “Wrath of God” is about endemic official corruption. Nothing makes Chinese people angrier than official corruption. The epigram on the cover (apparently a photo-reproduction of the Yuanfang Chubanshe edition printed in January 1997) proclaims the threat that corruption poses to the survival of the State. The epigram reads: “‘The views of the people are the sole foundation of government. If the foundation is solid, the state will be peaceful. If corruption is not eliminated, the country cannot live in peace’ [Min wei bang ben, ben gu bang ning, fubai bu chu, guo wu ning ri]. In the novel, detective Chen Fu is presented the epigram written by a corrupt, executed official by the official’s son. (p. 69 chapter 4/3).

Why was “The Wrath of God” Banned? A Chinese Official Comments

A Chinese official familiar with the investigation of former Beijing Mayor Chen Xitong for corruption and still works on anti-corruption matters discussed the novel “The Wrath of God” in late 1997. The official, who had had read “The Wrath of God”, said that the novel was only half true. He called it a blend of facts and inventions written by someone on the margins who melded odd bits and pieces into a novel. Asked why the novel had been banned, since the police detective hero of the novel does get the bad guys and the novel does show the system working to root out corruption, the official responded that just because it is a mix of fact and fiction it should not be published. When asked it the novel could have been published if it were a pure work of fiction, the official said no, even if it were pure fiction it could still not be published legally. Any work which is aiming at someone or something cannot be published, said the official. When asked why it seemed in the novel that the police detective hero seemed to be fighting alone against the bad guys without help from the central authorities although the authorities clearly know what is going on. The official said that that is unrealistic and impossible. In one passage in the novel a corrupt official says that “anti-corruption campaigns are needed so that the State can survive but that the campaign cannot be too prolonged or intense or the Communist Party would not survive”. The official said that is not true but allowed that anti-corruption campaigns were not very serious two years ago but the anti-corruption work now is very serious and thorough. The novel was actually published legally in Inner Mongolia in late 1996 but was soon banned.

Good Guys and Bad Guys Agree: Corruption is Rooted in the Political and Economic System

Chen Hu, the good guy investigator with nine-plus lives and the more introspective bad guys all agree: it isn’t just good guys and bad guys, it is a political and economic system that encourages or even requires corruption to get things done. From the outset of ‘Wrath of Heaven’, the reader is aware that the central authorities know that the Beijing City is corruption ridden. But the center doesn’t do anything about it. Moreover, according to the principle of centralism (all links vertical, no cross linking at the same level). Horizontal relationships among local police authorities at the same level hardly exist at all.

Corruption is endemic in Chinese society today and anti-corruption campaigns are not serious, say several characters in the novel “The Wrath of God”. Early in the novel we encounter the saying, “Anti-corruption campaign is when a tiger makes a report, the fox claps his hands laughing, the fly hums along happily and only the mice run scared in the streets”. (p. 34, 2/4) Corruption is banal. From the vice mayor who steals millions to the chauffeurs of the party and government cadres or even chauffeurs (pp. 306 – 307, 18/4) who get apartments much larger than they deserve while others wait years for an apartment, corruption runs through the entire system. One corrupt Beijing Municipality Mayor’s Office official in the novel (pp. 282 – 283, 17/2) analyzes the situation this way:

“Don’t worry, I’m not the Anti-Corruption Bureau. The anti-corruption campaign makes a lot of thunder these days and quite a bit of rain. But rainstorms always come to an end. Once we are past the dangerous part of the storm, there will still be a lot of thunder, but less rain. And then after a while you won’t hear any thunder at all. Anti-corruption work cannot be done thoroughly because more than just a few people are involved. The historical conditions are completely different from the March 5 (3-5) case for which Liu Qingshan and Zhang Zishan were executed. Can we allow the era of opening and reform to remove us from power and replace us with the capitalist classes? That absolutely wouldn’t work. One more point. We can’t push the anti-corruption campaign indefinitely. For who else can the regime depend upon for support but the great masses of middle level cadres? If they are not given some advantages, why should they dedicate themselves to the regime? They give their strong and unwavering support to the regime because they get benefits from the system. Corruption makes our political system more stable.”

“How can Chinese officials compare with Hong Kong officials? Can they compare with Taiwan officials? Or with the officials of the developed countries? The salaries of public officials in foreign countries are dozens or even more than a hundred times higher than the salaries of Chinese officials. Moreover, a long anti-corruption campaign would expose the dark side of the Communist Party. If many of these things were to be exposed, the masses would lose their faith in the Chinese Communist Party. Who could accept the historic responsibility for doing this? ”

“But we can’t not have an anti-corruption campaign. Not only will the masses not allow us not to do anti-corruption work but the State itself could fall as corruption deepens. Therefore, if we don’t do anti-corruption work, the State will collapse. If we fight corruption, the Party will fall; if we do not fight corruption the State will fall. We are stuck between a rock and a hard place; we can only fight corruption for a time and then let up for a while. This is the only way to save both the Party and the State. We try to survive and develop within the cracks of a policy that is constantly wavering between the left and the right. ”

Accelerating Political and Economic Reform: The Only Way to Root Out Corruption

The hero of the novel, Beijing City police detective Chen Hu makes a similar observation. He and his partner quote with approval the words of a Chinese businessman on corruption. The businessman said that the extremely slow Chinese bureaucracy takes months and years to approve matters which a company operating in a competitive market needs processed immediately. The result is that government officials are offered very large bribes. “Even spending tens of thousands or even millions of renminbi for the approval of just one document is not too much since for a company getting an early approval saves money, gives competitive advantage and opens up many opportunities. Now spending millions of renminbi on bribes is not so much bribery but investing in the government is greasing the rigid government bureaucracy. Therefore the system must change if corruption is to be rooted out. …Corruption thus has two characteristics — to ruin the social structure, to stabilize the social structure, and to promote prosperity.” Chen Hu comments, “We have to fight against both the officials accepting the bribes and the people who bribe them. ..Of course, the only way to root out corruption is to accelerate the reform of the economic and political system. That is the only way to root out the structural corruption!” [pp. 248 – 249, 15/3]

Children of High Officials The Most Repellent Characters in the Novel

In “The Wrath of God” the worst characters are the children of high party and government officials; the younger generation provides an interface between high officials and every kind of organized crime. The principal bad egg in The Wrath of God is the Jiao Dongfang , the son of Beijing Municipality Party Secretary Jiao Pengyuan. Jiao Pengyuan built a spectacular house for himself with public funds and kept women, including a TV journalist, as mistresses. Jiao Dongfang, based in a luxury hotel, coordinated very large business deals involving government money and property. Jiao Dongfang videotapes the action of himself in his father with their lovers (one of whom they share) in the luxury hotel love nest. Vast sums of money and fine houses both father and son give to their mistresses.

When things began to go bad, Jiao Pengyuan turned to a series of murders, including the murder of a vice mayor, to try to cover his tracks. The unraveling of the murder of the Vice Mayor is the heart of the novel. Jiao Pengyuan In almost a caricature of a very bad guy, Jiao tried to assassinate a prisoner in jail by taking the prisoner’s brother out shopping for toiletries to take into the jail. Then, while the brother was not looking, Jiao puts cyanide into a tube of toothpaste destined for the prisoner.

Officials evade responsibility for official actions by purposefully muddying lines of authority. One corrupt official sarcastically describes the work of an assistant to a high official as based on three pillars of wisdom “ask first, then act; act first, then ask; and finally, act and don’t ask” as an important new innovation of Marxist-Leninist ideology (pp. 50 – 51 chapter 3/4)

Who’s On Top: The Uses of Kremlinology, Chinese Style

Chen Hu, a Beijing Police (gongan ju) anti-corruption unit detective, early one concludes that the Center has strong reservations about the Beijing Municipality Party Chairman. Chen draws this conclusion in the first few pages of the book. remarking how the Beijing City Party Secretary, once a fixture on Chinese Central TV news broadcasts, now almost never appears. The mayor is still a fixture on Beijing Television however. Chen Fu to his assistant, “China’s newspapers, news broadcasts and television tell us a great deal. The order of peoples’ names, how large the type font is used and the page on which a report appears about a certain person, as well as the frequency that person appears on television news are all indications of change in the political climate. Just between you and me, I think the central leadership has already drawn its conclusions about Party Secretary Jiao. The central leadership understands what is going on. Although they don’t tell us so, if we watch the broadcast news and read the newspaper we will sense a subtle change.” (pp. 11 – 12 chapter 1/2)

Gangsters Arrange for L-1 Visas: Visa Fraud Enters A Chinese Novel

Fraud involving U.S. passports and visas get a passing mention in this best-selling Chinese novel. In an appendix to this report, three pages (pp. 416 – 418) in which fraud involving U.S. passports and visas enter this best-selling Chinese novel. The passage concerns a corrupt official on the run, a man who had run a French steel mill purchased using Beijing municipality funds.

Appendix: Visa, Passport Fraud in A Best Selling Chinese Novel

Excerpt from pp. 416 – 418 of “The Wrath of God”

“‘The Secretary of State of the United States hereby requests all whom it may concern to permit the citizen/national of the United States named herein to pass without delay or hindrance and in case of need to give all lawful aid and protection.”

Gazing at his English alias “David Sun” in the U.S. passport, Sun Qi felt happy. U.S. citizen David Sun is his new identity. Chinese gangster friends he had met at a Paris casino arranged for him to get to New York where he got the passport without any trouble.

During his time overseas, Sun heard all about the rapid growth of Chinese gangs in North America and Europe. The Chinese gangs had taken over many activities previously controlled by American or Italian gangsters such as alien smuggling and drug trafficking. Chinese ancestral wisdom and a long tradition of Chinese secret societies handed down from Taoyuan Sanjieyi, Wakangsai, Sanxia Wuyi, Qixia Wuyi, Shuibo Liangshan Yibaidan Bajiang, the Blue Gang (Qing Bang) and Red Gang (Hong Bang) made the cohesion of Chinese gangs far stronger than western gangs.

Financially much weaker than the western gangs, the Chinese gangs as ruthless killers nonetheless managed to murder their way into a piece of the action. Once most Chinese gang leaders were from Hong Kong, Taiwan, overseas Chinese living in Thailand or Laos. However as mainland China became an important international market and as more and more PRC residents moved abroad, mainland Chinese became and backbone of Chinese gangs. If you want to get into the PRC market, no matter if you are involved in alien smuggling or in drug smuggling, you need to work with mainland Chinese. Among the Chinese who left mainland, most of those from Fujian, Guangdong, Zhejiang and other provinces along the Chinese coast left China illegally. These people are underground people who have no legal status from the first minute they set foot on American soil. These people have no alternative but to fight to bet their lives on their chance to get win their own place under the American sun.

Sun Qi didn’t want to get involved with the Chinese farmers and fishermen who join the Chinese gangs. He thought of them as below him. Alien smuggling and drug trafficking doesn’t go along with his new identity either and the risk is just too great. Since he has legal status, he should do legal business activities. But he also knew that being on the run on his own, just waiting for his name to get on the INTERPOL, wouldn’t work either. He needed the protection of the gangs so that he wouldn’t be caught and sent back to China.

He chose to get his start by joining the All-America Investment group, a company run by American lawyers, a Chinese businessmen, and a highly-educated Chinese who had left China illegally. The Board of Directors wasn’t so interested in his money but in how Sun’s broad network of political and economic connections (guanxi) would enable the company to make some business and investment breakthroughs. The company invited Sun to join the Board of Directors and promised to give him protection.

The initiation ceremony blended East and West. The nine directors sat about in mahogany chairs including three American lawyers. David Sun presented three sticks of incense to the image of Guan Gong with a green robe and red face sitting in the middle of the hall and kowtowed three times. Sun then turned to face the Chairman of the Board of Directors who gave him a dagger.

A strip of paper on the incense burner carried the skull and crossbones as a symbol of death.

Sun Qi took the dagger and cut the middle finger of his left hand. He let the blood drip into the two eyes of the skull so they two red eyes appeared.

The Chairman of the Board handed Sun Qi and oath written in both Chinese and English.

That is the oath of the American gangsters. Sun Qi read it first in English, then in Chinese:

” I on my honor pledge to be loyal to the organization just as the organization will be loyal to me. This image is burning into cinders now just as my blood is bleeding from me, never to return. Just in this way I pledge my life to the organization. Just as the cinders cannot change back into paper, so I too can never leave this organization. I, David Sun, make this oath”

Once Sun Qi had read the oath, he put the paper into the incense burner where it was consumed. He watched it turn to ashes. He realized that Sun Qi had already vanished from the Earth. From now on, he would be David Sun.

The Chairman of the Board of the Directors was the first to come to him to shake his hand. The Director said, “Welcome, David Sun. You position in the All America Investment Corporation is no lower than your former position in the steel company. The main business of this company is in mainland China. Of course all our business there is legal and you will have your role to play in it. But you must remember if you ever betray us as you betrayed the steel company, your body will first be broken into pieces and then put into a grinder to make little pieces of meat. I hope that never happens.”

“Don’t worry about that, Mr. Chairman. I will certainly be loyal to the organization. Mainland China is moving towards greater reforms and opening to the outside world. The market is very big. I am sure I will be able to do a lot for the organization.”

“Welcome, David Sun” said the Director.

From that time onwards, David Sun had his own office in Chicago. The Chairman of the Board assigned him the task of finding PRC citizens who want to apply for an L-1 visa. The work was not difficult.

David Sun read carefully the U.S. INS regulations concerning the L-1 visa. Any university graduate who has no criminal record and has two or more years of managerial experience, is trustworthy, pays taxes, and is the manager of a company that has a business license can ask a U.S. company to apply for an L-1 visa to set up a subsidiary in the United States. Once the applicant has the L-1 visa, the U.S. subsidiary can operate for four years and then an application can be made to extend the visa to up to seven years. Two years after that application, the L-1 visa applicant can apply for the U.S. green card. During the seven years the businessperson can do business anywhere in the world and relatives can visit the L-1 holder in the U.S.

The American lawyer told Sun Qi that as long as the applicant has US$20,000, it doesn’t matter whether the person is educated or not, has managerial experience or not, or even whether the person has a criminal record.

Sun Qi asked, a little worried, “Once the money is paid can you really get the applicant to the U.S.?”

The lawyer replied, “That we can guarantee. The reputation of our company depends upon it. The one being cheated is not the immigrant from China but the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service. These Chinese who come to the U.S. aren’t really setting up a company. Their real intent is to immigrate and the United States is very tough on immigrants.”

Sun Qi felt that the L-1 visa would be very attractive to independent Chinese businesspeople going overseas, people who sent their capital overseas, and for people who feel that the Chinese policy of reform had gone too far and have something to be ashamed for. But is there really a lot of money to be made in this field?

The lawyer’s reply showed Sun Qi the great prospects that lay ahead.

“We only need to spend about US$2000 at most on each application. So we earn US$18,000 off each immigrant. Ten immigrants means US$180,000. One hundred means US$1.8 million. How much would we earn from a thousand or ten thousand? Mainland China has a very large population. There must be at least ten million people there who want to go to the United States. So how much money can we earn? David Sun, immigration can be called the most profitable of industries. The ratio between investment and return is 1:10. Is there any business in the world other than robbing banks with that rate of return? Moreover, the INS put no numerical limit on L-1 visas. David Sun, hurry up and open the mainland China market for our company!”

Bibliography

The Wrath of God — the Anti-Corruption Bureau in Action [Tiannu Fantanju Zai Xingdong], by Fang Wen [psuedonymn]. Hohhot, December 1996, Yuanfang Chubanshe. Printed January 1997 press run of 5000 copies. ISBN 7-80595-271-X/1 120. A photoreproduced pirate edition is available on the street in Beiijng. Several web sites have partial copies of “The Wrath of God” in the original Chinese text.

Several web sites with several chapters of “The Wrath of God” are listed in the Chinese Text section of the web site http://www.aweto.com/china/chinanet.html

Famous Criminal Cases of Modern China 1949 – 1995 [Dangdai Zhongguo Ming An — 1949 – 1995], edited by Liu Bin and published by Zhuhai Chubanshe in September 1996. ISBN 7-80607-194-6/D 1. “Famous Criminal Cases” is a five hundred page book that covers a wide range of 561 criminal and civil offenses. Criminal cases, each discussed in one half page to a page include counter-revolutionary crimes; public security offenses; economic crimes; crimes against persons or their democratic rights including murder, kidnapping, elections (including on p. 125 the condemnation of a Hebei Province man who on defaced a write-in ballot to one year in prison), stealing weapons and ammunition, and libel; robbery; offenses against the social order; offenses against marriage and family; official corruption; criminal investigations. Civil cases include libel suits; property suits; intellectual property rights suits; suits involving marriage, family and inheritance; economic (contract) suits; maritime law cases; administrative law cases; and cases involving people falsely accused which were later reversed as much as 30 years later.

Practical Handbook for the New Criminal Law, edited by Li Jianhua and Yan Jin. Published Beijing, April 1997, by Guangming Daily Publishing House [Guangming Ribao Chubanshe]. ISBN 7-80091-982-X/D 75. The “Handbook” introduces the much revised PRC criminal law which was expanded by one-third during the March meeting of the National People’s Congress. The Handbook explains the idea of criminal responsibility, distinguishes between crimes of negligence and intentional offenses, the varieties of criminal penalties, and then the various types of crimes against national security, public order, harming the socialist economic order as well as crimes against person and democratic rights, crimes against property, the national defense, military regulations (including voluntary surrender, releasing prisoners without authorization, and harming oneself in battle).

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