China as a cultural zone and China as a state. What is China? The Qing Dynasty called itself Da Qing, not China. Dynasty after dynasty. Are dynasties different states? Some existed simultaneously with other dynasties within the Chinese cultural zone. An anonymous essay had some interesting highlights, summary translated here.
the Chinese language article “The Qing Dynasty was not a Chinese Dynasty” last year noted that Sun Yatsen wrote in his “Three People’s Principles” that that China has been politically obliterated twice in its thousands of years of history. Once time by the Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty and the second time by the Qing (Manchu) Dynasty. I summary translated a few excerpts.
In 2004, a professor from Ulaan Bataar University in Mongolia commented on Chinese anti-Japanese sentiment at the Asian Games. “The Chinese take the great achievements of Mongolia and our Mongolian ancestors in conquering them as the achievements of their ancestors and national heros. They take the time when we colonized them as the most glorious period in their history. The Chinese are a people who do seem to have an idiotic kind of logic, what right do they have to criticize your country’s (Japan’s) view of history? What right do they have to criticize your national heros, those so-called grade A war criminals who invaded them?
Lu Xun in his “Random Notes” wrote how as a child he learned of the great heros and dynasties of Chinese history and how at 20 he heard that “our Da Qing” conquered Europe and that was the most glorious period of Chinese history. When he turned 25, he that the “most glorious period of Chinese history” was when the Mongols invaded and made us their lackeys. Later I learned that the Mongols first conquered eastern Europe and only later conquered China. But he conquered Russia first. So really it should be the Russians saying “When our Genghis Khan conquered China, it was the most glorious period of our history”
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