Chinese Lawyer Teng Biao: A Person of the Law’s Dignity Lies in Their Independence 滕彪:法律人的尊严在 于独立

[summary translation]

Teng Biao:  A Person of the Law’s  Dignity Lies in Their Independence

滕彪:法律人的尊严在 于独立

I studied law, taught law and have worked part time as a lawyer.   In China people of the law include judges, lawyers, prosecutors, legal scholars and other legal professionals.   This is a calling even more than it is a vocation or a profession.

The dignity of a person of the law is tied directly to the degree to which the “rule of law” guides a society and rule of law itself is an important indicator of cultural development.   In the days of the law of the jungle, people of the law have no dignity and no citizen has any dignity. Over the past three decades despite twists and turns, China has made progress in this area.    Many areas are still very unsatisfactory, but the laws are more complete and the legal system  is more mature and the people working within it are better qualified….

I like to watch lawyer movies.  In the movies lawyers are bright, aggressive in making counterattacks, handsome and cool.

I once thought that the legal profession was independent and self-governing but I soon learned otherwise. The “departments concerned” and leaders interfere too much .  If a case is to be accepted, one’s superior must consider whether it is too sensitive. In addition to the strict written regulations, and the overall guidance,  people are expected to exercise “self  restraint” — the Law Bureau exercises life and death control over legal services and cannot be offended.除了有关部门成文的硬性规定和口头传达的“精神”之外,还有 “自我审查”的因素;毕竟司法局掌握着律师事务所的生杀大权,得罪不起。

The toughest is the lawyers “self-restraint”  — they say if you don’t do along with us, we will smash your rice bowl” . Then they smashed the rice bowls of several lawyers.   Lawyers have to learn how to guess what the thinking of “those above” on various questions — which cases can you take, which ones you can’t take,  what is it you shouldn’t say. Lawyers are reduced to servility and fear, wonder if they their annual permit renewal will come through.  Under these circumstances, dignity would be a luxury.
更要命 的是律师的自我审查。某个律协会长在一次大会上公然叫嚣:“他们敢跟我们过不去,我们就砸他们饭碗!”“他们”指的是敢接敏感案件、敢说真话、不听招呼的 一小撮律师,“我们”指的是律师领导和司法局领导。后来果然有一些律师被砸了饭碗。律师要揣摩“上面”的意思,什么案件不能接,什么话不能说,唯唯诺诺, 战战兢兢,生怕年检通不过。这个时候,“尊严”是件挺奢侈的事情。

The annual inspection is unique to the Chinese legal system.  Lawyers need to receive a certification of qualification to be a lawyer and a lawyer’s license in order to practice.  But there is a gauntlet that must be run each year: the Law Bureau must put a stamp in the lawyer’s license each year in order for it to remain valid.   Lawyers who don’t obey go into a panic every May.  Under these circumstances, many lawyers won’t take sensitive cases, won’t take criminal cases, administrative cases, or sometimes not cases at all — just becoming a legal advisor who never goes to court.
“年 检”可算是具有中国特色的司法制度。本来拿到律师资格证和律师执照,就可以从事律师执业了,但每年都有一大关要过:司法局要在律师证上盖上打印,这个律师 证才继续有效。不听话的律师每到5月 份心里就没底儿。这种政策下,很多律师不接敏感案件、进而不接刑事案件,进而不接行政案件,甚至不接案件——只做非诉讼法律业务。

When the rights of a lawyer are violated, going to the Bar Association to protect you rights is no good.  While the Bar Association is on the surface a professional association, it is in fact a government organ wearing the clothing of an association.  They are in the pay of the Justice Bureau and are controlled by it.  Because of the shortcomings of the election system, the lawyer representatives cannot represent lawyers.  A lawyer tried to change the rules to direct elections for the Beijing Bar, and I also took part in this effort.  The reform failed and the lawyer who took the lead in this was denied an annual law license renewal and denied permission to work at another office or in another locality.
律师权 利受到侵犯时,指望律师协会出面维护权利,基本没戏。律师协会表面上是行业自律组织,但实际上是披着协会外衣的政府机构,是司法局的收费员和监控者。因为 选举弊端重重,律师代表基本代表不了律师。去年一些北京律师希望推动律师协会的直接选举,我也参与其中;结果革命尚未成功,牵头的律师于是被穿各种各样的 小鞋儿:不给年检、不给转所、不给换证……

This situation is not acceptable.  A bar association needs to be independent to have dignity.  I have visited some countries in the Americas and Europe.  Take France for an example: the legal profession is self-governing there; the government does not interfere.
这就不 对了。律师协会必须独立自治,才会有尊严。我访问欧美一些国家时,询问政府和律师协会的关系,人家告诉我说,没什么关系。以法国为例,律师协会只有一件事 儿是和政府打交道的,那就是律师参与法律援助的经费不够的时候,可以管政府要钱。举凡律师考试、资格颁发、纪律制定、惩戒、收费,政府均无权干涉。律师执 照每年由政府审查注册,简直是天方夜谭。

Back to China.   Chinese lawyers don’t take part in many criminal cases.  The most important reason is the risk involved.  There is Article 306 that terrorized lawyers — this is the crime of “faking evidence”.  This is one of those “Chinese characteristics” of the system.  This article has a very destructive effect on the legal profession.  Sometimes lawyers go to court to defend a client and the prosecutor puts handcuffs on the defense attorney.  No, this really happens, it isn’t just something out of a novel.
回头接 着说中国。刑事案件律师参率很低,除了专业、兴趣、经济收入的原因之外,更多的是风险。“306条”,让律师心惊胆寒:刑法专门为律师准备一个单独的罪名—— 律师伪证罪,这也算是中国特色了。这个条款对刑事律师行业的打击几乎是摧毁性的。有些律师在为被告人辩护之后,直接被检察院戴上手铐,从法庭上抓走,这绝 不是小说情节。

I like being defense counsel in criminal cases; these cases are the most exciting.  No matter how serious the crime the defendant may have committed, when he is taken in chains to the defendant’s seat, he is the weak one.  The criminal case argument process has even been called  “a war between the state and an individual citizen”.  It is hard to meet people, to get documents, to get testimony.  Most of the cases I have defended, my client was forced to make a confession.  But the court always refuses to consider my plea that the confession was coerced.  Even if I present evidence in front of the furious prosecutor, the court pretends not to notice.  This is because the courts are not independent — in many cases the judge is not in charge, and must obey the orders of the president of the court, the judgment committee; the court is afraid of offending public security, the Political and Legal Affairs Committee of the local Communist Party Committee, and the local Party Secretary.   A judge should be like in the western countries, very strong, even the President has to take an oath in front  of the judge.  Only then will the lawyer being able to persuade judges through legal arguments.  But if the judge cannot decide a case then neither lawyers nor judges will have their dignity.

我喜欢 刑事辩护,因为这更刺激。不管一个人犯下多么可怕的罪行,被逮捕关押送到被告席上,他都是一个弱者,刑事诉讼甚至被比作“国家与公民个人的一场战争”。会 见难、阅卷难、取证难,个个都是老大难。我介入的刑事案件里,绝大多数都有刑讯逼供现象。但在法庭上我提出刑讯逼供问题,法庭根本不接受;哪怕在虎视眈眈 的检察官面前拿出证据,法庭也视而不见。因为司法不独立,不少案子法官作不了主,要听庭长、院长、或审判委员会的,法院又不敢得罪公安局、政法委、党委书 记。——法官要像西方国家的同行那样,多牛啊,总统都要向大法官宣誓。律师的才能体现在,通过法庭辩论说服法官,但如果听审的法官决定不了案件,律师和法 官都不会有什么尊严。

During court arguments, judges are not able to remain impartial and often interrupt defense counsel.  According to my examination of Chinese court cases, no matter how complicated they are, they are nearly all completed in half a day.  A case that last more than two days is very rare.   No matter how much evidence or relevant laws or testimony that the defense has collected, the judges says, speak more simply, irrelevant, we don’t have time — these proceedings are concluded.

在辩护 过程中,法官有时候无法保持中立,屡屡打断律师发言。根据我对中国刑事司法实践的观察,不管多复杂多重大的案子,几乎都是半天完成,很少超过一天,超过两 天的就更是凤毛麟角。律师也许准备了一大堆证据,一大套法理,一大篇“结案陈词”,但是法官会说:“请你简单点儿”、“这个与本案无关”、“时间关系,庭 审到此结束”、“庭后提交书面辩护词吧。”——你想学林肯、丹诺,可你连随便站起来的权利都没有、不能在法庭上走动、希望出庭的证人都被拒绝、更没机会对 控方证人交叉询问、甚至想说的话都不能说完。你要惹法官不高兴,天津法官给你一老拳,云南法官没准儿把你铐在的篮球架上。我在石家庄辩护的一个案子,法官 很生气,后果是我被四个法警拎着胳膊腿儿扔出法院大门。你想刺激,想为正义而战,但得到的是一肚子委屈。

Dignity is in the details.  I visiting courts all around China, I made a profound observation:  the grander the court house, the bigger the courtroom door, the harder it is for lawyers and for ordinary people to get in.   They have to try to sneak in through the narrow side door.  With respect to the powerful ones, we can say that the courts have in effect disappeared; with respect to the powerless they have the function of cheating people.  Our legal system needs profound reforms if the people who work in the law are to be honored members of society.  Changes in the legal system must be embodied in the concrete actions of the people of the law: every time a court goes into session, in every defense argument, in every judgment, every time legislation is enacted.   I have been fighting for righteousness — that is the dignity of the people of the law.
尊严就 体现在细节之中。我到全国各地法院办案,有一个很深的体会:法院大楼越来越豪华气魄,大门越来越宽,但律师和群众从这里进不去——必须绕到侧面走窄窄的侧 门。往大了说是法院的位置没摆正,往小了说就是欺负人。这要改。我们的司法制度需要大力改革,才能有法律人的荣誉。而完善司法制度离不开法律人的具体行 动,每一次开庭,每一次辩护,每一个判决,每一个立法。我们曾经为正义而奋斗过,这就是法律人的尊严。

滕彪:法律人的尊严在 于独立

滕彪: 法律人的尊严在于独立【转载】(2010-03-21 10:03:09)转载标签:法律律师协会法官滕彪 中国教育 分类:法律人说

我学法 律、教法律,也做兼职律师,平时打交道的大多是各种各样的法律人。法律人包括法官、律师、检察官、法律学者等以法律为业的人。这个“业”不仅是职业(vocation)、专业(profession),更是一种志业(calling)。

法律人 的尊严直接体现着一个社会法治化的程度,而法治化是一个社会文明程度的重要标志。在砸烂公检法、“无法无天”的时代,法律人不可能有什么尊严,任何一个公 民也不可能有什么尊严。30年来,虽 然偶有曲折,但整个中国是在朝着法治化的方面迈进。虽然还有很多让人无法满意,但法律体制越来越完善、法律职业化程度和法律人的素质越来越高、法律规则在 管理社会中的作用越来越大,法律人的尊严感和每个公民的尊严感也在逐步提高。法袍取代大檐帽,绝不仅仅是形式上的改变,它改变的是法官的自我定位,是人们 对法律职业的理解。当然,为了配得上法袍、法槌和天平这种庄严的仪式感,我们还有很多工作要做。

比如 律师的权利问题。我喜欢看法律影片,看扣人心弦法庭辩论;而律师往往可以充分展露才华,或幽默风趣或大义凛然,或出奇制胜或绝地反击。在很多法律学子的眼 里,律师是最帅、最爽、最酷的职业。我结合自己的一些经历来说说律师的尊严。

要做律 师,首先要通过律师资格考试;现在是统一司法考试。本来法官、检察官和律师都属同一共同体,分享同样的知识、理念、思维方式,共同维护法律尊严,只是分工 不公。而且法官应该比律师平均水平高一些才对。律师要通过艰苦的学习和考试才能做,而在法庭上椅子更高的法官却可以是满脑子战争思维的复转军人,这其实让 双方都没面子。

本以 为律师职业是独立自治的,“有关部门” 和领导不会干涉太多。但很快发现事实并非如此。一个案子能不能 接,要经律所主任审查,尤其是涉及群体事件的或其他“敏感”的案件。除了有关部门成文的硬性规定和口头传达的“精神”之外,还有“自我审查”的因素;毕竟 司法局掌握着律师事务所的生杀大权,得罪不起。

更要命 的是律师的自我审查。某个律协会长在一次大会上公然叫嚣:“他们敢跟我们过不去,我们就砸他们饭碗!”“他们”指的是敢接敏感案件、敢说真话、不听招呼的 一小撮律师,“我们”指的是律师领导和司法局领导。后来果然有一些律师被砸了饭碗。律师要揣摩“上面”的意思,什么案件不能接,什么话不能说,唯唯诺诺, 战战兢兢,生怕年检通不过。这个时候,“尊严”是件挺奢侈的事情。

“年 检”可算是具有中国特色的司法制度。本来拿到律师资格证和律师执照,就可以从事律师执业了,但每年都有一大关要过:司法局要在律师证上盖上打印,这个律师 证才继续有效。不听话的律师每到5月 份心里就没底儿。这种政策下,很多律师不接敏感案件、进而不接刑事案件,进而不接行政案件,甚至不接案件——只做非诉讼法律业务。

律师权 利受到侵犯时,指望律师协会出面维护权利,基本没戏。律师协会表面上是行业自律组织,但实际上是披着协会外衣的政府机构,是司法局的收费员和监控者。因为 选举弊端重重,律师代表基本代表不了律师。去年一些北京律师希望推动律师协会的直接选举,我也参与其中;结果革命尚未成功,牵头的律师于是被穿各种各样的 小鞋儿:不给年检、不给转所、不给换证……

这就 不对了。律师协会必须独立自治,才会有尊严。我访问欧美一些国家时,询问政府和律师协会的关系,人家告诉我说,没什么关系。以法国为例,律师协会只有一件 事儿是和政府打交道的,那就是律师参与法律援助的经费不够的时候,可以管政府要钱。举凡律师考试、资格颁发、纪律制定、惩戒、收费,政府均无权干涉。律师 执照每年由政府审查注册,简直是天方夜谭。

回头接 着说中国。刑事案件律师参率很低,除了专业、兴趣、经济收入的原因之外,更多的是风险。“306条”,让律师心惊胆寒:刑法专门为律师准备一个单独的罪名—— 律师伪证罪,这也算是中国特色了。这个条款对刑事律师行业的打击几乎是摧毁性的。有些律师在为被告人辩护之后,直接被检察院戴上手铐,从法庭上抓走,这绝 不是小说情节。

我喜 欢刑事辩护,因为这更刺激。不管一个人犯下多么可怕的罪行,被逮捕关押送到被告席上,他都是一个弱者,刑事诉讼甚至被比作“国家与公民个人的一场战争”。 会见难、阅卷难、取证难,个个都是老大难。我介入的刑事案件里,绝大多数都有刑讯逼供现象。但在法庭上我提出刑讯逼供问题,法庭根本不接受;哪怕在虎视眈 眈的检察官面前拿出证据,法庭也视而不见。因为司法不独立,不少案子法官作不了主,要听庭长、院长、或审判委员会的,法院又不敢得罪公安局、政法委、党委 书记。——法官要像西方国家的同行那样,多牛啊,总统都要向大法官宣誓。律师的才能体现在,通过法庭辩论说服法官,但如果听审的法官决定不了案件,律师和 法官都不会有什么尊严。

在辩 护过程中,法官有时候无法保持中立,屡屡打断律师发言。根据我对中国刑事司法实践的观察,不管多复杂多重大的案子,几乎都是半天完成,很少超过一天,超过 两天的就更是凤毛麟角。律师也许准备了一大堆证据,一大套法理,一大篇“结案陈词”,但是法官会说:“请你简单点儿”、“这个与本案无关”、“时间关系, 庭审到此结束”、“庭后提交书面辩护词吧。”——你想学林肯、丹诺,可你连随便站起来的权利都没有、不能在法庭上走动、希望出庭的证人都被拒绝、更没机会 对控方证人交叉询问、甚至想说的话都不能说完。你要惹法官不高兴,天津法官给你一老拳,云南法官没准儿把你铐在的篮球架上。我在石家庄辩护的一个案子,法 官很生气,后果是我被四个法警拎着胳膊腿儿扔出法院大门。你想刺激,想为正义而战,但得到的是一肚子委屈。

尊严就 体现在细节之中。我到全国各地法院办案,有一个很深的体会:法院大楼越来越豪华气魄,大门越来越宽,但律师和群众从这里进不去——必须绕到侧面走窄窄的侧 门。往大了说是法院的位置没摆正,往小了说就是欺负人。这要改。我们的司法制度需要大力改革,才能有法律人的荣誉。而完善司法制度离不开法律人的具体行 动,每一次开庭,每一次辩护,每一个判决,每一个立法。我们曾经为正义而奋斗过,这就是法律人的尊严。

转载 自:  原载2010年第9期《中国新闻周刊》

About 高大伟 David Cowhig

Worked 25 years as a US State Department Foreign Service Officer including ten years at US Embassy Beijing and US Consulate General Chengdu and four years as a China Analyst in the Bureau of Intelligence and Research. Before State I translated Japanese and Chinese scientific and technical books and articles into English freelance for six years. Before that I taught English at Tunghai University in Taiwan for three years. And before that I worked two summers on Norwegian farms, milking cows and feeding chickens.
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