Kong Lingping’s “Bloody Chronicle”: The Privileged and a Tragic Love Story

Another excerpt from my draft translation of Kong Lingping’s Bloody Chronicles 

Section Three Privileged classes within the communal slave system

Xu Shikui, the top leader in the Sixth Brigade administration, understand both his role and how to play his role within the privileged groups. He well understood that the Communist dictatorship tightly circumscribed his authority. Only if he respected those limits could he retain his own special privileges. He knew that his own position and property that he could make use of were quite different than that of the traditional autocrats of ancient and backwards Chinese dynasties.

– 353 –

在他管辖下,分布在三坡夹两沟足有两千亩的旱地,以及谷底的五百亩水稻田,上百头 大小牲畜,在名义上属于国家的公有财产,但是没有主的财产,是根本不会有的。抽象属于全 民所有制的生产资料,是无法运行并保存下去的。

实际上,农六队所有的生产活动的指挥权,基本上都掌握在他的手里。日常安排两百多 号劳动力的苦役,决定什么时候从事农耕,什么时间新修水利,什么时候安排通知场部的拖拉 机来翻耕土地,什么时候买什么化肥,饲料种子和农药,怎样分配所收的农副产品,蔬菜瓜果, 连什么时候把出槽的肥猪送给场部等等全都要经过他的批准,或直接由他定夺。

表面上他只是一个名义上的队长,实际上是这个小小农场的主人。

(一)特权 不过,权力形成的过程中不断翻新的运动,使他养成了按规矩办事的习惯,他明白弄得

不好,“走资派”的帽子可以随时套在自己头上,丢官不说,还要使他倾家荡产,被人抓住政 治上的把柄,抓进监狱使他遭到灭顶之灾。

Under his jurisdiction were 2000 mu (330 acres) including including three hillsides, two gullies of dry land, 500 mu (80 acres) of rice paddy on the valley floor as well as a hundred head of livestock large and small. In principle this was all state-owned communal property but there could not really be property without an owner. Production material which abstractly belonged to the state could not be managed or maintained.

He in fact managed all the production of the Sixth Agricultural Brigade. He managed every day a labor force of 200 people. He gave permission to others to decide or decided himself just when to work the land, when the irrigation system was to be improved or repaired, when the farm headquarters tractors came to plow the land, when the fertilizer would be applied, when the seeds for the animal feed were sown, when pesticides were applied, how to distribute the harvested agricultural by-products and vegetables and even when fat pigs were to be sent to farm headquarters.

He was called the brigade leader but in actual fact he was the master of a small farm.

(1) Special privileges

The process by which power was constituted was however in a constant state of flux. This made him adhere strictly to the rules because he knew that if he did not do well, he was vulnerable at any moment to accusation that he was a “capitalist-roader”. Not only would he lose his job but his family would lose all they possessed and he would be arrested on some political pretext and thrown into prison.

所以他做的所有事,都必须按中共中央的规定办。他可以任意地奴役和驱使两百多号劳 动力,但必须表现他的忠于职守;在政治上,他只要严格管住自己的嘴,从不产生与组织相悖 的丁点想法,不说任何有违党中央的话,不做任何规定之外的事,也不超越他的党给他的那份 待遇,虽然,他的组织发生最高权力的交替,连他自己都捉摸不定。

在平均主义低工资的标准下,他过的日子远远超过了农场的普通员工。1969 年他把老婆 孩子以及丈母娘从偏辟农村里迁到这里来,一家四口凭他每月仅四十元钱的工资,过着应有就 有的日子。

举一个同样一家四口,工资仅比他少六元一个月的高士清一家作一对比,高士清的一家 四口,加上一个能干勤劳的老婆金梅拼命的干活,还不能维持一家人最穷苦的生活,1964 年 金梅大闹管教科,是在连饭都吃不上的情况下,被逼着为生存而发生的,便足可勾画出普遍就 业人员的穷愁潦倒,金梅带着孩子要上邓扬光家讨饭吃的悲剧,是农场里尽人皆知的事。

然而同样四口之家,同样工资收入的徐世奎,却过着完全不同的日子,住着两间一厨的 套房,按照国家的标准只收了每月五角钱的像征性的水电房租,房间里装修用的高档木料,油 漆得光亮亮的家具,都按场部的内部价格支付。

Therefore he did everything according to the regulations laid down by the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party. He could do anything he wanted to enslave and spur his slave labor force of two hundred to greater efforts but he had to be devoted to duty. In politics, he had to be very careful about everything he said so he get into trouble with the party organization. He could not say anything that contradicted the policies, guidelines and regulations of the Communist Party Central Committee and not nothing beyond what the party allowed him in compensation. He did all this although he himself had simply no idea about how changes in the upper leadership in his own organization were carried out.

By the low salaries prevailing under communalism, he had a much more comfortable life than the the ordinary farm workers. In 1969, after his wife, children and mother-in-law had all moved to the farm. His family of four relied on his salary of just 40 renminbi a month.

For the sake of comparison, consider the family of Gao Shiqing who earned 6 RMB less each month less than he did. Gao’s family of four, including his hardworking wife Jin Mei, were still unable to provide for their family at even the most miserable standard or living.

In 1964, Jin Mei had gotten into a big argument with the Discipline and Education Department since her family didn’t have enough to eat. She was forced to get into that argument in order to survive. That is enough to make you understand how desperate were the miseries and worries of the ordinary workers on the farm. The story of the tragedy of Jin Mei, who then had taken her her children to beg at the door of Deng Yangguang, is all you need to know about how difficult things were for the farm workers.

Another family of four with the same income, the family of Xu Shikui, lived at a completely different standard of living. They lived in a home with two rooms and a kitchen. They only paid the state a symbolic half RMB per month for rent, water and electric power. Their rooms were constructed of high quality wood and they had fine quality gleaming bright painted furniture purchased at a concessionary price from farm headquarters.

毛泽东那个全民穷人的年代,特权者的福利待遇是按照“供给制”的标准供给的。一家 人的伙食除了按国家定量的粮食、布匹之外,每天所消费的蔬菜肉类油类统统按内部价格计算, 中共这种“内部”价格的供应,是特权的人们才能享受的待遇!所以,他们的日常生活完全不 符合商品社会公平交易原则。

我在这里无法列举徐队的所有经济活动,仅仅列举了公开暴露的部份。 至于徐队还要经常在家里款待周围的生产队长和厂部的同事们,吃酒划拳,馈赠亲友可

以按照统一的标准与以报销,虽然六队名义上并不属于他私有,但只要他没有违忤他的组织,

– 354 –

在任期内,可以支配他所管辖下的任何物资。

During the era of Mao Zedong while the entire nation lived in poverty, welfare and special compensation were provided to privileged people according to a “rationing system”. Except for the food and cloth provided for family members in state-specified quantities, all the vegetables, meat and the vegetable oils they consumed daily were all purchased at internal prices and provided according to the “internal” pricing system established by the Chinese Communist Party. This system provided special compensations enjoyed by privileged people! Therefore they lived their daily lives completely outside the ordinary commodities market system in which goods were exchanged under the principle of fair pricing.

I can’t list for you all the economic activities of brigade leader Xu. I can just tell you that part of it that was became known later. Since Brigade leader Xu needed to often entertain at his home his counterparts — production brigade leaders and factory leaders from the surrounding area — the food and the licquor consumed during parties, the games, and the gifts given could all be expensed and paid for according to a special uniform standard. Although the Sixth Brigade was not officially his private property, as long as he did not go against the Party organization, he could make use of it of its property as he saw fit.

他可以以工作名义报销额外开支,这些开支根本是他的那点工资无法支付的;他可以从 一个队调到另一个队去当队长继续维持着他的权力。

中共公有制,实际上是一个社会小集团,占有表面属于公有,实际上属于一批人私有的 经济,这是毛泽东想建立的初期专制社会经济基础。

每天早上他都站在监狱的大铁门边,看着一个又一个从他身边走过的作业组,心中马上 盘算起每一个组今天的作业地点,检查各组在出工时是否做好了今天劳动的准备,带上该带的 工具,种子和化肥。

在铁门边最后送走了蔬菜组的组员,便叫住了从岗楼里出来的夏守愚,问当天驻军要他 送什么菜,叮嘱他必须在九点钟准时把菜办好给他们送去。

同时还将一只早已准备好的菜篮子交给他,要他在办老管的菜时,顺便也带办他家一天 所需要的菜蔬。

Brigade Leader Xu Shikui could charge all his additional spending as his work expenses. These expenses went far beyond what his own personal compensation could provide for. He could transfer from one brigade to another and continue to maintain his authority and privileges.

The public ownership system of the Chinese Communist Party was in fact the private property economy of a small social group run under the pretense of being a communal system. That was the socio-economic foundation for the initial phase of the autocracy that Mao Zedong established.

Every morning Xu stood outside the big iron prison gates and watched the work groups walk by him one-by-one. He had calculated where every work group would go each day. He checked whether each group had prepared for work the work of the day by along the tools, seeds and fertilizer that they would need in the fields.

When the members of the vegetable garden group were the last to go out the iron gate, he would ask Xia Shouyu who had just come from the watchtower what vegetables the garrison wanted that day. He would then tell the vegetable group to deliver those vegetables promptly to the garrison at 9 AM.

He asked them to also to deliver to him a specially prepared vegetable basket. When he had to have food prepared for the prison officials, he would have the vegetable group take the food that would be needed to his home that day.

这夏守愚,之所以一直处在比六队任何囚奴特殊的环境里,就因为他像一条狗一样监视 着蔬菜组的犯人,同时他能准确地领会队长交给他的特殊差事。

仅就他给队长家送去的菜,绝对是菜园地最好的品种,价格是由场部规定的,但在数量 和品种上都是象征性的开了个数,仅这项每天所消耗的蔬菜,几乎是没花钱就由这夏守愚源源 不断供给的。

在目送着夏守愚走后,他习惯的顺脚走下大监铁门前面那条通向一号沟的小道,这是一 块二十亩的高产包谷地。最近他便在这块最肥沃的旱地上,种上了一片由他最先重新疆引进的 核桃林。

五年前场部林场的果木专家组,在为农场规划今后所发展的果木栽培计划时,根据这里 的土壤和地理气候条件,提出了一个培植核桃和板栗的种植计划。

为了取得从来没有在这里种植新品试种依据,林业组提出了小面积试种的计划。颇有心 计的徐世奎,主动承接了这个试种的计划:划出一号沟包谷地,组织了专门的试种人员,从场 部接回五十颗树苗,从栽插到施肥,治虫剪枝经过了两年时间,这批树苗长到了两米多高,长 势很好,到了第三年以后,便正式的封林结果。

自从一号沟栽上这片核桃林后,他每天早上守着大家出工后,都要先在这里转上一转, 晚上吃过晚饭后,他还要带上自己的老婆孩子在这里散步。

Xia Shouyu held such a privileged position amongst the slaves of the Sixth Brigade because he was entrusted with watching closely all prisoner activities in the vegetable garden. He also ran special errands that the brigade leader had given him.

Xu gave the brigade leader the best vegetables in the vegetable garden. Prices were set by farm headquarters but those numbers were just notional prices chose various kinds and quantities of vegetables. The vegetables that Xia Shouyu provided daily were essentially free of charge.

After watching Xia Shouyu leave, Xu usually walked along the small path in front of the prison gate to the first ravine. These three acres of highly productive land on the valley floor. Recently he had planted on that fertile dry land a grove of walnut trees he brought with him from Xinjiang when he first arrived.

Five years earlier, the fruit tree expert group from farm headquarters, when they drew up the plan for planting fruit trees, had proposed a plan to plant walnut trees and chestnuts.

In order to get evidence that new varieties that had never been planted there would do well, the forestry group proposed a plant to polant a small area. Xu Shikui, who was always making plans, took on this plan for an experimental plot. He set aside some land in the valley bottom of the first ravine and organized a special group to create the experimental plot. He got fifty seedlings from farm headquarters. In the two years since they had been planted, fertilized, protected from insects and pruned, these seedlings grew two meters tall. The were growing well so by the third year they had formally proved out the original forestry plan.

Ever since that walnut grove was grown on that land in the first ravine, he liked to walk over there after he had seen off all the work groups on their way to their worksites. Evenings after supper he liked to go out there and walk around with his wife and children.

1972 年,他的核桃林开始结果,这一年秋天五十颗核桃树回报了总共四百斤的核桃,试 栽成功后,他便将一号沟的包谷地全部栽上了核桃。在结果时派专人日夜守护,到了九月份临 近核桃的收获季节,园子里便增派了一条大狼狗,并向六队的囚奴们宣布,任何人禁止随意进

入园区。

In 1972, his walnut grove started to produce walnuts. In the autumn of that year the fifty walnut trees repaid them with a harvest of 400 pounds of walnuts. After the trial planting had proved successful, he had the entire valley floor of the first ravine planted in walnut trees. At harvest time he send people to watch over the walnut groves day and night. In September when the walnut harvest season approached, he put a big dog in the walnut grove and announced to the slaves of the Sixth Brigade that they were all forbidden to enter the grove area without first getting permission.

– 355 –

收获的时候,整个的打桃、捡桃他都专门派蔬菜一组的人去完成,他自己亲自带着大狼 狗,守在从铁门到一号沟的唯一很窄的过路上。直到装满核桃的大箩筐在严密监视下,一箩一 箩的运进他指定堆放的队部办公室,并亲自上锁。

核桃从栽树,浇水,中耕管理流过汗水的奴隶们,谁都没有尝过这核桃是什么味。 在那个年代,核桃是在市场上绝迹许多年的滋补品!价值高达每公斤五十元。从此掌握

在徐老大手里的每年几千公斤核桃,便被他当成了交际应酬,巴结上级的最好礼品。每年他除

了上交场部和送给驻军的一部份外,还用它们打通与六队有一定业务关系的客人。

当然,他还必须注意对六队的干部们一碗水端平,免得因分脏不均,造成他的同事们相 互“狗咬狗”。

除了核桃的开发取得成功,大片的苹果树早已成林,在山地上繁衍大片的果林并不容易。 盐源风季特长,在第二年雨季尚未到来时,山上红土地里经过几个月干旱没有一点水份,

种的果树苗全靠奴隶们的双肩,将水从低谷的溪沟,一挑一挑翻坡上岭的浇灌,否则将成片干

死。

At harvest time, at special group within the vegetable did all the knocking down and inspection of walnuts. His own big German Shepherd was kept guard on the very narrow path between the iron gate and the first ravine until the big baskets full of walnuts had been carefully inspected and moved, one-by-one, to the designated brigade office and he had personally locked them in the office.

The slaves who had sweated to plant and water the walnuts and to intertill in the walnut grove never got to taste the walnuts. In those days, walnuts were a delicacy that hadn’t been on the market in years! Walnut prices went as high as 50 RMB per kilogram. The several tons of walnuts in Old Man Xu’s hands because a social currency that he used to fawn on his superiors. Every year he gave walnuts not only to his superiors and to the brigade but also to built relationships with guests who had regular work connections to the Sixth Brigade.

Naturally, he had to take care to treat the Sixth Brigade cadres fairly so as to avoid dog-eat-dog jealousies and fights breaking out between colleagues if he favored one over the other. In addition to the successful with walnuts, there was also the big now-mature apple orchard. Spreading groves of fruit trees on the mountainsides was not easy. Yanyuan’s windy season was longer than most and so by the time the rainy season began in the next year, the red mountain soil had not had a drop of rain for several months. The seedlings depended completely on slave-carried water humped up the mountain from the small stream in the ravines a bucket at a time. If it were not for that water, all the fruit tree groves would die of thirst.

靠水近的果树苗,两年后就开花结果,到夏天长得郁郁葱葱的果树,带给徐世奎丰收的 窃喜。于是他将所属的几千棵果树用竹篱围成了果林,每到夏季果子成熟季节,便派人巡回防 守。

为防止饥饿的囚奴摘未熟果子充饥,他增加了两头训练有素的恶犬,来回巡守,并宣布 严厉的纪律。

从每年六月份结果,到十月份收摘时,果园的竹篱笆上挂着:“闲人严禁入内”的警示牌, 规定凡私自超越篱笆偷摘苹果,一切后果自负。但是成天在地里干活的奴隶们那能禁得住?凡 捉住偷吃苹果者都要抓到岗楼下进行“反省”,轻则挨打重则挨捆。

八月中旬,果子已渐成黄橙色,每遇大风雨之夜,满地落果,奴隶们就是看见了,也不 敢私自偷越那警示牌。那些落果徐世奎都派饲养员专门去捡来喂猪,也不准成天劳累的流放者 吃一个!邓自新们又成了新的受罚者。

所以这里长出来的每一个果子都带着血腥味。

Seedlings that depened upon nearby water supplies bloomed in their second year. The groves were greenery and lushness of the groves in summer made Xu Shikui happy. Therefore he had the groves of several thousand trees surrounded by a bamboo fence. When the groves matured in the summer, he would send patrols to guard them.

In order to prevent slaves from picking and eating immature fruit, he put two well-trained vicious dogs on patrol in the grove and announced strict rules.

From June when the trees started to bear fruit until harvest time in October, there was a warning sign posted on the bamboo fence that read “No entry to unauthorized persons”. He ordered that anyone who went through the bamboo fence to steal apples would bear responsibility for the consequences. But how could that stop the slaves who worked there all day long? Anyone caught eating stolen apples would be seized immediately and sent to the circle for “meditation” on their misdeeds beneath the watchtower. The would be beaten for less serious offenses and tied up for more serious offenses.

1969 年开始,六队的果木林就在充满血腥味的环境下,由每年收摘几百斤,达到年产 几十吨水平。这些果子是不属于粮食类的三类物资,不必上交场部,全部留给了队长们变卖和 “内部调剂”。

徐世奎用来学会建立公共关系,也学会贿赂上级部门。

(二)小秋收 权力在他的手中运用得十分得体,凭他掌握的农产品,在这里换来所需的东西,他虽不

是地主、资本家,实际上比一切剥削者更贪婪的进行掠夺。

From 1969 onwards, under the Sixth Brigade orchard’s regime of bloody terror harvests climbed from several hundred kilograms per year to several tens of tons per year. Since the fruit did not fall into the third category of food products, they did not have to be consigned to farm headquarters. The brigade leader could sell or “distribute internally” the entire harvest.

Xu Shikui learned how to build public relations and how to bribe his superiors.

(2) The harvest of “minor crops”

He effectively used his power. He traded his agricultural products for what he needed. Although he was not a landlord or a capitalist, he was even more greedy and rapacious than all those exploiters.

– 356 –

六队的狱吏,基本是六十年代从部队退役的军人,退役后,头一件事便是从家乡或附近 农村中,挑选一个农家女结婚成家、生儿育女,在劳改队里扎下根。

五月下旬和九月秋收,忙坏了从农村迁来的狱吏“家眷”。初来六队的家属胆子还很小, 捡了地里的一株麦穗,也要看看周围有没有人看见。

后来跟着徐世奎的媳妇一道下地。那女人说:“看,这些抛洒在地里的庄稼多可惜,我们 如果不捡还不是被周围的农民捡去了。”

她们管这种将抛洒地里的庄稼,捡回自己家里的行为叫“小秋收!”一年下来,一个人可 以拣到几百斤粮食,比供应的口粮还多!

分到队里担任干事的男人们,跟着徐世奎,学会如何无情驱使奴隶们从早到晚干活;学 会了利用各种“狗们”给他们提供各种“情报”,对付那些不听话的“反改造份子”。更多学会 了如何利用本队资源,为老婆孩子们过得更富裕一点创造条件。

The Sixth Brigade jailers were all military men who had retired during the 1960s. Their first task after demobilization was to choose a girl from their hometown or a nearby village to marry and start a family, had children and put down roots in the reform through labor brigade.

The second half of May and the September harvest exhausted the wives and family who have moved there from the countryside. At first the Sixth Brigade families were still timid and would look around to see if anyone was watching when they picked an ear of wheat.

Later, they would go out to work in the fields with the wife of Xu Shikui. She would say to them, “Look, there crops left behind in the fields scattered all around here. If we don’t pick them then the peasant families all around here will pick them.” They learned more about how to take advantage of brigade resources to give their wives and children a better life.

当他们看到徐老大不花一分钱,就为自己的小家庭修了“土别墅”,于是利用当年闹地震, 场部专门调拨用来修地震棚的材料和资金,紧靠徐老大的“别墅”,新修起一幢幢新的土别墅, 比徐老大更气派更适用。

在这些新的土别墅外围,修起了饲养鸡、兔的圈。两口子配合得非常默契,用从地里捡 回的粮食,不花一分钱地养起了家禽牲畜。在六十年代被割去的“资本主义”尾巴,到这时, 便公开在自己的特权下,迅速长起来了。

至于每天这些小家庭所消耗的蔬菜,那是徐老大按“供给制”规定好了,只要向夏守愚 打一声招呼,那人就会将上好的蔬菜,准时的送到各家去,这些菜只是像征性的记了一个斤两。

每年抢收季节,徐世奎用一切办法,驱使瘦弱的奴隶们完成超强度的劳动定额,但奴隶 们只将成熟的庄稼砍倒在地,没有割净没有收完的麦穗谷刁到处都是,尤其是借包谷杆隐藏的 包谷就更多了。

开始,郭川小把饲养员叫去,跟在收割的大队伍后面,明确规定,捡到的粮食,由各饲 料房自行使用。但是饲养员捡这些东西对他们本人没有任何用处,何况同干部家属争抢又何 苦?得罪了这些女人等于得罪了这些管自己的干部,于已十分不利。

When they saw how Xu Shikui, without spending any money at all, build a small “simple country villa” for his small family, and made use of relief funds and materiel that farm headquarters had sent after an earthquake to repair earthquake shelters, they followed the example of Old Xu’s “villa” to expand their own homes into “country villas” that were even bigger and more comfortable than Xu’s.

They built gardens next to these country villas and fenced off areas to raise chickens and rabbits. Husband and wife had a tacit agreement to use the food they found on the picked over fields to feed their chickens and livestock without spending any money. During the 1960s, the tail of “capitalism” had been cut off. By now, by openly taking advantage of their special privileges, they were quickly growing it back again.

The vegetables that these small households consumed each day had been all arranged by Xu within his “supply system”. They only had to say a word to Xia Shouyu to have someone would deliver the best vegetables to their homes. The quantity delivered was recorded as a symbolic one pound.

Every year during the rush to bring the harvest in, Xu Shikui did everything he could to force the thin and weak slaves to fulfill and exceptionally demanding labor quota. The slaves however, would simply cut down the mature crops and leave them on the ground. Everywhere there were ears of wheat that hadn’t been cut or hadn’t been brought in. Hiding ears of corn was a particularly serious problem.

At first, Guo Chanxiao would call together the people raising animals to follow after the harvest brigade. He ordered that any food that they picked was to be put into the animal feed storage sheds. But the feed people had no personal use for the feed and moreover, why should they be competing with the cadre families? Offending those women was the same thing as offending the cadres who managed them and so would certainly not be to their advantage.

偏偏徐世奎又将饲养房调来捡麦穗的人,调到晒场上担任粮食收藏的工作。他之所以作 这样安排,不无他的私心作祟,收割人抛洒在地里的粮食,是这些队部家属最丰富的小秋收收 获啊!

抛洒在地里的粮食,偏又被在附近放牧的老乡们发现了。不知从什么时候开始,农场收 割的地盘上引来了越来越多的公社社员,他们背着大箩筐也跟在小秋收的队伍里,与这些干部 家属争抢着洒在地上的谷刁,徜被徐老大看见后,便叫值班士兵驱赶这些社员们。

山里人生性粗野,这些年人民公社造成的饥饿逼迫他们!直到七十年代,社员从公社土 地上挣得的口粮,长期不敷果腹。生存使他们对政府忍无可忍。

Perversely Xu Shikui transferred people who were collecting ears of wheat for the feed shed to the wheat threshing ground where they took charge of storing food. He did that entirely to serve his own purposes. The food that the harvesters left in the fields was the most generous harvest of “minor crops” that the cadre families ever had!

The food scattered in the fields was also discovered by nearby peasants who were grazing their livestock. I don’t know what it all started, but more and more commune members started coming to the area of the farm where wheat was being reaped. Carrying big baskets, they followed the “minor crops” harvesting group. They were completing with the cadre families for the grain left behind in the fields. When Old Xu found out what was happening, he sent soldiers on duty to drive out those commune members.

The mountain people lived a rough life. They suffered terribly from the starvation that the people’s communes had forced on them. For a long time, even into the 1970s, the food that the commune members won from their hard work in the fields wasn’t enough to fill their bellies. Their determination to survive made them put up with the government’s unbearable treatment of them.

– 357 –

他们把自己的穷苦,部份归罪于来这里开办农场的劳改队,口口声声说盐源农牧场从他 们手中占去了他们的土地;山坡上被开垦出来的红土地,使他们失去了放养牲口的天然牧场。

所以,他们一开始就怀着敌意,注视着农场的一举一动。平时,在农场的土地上偷成熟 的庄稼,成了极平常的事。现在在收割的土地上,捡一点洒在地里的包谷、穗株是天经地义的!

所以,他们对徐世奎的禁令置若罔闻,捡庄稼的农民反而有增无减。有一天徐老大带着 人,从捡山的妇女手中没收了她们的背兜。

可是徐老大没有料到,这些被搜去背兜的女人并没离开,而是守在徐老大的归徒必经的 过道口,等收工后,趁他只有一个人回队时,十几名妇女便拦住了他的归路,向他索要被“没 收”的背兜,她们拿着棍棒,捏着石头块,如果不是看山人及时赶到,徐老大定会遭到她们一 顿暴打。

The reform through labor brigade operating there was responsible for some of the poverty which they suffered. They often complained that the Yanyuan Farm was occupied part of their land. Developing the red earth on the mountainsides made them lose natural pasturelands for raising livestock.

Therefore they always saw the Farm as their enemy and watched its every move. In ordinary times, stealing mature crops from the fields was a common occurrence. Now it became a very common occurrence. Now picking corn or ears of grain in fields being harvested was perfectly right and proper!

Therefore they paid no attention to the prohibitions posted by Xu Shikui. The number of peasants only kept increasing. One day Old Man Xu brought along some people who confiscated a sack from a woman who was collecting food on the mountain.

Perhaps Old Man Xu hadn’t realized that that woman from whom the backpack had been confiscated not only wouldn’t leave, she would block the path that Old Man Xu would have to pass through to go home. After work was done, taking advantage of a moment when he was the only one returned from the brigade, a dozen or more women blocked his way home and asked him for the backpack that he had “confiscated”. The carried clubs and held stones in their hands. If some mountain men had not arrived on the scene in time, the women would have beaten up Old Man Xu.

经过这次惊赫,徐老大通过上司,同公社武装部的民兵协商,达成协议,公社的社员们 可以捡掉在地里的庄稼,但一定要与六队的收割队保持三十米的距离,跟在队上小秋收队伍后 面才被允许,这种现象一直延续到文革结束。

人生来就想富裕起来,在农场的土地上,狱吏的家属在地里捡到的庄稼,除供给他们喂 鸡、养兔所需外,还拿到市场上与农民们交换成粮票寄回他们老家,这恐怕也只有毛泽东时代 的狱头,才有这种得天独厚的额外收入。

这种“小秋收”也给长期关押狱中的男奴隶,一次接触异性的机会,跟在奴隶们身后的 干部家属,本来就是一群从农村里来的女人,平时他们被监狱的隔墙所阻,在严密监视下没有 和囚奴接触的机会。

被专政划定的界线,使她们同她们男人一样,对这些奴隶保持着冷竣的态度。可是在小 秋收“战场”上,这种近距离的收割,完全打破了彼此不知不理的屏障,提供了男人群体与紧 跟其后的女人群体有说有笑的交流机会。

After several scares like this, Old Man Xu working through his superiors, made an agreement with the people’s militia of the armed department of the commune, that commune members were allowed to collect crops that were lying in the fields but that they had to keep a distance of at least 30 meters from the crop harvesters of the Sixth Brigade. Harvesting minor crops was finally allowed on Brigade lands. That kind of thing continued right up to the end of the Cultural Revolution.

People naturally want to get richer. Jailer families not only used the crops that collected crops on the land of the Farm to feed their chickens and rabbits but also took them to the markets to exchange with the peasants for ration coupons. During the Mao Zedong era they may have been the only ones to enjoy the great privilege of getting outside income.

This kind of “minor crop” harvesting also gave male slaves who had been imprisoned for a long time an opportunity for contact with the opposite sex. In addition to the family members of cadres, there was a group of women who came from the village. Ordinarily they were blocked by the wall around the prison and so they had no opportunity to meet the prisoner who were under strict surveillance.

The strict boundaries set by the dictatorship made them have, like the men, a cold attitude towards the slaves. However, on the “battlefield” of minor crop collection, when they were following them closely during the harvest, completely broke down this barrier that had made the two groups unaware of one another. This gave the the group of men a chance to talk and to laugh with the group of women who were following close behind them.

本来就已被高额劳动折磨得精疲力竭的奴隶们,发现与异性的“交流”,有剌激神经达到 消除疲劳的作用,奴隶中本来就有许多刑事份子,他们中不乏相貌英俊的小伙子,而干部家属 的女人中也有敢于打破“封建观念”,举行突围的风情女子,他们在同一块地里,不免眉眼传 情发生莞尔一笑的时候。

有时,女人们对向她们有意投来的包谷注视良久,时间久了便有难以克制的冲动,在包 谷林中靠茂密的庄稼作掩护,双方第一次牵手,并迅速交换了相约的纸条,使这种久积的感情 得到突破,超越在常人眼里很难突破的禁区。

但是男女间这种极令人敏感的突破,最容易被其它的女人查觉。日子久了,麻雀飞过都 有影子,扉闻便在女人中传开了,也预示着一场预想不到的灾难悄悄地逼近了牵手者。

在农六队最后几年岁月里,暂时拘禁过几个刑期很短的刑事犯,按照共产党的政策,这 些刑事犯法者,仍被当成“内部矛盾”看待。

“Exchanges” with the opposite sex stimulated the spirits that had been worn down by their high work quotas so that they no longer felt tired. Among the slaves were many criminals including many handsome young men. Some of the women from the cadre families dared to break with “feudal ideas” and give vent to their amorous feelings. Working at close quarters in the fields they sometimes ogled and smiled at the men.

Sometimes women would watch attentively the men who were throwing ears of corn to them. After a long while, they felt hard to control their impulses. Under the cover of the tall cornstalks they held hands and quickly exchanged notes on where they would meet next time. These breakthroughs of long pent up emotions smashed through taboos that would ordinarily be very hard to break.

This kind of very sensitive breakthrough in the the relationship between men and women was however easy for the other women to discover. After a while, since even flying birds have shadows, news about these things spread among the women. This was to bring a disaster that the couples had not anticipated.

During the last few years of the Sixth Agricultural Brigade, people who had been imprisoned for very brief periods for criminal offenses, were according to the policy of the Communist Party, treated as criminals guilty only of “contradictions among the people”.

– 358 –

为了某些利用目的,允许他们能单独出入六队大门,并容许他们在监狱之外过夜。其中 有一个小伙子,白净的脸皮和周正的五官,颇受家属们注目。

六队自张事务长被老管们用棍棒打出六队后,接替他的位子是一个姓王的干事,此人因 小儿麻痹症成了先天性跛子,偏偏他的妻却是一个性欲很强的女子,为什么要嫁给一个跛子我 不知道,其中定有她难以启齿的原因,她因自己的男人在生理上无法满足自己,在场部家属圈 就有各种关于她的蜚言。

王跛子主动请求调来六队,恐怕就含着割断这个女人同场部相好们的联系,平息她各种 风言风语的目的。

本来,王跛子可以甩掉这个女人,可是他却偏偏要缠住她,尽管她一再提出离婚,却遭 到王跛子的拒绝。在那种条件下,与狱吏的女人私通是要以“破坏”军婚罪名论处的。

For certain purposes, these people were allowed to enter on their own the main gates of the Sixth Brigade by themselves and were allowed to live outside the prison at night. Among them was one well made young fellow who got special attention from the cadre families.

The cadre who took the place of Administrator Zhang after the older cadres drove him out with clubs was surnamed Wang. Wang was lame because he had had polio as a child. Unfortunately, his wife who had a very strong sex drive. I don’t know why she married a lame person. There must have been some reason which she didn’t want to say. There was a lot of gossip about her among the cadre families because her husband was unable to satisfy her physically.

When Lame Wang asked to be transferred to the Sixth Brigade, I suspect that he did it to cut off that woman’s contact with people she was on intimate terms with at farm headquarters and so to put end to all the slanderous gossip.

Lame Wang could have gotten rid of that women but instead he wanted to tie her down. Although she repeatedly asked for a divorce Lame Wang always refused. Under those circumstances, if she had sexual relations outside of marriage it could be treated as the “crime of breaking up the marriage of a soldier”.

调六队没有多久,这女人在秋收中遭遇了同这小白脸的“秋波战”,不久双双坠入情网。 也不知什么时候两人突破禁区,有了秘密的约会!小白脸利用他可以单独行动的机会,

两人开始暗中私通,然而麻雀飞过都留影子,何况这女人在场部就有名气,肯定惹人上眼。两

人在场部私会的消息,经过家属中那些长舌妇女的传播,祸事终于降到了“小白脸”的头上。

十月间一天中午,小白脸被五花大梆地捆回了六队,并且关进了反省室。送来的那一天 他已被打得头破血流,遍体鳞伤。据说,当天中午时分在农三队后面的草树中,两人赤身裸体 被王跋子在这里来了个“捉奸”拿双。

王跛子找来的帮手,将小白脸痛打了一顿。女人反正已撕破了脸,只受了一顿羞辱。而 吃亏的当然是“罪上加罪”的小白脸,好大色胆的囚犯,竟敢动到狱吏的头上来了,肯定不会 轻饶!

Soon after being transferred to the Sixth Brigade, that woman was the harvest time object of a good-looking young man’s “battle to win a woman’s heart”. Soon the two fell to love’s snare. I don’t know just when the two broke taboo and had a secret meeting! The handsome young man took advantage of his ability to move freely and so the two met frequently in the dark for their adulterous affair. However, since even a flying sparrow has a shadow, and even more because that woman was well known on the farm, she was bound to get into trouble. The news that they two were meeting secretly on the farm spread by word of mouth about the gossipy women on the farm. Disaster finally struck the “handsome young man”.

不过,两类人员中,广为传播这一则“佳话”,沸沸扬扬的人言,首先幸灾乐祸取笑那六 根不全的王跛子。若按他先天的残疾本可赢得人们几声同情,但他却属于令人痛恨的狱吏,反 而替女人说话的人占了上风!说她是一个敢顶着专政压力,寻求自我解放的女人。

从那以后,我就再没有看见过她,有人说她被王瘸子五花大绑的捆回了她的原藉。有人 说,她失踪了,八成被王瘸子黑办了。而等待小白脸的是法院的严厉判处。不过这一事件的主 人公,在关押囚奴的劳改场所,上演了一幕悲剧。

他们敢于藐视“无产阶级专政”的血盆大口,以血的代价唱出他们追求幸福的一曲。值 得盐源农场失去一切的人们称赞。

However this “much-told tale” spread among the two types of personnel on the farm. Everybody was talking about it. The one who came off worst was handicapped Lame Wang who was ridiculed by people who took pleasure in other people’s misfortunes. Although people might have sympathized with him because of his handicap, he did nonetheless fall into the hated category of jailer and so instead those men who took their wives’ part won out! They said she was a woman who strove to liberate herself from dictatorial oppression.

I didn’t see her after that. Some people said that Lame Wang tied her up thoroughly and sent her back to her home village. Some people say she disappeared and that it was very likely that Lame Wang was the one responsible. We heard that the handsome young man had been punished severely in court. He had turned out to be the lead in the tragedy that occurred during his imprisonment with the slaves of the Sixth Brigade.

Those who ignore the bloody mouth of the “dictatorship of the proletariat” pay a price in blood for trying to find happiness. This is one reason why the Yanyuan Farm was such a terrible place.

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About 高大伟 David Cowhig

Worked 25 years as a US State Department Foreign Service Officer including ten years at US Embassy Beijing and US Consulate General Chengdu and four years as a China Analyst in the Bureau of Intelligence and Research. Before State I translated Japanese and Chinese scientific and technical books and articles into English freelance for six years. Before that I taught English at Tunghai University in Taiwan for three years. And before that I worked two summers on Norwegian farms, milking cows and feeding chickens.
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