A bust of nuclear bomb scientist and important weapons program leader, and Purdue engineering PhD Deng Jiaxian 邓稼先 in Mianyang’s People’s Park. Deng Jiaxian received his PhD in Physics at Purdue University in 1950. Only shortly before his death was his leadership of China’s atomic and hydrogen bomb projects revealed.
The inscription on the plaque beneath Deng Jiaxian’s bust reads:
“Deng Jiaxian, a native of Huaiyu County, Anhui Province, was an outstanding Chinese physicist and nuclear scientist who made seminal contributions to neutron physics, the physics of explosions, ion physics, fluid dynamics, and statistical physics. Deng served as director and researcher of the Ninth Institute of the Nuclear Industry, as a Vice Chairman of the Nuclear Industry Ministry and of COSTIND, a member of the academic department of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and a member of the Twelfth Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party. Deng was one of the founders of nuclear weapons research in China and was the principal organizer and leader of research and development work on nuclear weapons technology. Deng devoted decades, working in anonymity, for the success of the Chinese atomic bomb and hydrogen bomb tests and for the development of the nuclear weapons organizations. Deng Jiaxian made great and everlasting contributions to smashing the nuclear monopoly of the superpowers, to China’s national defense and to world peace. Deng was awarded a national natural sciences prize and four prizes for contributions to the advancement of Chinese science. Deng was also recognized as an outstanding young or middle aged worker and as an outstanding expert and as a national model worker.”
Despite the great contributions of Deng Jiaxian to the Chinese atomic bomb and hydrogen bomb programs, his family suffered terribly during the Cultural Revolution.
An article about Deng Jiaxian on the website of the Modern Chinese History Research Institute notes that Chinese atomic scientists were not spared from political persecution attacks after the Cultural Revolution began in 1966. Atomic scientists too saw their labs filled with posters and criticism for their alleged incorrect political stance. Nearly all were labelled as “capitalist class reactionary authorities”. Contending political factions even arose among scientists in the labs.
Deng Jiaxian’s wife, a professor at the Beijing Medical Institute as labelled part of a “black gang” that supported the “black Beijing city committee”. Big posters criticized her were glued to her body and she nearly had a nervous breakdown. Sometimes when his wife didn’t come home, Deng Jiaxian would go to the Beijing Medical Institute to look for her and see her caught there as the object of a public political struggle session.
Deng Jiaxian’s second elder sister, couldn’t stand the incessant harassment of the so-called Rebel Faction of the Red Guards, and killed herself. Deng’s third elder sister was also harassed for no reason at all as a suspected enemy spy and subject to daily interrogations and struggle sessions.
The article notes that despite all that, Deng kept going to his office and calming himself down so that he could continue to do his theoretical work.
[This story about Deng Jiaxian makes me recall one of my visits to the Mianyang People’s Park in September 2005. In another corner of People’s Park is an obelisk Monument to the Chinese revolution topped with a red star. As I walked around in the park I struck up a conversation with a physician who worked in the hospital next to People’s Park. The physician told me that he remembered seeing people who had been pressed so hard by political persecution that they killed themselves in the Park near that red star topped obelisk right in front of the crowds.
A few years later, when I worked in Chengdu, the Fan Jianchuan, the director of the Jianchuan Museum complex of museums of Chinese history — including a museum of the Chinese Cultural Revolution — told me that the museum had collected in its archives the diaries of many people who killed themselves during the Cultural Revolution. Fan added that those diaries are not yet available to scholars because the people who persecuted those victims of the Cultural Revolution were still living.]
More in Chinese here:
Poster “The Limitations of Nuclear Weapons and Defending Against Them“, now displayed at the Jianchuan Museum in Chengdu 建川博物馆 has a prominent red lettered quotation from Mao Zedong. “Weapons are an important factor in war but not the determining factor. The determining factor is human beings not material things.”
Poster “What to Do After a Nuclear Attack” now displayed at the Jianchuan Museum in Chengdu.