Father Murdered in Cultural Revolution, Liu He Now PRC Vice Premier

During my ten years in China, many people told me stories of barely imaginable cruelties that took place during the political campaigns of the 1950s and 1960s.

I knew Environmentalist Tang Xiyang. Tang told me how his wife, a middle school teacher, had been murdered by her own students because she refused to divorce him.

I knew Chongqing writer and former “rightist” confined to Mao’s gulags for two decades Kong Lingping. Kong was a mechanical engineering student at Chongqing University. His error was having parents with the wrong family background. Not even landlords, his parents had been school teachers during the pre 1949 Nationalist Period. His mother rejected his father’s urging that the family flee to Taiwan. No, she said, we have many friends who are communists. Everything will be fine.

I knew Chengdu writer Yin Shuping, who had been a very young war correspondent during the War to Oppose America and Support [North] Korea. Later in the 1950s, as a convinced communist and successful poet, Yin went on the Chinese delegation headed by Hu Yaobang to the Moscow Youth Congress. He got into trouble for defending fellow Chengdu poet Liu Shahe who had been accused of being a rightist. Yin Shuping was himself labelled a rightist and sent to the gulags for over twenty years.

The story of Vice Premier Liu He’s father reminds me of my September 2005 visit to Mianyang, Sichuan. While there, I walked in a city park with a physician from the adjacent hospital. As we walked through the park on a comfortable evening with many young families with children wandering about, the doc told me as we approached a monument topped with a red star, that here, during the Cultural Revolution, he had seen several people kill themselves there, feeling that there was no way to endure the intense persecutions of the so-called “struggle sessions” they were subjected to.

I read the inscriptions on the monument. Translated into English, there are

Long Live the Magnificent, Glorious and Correct Communist Party of China!


Long Live the Dictatorship of the Proletariat!

I wonder sometimes how knowledge of this history, to the extent that people are able to become aware of it, affects the thinking of Chinese people today. After all China, for all the changes that have come since the refounding of the PRC at the beginning of reform, has much the same totalitarian operating system as before: absolute one party rule and the dictatorship of the proletariat led by the Party.

I remember striking up a conversation with a group of students I ran into on the Zhejiang University campus in 1998 after finishing a meeting in nearby downtown Hangzhou. The students told me that the Cultural Revolution could never come again. I mischievously remarked, “That is just what people were saying in the early 1960s — something like the Great Leap Forward will never happen again. The system is fundamentally the same. You have no institutional guarantees.”

Today I came across this May 2018 Chinese language article from the Epoch Times. Translated below followed by original Chinese text from the Epoch Times website.

Liu He’s Family Detail Revealed: His Father Was Persecuted to Death During the Cultural Revolution

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[The Epoch Times May 26, 2018] (Epoch Times reporter Wen Pu report) The family history of PRC Vice Premier Liu He was revealed just before his the Chinese delegation returned to the United States for trade negotiations. Liu He’s grandfather, Liu Yulou, worked in the financial industry. His father was a senior Chinese Communist Party official who was persecuted to death during the Cultural Revolution.

According to a May 25 Australian News Network [Aozhou xinwenwang https://www.huaglad.com/ ] report, Liu He’s grandfather Liu Yulou’s birth name was Run Chun and went by the name of Yulou, and lived in Lianghe Village in Changli County, Hebei Province. Liu Yulou was born on the 24th day of the fourth lunar month of the fourteenth year [1898] of the reign of the Qing Emperor Guangxu into a Lianghe Village peasant family. Liu Yulou’s father, Liu Guanru, an excellent farmer, supported his family by farming.

Liu Yulou studied for a few years in a private school and wanted to get an education, his father did not take education seriously. When Liu Yulou was 13, he married him off early and wanted to tie him down to the land and the family farm. Liu Yulou got very upset about this. Finally, his mother-in-law sold her own land so that he could go to the Yongpingfu Middle School and then to the Daqing Bank’s banking school to study banking.

After graduating from the banking school, Liu Yulou entered the financial industry. He worked in Daqing Bank, Bank of China, Border Industry Bank, Agricultural and Industrial Bank, and Donglai Bank. He was a bank accountant in Dalian, Qingdao, Tianjin and Beijing, and later became a manager.

Later, Liu Yulou had to resign because he had offended his superiors. With the help of an introduction from his classmate Li Shuhua, vice president of the National Peking Research Institute he got a job at there. First, he taught an accounting class, and later served as an acting department manager and secretary to the acting general manager.

Liu Yulou had four children, the eldest daughter named Liu Zhilian, the second daughter named Liu Zhilan, and son Liu Zhiyan, and the third daughter Liu Zhiyu.

Liu Zhiyan, the only son of Liu Yulou and the father of Liu He, was was born on February 7, 1918.

At age 18, Liu Zhiyan joined the Chinese Communist Party and served as leader of the 5th District Team of the Vanguards of the National Liberation of China. He was then sent to work among the former subordinates of [note: warlord] Sun Dianying as the secretary of the CPC branch and as secretary of the local working committee.

In 1940, he began serving in the Chinese Communist base area successively as the head of the Propaganda Section of the Taiyue District Committee of the Communist Party of China, joint appointment as the first district party secretary and the political commissar of the First Military subdistrict of the Taiyue District; joint appointment as the Minister of Propaganda Department of Yuebei District Committee and the Secretary of the Shiliu County Committee; and joint appointment the Secretary of the Eleventh Jinsui Base Area District Party Committee and the Political Commissar of the Eleventh Jinsui Base Area Military Sub District.

In May 1949, Liu Zhiyan was transferred back to Beijing. He worked first in the Central Policy Research Office, then a Counselor in the Advisors’ Office of the Government Council. Then he was appointed Deputy Director of the Third Bureau of the Ministry of Personnel, and then Deputy Director of the First Bureau. In the autumn of 1952, he was transferred to the Central Organization Department, where he served as deputy director of the cadre management department and then served in various posts such as director of the second cadre management department. It is said that Liu Zhiyan was a relatively famous “pen” of the Central Organization Department documents. He drafted many documents, reports, and editorials

In July 1958, the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee Organization Department send Liu Zhiyan to Yunnan Province where he served as secretary of the Kunming Municipal Party Committee and member of the Standing Committee of the Yunnan Provincial Party Committee. After the establishment of the Southwest Bureau in 1961, he successively served in posts such as as head of the Organization Department of the Southwest Bureau, Secretary-General, Secretary of the Secretariat.

At the beginning of the Cultural Revolution, Liu Zhiyan was first appointed as the leader of the Southwestern Cultural Revolution Committee, but was later considered to be affiliated with the faction of Liu Shaoqi and An Ziwen, and was purged. Liu Zhiyan thus became the object of brutal struggle sessions.

A Red Guard rebel faction booklet published at the time stated “The Southwest Bureau headed Li Jingquan and Liu Zhiyan, … must be thoroughly purged for the heinous crimes that they have committed during the Cultural Revolution!” The booklet also contains Liu Zhiyan’s “confession”.

On December 12, 1967, Liu Zhiyan, unable to endure unspeakable insults, killed himself by jumping from where he was being held on the ninth floor the Jinjiang Hotel in Chengdu. He was age 49. His son Liu He was was 15 years old when his father killed himself.

According to another overseas website “Democratic China website” [minzhuzhongguo.org] editor Cai Chu disclosed on October 24, 2018 that he had seen with his own eyes the horrible sight of Liu Zhiyan being persecuted to death.

In April 1968, Cai Chu went to the Chengdu Funeral Parlour to deal with the funeral of his friend. When he went into the freezer room to retrieve his friend’s body, he saw that the body at the lower left had a sign attached to it: “Liu Zhiyan, Secretary of the Southwest Bureau Secretariat, December 12, 1967”

He pulled the corpse out to look at it. “I saw the corpse was fairly long and dressed neatly. but the whole head was wrapped in gauze, wearing a cap and still had bloodstains.”

Cai Chu saw from the card, that the deceased has been dead for nearly half a year, but no relatives have come to mourn home. This made a deep impression on him.

Cai Chu asked the workers at the funeral home about him and was told that the accused Liu Zhiyan was detained at the Jinjiang Hotel in Chengdu, was subject to a struggle session there and killed himself by jumping off the 9th floor of the hotel.

However, there are also reports quoting Liu Zhiyan’s wife that Liu Zhiyan was beaten to death by the Chinese Communist Party rebel faction and that they faked a suicide by dumping his body from the ninth floor.

Liu He is the only son of Liu Zhiyan and his first wife. He was born on January 25, 1952. Liu Zhiyan had another son and daughter by his second wife.

Liu He studied in Beijing 101 Middle School, where others of the Red second generation also gathered. Xi Jinping was a classmate. In 1969, Liu He went down to the countryside to Jilin Province to join a production team. The next year he joined the Chinese Communist’s so-called “Ace Army” the 38th Army. Three years later, Liu He retired from the PLA and went to the Beijing Radio Factory where he was a worker and later became a cadre.

After the end of the Cultural Revolution, the college entrance examinations resumed. Liu He became part of the first batch of post Cultural Revolution college students. He studied in the Department of Industrial Economics at Renmin University. In 1988, Liu He worked at the State Planning Commission. He studied in the United States from 1992 to 1995 and obtained a degree in Public Administration from Harvard University’s Kennedy School.

Why was Liu He, the son of the “capitalist roader” Liu Zhiyan, not attacked at the same time as his father? In 1969, he could still be considered politically qualified enough to be accepted as a soldier. Some analyze it this way: after Liu Zhiyan divorced his first wife, Liu He lived with the first wife. Liu He’s political status should have been determined by that of the first wife and of his stepfather and so his father’s status would not necessarily affect his political suitability for joining the People’s Liberation Army.

Editor in charge: Sun Wei


刘鹤家世细节曝光 父亲文革时被迫害惨死

图为资料图。 (Getty Images)人气: 28987【字号】 更新: 2018-05-26 5:28 AM    标签刘鹤父亲文革刘植岩

【大纪元2018年05月26日讯】(大纪元记者文朴综合报导)中共副总理刘鹤,刚刚率领中方代表团从美国谈判回国后,他的家世再次被曝光。他祖父刘雨楼曾投身金融业,父亲是中共的高官,在文革时被迫害致死。

据澳洲新闻网5月25日报导,刘鹤的祖父刘雨楼本名润春,字雨楼,河北省昌黎县两河村人。光绪十四年4月24日生于两河村一个农民家庭。刘雨楼的父亲刘冠儒是一个种地的好手,靠务农挣下了一份家业。

虽然刘雨楼在家乡读了几年私塾,有志于学问,但是刘冠儒并不看重读书,在13岁时就早早给刘雨楼娶了妻子,想要拴住他在家乖乖打理家业。刘雨楼对此十分苦恼,最后是他的丈母娘变卖了自己的田产,供他上了永平府中学堂及大清的银行专修科。

从银行专修所毕业后,刘雨楼投身金融业。先后在大清银行、中国银行、边业银行、农工银行、东莱银行供职,曾在大连、青岛、天津和北京等地任银行分号的襄理,乃至经理等。

后来刘雨楼因为得罪了上司而被迫离职,在同学、国立北平研究院副院长李书华的介绍下进了研究院。先当会计课办事,后来又担任起代理庶务课长,兼代总办事处文书。

刘雨楼共有4个儿女,长女刘植莲,次女刘植兰,儿子刘植岩,三女刘植荃。

刘植岩是刘雨楼唯一的儿子,生于1918年2月7日,也就是刘鹤的父亲。

刘植岩18岁就加入中共党组织,担任了中共先锋队第五区队队长,随后被派遣到孙殿英旧部工作,任中共支部书记、工委书记。1940年开始先后任中共根据地太岳区委宣传科科长、第一地委书记兼太岳区第一军分区政委,岳北地委宣传部部长兼屯留县委书记、地委书记兼军分区政委等职。国共战争时期,刘植岩任西北局工委委员,太岳军区第十三军分区政委,晋绥十一地委书记兼十一军分区政委等。

1949年5月,刘植岩被调回北京。先在中央政策研究室,后任政务院参事室参事、人事部第三局副局长、第一局副局长。1952年秋天,又被调到中组部,任干部管理处副处长、干部管理处二处处长等。据称,刘植岩是中组部比较有名的“笔杆子”。不少文件、报告、社论都出自他的手笔。

1958年7月,刘植岩被中组部下放到云南,任昆明市委书记、云南省委常委。1961年西南局成立后,他先后任西南局组织部部长、秘书长、书记处书记等。

文革开始时,刘植岩先被任命为西南局文革小组组长,但后来被认为是刘少奇、安子文一派的,从而被“打倒”,刘植岩因此遭到残酷地批斗。

在当时的一份造反派小册子中写道:“以李井泉、刘植岩为首的西南局,……对他们在文化大革命中所犯下的这一滔天罪行,我们必须彻底清算!”这本小册子中,还有刘植岩的“供词”。

1967年12月12日,不堪受辱的刘植岩在成都锦江宾馆9楼的关押地点跳楼自杀,终年49岁。父亲刘植岩自杀时,刘鹤15岁。

另据海外“民主中国网站”主编蔡楚去年10月24日披露,他亲眼看到刘植岩被迫害死的惨状。

1968年4月,蔡楚到成都殡仪馆处理朋友的丧事。到冷藏间去找朋友的尸体。看到左边最下面的尸匣外有一个牌:西南局书记处书记刘植岩,1967年12月12日。

他拉开尸匣一看,“见到尸身较长,穿戴整齐,但整个头用纱布包裹,戴着鸭舌帽,仍然有血迹”。

蔡楚说,从牌上看,“死者已经去世近半年,但还没有亲人来奔丧。这给他留下深刻的印象”。

蔡楚当时问殡仪馆工人,被告知刘植岩是关在成都锦江宾馆被批斗,从9楼跳楼自杀。

但也有消息引述刘植岩的妻子的说法说,刘植岩是被中共造反派毒打致死后,伪造自杀丢下楼的。

刘鹤是刘植岩与前妻的两人唯一的儿子,生于1952年1月25日;刘植岩与后妻还育有一儿一女。

刘鹤早年在红二代云集的北京101中学读书,与习近平是同学。1969年刘鹤到了吉林下乡插队,第二年加入中共所谓的“王牌军”38军。3年后,刘鹤退伍,回北京无线电厂做了一个工人,后来转为干部。

文革结束后恢复了高考,刘鹤成为文革后中国首批大学生,在人大读工业经济系。1988年,刘鹤进入国家计划委员会工作,并在1992年至1995年留学美国,获得哈佛大学肯尼迪学院公共管理学位。

对于“走资派”刘植岩的儿子刘鹤,当时为什么没有受到冲击父亲的冲击,1969年仍可通过政审当兵的问题,有分析说,刘植岩和前妻离婚后,刘鹤是跟着前妻生活,他的出身应该由前妻和继父的政治地位来定,所以他参军不一定会受父亲身份的影响。#

责任编辑:孙芸

About 高大伟 David Cowhig

Worked 25 years as a US State Department Foreign Service Officer including ten years at US Embassy Beijing and US Consulate General Chengdu and four years as a China Analyst in the Bureau of Intelligence and Research. Before State I translated Japanese and Chinese scientific and technical books and articles into English freelance for six years. Before that I taught English at Tunghai University in Taiwan for three years. And before that I worked two summers on Norwegian farms, milking cows and feeding chickens.
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