Major Change in PRC Political Operating System under Xi?

During my ten years in China (Beijing 1996 – 2001 and Chengdu 2007 – 2012) with some Washington-based China watching in between, I saw a steady decline, especially after Party Secretary Hu Jintao came to power, in what little openness there was. Within that overall tightening trend, there were fluctuations with tightening around special dates such as the two meetings in March, June 4, Party Congress time and National Day and some relaxation after those sensitive dates passed. 

PRC Consistently Totalitarian with Tactical Adjustments

When I look at China, I see a great deal of continuity in the government and mechanisms of power. Still the same totalitarian state is has been since 1949, but a much more clever one that is willing to use openness and increased freedoms tactically for the sake of economic growth and reducing resentments.

Still never willing to give up the option of the Party imposing itself to protect the bottom line — the unquestioned leadership of the Communist Party in what Mao Zedong called the “people’s democratic dictatorship”. And so unwilling to make any constitutional changes (or better said institutional changes) that could threaten the leadership of the Communist Party. In China interpretation of the PRC Constitution is reserved to the National People’s Congress — a Chinese court cannot make a ruling based on the PRC Constitution.


Another special characteristic of the system was special intense themed crackdown campaigns that might last a month or two and annual campaigns focused on a month or so. April always seemed to be fighting trafficking in persons month for example.  

Banned Underground Best Seller Gave the Bottom Line


I can’t help of thinking back to the banned, underground 1996 best seller anti-corruption novel The Wrath of God 

“But we can’t not have an anti-corruption campaign. Not only will the masses not allow us not to do anti-corruption work but the State itself could fall as corruption deepens. Therefore, if we don’t do anti-corruption work, the State will collapse. If we fight corruption, the Party will fall; if we do not fight corruption the State will fall. We are stuck between a rock and a hard place; we can only fight corruption for a time and then let up for a while. This is the only way to save both the Party and the State. We try to survive and develop within the cracks of a policy that is constantly wavering between the left and the right.”   

 Could that still hold true today?  The Wrath of God (literally Wrath of Heaven) 天怒 is available online at http://www.shuku.net/novels/tiannu/tiannu.html


Thinking about the repression of dissent in China, I suppose if the system now had become capable of sustaining a continuous anti-corruption campaign, why couldn’t it become capable of fighting dissent continuously as well?   

Institutional Background of Endless Enforcement Fluctuations

China is such a vast and complicated country that often defies generalization. Nonetheless trying to generalize, though doomed to fail, can be helpful.

China is much more decentralized than one might expect a unitary state to be. For much of its history too it has been fairly decentralized with central control only reaching down to the county magistrate appointed by the Emperor. The local great and good were in effective control at the grassroots. When the PRC was established, central government control reached down a level further to the urban and rural township level 乡镇 in each county albeit not to the village level. That is why the PRC was able to have village elections — the village is not a level of government so elections don’t affect the PRC political system.


My understanding was that the periodic tightening and loosening and the campaign mode of periodic enforcement actions was a structural result of the

Chinese decentralized party and state governance system.  The tiao and the kuai (vertical and horizontal slices) aka the dual leadership system shuanglingdao zhidu 双领导制度   I especially like the discussion in Pu Zuqiang’s 中华人民共和国:政治制度  http://product.dangdang.com/9181990.html  

The difficulty of the dual leadership system is that although each functional department reports to both the local leader and to the corresponding functional department at the next higher level of governance, the powers of budget and personnel (with the exception of naming the functional department chief) is largely controlled at the local level.   This results inefficiencies of the transmission of orders down (sometimes Chinese documents talk about the transmission belt) and information upwards.  Indeed, local authorities sometimes try to prevent upper levels about knowing about the local dirty laundry.  Assisting local leaders in that has been part of the function of party propaganda and media control at each level of party committee.   

I remember visiting the environmental bureau of Shanxi Province in 1998 or so.  An official there gave me a frank answer to my question about their relation to the environmental authorities in Beijing and the neighboring provinces.  The official told me,

“The central environmental authorities just come through once a year to give us a report card. We have practically no contact with the environmental authorities of neighboring provinces.”

In trying to understand how this system works or doesn’t work, I wondered how US dysfunctionalities might multiply if the federal court system and all the regional offices of US government departments were abolished and the US federal government had to depend upon the state courts and state authorities to enforce federal regulations.  Just a thought experiment, but helps illustrate the consequences of differences in government structure. 

End of Cycles (?), Re-assertion of the Center, More Consistent Enforcement Under Xi Jinping

One thing I found remarkable about the start of Party General Secretary was the seemingly permanent anti-corruption campaign or dare one imagine the end of campaigns and just consistent enforcement.  Periodic strike hard campaigns last a few months after which the enforcers presumably take a vacation seems to have been the pattern up to them.  Xi Jinping greatly ramped up the size of the party discipline and inspection function, increased the frequency of inspections and then — perhaps breaking the system — set up branch offices of central government agencies in the provinces.


Breaking the Dual Leadership System, Enforcing Central Control Trend

I remember from the beginning of Xi’s first term that the statistical authorities were also setting up offices in some provinces to better audit statistical data.  One of the first things I did getting to US Embassy Beijing S&T section in 1996 was to read the China Public Health Annual from cover-to-cover. The national picture was just about completely inconsistent with the national pictures. Some estimates for the prevalence of some contagious diseases nationwide were higher than the highest estimate of any province. So there was a lot of data massaging going on when the provincial data reached the national level. When one does try to correct data for inaccuracies, it is easy to introduce new inaccuracies.

Given the closed nature of many Chinese local government units that gave rise to the wise saying “For every measure that comes down from on high, a countermeasure to defeat it emerges from down below” 上有政策,下有对策 statistical quality has remained a problem, albeit probably not as serious as it was twenty years ago. During the Great Leap Forward, one central government statistical official went so far as to say “Never forget the principle of partisanship in the statistical services!”


 It would be ironic if Xi does not bring China the rule by law, but instead bring it rule by Party rule.  More consistency at least.  One side effect of the anti-corruption crackdowns has been officials are even less likely before to make difficult decisions — they feel they had better play it safe.

A friend in Chengdu told me that had become a big problem in Sichuan, scene of a big anti-corruption crackdown shortly after Chairman Xi took over. One reason for the crackdown in Sichuan Province was probably the personal links many officials there had to Zhou Yongkang, a disgraced former top leader and former rival to Xi Jinping. Corruption is rampant so leaders can easily use anti-corruption campaigns to not only fight corruption but also rivals. The background to the novel “The Wrath of God” mentioned above is then PRC Party Secretary Jiang Zemin’s determination to destroy his old rival, the then-Mayor of Beijing Chen Xitong.

I looked around a bit and found a good Baidu (Chinese Wiki) article on the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection of the Chinese Communist Party at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E7%BA%AA%E5%BE%8B%E6%A3%80%E6%9F%A5%E5%A7%94%E5%91%98%E4%BC%9A/1299041?which has a long section on the 2014 changes. 

These materials reflect an important assertion of central control which may well reflect this assertion of central control.

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The italics and bolding are mine.
I copied below a lightly edited Google Translate translation of the section on the 2014 changes.  The article has an early 2015 perspective; I’d guess it was copied from some party publication. — I notice that part of it is from a People’s Daily article that also appears on the website of the Discipline and Inspection Commission http://www.ccdi.gov.cn/yaowen/201412/t20141230_134390.html  although it is properly sourced there.  Presumably plagiarism is too small a fly for the Commission to swat. 

A busy reform year for the system

On June 30 this year, the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee convened and reviewed the “Implementation Plan for the Reform of the Party’s Discipline Inspection System” to specifically deploy the reform of the discipline inspection system proposed by the Party’s 18th National Congress and the Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee. The central and all levels of discipline inspection and supervision organs have been reformed, and the conditions with immature conditions have been piloted first. The pilot experience has been matured immediately, making the discipline inspection system undergo a huge change in the year:

— The awareness of the party committee in the construction of the party’s style and clean government has been greatly strengthened. In the past, the “top bosses” of many units believed that the building of the party’s style and clean government was the responsibility of the secretary of the Disciplinary Committee and the head of the discipline inspection team, and held an attitude of “it is already getting a lot of attention so I will not concern myself with it” with regards to the work of combating corruption and promoting honesty. In 2014, this thinking was completely reversed. The leaders of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection have hosted a special symposium to interview provincial (district, municipal), central and state organs, central enterprises and institutions, and state-owned financial institutions. The party secretary) called for strengthening the party’s concept, implementing the main responsibility, and transmitting pressure at various levels.

——The traveling inspection team system has been strengthened and special inspections have become the new normal. In 2014, it completed regular inspections of 21 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities (including Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps) and special inspections of 19 departments and state-owned enterprises and institutions. After the second round of inspections by the Central Inspection Team in 2014, the coverage of 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities and the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps was fully covered in less than two years. At the same time, on the basis of special inspections of six units in the first two rounds of pilots, the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection launched a new form of special inspections in the third round of inspections. Compared with the previous system of regular traveling inspections, the period of special inspection was cut nearly in half but this system is more flexible. If there is a problem, there will be an inspection. If there is a problem, that person will be investigated and investigatory leads followed up.

Another remarkable feature worthy of attention is that the case clues were immediately transferred to the special investigation and action moved ahead quickly. At present, Xue Wandong, the former general manager of Sinopec Petroleum Engineering and Technology Service Company, and Wang Xiaoran, the former president and party secretary of the China Recording and Video Broadcasting Corporation of the Ministry of Culture, Zhang Zhijiang, deputy general manager of China Unicom Network Branch and general manager of network construction department, Wang Gangjian, former director of China Radio International Film and Television Translation Center, Zhang Wenjiang, assistant general manager of Shenhua Group, and Ren Yong, assistant general manager of Dongfeng Motor Corporation and other relevant staff members were all investigated for serious violations of the law before the end of the inspection.

—— Establishing organizations in localities that report directly to the center has been accelerated, and the superior disciplinary committee has further strengthened the leadership of the lower level Disciplinary Committee. On December 11, the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee reviewed and approved the “Opinions on Strengthening the Construction of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection,” and decided to first have an important influence on the political life of the party and the country in the Central Office, the Central Organization Department, and the Central Propaganda Department. Seven central and state agencies set up a central disciplinary committee. In order to implement the requirements of the leaders of the above-mentioned disciplinary committees in dealing with corruption cases, the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection has started pilot reforms in Hebei, Zhejiang, Henan, Guangdong, Shaanxi, and the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council, the Ministry of Commerce, and the General Administration of Customs since April 2014. It will be fully promoted in 2015; the nomination and inspection of some district and unit disciplinary committee secretaries and deputy secretaries also carried out the new requirements of “the above-mentioned disciplinary committee and the organization department as the mainstay”.

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[Section on 2014 changes from  记录检查委员会  [Party Commission for Discipline Inspection; tidied up Google Translation translation. Chinese text appended]

System Changes in 2014

In 2014, the Supervision Department of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection and the discipline inspection and supervision organs at all levels were very busy. This was because the Party Central Committee stressed the great importance to the work of building a clean and honest government and of anti-corruption work.

“Catching Tigers” and “Swatting Flies”

Let’s talk about “fighting tigers” first. The fall of Zhou Yongkang and Xu Caihou broke the customary “conventions” and also showed the central government’s firm determination to not tolerate corruption and not to be soft on corrupt elements.

In Shanxi Province, the investigation and punishment of “collapse and corruption” has not slowed down due to the fall of the the party standing committees of five provinces. From January to November this year, Shanxi investigated and handled 141 leading cadres at the county level and above, including departmental cadres 21 People, the former “top leaders” of the five major coal-producing coal groups in Shanxi Province were all smashed. The two municipal party committee secretaries and four mayors of Gaoping City were investigated and dealt with. The anti-corruption efforts were so astounding. After the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection appointed the Standing Committee of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection and the former Deputy Minister of the Ministry of Supervision, Huang Xiaowei, as the Standing Committee Member of the Shanxi Provincial Party Committee and Secretary of the Disciplinary Committee, the former Director of the First Discipline Inspection and Supervision Office of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, Chi Yaoyun, went to Shanxi as the Deputy Secretary of the Provincial Commission for Discipline Inspection. The central government attaches great importance to Shanxi’s anti-corruption work, and will never “only catch a certain number of corrupt people and stop after reaching that point”, but must fight corruption to the end.

The army’s anti-corruption entered a new high in 2014. Xu Caihou became the first former vice chairman of the Central Military Commission after the founding of New China. Yang Jinshan, Gao Xiaoyan, Ma Xiangdong and other senior military leaders were investigated. The number and level of investigations were all in recent years reached a new high.

Summarizing the characteristics of the cases investigated in 2014, it will be found that the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection focused on three types of people: one is the cadres who after the 18th National Congress did not give up but still persisted in their behavior, such as Wan Qingliang, Han Xiancong, Tan Li, etc. Before the investigation, he was still playing golf and eating and drinking in the clubhouse. Second, focus on cadres who were reported by other cadres or were repeatedly reported on by the masses. For example, Song Lin, the former chairman of China Resources Group, had been publicly reported by the masses for a long time. Third, key cadres who are now in important positions and are likely to be promoted, such as Mao Xiaobing, former member of the Standing Committee of Qinghai Province, and Pan Yiyang, former member of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

Let’s talk about “swatting flies”. On the “Cases Under Investigation” section of the website of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection and Supervision, you can see that almost every day, the investigation and handling of cases submitted by provinces, cities, and departments. According to incomplete statistics, as of December 28, the number of cases published has reached 688. Various departments in various regions have successively investigated and handled a number of major cases that have influence in the local departments of the region. The national discipline inspection and supervision organs accept complaints, reports, letters, talks, settlements, filing cases, closing cases, giving disciplinary sanctions, and suspected crimes transferred to the judiciary. A number of indicators, such as the handling of the organs, reached the highest value since the establishment of the Commission for Discipline Inspection.

Busily Rectifying the “Four Types of Work Styles”

From December 15th to 18th, on the occasion of the second anniversary of the implementation of the eight central regulations, the four-episode TV feature film jointly produced by the Propaganda Department of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection and CCTV will always be on the road to implement the spirit of the eight regulations. The Sujing Documentary were broadcast on CCTV during prime time and got a strong response from the public. The films showed how this year, the central and all levels of discipline inspection and supervision organs have implemented the spirit of the eight central regulations and have not slackened. They have continued to work around one node: on the eve of the “May 1st”, the website of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection was revised.

The “Four Types of Work Styles” supervision reports the through train, and the weekly name is notified by the name; on the eve of the “Dragon Boat Festival”, the website of the Central Discipline Inspection Commission’s Supervision Department launched the “Clean and Good Dragon Boat Festival – Discipline Inspection and Supervision In Action” topic, and opened a reporting window to welcome cadres and masses. The public funds are purchased for the unreasonable winds of the banquets and other festivals; on the eve of the Mid-Autumn Festival, the website of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection opens a report window for the “Four Types of Work Styles” such as giving gifts of moon cake, and at the same time resume the weekly notification of violations of the discipline inspection and supervision organs at all levels. Work in the spirit of the eight regulations of the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee; on the eve of the Spring Festival of New Year’s Day in 2015, the website of the Central Discipline Inspection Commission’s Supervision Department also launched the “Four Types of Work Styles” issue supervision and reporting exposure area during the Spring Festival of New Year’s Day. Reports from the people about misuse of official funds to purchase greeting cards or to give presents for Spring Festival and other improper work behaviors.

In order to strengthen the supervision of the “Four Working Styles” issue, the Central Commission for Discipline and Inspection has established a monthly report system, and monthly reports on the investigation and punishment of violations of the eight central provisions of the central government, and regularly publishes investigations and investigations to the public. According to statistics, as of November 30, the country has investigated and dealt with 73,332 issues in violation of the spirit of the eight central regulations, and handled 96,788 party members and cadres, including 29,026 party and government disciplinary sanctions.

In addition, the website of the Supervision Department of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection also established a weekly and weekly notification system for violations of the eight regulations on the eve of the “May 1st” and “Mid-Autumn Festival”, and successively notified the local surnames that a number of units in various regions of the country violated the eight regulations. The typical case has played a strong deterrent effect. According to incomplete statistics, as of December 28, the provincial and municipal disciplinary committees had notified 925 typical problems 134 times.

A busy reform year for the system

On June 30 this year, the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee convened and reviewed the “Implementation Plan for the Reform of the Party’s Discipline Inspection System” to specifically deploy the reform of the discipline inspection system proposed by the Party’s 18th National Congress and the Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee. The central and all levels of discipline inspection and supervision organs have been reformed, and the conditions with immature conditions have been piloted first. The pilot experience has been matured immediately, making the discipline inspection system undergo a huge change in the year:

— The awareness of the party committee in the construction of the party’s style and clean government has been greatly strengthened. In the past, the “top bosses” of many units believed that the building of the party’s style and clean government was the responsibility of the secretary of the Disciplinary Committee and the head of the discipline inspection team, and held an attitude of “it is already getting a lot of attention so I will not concern myself with it” with regards to the work of combating corruption and promoting honesty. In 2014, this thinking was completely reversed. The leaders of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection have hosted a special symposium to interview provincial (district, municipal), central and state organs, central enterprises and institutions, and state-owned financial institutions. The party secretary) called for strengthening the party’s concept, implementing the main responsibility, and transmitting pressure at various levels.

——The traveling inspection team system has been strengthened and special inspections have become the new normal. In 2014, it completed regular inspections of 21 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities (including Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps) and special inspections of 19 departments and state-owned enterprises and institutions. After the second round of inspections by the Central Inspection Team in 2014, the coverage of 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities and the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps was fully covered in less than two years. At the same time, on the basis of special inspections of six units in the first two rounds of pilots, the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection launched a new form of special inspections in the third round of inspections. Compared with the previous system of regular traveling inspections, the period of special inspection was cut nearly in half but this system is more flexible. If there is a problem, there will be an inspection. If there is a problem, that person will be investigated and investigatory leads followed up.

Another remarkable feature worthy of attention is that the case clues were immediately transferred to the special investigation and action moved ahead quickly. At present, Xue Wandong, the former general manager of Sinopec Petroleum Engineering and Technology Service Company, and Wang Xiaoran, the former president and party secretary of the China Recording and Video Broadcasting Corporation of the Ministry of Culture, Zhang Zhijiang, deputy general manager of China Unicom Network Branch and general manager of network construction department, Wang Gangjian, former director of China Radio International Film and Television Translation Center, Zhang Wenjiang, assistant general manager of Shenhua Group, and Ren Yong, assistant general manager of Dongfeng Motor Corporation and other relevant staff members were all investigated for serious violations of the law before the end of the inspection.

—— Installing organization in localities that report directly to the center has been accelerated, and the superior disciplinary committee has further strengthened the leadership of the lower level Disciplinary Committee. On December 11, the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee reviewed and approved the “Opinions on Strengthening the Construction of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection,” and decided to first have an important influence on the political life of the party and the country in the Central Office, the Central Organization Department, and the Central Propaganda Department. Seven central and state agencies set up a central disciplinary committee. In order to implement the requirements of the leaders of the above-mentioned disciplinary committees in dealing with corruption cases, the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection has started pilot reforms in Hebei, Zhejiang, Henan, Guangdong, Shaanxi, and the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council, the Ministry of Commerce, and the General Administration of Customs since April 2014. It will be fully promoted in 2015; the nomination and inspection of some district and unit disciplinary committee secretaries and deputy secretaries also carried out the new requirements of “the above-mentioned disciplinary committee and the organization department as the mainstay”.

2014这一年编辑

2014年,中央纪委监察部和各级纪检监察机关都很忙,而这种“忙”的背后,反映出党中央对党风廉政建设和反腐败工作的高度重视。

忙着“打虎”“拍蝇”

先说“打虎”。周永康、徐才厚的落马打破了以往被坊间认为是约定俗成的“惯例”,也显示了中央对腐败现象绝不姑息、对腐败分子绝不手软的坚定决心。

而在山西,对“塌方式腐败”的查处力度并未因5名省委常委的落马而减速,今年1月至11月山西共查处县处级以上领导干部要案141人,其中厅级干部21人,山西五大省属煤炭集团原“一把手”全部折戟,高平市两任市委书记、四任市长“前腐后继”被查处,反腐力度之大令人咂舌。中央纪委继委派中央纪委常委、监察部原副部长黄晓薇任山西省委常委、纪委书记后,又空降中央纪委第一纪检监察室原主任迟耀云至山西任省纪委常务副书记,也充分说明了中央对山西反腐败工作的高度重视,绝不会“抓到一定程度就收手”,而是要对腐败问题一查到底。

军队反腐在2014年进入一个新高潮,徐才厚成为新中国成立后首个因贪腐落马的军委前副主席,杨金山、高小燕、马向东等一批军队高级领导干部接受调查,查处人数和级别均创近年来新高。

总结2014年查处的案件特点,会发现中央纪委将查处对象主要聚焦在三类人身上:一是十八大后不收敛不收手的干部,如万庆良、韩先聪、谭力等人,在被查前还在打高尔夫球、出入会所吃喝玩乐;二是问题线索反映集中、群众反映强烈的干部,如华润集团原董事长宋林,长期被群众公开举报;三是现在重要岗位且可能还要提拔使用的领导干部为重点,如青海省原省委常委毛小兵、内蒙古自治区原党委常委潘逸阳等。

再来说说“拍蝇”。打开中央纪委监察部网站的“案件查处”栏目,可以看到几乎每天都有各省区市和部门报送的案件查处情况。据不完全统计,截至12月28日,发布的案件信息已达688条。各地区各部门相继查处了一批在本地区本部门有影响的大案要案,全国纪检监察机关接受信访举报、函询、谈话、了结处理、立案、结案、给予党纪政纪处分、涉嫌犯罪移送司法机关处理等多项指标均达到了纪委恢复组建以来最高值。

忙着狠纠“四风”

12月15日至18日,在中央八项规定实施两周年之际,由中央纪委宣传部与中央电视台联合制作的四集电视专题片《作风建设永远在路上——落实八项规定精神正风肃纪纪实》在央视黄金时段播出,社会反响强烈。正如片中所反映的,今年以来,中央和各级纪检监察机关贯彻落实中央八项规定精神毫不松懈,围绕一个个节点持续发力:“五一”前夕,中央纪委监察部网站开通了纠正“四风”监督举报直通车,每周点名道姓通报曝光;“端午”前夕,中央纪委监察部网站推出“清廉过端午——纪检监察机关在行动”专题,开设举报窗口,欢迎干部群众对公款购买赠送粽子等节礼的不正之风进行监督;“中秋”前夕,中央纪委监察部网站开通公款送月饼等“四风”问题举报窗,同时恢复每周通报曝光各级纪检监察机关查处的违反中央八项规定精神问题;在2015年元旦春节前夕,中央纪委监察部网站又推出元旦春节期间“四风”问题监督举报曝光专区,欢迎广大网友对公款购买赠送贺卡、年货节礼等不正之风进行监督举报……

为了加强对“四风”问题的监督力度,中央纪委建立了月报制度,每月通报全国查处违反中央八项规定精神问题汇总表,定期向社会公布查处情况。据统计,截至11月30日,全国共查处违反中央八项规定精神的问题73332起,处理党员干部96788人,其中,给予党纪政纪处分29026人。

此外,中央纪委监察部网站还先后在“五一”和“中秋”前夕建立了违反八项规定案件周周通报制度,先后点名道姓通报曝光了全国各地区各单位一批违反八项规定的典型案例,起到了强烈的震慑作用。据不完全统计,截至12月28日,各省区市纪委先后134次共对925起典型问题进行通报曝光。

忙着改革体制

今年6月30日,中共中央政治局召开审议通过《党的纪律检查体制改革实施方案》,对党的十八大和十八届三中全会提出的纪律检查体制改革进行具体部署。中央和各级纪检监察机关立行立改,条件不成熟的内容先试点,试点经验一成熟立刻推开,使得纪律检查体制在一年中发生了巨大的变化:

——党委在党风廉政建设中负主体责任的意识得到大大强化。以往,不少单位的“一把手”都认为党风廉政建设是纪委书记、纪检组长的责任,对反腐倡廉工作抱着“事不关己高高挂起”的态度。2014年,这一观念得到了根本性的扭转,中央纪委领导同志多次主持召开专题座谈会,约谈省(区、市)、中央和国家机关部委、中央企事业单位、国有金融机构党委(党组)书记,要求强化党的观念,落实主体责任,层层传导压力。

——巡视制度改革迈出新步伐,专项巡视成为新常态。2014年完成了对21个省区市(含新疆生产建设兵团)开展常规巡视和对19个部门和国有企事业单位的专项巡视。2014年中央巡视组第二轮巡视结束后,在不到两年时间内实现了对31个省区市和新疆生产建设兵团的巡视全覆盖。同时,在前两轮试点对6家单位进行专项巡视的基础上,中央纪委在第三轮巡视中全面推开专项巡视这一新形式。与常规巡视相比,专项巡视用时缩短近一半,但更加机动灵活,哪里有问题就巡视哪里,谁问题突出就巡视谁,循着问题线索而去。另一个值得关注的显著特点是,专项巡视中发现案件线索立即移交查处、动作很快,目前中石化石油工程技术服务公司原总经理薛万东,文化部中国录音录像总社原社长、党委书记王笑然,中国联通网络分公司副总经理兼网络建设部总经理张智江,中国国际广播电台影视译制中心原主任王刚建,神华集团公司总经理助理张文江,东风汽车公司总经理助理任勇等6家单位的有关工作人员,均是在专项巡视尚未结束时已因严重违纪违法被立案调查。

——派驻机构全覆盖步伐加快,上级纪委对下级纪委的领导进一步加强。12月11日,中共中央政治局常委会议审议通过《关于加强中央纪委派驻机构建设的意见》,决定首先在中央办公厅、中央组织部、中央宣传部等对党和国家政治生活具有重要影响的7家中央和国家机关设立中央纪委派驻机构。为落实查办腐败案件以上级纪委领导为主的要求,从2014年4月开始,中央纪委在河北、浙江、河南、广东、陕西和国务院国资委、商务部、海关总署开展了改革试点工作,并将于2015年全面推开;部分地区、单位纪委书记、副书记的提名考察中还贯彻了“以上级纪委会同组织部门为主”的新要求。

About 高大伟 David Cowhig

Retired now, translated Liao Yiwu's 2019 "Bullets and Opium", and studying some things. Worked 25 years as a US State Department Foreign Service Officer including ten years at US Embassy Beijing and US Consulate General Chengdu and four years as a China Analyst in the Bureau of Intelligence and Research. Before State I translated Japanese and Chinese scientific and technical books and articles into English freelance for six years. Before that I taught English at Tunghai University in Taiwan for three years. And before that I worked two summers on Norwegian farms, milking cows and feeding chickens.
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