Anhui’s Water Spirit Hairy Monster Scare of 1953-4

The February 2016 issue of the Chinese journal Communist Party Historical Research and Education  《党史研究与教学》 tells the story, based on research in local government archives,  of a scary rumor from the early days of the PRC.  Widespread rumors of hairy monsters jumping out of bodies of water to grab people upset many people already upset by a series of political campaigns including the 1950 – 51 political campaign the killed about one million landlords, landlord family members, and other people assimilated into the landlord category that the local Party work teams wanted to get rid of. See, for example, Excerpt from Ye Fu’s “Requiem for a Landlord” — A Son Parades His Landlord Father Through the Streets.

Perhaps the apparition variously called the water spirt hairy people or hairy waater monster could be considered especially sensitive since the word 毛 in hairy people 毛人 was the family name of Chairman Mao Zedong, 毛泽东.

In the collective memory, can be found, along with the Hairy Water Monster anecdotes about foreigners mutilated body parts. In tales about the hairy water monster water monster cutting nipples and gouging genitals, another element cannot be ignored: linking the hairy monster of the Soviet Union and the atom bomb.

 Early 1950s Chaos as Party Purges Landlords, Other Class Enemies, Transforms Economy, Fights the Korean War and Consolidates Power: Anti-Landlord Campaign

Important to note is that some of these landlords did not have vast holdings and some people were lumped into the landlord category for political convenience.  So many people killed, beaten or imprisoned during these campaigns in the early years of the PRC got considerable local sympathy and were far from being all the demon landlords of Party-inspired legend.  That seems to be part of the reason why the “water spirit hairy man” rumors became anti-communist.

The crackdown on the landlords is still a sensitive topic in China.  A 2016 book Soft Burial was banned one year after it had been published and even serialized in the official literary journal People’s Literature [Renmin Wenxue].  See the June 2016 Global Voices article by Oiwen Lam  “China bans ‘Soft Burial’, a novel about deadly consequences of land reform — ‘Soft Burial’, published in 2016, is a tribute to historical realism and won Luyao Literature Award”.

A few years ago I read the stories of some of those people in Liao Yiwu’s book 最后的地主 (The Last Landlord) which is available online in Chinese in PDF format.   Liao Yiwu, a Chinese writer now living in exile in Berlin, is best known in the United States for his book  The Corpse Walker: Real Life Stories: China From the Bottom Up

The Last Landlord, which has never been translated into English, was based on Liao’s interviews with elderly people in rural villages that started to make in late 2005.  Liao told me about one one stay he had in a rural Yunnan mountain village. After several weeks,  he had won the confidence of some of the oldest people in the village.  They then opened up to him with stories about the terrible times in the early 1950s when many landlords and others were killed by work teams dispatched by the new communist regime.   Liao told me that their relatives were shocked to hear these stories.  Their elders had never dared tell those stories because they thought that the stories were to dangerous to tell.  Some of the ‘landlords’ mentioned in the book weren’t actually landlords but were lumped into that category for other reasons including Christian belief.  Some of those stories were later told in Liao’s book God is Red that appeared in English translation in the U.S. several years ago.

Now Back to the Hairy Monsters

The rumor about the hairy monster started around July 1949, but only became widespread several years later.

1953 Rumor report: the water spirit hairy man gouged out a person’s eyes, gouged genitals, also that the American Devils were dropping some stinking canon that threw shells that left people incurably ill two hours after exposure.

According to the article, “The rumors of the hairy monster who jumped out of lakes and monsters to grab people in 1953 – 54 took on an ideological tinge.  The monster was  now said to have come from the Soviet Union to China to harvest body parts from Chinese people.  These body parts were said to be essential components for Soviet atomic bombs. These rumors took on an ideological color generally during times of social change when state power forcibly intruded into rural society. The rumors, which were often about weak or defenseless members of society such as women and children expressed the resistance and desire of the masses to exclude state power which was disrupting and transforming the rural social order.  The people felt great terror as they were beset by this external force that they had no power to resist. This sentiment strongly united the people in joint opposition to disruptions and attacks by state power intruding from the outside.  As these rumor coalesced into an ideology, it divided society into two groups. According to the rumor, Communist Party members, members of the Communist Youth League, and government cadres were active local participants in the plot. Thus they were seen as not being subject to the rumored attacks while ordinary people were being attacked.  The rumors provoked conflicts.  Party members, Communist Youth League members and government officials were demonized and sometimes physically attacked.

如此,1953至1954年“水鬼毛人”谣言走向意识形态化主要体现在:“水鬼毛人”是苏联及中国政府放出来,专割中国人的身体器官,为苏联制造原子弹提供原料。在一些县乡地区,这类意识形态化的谣言往往发生在国家权力强势侵入的社会变革时期,并以妇女儿童等弱势群体作为势单力薄无力反抗之民众的象征,反映了民众对国家权力打乱并重新整合乡村社会秩序的排斥,以及因无力应对而产生的极度恐惧,这种情绪使得民众更紧密地团结在一起,共同抵御外来国家力量的侵扰与侵袭。如此,意识形态化的谣言特意把社会人建构为两个分裂性的区隔群体,在谣言中,党员、团员、干部是阴谋活动的内应,且被排除在受攻击范围之外,而民众则被建构为受攻击的对象。如此,谣言激发的群体性事件中,党员、团员、干部即被妖魔化,并成为受到现实攻击的对象。

So the rumors became more and more anti-communist.   Quite a story.  Perhaps good reading for Halloween too.

Professor Li Ruojian of Zhongshan University in Guangzhou, China, in his book called “Between Reality and Fiction – A Study of Rumors in Mainland China in the 1950s” 《虛實之間──20世紀50年代中國大陸謠言研究》 , argues that the water spirit hairy man was a political tool in the struggle between the Communists and the Nationalists who had just been pushed off the China Mainland.

The rumors of water ghosts have become a political tool for cross-strait attack and defense?

Why did rumors of water monsters suddenly spread? It could be because the Nationalist government had just retreated to Taiwan and the situation in mainland China was still unstable. It is estimated that the guerrillas left behind by the Nationalist government numbered millions of people, so rumors were deliberately spread against the new regime that could cause chaos.

There was also the time when the Korean War broke out on June 25, 1950, and the Chinese people, who had been suffering from war for year, were generally afraid that “World War III” was about to begin. In addition, Taiwan, with the help of Western companies established by the CIA, set up an anti-communist army to save the country, and conducted raids from time to time.

Because of the political nature of the rumors, it was said that the monsters were released by the newly established Chinese Communist regime, so the enemies were clearly distinguished and the “three no-dig” policy was strictly enforced, that is, no digging for martyrs, no digging for party members and no digging for cadres. Therefore, people who believed in this absurd rumor, whenever they caught someone they thought was “cutting eggs”, some simply killed them, causing some innocent people to die.

The Hairy Water Spirit that Dug Out Genitals — A Tool For Cross Straits Political Struggle

Tales of scary rumors that spread in China ten years later during the early 1960  appeared  in a 2006 American Historical Review  article.

“Talking Toads and Chinless Ghosts: The Politics of “Superstitious” Rumors in the People’s Republic of China, 1961–1965” by S.A. Smith, The American Historical Review, Volume 111, Issue 2, 1 April 2006, Pages 405–427,https://doi.org/10.1086/ahr.111.2.405

Some people started saying the Hairy Man Water Monster was sent by the PRC government. According to the summary of rumors from many areas, the hairy water monsters are responsible for collecting organs such as human eyes, human hearts, small genitals of children, testicles, and nipples of women. They only hurt the masses but do not harm Party and government cadres. Some local rumors are more specific, saying that the hairy water monster observe a The Three No Gouges: Do Not Gouge Military Martyrs, Do Not Gouge Party Members and Do Not Gouge Civil Servants.
Some favor a “conspiracy theory” meaning that the hairy water monster, in fact, lurks among the masses of Party and government cadres. is those hidden among the masses of cadres. Every night, these cadres come out to cut nipples and gouge genitals. This rumor has sharply divided the masses from the people. In Wuwei County there were more than 7,000 villagers organized to go to the township government to catch the hairy water monster. Four people were injured. Riots occur from time to time.

Huang Wenzhi: How the Anhui “Water Spirit Hairy Man” Rumor Become an Ideology and Local Government Response

by Huang Wenzhi  published in “Communist Party Historical Research and Education” 2/2016 some portions deleted when published.

(Summary)  In 1953-54, a rumor aobut a “water spirit hairy man” became widespread in the watersheds of the Huai and Yangtze River watersheds in Anhui Province resulted in many conflicts between party cadres and the masses. Yet the rumor of the “water spirit hairy man” did not originate in Anhui Province itself. The rumor entered Anhui from Jiangsu Province to the east of the province and moved westwards spreading very rapidly in the densely populated areas in the watershed. The rumor spread very widely in Anhui Province, reaching over 30 counties. As the rumor was passed along, it gradually became an ideology. Two kinds of people — “people guilty of criminal offenses” along with “lawless elements” along with “counter revolutionary elements” created and promoted the transformation of this rumor into an ideology.  The local governments of Anhui Province, thanks an early warning from Jiangsu Province, began a top to bottom response before the rumor had spread widely. Nonetheless, as local governments took measures to handle the rumor there were many conflicts between cadres and the people and some violence. In several cities and counties where there was a sharp conflict between cadres and the people, the response was brute force. The response involved both “struggling to educate” and “severely repressing”. Through organizational, work by cadres and ideological work, a political solution that included both strict supervision and reprimands was achieved. It should be said that this process of “local supervision and reprimands” in the area of public order was effective yet involved serious political dilemmas.  [End summary]

The rumors widespread in 1953-54 in Jiangsu, Anhui and Shandong provinces about a “water spirit hairy man” led to many mass incidents. This was one of the biggest rumor cases of the twentieth century.  In Anhui Province it mostly known as the rumor of the “water spirit hairy man”.  Elsewhere the monster was called “water spirit man”, the “hairy man water spirit”, “the hairy little ghost”, and the “hairy water spirit”.  There were many different names for the same rumor.  The rumor arose during a time of great social change. Fundamentally it arose from fear the masses in society had of strange forces from the outside and of ghosts running rampant. There was also however within it political messages and hidden meanings. These kind of characteristics of the rumor reflect the direct conflict between the traditional beliefs of the masses in society and the ideology promoted by the Chinese Communist Party during the initial stages of the national construction of the PRC. This kind of opposition grew steadily stronger in response to the previous political campaigns that were carried out during the first few years of the PRC.

http://www.aisixiang.com/data/106423.html 

See also the article 1953-1954 : Rumors of “Water Ghost Hairy People” in Anhui 1953-1954:“水鬼毛人”谣言在安徽 by the same author published in Hong Kong at the Chinese University of Hong Kong.

“Water Ghost Hairy Man” before and after liberation

In July 1949 , in the areas of Xinchuantang, Weisi Road, Dama Road, Erma Road, and Xiao Bengbu in Bengbu City, the Kuomintang army straggler Lu Yunxing and other three people dressed up as “water ghost hairy people” to terrorize the masses in the middle of the night. Because of the intimidation, the crowd started shouting, running around and screaming. Everywhere there were as few as 100 people, as many as 400 to 500 people, and the disturbance caused panic. After the intervention of the local government, the situation was subsided. As for the content and reasons of Lu Yunxing and others making the “water ghost hairy people” rumors, the records are not detailed, but other historical materials have good supplements. This rumor before liberation was made by Lu Yunxing. It was rumored that “Huaishui rises, water monsters come up, drag people and children, and gouge people’s eyes”, the purpose is to “intimidate the masses and take advantage of the opportunity to steal.” This rumor has an endogenous character.

However, from 1953 to 1954 at the beginning of liberation, rumors of “water ghost hairy people” appeared again, but they were introduced from the neighboring province of Jiangsu and spread in the Huaihe and Yangtze River basins of Anhui. About July and August of 1953 , “the boat people and the people who came and went from Jiangba, Jiangsu Province, were introduced into Xuyi (at that time it belonged to Anhui, and was later divided into Jiangsu). In September , it spread to Binghui (today’s Changxian County) and Jiashan (today’s Mingguang). City), Chuxian, Lai’an and other counties. After October , Sihong (at that time belonged to Anhui, later divided into Jiangsu), Wuhe, Dingyuan, Fengyang, Quanjiao, Feidong, Feixi, Hexian, Hanshan, Chaoxian, Wuwei, Lujiang, Fengtai, Mengcheng, Yingshang, Guoyang and other five counties in the Fuyang area, some counties in the Liu’an area, and even the two cities of Hefei and Huainan have ‘water ghost hairy people’ rumors circulating.” . This is the record in the Anhui Provincial Public Security Records, but it is not comprehensive in terms of distribution areas. At that time, Su County in Suzhou Special Area, Huoqiu and Jinzhai Counties in Lu’an Special Area, Tongcheng, Zongyang and Yuexi Counties in Anqing Special Area, Huaiyuan County in Bengbu Special Area, Wuhu County in Wuhu Special Area, and Changfeng County in Hefei Special Area (1965 It was formed by the borders of Shouxian, Dingyuan, Feidong , and Feixi counties in the 2000s. There are rumors of “water ghosts and hairy people” circulating.

On July 2 , 1956 , after the rumor of “water ghost hairy people” in Anhui was quelled, Anhui Provincial Party Committee Secretary Zeng Xisheng mentioned “water ghost hairy people” in his “Work Report at the First Party Congress of the Communist Party of China in Anhui Province”. “The spread of the rumors, “the spread of thirty-two counties within a few months.” This statement is in line with historical facts.

It can be seen that the rumor of “water ghost hairy people” in Anhui this time was introduced from the neighboring province of Jiangsu, from east to west, and mostly broke out and spread in areas with dense water networks. Although it is not endogenous locally, its spread is very wide. There is no doubt that the process of the rumors of “water ghost hairy people” is a collective fear memory that is activated and reconstructed from a special social background. In terms of this special social background, Li Ruojian believes that there are four factors worth paying attention to: the first is the major flood in the past two years, the second is the construction of the Huaihe River Control Project, the third is agricultural cooperation and the unified purchase and sales of grains, and the fourth is the beginning of the founding of the People’s Republic of China. all political movements. These four special social backgrounds have accumulated and increased the fear and dissatisfaction of the people, and these fears and dissatisfaction will in turn increase the speed and breadth of rumors.

1953-1954 : Rumors of “Water Ghost Hairy People” in Anhui by Huang Wenzhi via Google Translate machine translation.

The water spririt hairy monster rumor was most widespread during 1953 – 54 to the north and west of Nanjing in Jiangsu and Anhui Provines as well as a small part of Shandong Province. Map from “Between Reality and Fiction – A Study of Rumors in Mainland China in the 1950s” 《虛實之間──20世紀50年代中國大陸謠言研究》

DeepL machine translation here is followed by the Chinese full text.

Huang Wenzhi: Rumored Anhui “Water Spirit Hairy Man” Became Widespread Concern and Local Government Response

Updated:2017-10-12 

上专题:Anhui Province 水鬼毛人 Ideologizing local government Local governor responsible for politics

● Huang Wenzhi

   This article was published in Party History Research and Teaching, No. 2, 2016, and was abridged at the time of publication.

   [Abstract] In the last century, between 1953 and 1954, large-scale rumors of “water spirits and hairy men” occurred in the Huaihe and Yangtze River water network areas of Anhui Province, causing many mass incidents. However, the rumor of “water spirits and hairy people” in Anhui Province was not endogenous, but came from the neighboring province of Jiangsu, and broke out and spread from east to west, mostly in areas with dense water networks. The rumor spreads widely in Anhui, reaching more than 30 counties. The rumor gradually became ideological in the process of spreading. Two kinds of people, “criminal elements”, “outlaws” and “counter-revolutionaries”, were the creators and instigators of the rumors that led to their becoming a firmly held ideology. Having been warned by the neighboring province of Jiangsu earlier, the local government in Anhui Province responded to the rumors from the top down long before they broke out on a large scale, but the process of dealing with them still caused many conflicts and chaotic results. In some cities and counties, the response was even more forceful after the outbreak of sharp conflicts among the people. The most important feature is to adopt a two-pronged approach of “fighting for education” and “severe suppression” to achieve a supervisory political solution through organization, cadres and ideological treatment. It should be said that this model of “local politics of supervision and responsibility” in the field of social security can bring effective results, but also implies a political dilemma.

 

   During the last century, between 1953 and 1954, a large-scale rumor of “water spirit hairy Man” broke out in Su, Anhui and Lu regions of China, causing many mass incidents, which was one of the biggest rumors in China in the 20th century. The rumor was mostly called “water spirit hairy man” in Anhui, but it was also called “hairy man Water Ghost”, “hairy man and child” and “hairy man water monster” in some places. “, the names varied, but the content was quite consistent. It occurred during a period of great social change, and was essentially a social group’s fear of the outside world’s strange forces and disorderly spirits, but with too many political implications and hidden agendas. This kind of rumor reflects the direct confrontation between the traditional belief system of the people and the political ideology strongly promoted by the Chinese Communist Party at the beginning of the founding of the country, and this confrontation has been reinforced by the political movements of the early years following the founding of the PRC.

   Two scholars, Li Ruojian and Ma Junya, have made pioneering studies. [On the one hand, both of them affirm that the rumor of “water spirits and hairy people” is a product of social change and social psychological interaction; on the other hand, they also have cautious reservations about the local government’s response to the symptoms but not the root cause. However, the two scholars’ research only lightly mentions the local government’s response in this way, and do not carefully sort out and dig deeper.

    In contrast to them, this paper is different. This paper analyzes the introduction, distribution, ideologization, and top-down response of the local government to the rumor of the “water spirit hairy man” in Anhui from the perspective of political and social history, starting from the newly discovered archival materials, public security history materials, and local county records and cultural and historical materials. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of the “local politics of supervision and responsibility” in the field of social security at the beginning of the founding of the country and the political dilemma it implies. To a certain extent, this study on the background of the “water spirit hairy Man” rumor, the local government’s response strategy and the logic of political practice in Anhui is still a good attempt to continue the exploration.

  1. Introduction and distribution of the rumor of “water spirits and hairy people”

   In July 1949, in the area of Bengbu City, such as Xinshuntang, Weisi Road, Damalu, Ermalu, and Xiaobengbu, three people dressed up as “water spirits and hairy men”, such as Lu Yunxing, a casual soldier of the Kuomintang army, and terrorized people late at night. to terrorize the masses late at night. The masses, intimidated by the yelling, running and screaming, less than a hundred people in each place, more than four or five hundred people, causing panic. Later, the local government intervened and the situation calmed down. [2] As for the content and reasons for the rumor that Lu Yunxing and others created “water spirits and hairy people”, the record is not detailed, but other historical materials have good additions. Before liberation, this rumor was created by Lu Yunxing, who rumored that “Huai Shui was rising and there were water monsters coming up, dragging people’s children and gouging their eyes” in order to “intimidate the masses and take advantage of the theft”. [3] This rumor was endogenous in nature.

     However, at the beginning of the liberation, from 1953 to 1954, the rumor of “water spirits and hairy people” started again, but it was imported from the neighboring province of Jiangsu, and spread in the Huaihe and Yangtze river basin areas of Anhui. Around July and August 1953, “the rumor was spread from Jiangba, Jiangsu province, to Xuyi (then part of Anhui province, but later transferred to Jiangsu province) by boat people and other people, and in September, it spread to Binghui (today’s Chang County – cited), Jiashan (today’s Mingguang city – cited) and Chu County (now the city of Chu). -After October, Sihong (then part of Anhui, later transferred to Jiangsu – cited), Wuhe, Dingyuan, Fengyang, Quanjiao, Feidong, Feixi, Hexian, Hanyan, Chao, Wuwei, Lujiang and five counties in the Fuyang prefecture, including Fengtai, Mengcheng, Yingshang and Fengyang. Some counties in Liuan prefecture, and even Hefei and Huainan cities have rumors of ‘water ghost ‘ circulating. [4] This is a record in the Public Security Journal of Anhui Province, but it is not comprehensive as far as the distribution area is concerned. At that time, Suxian County of Suzhou Prefecture, Huoqiu and Jinzhai County of Liuan Prefecture, Tongcheng, Firyang and Yuexi County of Anqing Prefecture, Huaiyuan County of Bengbu Prefecture, Wuhu County of Wuhu Prefecture, and Changfeng County of Hefei Prefecture (which was formed in 1965 by the combination of Shouxian, Dingyuan, Feidong and Feixi counties–quote), etc. Rumors of “water spirits and hairy people” have been circulated. [5]

    On July 2, 1956, after the rumors of “water spirits and hairy people” in Anhui were quelled, Zeng Xisheng, secretary of the Anhui Provincial Party Committee, mentioned the scope of the rumors of “water spirits and hairy people” in his “Report on the Work of the First Party Congress of Anhui Province”. “Within a few months, it spread to thirty-two counties.”[6 [6] This statement is consistent with historical facts.

   It can be seen that the rumor of “water spirits and hairy people” in Anhui province came from the neighboring province of Jiangsu, and it broke out and spread from east to west, mostly in areas with dense water networks. Although it is not local, the scope of its impact is very wide. There is no doubt that the process of spreading the rumor of “water spirits and hairy people” is a collective fear memory that is activated and reconstructed from a special social context. In terms of this special social background, Li Ruojian believes that four factors deserve attention: first, the great floods in the middle of two years, second, the construction of the Huaihuai project, third, the agricultural cooperatives and the unified purchase and sale of grain, and fourth, the political movements at the beginning of the founding of the country. [7] These four particular social backgrounds accumulated and increased the fear and discontent of the people, which in turn increased the speed and breadth of rumors.

        Belief in the “water spirit hairy man” rumor got stronger

    On the eve of the liberation, the rumor of “water spirits and hairy people” in Anhui was spread by word of mouth and without confirmation from government departments, but not enough attention was paid at that time. In this rumor, the “water spirit hairy man” was generally portrayed as a monster that originated from the water, covered with hair, and came to shore in water, dragging children and gouging their eyes. The content of the rumors is largely consistent with those that circulated before the founding of the PRC. In Quanjiao County, “water spirits and hairy people” were “green-faced and fang-fanged, specializing in cutting male genitalia and female breasts. [8] In Hefei City, “hairy people” are “hairy hands and feet, hands and feet are fire, knives and guns, see people gouge eyes, cut eggs, cut nipples”. [9] 

In Firyang County, ” are little kids, who come out at night and day” and “specialize in cutting women’s nipples and men’s eggs”. [10] In Jinzhai County, the “hairy man Water Ghost” “body can be large and small, when large body length of several feet, feet more than a foot long, wearing a white coat, draped with a long white hair, white hair slits hidden in the green face fangs. Two large eyes like electric lights can shoot red and green light, two fingernails as long as a sharp edge like to grab food creatures. When it meets a woman, it grabs the breasts, and when it meets a man, it pinches the testicles away, and people don’t want to live. When it wants to enter the house, it becomes very small and can enter through the window cracks.” [11] And so on. From these local chronicles and cultural and historical data, it can be seen that before and after the founding of the country, the rumor of “water spirits and hairy people” in Anhui spread and spread in a certain area, with a strong color of terror and mystery.

     However, if we carefully compare the two “water spirits and hairy people” rumors before and after the liberation, the content of the rumors has changed, and the process of circulation is strongly ideological, i.e. the ideology and behavior practices embodied in the rumors themselves are gradually ideologized. This was reflected in two aspects: first, the rumors pointed directly at the Party, government and cadres, and second, they undermined Sino-Soviet friendly relations. Opposition to the Communist regime and opposition to the Soviet Union were the core political tendencies embedded in these rumors. As a result, these two points were constantly reinforced during the spread of the rumors and led to a number of explosive mass incidents.

    According to the Anhui Public Security Journal, the “water spirit hairy man” rumor “spread all over northern Anhui. It was said that ‘the United States, Britain, France and other five countries attacked the Soviet Union, and the Soviet Union wanted to make atomic bombs to deal with the attack of the five countries, and wanted China to provide women’s nipples and boys’ genitals as raw materials for atomic bombs’ and so on. The rumors are getting more and more intense, and some of them are adding more and more details to make them ‘realistic’, such as saying that a woman’s nipples have been cut off in a certain village, and that a village in a certain area has been killed by the ‘water spirit hairy man’. And so on and so forth.” [12]

    In Chuzhou City, in mid-August 1953, the “water ghost ” from northern Jiangsu Province into the region, October to November, most places in the region spread the “” rumors, “rumors of damage to Sino-Soviet friendship and party relations “. [13] In Binghui County, in September 1953, the rumor of “water ghost ” was introduced from Xuyi County and soon spread throughout the county. According to the rumor, ” turn into cadres during the day and  at night, walk fast, cut men’s genitals and women’s breasts, cut pregnant women’s stomachs, and dig out people’s eyes to make atomic bombs. [14] In Feidong County, in October 1953, the rumor of “water spirit hairy man” came from Dingyuan, saying that “water spirit hairy man is very powerful, cutting women’s breasts and boys’ genitals to make secret test devices for the Soviet Union, and government cadres are working for them as inside informers”. [15] 

In Hanyama County, in late December 1953, “rumors of a ‘hairy man water monster’ occurred in the county, rumors that the ‘hairy man water monster’ was sent by the Soviet Union to cut women’s breasts and children’s testicles; these monsters only hurting the masses, and never Party cadres ” [16] In the Anqing area, at the end of 1953, the rumor of “water ghost ” was “most serious in Daguan, Tongcheng County and Tudao, Yuexi”, and it was rumored that “the government released the ” and “wanted human eyes, hearts, and minds. The rumor was that “the government had released the hairy men” and “wanted human eyes, hearts, tits, and balls” and “sent the Soviet Union to build the atomic bomb”. [17] In Huoqiu County, in February 1954, rumors of “hairy man water spirits” “mainly attacked Party and state leaders, created war terror, and caused social unrest. [18] In Wuwei County, the “water spirit hairy man” rumor mainly said that the government “wanted to dig up 250 tons of women’s nipples, fetuses, men’s genitals, and eyeballs to be used as materials for making atomic bombs, so the government trained a large number of ‘hairy men”. The government has trained a large number of ‘hairy men’ to come to the countryside to collect them,” and the rumor is that the “water spirit hairy men” were “sent down by the government, and there are ‘Three No Gouge‘ rule – Do not gouge revolutionary martyrs, Do not gouge Party members  and Do not gouge government cadres” [19] And so on.

   In this way, from 1953 to 1954, the rumor of “water spirits and hairy men” became ideological, mainly because “water spirits and hairy men” were released by the Soviet Union and the Chinese government to cut off the body parts of Chinese people to provide raw materials for the Soviet Union to make atomic bombs. In some counties and rural areas, such ideological rumors often occurred during a period of social change when state power was intruding strongly, and used vulnerable groups such as women and children as symbols of the weak and defenseless people, reflecting the people’s rejection of state power’s disruption and reintegration of the rural social order, and their extreme fear due to their inability to cope with it. This sentiment brought the people closer together to defend themselves against the intrusion and invasion of foreign state power. In this way, the ideological rumors deliberately constructed the community as two divisive and separate groups, in which party members, league members, and cadres were the insiders of the conspiracy and were excluded from being attacked, while the public was constructed as the target of the attack. In this way, party members, league members, and cadres are demonized in the rumor-inspired mass events and become the targets of real attacks.

    3. The ideologized makers and instigators of rumors

    From 1953 to 1954, the rumors of the “water spirit hairy man” in Anhui Province spread to the ideologized makers and instigators, who were generally called “criminal elements”, “outlaws” and “counter-revolutionaries”. “and “counter-revolutionaries”. According to the political party journal of Anhui Province, wherever the “water spirit hairy man” rumor went, “counterrevolutionaries and various criminal elements used the rumor to organize riots, loot food, and beat cadres, pointing their fingers directly at the Party and the government.”[20 [20] Li Ruojian referred to these two categories of people as “ordinary transgressors” and “those who were affected by the changes. [21] There is a reasonable element, but the “ordinary transgressors” are, to some extent, also the “shocked in the change”.

    In 1953, the rumor of “water spirit hairy man” broke out in Jinzhai County, that is, a soldier who had returned to his hometown after a poor performance in the army. In 1953, the rumor of “water spirit hairy man” broke out in Jinzhai County, which was created by Zhu Shuji’s “venting his personal anger”, “taking advantage of the opportunity to get rich” and “playing with women”. [22] In 1953, Yuexi County implemented the unified purchase and sale of grain, and “some unruly elements spread various rumors to undermine this essential task, including the rumor of the ‘hairy man water monster’, which once spread throughout the county and deceived tens of thousands of people. [23] And so on. These “criminal elements” and “outlaws” created and instigated the rumors of “water spirits and hairy people”, mostly for personal gain or to achieve selfish purposes.

    Secondly, the “counter-revolutionary elements” mainly refer to bandits, bullies, secret agents, reactionary party cadres, and reactionary sects, etc. In July 1953, the “water spirit hairy Man” rumor in Lai’an County was started by the “Xuyi” people. “The rumor spread from Xuyi County to the half-tower area of the county, and soon spread to all parts of the county. Because of the concealed reactionary sect leaders, secret agents and counter-revolutionary elements taking advantage of the opportunity to create rumors and sabotage, rumors spread all over the county” and “order was in chaos”. [24] 

In April 1953, Quanjiao County carried out the work of banning the reactionary sects such as the Consistent Way, the Precedent Way, the Tong Shan She, and the Chinese Rational Church, and by the end of the year, “the reactionary sects created rumors such as ‘water spirit hairy man’, which seriously disturbed the social order.”[25 [25] In the winter of 1953, in Changfeng County, “the reactionary sects created rumors of ‘water spirits and hairy people’ in the countryside, which spread into the territory from east to west, causing panic among the masses and social disorder. [26] At the end of 1953, in Jiashan County, “the rumors of ‘water spirits and hairy people’ created by the reactionary sects seriously disturbed the social order. [27] In 1954, when there was a big flood, Fengtai County “the head of the three Buddhist sects, called ‘water spirits and hairy people’, created very frightening rumors and a horrible atmosphere, causing men to be afraid to go to the fields, women to go out, and students to go to school, which once caused panic and social chaos. “. [28] In January 1954, Wuhe County, “the reactionary Daoist Society created rumors such as ‘water spirits and hairy people ‘ ””, causing many rural people to panic and not dare to turn off the lights at night. [29] In February 1954, rumors of “water spirits and hairy people” emerged in Huoqiu County, which were later identified as being created by “counter-revolutionary elements”, including These “counter-revolutionary elements” included “former bandits”, “bullies”, “leaders of the Huodao Gate”, “Kuomintang military and political personnel”, “landlords”, and “landlords”. “landlords,” “soldier hooligans.” [30] And so on. These “counterrevolutionaries” created and incited the rumors of “water spirits and hairy men”, mostly for the purpose of disturbing social security and subverting the new regime.

    It should be said that the general public is certainly in the majority among those who intentionally or unintentionally spread rumors about the “water spirit hairy men,” but it is the “criminal elements,” “outlaws,” and “counterrevolutionaries” who drive them toward ideologization. However, the two categories of “criminal elements,” “outlaws,” and “counter-revolutionaries” deserve attention. These two categories of people, as those who are impacted by social changes, whether they are seeking their own selfishness or pursuing political interests, make full use of the people’s intellectual deficiencies, traditional stretches of rumors and legends, and the omissions of local government control to create and incite rumors toward ideologization, and inevitably become the culprits of rumor incidents after the rumors have subsided.

    These people are basically the social elite in the old power structure. Why did they create and incite rumors that became ideological? This is mainly due to the fact that during the political movements at the beginning of the country, such as the land reform movement, the anti-bandit and anti-bullying movement, the anti-repression and purge movement, the campaign to outlaw the reactionary Daoist Party, the campaign to outlaw the reactionary Party groups, the agricultural cooperative movement and the movement to unify the purchase and sale of grain, the old power pattern was broken, and they sank to the bottom of society and became the victims of social changes. Therefore, they created and instigated rumors of “hairy man water spirits” to become ideological, pointing directly at the Party, the government, cadres and the Soviet Union, and the new regime and cadre elites often viewed such elements from the perspective of a priori “class struggle” and directly regarded them as “class dissidents”, that is, abstract “class enemies”. In the process of rumor fermentation, these “class enemies” were generally categorized as “criminal elements,” “outlaws,” and “counterrevolutionaries” according to the seriousness of the situation and their personal attitudes. “counter-revolutionaries”. In the official publication of local history and literature, these two types of people are characterized as the culprits of rumor making and incitement, and are generally punished severely in different degrees in rumor incidents.

   Fourth, Conflict with Cadres and its Chaotic Fruit

   According to Li Ruojian, the rumor of “water spirits and hairy people” “when it first began to spread, was probably because it was not expected to spread so widely and have such a deep impact on the people that the local government did not pay much attention to it. [31] This statement may be more consistent with the situation in Jiangsu, but not in Anhui. In view of the situation in the neighboring province of Jiangsu, the Anhui Provincial Party Committee and the Public Security Department issued the “Rumor of the water spirit hairy Man” on March 12, 1953, before the outbreak of the “water spirit hairy Man” rumor in Anhui. It should be said that the local government was quick to respond. Subsequently, Anhui government and public security system at all levels carried out the work of “quelling rumors”. Because the local government reacted quickly, the party cadres and the rumors themselves reached the local society almost simultaneously. Thus, in the process of “dispelling rumors”, party cadres were sent to localities to “dispel rumors” and encountered with rumor spreaders, instigators and people, and were intentionally or unintentionally misunderstood as “water spirits” and “hairy men” who were intentionally trained and released by the government. “In this way, it is inevitable that there will be sharp conflicts between the people and the government, and many conflicts between the people and the government will occur.

    According to Anhui Public Security Journal, during the process of “pacification”, some anti-bad elements took the opportunity to incite the villagers to prevent the cadres from entering the village, and even tied up, detained, beat up and created riots. One day, when several cadres entered Xuyi County Bridge Town to work, some people said that “the ‘water spirit hairy man’ has arrived”. The farmers who came to the market fled and formed a “bombing set”. Binghui County Public Security Bureau, a deputy director to inspect the work of the township of high bridge, some villagers armed with knives and spears threatened the deputy director’s chest, not allowed to enter the village. The health department went to investigate women’s pregnancy in order to promote the new method of delivery, and some farmers suspected that it was to provide clues for the “water spirit hairy Man” to take out the fetus, and made things difficult. A deputy director of Feidong County Post and Telecommunications Bureau went to work in the countryside and was accused by some villagers of being a “hairy person” and was tied up. …… Zhu of Linhe Township, Quan Tang District, Wuwei County, incited more than 7,000 people to go to the township government to capture the “”, breaking the doors and windows of the township government and injuring four people. [32]

    From the available information, during the process of “Ping Rumor”, many cities and counties in Anhui at that time had clashes between groups of people, the most serious in Wuwei County.

    According to the history of public security in Anhui Province, in early January 1954, rumors of “water spirits and hairy people” were spread in some townships of Yanqiao, Shijian, Huangluo and Tugou in Wuwei County. At the end of the month, the development to the county 14 districts 91 townships. On February 3, two cadres from Wuwei County went to the countryside to investigate the rumor, passing through Zhabei Township, Yanqiao District, and some people, instigated by the anti-bad elements, blocked the way of the public security cadres, falsely accused the public security cadres of being “water spirits and hairy people”, seized two short guns, and set up a private court, tortured the public security cadres, forcing them to admit that they were “water spirits and hairy people”. The public security cadres admitted that they were “water spirits and hairy people” and falsely accused the public security chief of “harboring water spirits and hairy people”. 

Five grassroots cadres had their furniture and farm equipment burned. On February 4, the captain of Sanshui Township militia led some of the militia to Tuanshan Village to investigate the rumors, but was beaten to the ground by bad elements and pushed into the water to drown. The county party committee deputy secretary, the county party committee propaganda department deputy minister and other four people went to Zhabei township to level rumors, were also besieged interrogation, and took away two shotguns, accompanied by the secretary of the district party committee was also injured. On February 5, the county party committee organization department deputy minister and other five people went to the township of Hengshan to level rumors, and were also taken away and beaten. February 6, Tie Gang township clerk and militia captain and other nine people, went to Wangchong village to check the work, and was said to be “water ghost “, was attacked and beaten, resulting in injuries to 2 people, took away one long and one short gun each. So far, a total of 1 person was killed, 20 people were wounded, 27 people were tied up, and 4 long guns and 8 short guns were taken away. The development of the matter became more and more serious and formed a riot. [33] etc.

    On July 2, 1956, Zeng Xisheng, the secretary of Anhui Provincial Party Committee, also emphasized in his “Report on the Work of the First Party Congress of Anhui Province” that in the “water spirit hairy man” incident, “117 people and cadres were killed and injured by counter-revolutionaries, which seriously affected social security. ” [34]

    It should be said that the “water spirit hairy man” rumor itself implies a paradox, that is, to provoke the conflict between the cadres and the masses of the new regime. When the party and cadres who participated in the “rumor-quelling” work from top to bottom encountered with the rumor spreaders, instigators and the people, it was inevitable that the conflict between the cadres and the masses would occur due to intentional or unintentional misunderstanding and chaotic results.

    V. Local Government Response

    At the very beginning of the Chinese Communist Party, the problem of rumors in society was ideologically characterized as “rumors are completely illegal, and those who create rumors and confuse the public are the enemies of the people. [35] Therefore, in order to “deal with counter-revolutionary rumors, we must implement the three-word policy of speaking, refuting, and pursuing, i.e., strengthening propaganda, refuting rumors positively, and pursuing the sources of rumors, etc.” and making it clear that “pursuing rumors is primarily the responsibility of public security departments at all levels. [36] And once the public security departments tracked down those who “carried out counter-revolutionary propaganda and agitation, created and spread rumors for counter-revolutionary purposes”, they would be “sentenced to more than three years of imprisonment; those with serious circumstances shall be sentenced to death or life imprisonment. ” [37]

    In the case of the “water spirit hairy man” rumor, the Anhui Provincial Party Committee and the Public Security Department were more timely in responding to the spread and proliferation of rumors.

    On March 12, 1953, the Anhui Provincial Public Security Department issued the “Information and Opinions on Quelling the Rumors of “Water spirits and Hairy People””, requesting the public security organs of each region to:  The public security organs in each area were asked to: 

1) prevent the spread of rumors; 

2) hold mass meetings by dealing with solved cases and sending representatives from nearby villages so that people would no longer listen to rumors; 

3) calmly and actively debunk rumors and educate and convince the masses; 

4) quell the “water spirit hairy Man” incident by sending strong cadres to organize a few reliable village cadres and activists in addition to vigorously publicizing and exposing the incident. 

The village cadres and activists should investigate and study possible ghosts in advance, and deploy concealed posts at night to monitor their actions. In the area where the rumors are most fierce, the rumors should be positively exposed, unite the masses, stabilize order and isolate the bad guys. The initial stabilization of the situation, that is, should be actively looking for bad guys. [38]

     In December 1953, the Anhui Provincial Public Security Department inspected the rumor of “water spirits and hairy people” in Huangshan. The results of the inspection showed that there were 7 districts and 83 townships in the county, and since mid-December, the rumors had spread only in individual districts and townships. 27 had spread to 7 districts and 50 townships. Under the unified leadership of the county party committee and the county government, the Public Security Bureau of Hensan County sent cadres to the key districts and townships to carry out propaganda and dispel the rumors, exposing that the so-called “water spirit hairy man” was purely a rumor intentionally created by the anti-bad elements, aiming to damage the Sino-Soviet friendship and the relationship between the Party and the masses. The rumor-mongers or active spreaders of the rumors that were found to be substantiated were dealt with in different cases, some of them were detained or arrested after being exposed and criticized, some were put under control, and some were made to speak out and admit their mistakes in public. Through various measures, the situation has improved considerably. [39]

    On January 8, 1954, the Anhui Provincial Party Committee forwarded the Instruction of Wuhu District Party Committee on the Rumors of “hairy men” in He, Huan and Chao counties, requesting all places to pay close attention to and check the rumors in their respective areas, and take effective measures in time to quell and prevent such reactionary rumors from spreading. Go to where the rumor has arisen.  In addition to the current work to grasp the typical case, debunk the rumor, educate cadres, strengthen the supervision of the controlled elements, the public security departments should be carefully arranged to investigate the work, the head of the rumor, pretending to be “water ghost “.  If there is evidence of counter-revolutionary elements, landlords, the head of the sect, hooligans, etc., should be immediately arrested and punished according to the law. 

Those who recently fled should also be arrested (or secretly arrested), promptly interrogated, and dealt with separately. Those who disguise themselves as “water spirits” for personal purposes, such as stealing or committing adultery, should also be punished appropriately for disturbing public order even if they are not politically active. In dealing with the above cases, should hold mass meetings (as far as possible to absorb the participation of representatives of nearby districts and villages), so that they confess, publicly expose, and publicly announce their sentences. If the death penalty is approved approved, the execution should be widely publicized.  Only in this way can give reactionaries a heavy blow, the masses can rest assured that the rumors can be quelled. In areas where the “water spirit hairy Man” rumor did not occur, strict precautions should be taken to prevent the spread of similar reactionary rumors. [40]

    On January 14, 1954, the Anhui Provincial Party Committee issued a notice on quelling the rumors of “water spirits and hairy people”, requesting that local, municipal and county committees must quickly try to quell the rumors. For those who believe in ghosts and monsters, should be educated to be more vigilant. The public security departments were asked to step up reconnaissance to catch counter-revolutionary elements who created rumors and bad elements who used rumors to do harm. At the same time, the provincial public security department, according to the notice of the provincial party committee, requested the public security organs at all levels to launch a general anti-rumor struggle in areas where rumors had been quelled or where rumors had been serious in the past, with a focus and goal in mind, to map out and line up sabotage and disruption elements, to use concrete examples to expose the rumor-mongering and sabotage activities of bad elements, to raise the awareness of the masses, and to report the bad elements causing rumors and disruption. Anyone fabricating rumors for the head, actively spread rumors or take the opportunity to hit the ghost to intimidate the masses, expand rumors, create a false situation and cause panic among the masses, should be resolutely fought. At the same time, the Provincial Public Security Department sent six working groups to Chu County, Suxian, Fuyang, Wuhu and other key counties to check the rumor tracing and rumor quelling situation. The public security organs at all levels, according to the instructions of the provincial party committee and the provincial public security department, sent a large number of cadres to penetrate into the areas where rumors were spread and carry out the work of quelling rumors. [41]

    In April 1954, Anhui Provincial Public Security Department issued a notice on the continuation of the “water spirit hairy Man” rumor, which clearly stated that since the “water spirit hairy Man” rumor was still circulating in some areas, the public security organs at all levels were required to resolutely follow the instructions of the Provincial Party Committee on January 14 to quell the rumor after it had already been spread. Fourteen instructions, in the rumors have been quelled or rumors in the past serious areas, should be combined with the general line of propaganda and education, focused and targeted to launch a fight against rumors. They should organize forces to reach out to the masses, through district and township cadres, security activists, etc., to identify and line up the saboteurs and troublemakers who appeared in the course of the rumors, and use concrete facts to expose the evils of their use of the “water spirit hairy man” rumors to sabotage.  

This will help the masses understand the truth of the rumors; mobilize the masses to talk about the harm they suffered by listening to the rumors. In order to raise the consciousness of the masses and to prosecute the bad elements who created the rumors. For those who are the leaders of rumors or actively spread rumors, as well as those who take the opportunity to play God, intimidate the masses, and cause panic among the masses, we should resolutely crack down on them, and if they belong to the five categories of counter-revolutionaries or landlords, hooligans, or traitors, they should be arrested and punished; if they are ordinary people, they should confess their mistakes in public through self-examination, and if they are serious and bad, they should be convicted according to the law. In the process of quelling rumors, it is necessary to map and line up the remaining counterrevolutionary elements, hostile class elements, and dangerous elements of social security, pay attention to finding clues to counter revolutionary organizations, set up reconnaissance, and give timely crackdowns after obtaining evidence. [42]

    From the interpretation of the above historical materials, it seems that the local government in Anhui was more timely in responding to the rumors of “water spirit hairy man” from top to bottom this time. On July 2, 1956, Zeng Xisheng, secretary of the Anhui Provincial Party Committee, said in his “Report on the Work of the First Party Congress of Anhui Province” that in the “water spirit hairy Man” incident, the government began to “crack down on the water spirits. In the incident of “water spirits”, Zeng Xisheng, the secretary of Anhui Provincial Party Committee, said in his report on the work of the first CPC congress in Anhui Province, that at the beginning, he “did not adopt the policy of suppression”, but later “changed the practice and adopted the measures of detection and resolute suppression, so that the masses actively rose to participate in the struggle. The rumors of ‘hairy man water spirits’ were quickly quelled.” [43]

    It should be said that under the strict instructions, supervision and inspection of the Anhui Provincial Party Committee and the Public Security Department, local party and government organizations and cadres in cities, counties, districts and townships then acted efficiently and worked hard to “quell the rumors” in the areas where the rumors were concentrated. By the autumn of 1954, under the instructions of the Provincial Party Committee and the Department of Public Security, the government departments of the province “arrested 1,128 counter-revolutionaries and various criminal elements who made use of the rumor of ‘water spirit hairy man’ to incite trouble, and sentenced more than 20 people to death, so that the rumors were gradually quelled. ” [44]

       VI. The Case of Feixi County

    In terms of the history of administrative divisions, Feixi County was under the Chaohu Special Zone of the Northern Anhui Administration at the beginning of the founding of the country, and later changed to the Liuan Special Zone of the Northern Anhui Administration. [45] According to the interview of Mr. Yin Shusheng, in December 1953, the rumor of “water spirits and hairy people” was spread to Feixi County of the Liuan Prefecture, and spread rapidly, and everyone was panic-stricken and social order was in chaos. [46] According to statistics at the time, “three people were killed, four were wounded, two people committed suicide due to excessive panic, and more than 100 people were injured in the panic. [47]

    It should be said that the “water spirit hairy Man” rumor caused a lot of confusion in Feixi County, but compared to other parts of Anhui, the “water spirit hairy Man” rumor in Feixi County spread later, and by this time the Anhui Provincial Party Committee and the Public Security Department had basically formed a more systematic response and strategy.

    On January 5, 1954, the Propaganda Department of the Anhui Provincial Committee of the Communist Party of China sent the “Propaganda Instruction on Quelling the Rumors of “water spirits and “” to the Feixi County Committee. At the beginning of the instruction, it was emphasized that the rumor of “water spirit hairy nan” was obviously a conspiracy of the hidden remnants of counter-revolutionary elements to sabotage the propaganda and implementation of the Party’s general line during the transitional period and the current task of food plan requisition, to disrupt the winter production of farmers and to disturb social security. To this end, the provincial party committee put forward the following instructions from three aspects:

 (1) in terms of propaganda content, should focus on the following points: stressed that the “water spirit hairy Ren” rumor is a reactionary rumor spread by the participating counterrevolutionaries, is a vicious plot of counterrevolutionary elements to carry out sabotage activities, they The purpose of the rumors is to disturb social security, destroy the production of the peasants, and at the same time attempt to provoke the friendship and cooperation between the people of China and the Soviet Union, destroy the contact between the Party and the people’s government and the masses, and destroy the unity between the cadres and the masses. 

2, to explain that under the correct leadership of Chairman Mao and the Communist Party of China, the Chinese people have achieved great victories in the anti-U.S. aid campaign and in the various construction projects, and are gradually making a triumphant transition to socialism. The counter-revolutionaries did not care about the peaceful and happy life of the Chinese people, but they were exhausted and could only resort to the most despicable and shameless means to create rumors and deceive the people. 

3. to show that the Soviet Union had provided great, comprehensive and long-term selfless assistance to China’s revolutionary victory and economic construction, and that the Soviet people were the best friends of the Chinese people; to show that the Party and the People’s Government had always served the people at large, and that the revolutionary cadres were the people’s workers. and that revolutionary working cadres are the people’s handymen and have been, are and will be fighting for the happy life of all working people. All rumors that provoke the relationship between China and the Soviet Union and the relationship between the people and the Party and the government are the plots of counter-revolutionaries, who are the enemies of the people, and the people should never fall for their tricks. Anyone who listened to the rumors not only made the family restless, but also wasted a lot of money, delayed production, and fell for the counter-revolutionaries’ tricks. This lesson should be accepted by everyone.

This shows that after the banditry, anti-hegemony, land reform and counter-revolutionary suppression campaigns, the counter-revolutionary forces have basically been eliminated, but there are still a small number of counter-revolutionary elements that have slipped through the net, and if some people mistakenly believe the rumors and become alarmed, they will give those small groups of counter-revolutionary elements an opportunity to take advantage of their sabotage activities. Therefore, the people should never listen to rumors, let alone believe in them, and spread them, but should be vigilant so that counter-revolutionaries can take advantage of them, and immediately refute them and pursue their roots when they find them, so as to ensure the smooth progress of winter production and mutual cooperation campaigns.

 Propaganda methods:

 In areas where rumors occur, it is necessary to first of all urgently educate grass-roots cadres, party members, league members, propagandists and activists, raise their political vigilance, keep a clear head and ensure that they are not fooled by rumors, which is the key to quelling rumors; and then organize them to do their utmost to educate the masses to expose reactionary rumors. In this propaganda campaign, in addition to holding various meetings and conferences for oral propaganda, and should use the counter-revolutionary elements who created rumors or pretended to be “water ghost ” to present themselves; organize people who have suffered great losses from rumors to make complaints; also organize the masses to visit each other to see the truth and debunk rumors; and can use detailed accounting (list local method of calculating detailed accounts (citing real-life examples of fire, theft, injury and waste and delay in production due to misbelief in rumors), combined with the immediate interests of farmers, is proven to be an effective way to extinguish rumors. In areas where it is estimated that rumors may spread, prevention should be resolutely implemented, and rumors should be quickly and actively exposed to the cadres and the masses in order to occupy ideological positions and form a strong line of defense to resolutely stop the attack of rumors and ensure that they do not spread. Taking the initiative in leadership is extremely important in this struggle.

(3) While carrying out the above propaganda work, grass-roots cadres and the masses should be educated to strengthen the control and surveillance of counter-revolutionary elements and unlawful landlord class elements, and warn them openly against any indiscriminate talk or movement. For those speculators, thieves, dilettantes, etc., who try to take advantage of the opportunity for personal gain and fabricate and expand rumors, they must also be educated and dealt with as necessary with the approval of their superiors, depending on the seriousness of their situation. However, in carrying out propaganda activities, a strict distinction must be made between the vicious rumors of counterrevolutionaries and the backward-minded speech of the masses; the masses must not be treated roughly, but neither should reactionary rumors be simply regarded as the superstitious activities of the masses, thus relaxing vigilance and weakening the struggle to crush the conspiracies of counterrevolutionaries. [48]

   Through the above historical materials, it can be seen that the content of this propaganda instruction sent to the propaganda department of the Anhui Provincial Party Committee in Feixi County was extremely meticulous and thorough. In January 1954, the Feixi County Committee instructed all districts to quell the rumors of ‘water spirits and hairy people’ as the main task of law and order. The County Public Security Bureau was divided into six groups to quell rumors in areas with serious rumors. Each area used examples to make the masses recognize the bad guys’ schemes. Some of the leaders who created rumors, spread rumors and incited the masses to trouble were arrested and brought to justice.” [49] The Chinese government’s “Fei Xi County” was the first country in the world to have a “rumor mill”.

    It should be said that in the work of “quelling rumors” in Feixi County, many leaders who created and spread rumors and incited the masses to trouble were indeed arrested and brought to justice, but there were also some lucky ones who were given mercy outside the law, such as Wang Xiaoming of Sanhe District. According to the archives: Sanhe District, “the second elementary school teacher Wang Xiaoming always backward thinking, political awareness, the secret service rumors, the king not only did not actively debunk the rumors to the masses, but believe in the truth, the more serious the king actually encouraged the masses with knives and sticks to prevent our cadres to work in the countryside, and threatened to say, ‘ This wrong behavior of Wang has seriously lost the proper position of a people’s teacher”, therefore, Feixi County Government “in order to strictly discipline and educate cadres, after The study decided to give Wang Xiaoming administrative dismissal.”[50]  Subsequently, the Sanhe District Government, in accordance with the instructions of the County Party Committee, “demoted” the teacher Wang Xiaoming to a teaching position at Wuxin Primary School, and transferred “Sun Xiaozhen, a teacher at Wuxin Primary School, to work at Sanhe Second Primary School. “. [51] Nearly a year after Wang Xiaoming was transferred to Wuxin Primary School, the Sanhe District Government found that Wang Xiaoming had “recognized his mistake and performed positively and responsibly at work since receiving the disciplinary action” and “agreed to revoke his disciplinary action” and “reported to the county government for processing.” [52]

   In summary, in the process of “quelling rumors”, the Feixi County Committee and the Public Security Bureau, according to the propaganda instructions of the Propaganda Department of the Anhui Provincial Committee of the CPC, adopted a two-pronged approach of “fighting for education” and “severe suppression”. By the end of January 1954, “the rumors had subsided and order had returned to normal” in Feixi County. [On January 17, 1955, the Propaganda Department of the Anhui Provincial Party Committee and the Party Department of the Provincial Public Security Department also issued the “Opinions on Refuting Rumors and Cracking Down on Bad Elements” to the Feixi County Party Committee, in which it was stated that in early January 1955, in Feixi County “Nineteen more townships in seven districts were haunted by ‘water spirits and hairy people’ rumors.” [54] Even in the “Report on the Inspection of the Current Rural Security Situation” of March 15, 1957, the CPC Feixi County Committee also revealed that Feixi County had quelled “rumors that bad elements had been found in four townships, including Longtan, saying that ‘eye gouging and egg cutting are coming again (referring to hairy man water spirits). ” the rumor. [55]

    Rumors of “water spirits and hairy people” in Feixi County were not quelled all at once, but recurred in cycles. The local government’s response, moreover, followed a top-down locking path to deal with it. During this period, the Anhui Provincial Party Committee, the Public Security Bureau, the Lu’an Local Party Committee, and the Feixi County Party Committee also issued several documents instructing the local authorities to “quell” the rumors in response to the recurring “water spirits and hairy people” rumors in Feixi County. [56] The local government also issued a number of documents instructing local “rumor-quelling” efforts.

    For example, on December 16, 1954, the Communist Party of China Lu’an District Committee sent to Feixi County “additional instructions to quell the rumors of the “, the additional instructions clearly pointed out: 

1, the current work in rural areas of all the provinces, special, county, district cadres, etc., must pay great attention to, can not be easily overwhelmed, in the beginning of the rumors of the area, should be combined with the work of the unified purchase and sale of grain, quickly organized party organizations, league members, cadres to go to the masses.

 2, close to the rumor areas, and not yet rumor areas, and may be affected by the rumor areas, should immediately convene a meeting of party members and activists, education cadres, get through the ideological awareness, ready to ideological positions, in order to take the initiative at any time to expose rumors. 

3  The government should strengthen political and ideological education in the propaganda of the unified purchase and sale of grain, raise the political alertness of the masses, and prevent the enemy from creating rumors and sabotage. 

4. To strengthen the supervision and control of counter-revolutionary elements in the five areas, and strictly prevent sabotage. 

5. The government should also expose the rumors and educate the public with real people. [57] The document reflects the contents of the document.

    From the contents reflected in these documents, it seems that after the recurrence of rumors, local governments always deal with them from the top down, in the same mode but with more intensive means, which has become a kind of locking dependency path. However, as Li Ruojian notes, “Every time the rumors end the same way, subsiding under a strong government crackdown. This kind of suppression can have a huge deterrent effect, and people’s fear of suppression may outweigh their fear of the ‘hairy man water monster,’ so the rumors will quickly disappear in the short term. However, the folk understanding and memory of the ‘hairy man water monster’ does not disappear, which means that a hotbed of rumor generation is retained, and when the time comes, the rumor may be resurrected.” [58]

    VII. The Politics of Local Governorship

    In fact, in the city of Nanjing under the Kuomintang in the spring and summer of 1928, there was also an outbreak of rumors of a demon woman taking souls, saying that the closing of the tomb of Dr. Sun Yat-sen needed the living souls of children, and that the front line of the Northern Expedition War needed war help from the spirits of the underworld. This caused a huge storm of rumors in Nanjing, which led to panic among the citizens, social disorder and chaos. At that time, the Nanjing Special Municipal Government, the Education Bureau, the Public Security Bureau, the Capital Garrison Command, and other functional departments actively reacted in a controlled manner according to the law, holding meetings, distributing leaflets, holding seminars, etc. to propagate and explain to the public, and denouncing the so-called “rascals, Sun Chuanfang’s henchmen, and communists” for making trouble from them in order to to eliminate the panic of the public. In addition, the Capital Garrison Command, the Public Security Bureau, and the city government also issued a notice prohibiting “mass gatherings of people to fight”, and the Public Security Bureau also imposed necessary punishments on violators, with the aim of quelling rumors and stabilizing social order. [59] The Public Security Bureau also issued a prohibition on “mobbing” in order to quell rumors and stabilize social order.

    In contrast to the handling of this rumor in the Nationalist-ruled areas before the liberation, the local government in the new China had its own set of political practices in response to and handling of the “water spirit hairy man” rumor.

    It should be said that, including the case of Feixi County described above, the local government’s response to and handling of this sudden rumor intensified the formation of a “politics of local supervision and responsibility” in the field of social security. This mode of political operation was the key link in the implementation of “political omnipotence”[60] at the beginning of the founding of the country, and its core is expressed in the following three aspects.

    First, the organization and cadres: the top-down supervisory operation.

    Before the rumor of “water spirits and hairy people” came into Anhui, the Anhui Provincial Party Committee and the Public Security Department issued a multi-party response in the form of centralized leadership and unified command. Subsequently, the leaders of each city and county, the people’s armed forces, the public prosecution and law departments and district and township cadres went to organize investigation teams according to these response opinions, and went to the rumor concentrated areas, and tried to carry out the work of “quelling the rumors”. 

In He County, in October 1953, “the rumor of ” and ‘water spirits’ circulated in the Xiangquan District, the township of Chiao Miao, in less than 40 days, spread to all districts and villages in the county”. “In order to quell the rumors and stabilize the social order, the county party secretary Tang Jiuqui, the head of the People’s Armed Forces Wei Xinchun, and the deputy director of the Public Security Bureau Wu Zhigui led 32 people to set up an investigation team to go around and dispel the rumors.” [61]

 In Huoqiu County, on January 20, 1954, “Liu Li, Sanyuan, Hongji and other districts and townships appeared ‘ water ghost’ rumors, the county public, prosecution and law departments timely cooperation with district and township cadres, propaganda and education, while the arrest of rumor-mongering anti-bad elements of the land rich 82 people “. [62] And so on. It should be said that in the work of “quelling rumors”, from the provincial department to the city and county, and then to the district and township, the top-down supervision and inspection, one by one, reached a kind of pressure mechanism of rigid transmission, and the unity of the political center and the efficiency of political implementation were fully reflected.

    Second, the ideological treatment: education for (ordinary people and grassroots cadres) and severe suppression (class enemies) combined.

    In the process of spreading the rumor of “water spirit hairy Man” in Anhui, the rumor mutated and took on a strong ideological tone. Because of this, the governmental departments, in dealing with this widespread rumor, also simply and directly dealt with it ideologically from an a priori “class struggle” perspective. In the process, a two-pronged approach was adopted, with leniency and severity, and different treatment, in order to achieve the goal of a comprehensive ban on rumors.

    Specifically, when the investigation team organized by the local government enters the rumor concentration area, it first holds a meeting with party members and cadres to strengthen ideological education, dispel rumor superstition and clarify the truth; second, mobilize the masses to report and trace the source of rumors. The general public and grassroots cadres who spread the rumors were “educated”, while the ideological creators and instigators of the rumors were often characterized as abstracted “class enemies” and were “severely suppression” approach. In this way, under the leadership of the investigation team, the dictatorial organs, grassroots cadres and the people were organically integrated and combined, and the work of “pacifying rumors” progressed very smoothly. 

In Binghui County, in the process of “dispelling rumors”, “the county party committee held an emergency meeting, issued a syllabus to dispel rumors, and deployed cadres to work with the county public security bureau to go around to the masses to promote and educate, while taking severe measures to crack down on bad elements who took advantage of the opportunity to fabricate and spread rumors, executing two people and arresting and imprisoning seven. Two people were executed and seven were arrested and imprisoned. After 50 days of efforts, the rumors gradually subsided. [63] 

In the Anqing area, in the process of “quelling the rumors”, “the public security bureaus in each county first educated the cadres in the areas where the rumors were spread, found out the facts of the panic, explained the truth to the masses, and arrested 108 people for creating and spreading rumors and taking the opportunity to sabotage them according to the law. After three months. The rumors of ‘water spirit hairy Ren’ were quelled.” [64] 

In Wuhe County, in the process of “quelling rumors,” “the public security department deployed more than 100 cadres to the countryside to dispel the rumors,” and “banned the reactionary Daoist association and arrested 35 Daoist leaders of all sizes.” In the process of quelling the rumors, “the public security department deployed more than 100 cadres to the countryside to dispel the rumors,” and “banned the reactionary Daoist organization and arrested 35 Daoist leaders of all sizes. [65] In Huoqiu County, in the process of “quelling the rumors,” “the county public security bureau mobilized the masses to expose the falsehood of the rumors. A total of 156 people were arrested; 22 of them were former bandits, 1 was a bully, 1 was the head of the Huidao Sect, 3 were Kuomintang military and political personnel, 6 were landlords, and 3 were soldiers and hooligans; 3 were sentenced to death and 47 to imprisonment. 106 people were released through education.” [66] 

In Feidong County, the process of “pacification”, “the county party committee and the county government decided, with the Public Security Bureau and the Armed Forces Department as the main focus, to mobilize the security personnel at all levels to reach out to the masses to carry out propaganda and education, and arrested 43 saboteurs, of whom Han Mou of Zhongshan Wang Township, a large public anger, was sentenced to death “, after several months, “the rumors subsided.” [67] 

In Wuwei County, in the process of “quelling rumors”, “the Wuwei County Committee, Wuwei County Public Security Bureau, Wuhu Special Public Security Office, and the Provincial Public Security Department received the report, respectively sent personnel, led the public security armed to the place of trouble, on the one hand to carry out propaganda, expose rumors, and win the masses; on the other hand, in the face of inciting the masses, creating At the same time, “and cooperate with the people’s court, select the typical, after approval, …… in Yanqiao District, Zhabei Township, nearly 10,000 people participated in the public trial conference, to create rumors, creating riots, the leader of the elements Shi The company’s main business is to provide a wide range of services to the public. Immediately afterwards, a county-wide political offensive was launched, with seven meetings of 10,000 people being held and 331 arrests of the leaders, and the situation gradually subsided. [68] 

And so on. In this “rumor-quelling” work, the “education and struggle” for the general public and grassroots cadres initially deconstructed superstitious rumors, but the “class enemy” reshaped the general group fear. The broad nature of political mobilization and the instrumental nature of ideological manipulation were fully realized.

    Third, the political dilemma: the paradox of the politics of local supervision and responsibility.

    Before the rumors of “water spirits and hairy people” broke out in Anhui, local governments had already begun to respond from the top down. In some cities and counties after the outbreak of sharp conflicts between the cadres, this response is more powerful as. The most important feature is that the two-pronged approach of “fighting for education” and “severe suppression” has been adopted to achieve a supervisory political solution through organizational, cadre and ideological treatment. There is no doubt that through this kind of operation, it can achieve the purpose of political power domination, reshaping society, and maintaining rigid social stability.

    However, in the case of the “water spirit hairy Man” rumor, if the local government does not implement a supervisory political solution, it will not be able to efficiently deconstruct the “water spirit hairy Man” rumor, which is certainly not conducive to the consolidation and stability of the new regime, and will inevitably bring about the political dilemma of orthodox legitimacy. But if a strong implementation of the supervisory political solution can efficiently deconstruct a superstitious rumor, it will bring another political dilemma. 

As Ma Junya says, when the local government quelled the rumor of “water spirits and hairy people,” “while deconstructing the superstition, the strange power of the virtual world was transplanted into the dissidents of the real world out of political necessity,” and “for a large number of The control, arrest, public trial, and public execution of a large number of dissidents-potential social mobilizers-apparently reconstructed universal fear,” but “this violent way of a priori eliminating class enemies clearly did not deconstruct the ‘hairy man water monster’ from its social roots, but only reconstructed group fear.” [69]

    This means that when the a priori and stigmatized “class dissidents” are suppressed, the universal group fear is reconstructed and spread, i.e., there is no longer an opposition force to effectively check and control the politics of accountability, which in the long run will certainly undermine the fundamental consolidation and stability of the new regime, and even cause greater disasters and crises. The efficiency of political mobilization and the lack of political participation are fully reflected, which is the most paradoxical political dilemma of the implementation of “local supervisory politics”.

      About the Author]:

     Huang Wenzhi: (1980-) Male, Ph.D. in history, teacher at the School of Social and Political Science, Anhui University, researcher at the Research Center for Rural Social Development, Anhui University, and researcher at the Center for Taiwan Studies, Anhui University, with special interests in revolution and transformation in modern China, twentieth-century Chinese political history, and social and political movements.

      [1] See Li Ruojian, “Refraction of Social Change: A Preliminary Exploration of the “hairy man Water Monster” Rumors in the 1950s,” Sociological Studies, Vol. 5, No. 5, 2005, pp. 182-200; Li Ruojian, “The Construction of Rumors: A Reanalysis of the “hairy man Water Monster” Rumors,” Open Times, Vol. 3, 2010, pp. 105-125; Ma Junya, “Fear Reconstruction and Authoritarian Reinvention: A Study of the Historical Background of the “hairy man Water Monster” in Huabei,” Journal of Nanjing University, Vol. 6, 2013, pp. 101-109.

   [2] Bengbu City Local History Compilation Committee, Beijing: Fangzhi Press, 1995, p. 897

   [3] Compiled by the Anhui Provincial Local Zhi Zhi Committee: Anhui Provincial Zhi – Public Security Zhi, Hefei: Anhui People’s Publishing House, 1993, pp. 216-217

   [4] Compiled by the Anhui Provincial Local History Compilation Committee: Anhui Provincial Zhi – Public Security Zhi, Hefei: Anhui People’s Publishing House, 1993, p. 217.

   [5] Compiled by the Anhui Provincial Local History Compilation Committee: Anhui Provincial Zhi – Public Security Zhi, Hefei: Anhui People’s Publishing House, 1993, pp. 217-218. Anhui Provincial Local Zhizhi Compilation Committee, Beijing: Fangzhi Publishing House, 19983, p. 467; Huoqiu County Local Zhizhi Compilation Committee, Huoqiu County, China Radio and Television Press, 1992, p. 558; Jinzhai County Local Literature and History Materials Compilation Committee, Anhui Province, China, Jinzhai County, Shanghai People’s Publishing House, 1992, p. 23. Anqing Local History Compilation Committee, Anqing City, China, Hefei: Huangshan Shushe, 1995, p. 334; Firyang County Local History Compilation Committee, Firyang County, Hefei: Huangshan Shushe, 1998, p. 403; Yuexi County Local History Compilation Committee, Yuexi County, Hefei: Huangshan Shushe, 1996, p. 310; Wuhu County Local History Compilation Committee of Wuhu County: Wuhu County Zhi, Social Science Literature Publishing House, 1993, p. 30; Compilation Committee of Local Zhi of Changfeng County, Anhui Province: Changfeng County Zhi, Beijing: China Literature and History Publishing House, 1991, p. 17.

   [6] Zeng Xisheng: Selected Writings of Zeng Xisheng, Beijing: People’s Publishing House, 2008, p. 194.

   [7] Li Ruojian, “The Construction of Rumors: A Reanalysis of the “hairy man Water Monster” Rumor,” Open Times, No. 3, 2010, pp. 115-116.

   [8] Anhui Province Quanjiao County Local History Compilation Committee, Hefei: Huangshan Book Society, 1988, p. 449.

   [9] Shen Youxin, editor-in-chief: Chronicle of Public Security Events in Hefei, Hefei: Huangshan Shushe, 1998, p. 40.

   [10] Firyang County Local History Compilation Committee, Firyang County History, Hefei: Huangshan Shushe, 1998, p. 403.

   [11] Xu Xiuqian: “The Mystery of the hairy man Water Ghost”, Jinzhai Cultural and Historical Materials (III), 1986, p. 188.

   [12] Anhui Provincial Local History Compilation Committee, Anhui Provincial Zhi – Public Security Zhi, Hefei: Anhui People’s Publishing House, 1993, pp. 216-217.

   [13] Chuzhou City (county-level) Local History Compilation Committee, edited by: Chuzhou City Zhi, Beijing: Fangzhi Publishing House, 1998, p. 42.

   [14] Compilation Committee of Local Zhi of Tianchang County, edited by Tianchang County Zhi, Social Science Literature Publishing House, 1992, pp. 146-147.

   [15] Compilation Committee of Local Chronicles of Feidong County, Hefei: Anhui People’s Publishing House, 1990, p. 445.

   [16] Compilation Committee of Local Zhi of Huangshan County, Hefei: Huangshan Shusha, 1995, p. 18.

   [17] Compilation Committee of Local Zhi of Anqing City: Anqing Regional Zhi, Hefei: Huangshan Shushe, 1995, p. 334

   [18] Huoqiu County Local History Compilation Committee, edited by Huoqiu County Zhi, China Radio and Television Press, 1992, p. 558

   [19] Zhang Yongsong and Wu Zhixiao, “The “hairy man Water Monster” in Wuwei County in the Early Period of Liberation”, Jianghuai Wenshui, 1999, No. 4, p. 165.

   [20] Anhui Provincial Local History Compilation Committee: Anhui Provincial History – Political Party History, Beijing: Fangzhi Publishing House, 19983, p. 467.

   [21] Li Ruojian, “Reflection of Social Change: A Preliminary Exploration of the “hairy man Water Monster” Rumor in the 1950s,” Sociological Studies, 2005, No. 5, p. 193.

   [22] Xu Xiuqian: “The Mystery of the ” Water Ghost””, Jinzhai Cultural and Historical Materials (III), 1986, pp. 191-192.

   [23] Yuexi County Local History Compilation Committee, Hefei: Huangshan Book Society, 1996, p. 310.

   [24] Compilation Committee of Local Zhi of Lai’an County, Anhui Province, edited by: Lai’an County Zhi, Beijing: China Urban Economic and Social Press, 1990, pp. 299-300.

   [25] Compiled by the Local History Compilation Committee of Quanjiao County, Anhui Province: Quanjiao County Zhi, Hefei: Huangshan Book Society, 1988, p. 449.

   [26] Compiled by the Local History Compilation Committee of Changfeng County, Anhui Province: Changfeng County Zhi, Beijing: China Literature and History Press, 1991, p. 17.

   [27] Compilation Committee of Local Zhi of Mingguang City, edited by Mingguang City Zhi, Hefei: Huangshan Book Society, 2014, p. 22.

   [28] Fengtai County Local History Compilation Committee, edited by Fengtai County Zhi, Hefei: Huangshan Shushe, 1998, p. 145.

   [29] Compilation Committee of Wuhe County Zhizhi, Wuhe County Zhizhi, 1992, Hangzhou: Zhejiang People’s Publishing House, p. 12.

   [30] Huoqi County Local History Compilation Committee, Huoqi County, China Radio and Television Press, 1992, p. 558.

   [31] Li Ruojian, “Reflection of Social Change: A Preliminary Study of the “hairy man Water Monster” Rumor in the 1950s,” Sociological Studies, No. 5, 2005, p. 197.

   [32] Anhui Provincial Local History Compilation Committee: Anhui Provincial History – Public Security, Hefei: Anhui People’s Publishing House, 1993, pp. 217-218.

   [33] Editorial Office of Public Security History, Anhui Provincial Public Security Department, Anhui Province: Chronicle of Public Security Events in Anhui Province (above), Internal Confidential Information, December 1996, p. 52.

   [34] Zeng Xisheng: Selected Writings of Zeng Xisheng, Beijing: People’s Publishing House, 2008, p. 194.

   [35] “Crushing Counter-Revolutionary Rumors,” People’s Daily, Oct. 17, 1950.

   [36] “Report of the Central Public Security Department on the National Public Security Conference to the Central Committee,” October 1950, in Party History, Party Construction and Politics, National Defense University of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army, edited by Teaching Reference Materials on the History of the Chinese Communist Party, vol. 19, PLA Publishing House, 1986, p. 207.

   [37] Regulations of the People’s Republic of China on Punishing Counterrevolution, February 20, 1951, in The Teaching and Research Department of Party History, Party Construction and Politics, National Defense University of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army, edited by Reference Materials for Teaching the History of the Chinese Communist Party, Vol. 19, PLA Publishing House, 1986, p. 247.

   [38] Editorial Office of Public Security History, Anhui Provincial Public Security Department, Anhui Province: Chronicle of Public Security Events in Anhui Province (above), Internal Confidential Information, December 1996, p. 43.

   [39] Editorial Office of Public Security History, Anhui Provincial Public Security Department, Anhui Province: Chronicle of Public Security Events in Anhui Province (above), Internal Confidential Information, December 1996, p. 49.

   [40] Instruction of the Wuhu District Committee on the Rumors of “hairy men” in He, Han and Chao Counties, Anhui Provincial Archives Collection, File No. 3-1-107-10, pp. 1-2.

   [41] Anhui Provincial Local Records Compilation Committee, Anhui Provincial Records – Public Security Records, Hefei: Anhui People’s Publishing House, 1993, p. 218.

   [42] Editorial Office of Public Security History, Anhui Provincial Public Security Department, Anhui Province: Chronicle of Public Security Events in Anhui Province (above), Internal Confidential Information, December 1996, p. 53.

   [43] Zeng Xisheng: Selected Writings of Zeng Xisheng, Beijing: People’s Publishing House, 2008, p. 194.

   [44] Anhui Provincial Local History Compilation Committee, edited by Anhui Provincial History – Political Party History, Beijing: Fangzhi Publishing House, 19983, p. 467.

   [45] Feixi County, established in December 1948 by taking the western and southern townships of Hefei County, was named after its location west of the Interwestern River. in October 1949, the democratic government of Feixi County was renamed Feixi County People’s Government. In 1950, Feixi County was subordinated to the Chaohu Special Zone of the Northern Anhui Administration. In April 1950, Sanhe was abolished as a city and established as a district, and was incorporated into Feixi County. In February 1952, Feixi County was reassigned to the Liuan Special Zone of the Northern Anhui Administration. In September 1958, Feixi County was transferred to Hefei City, and in April 1961, Feixi County was transferred to Liuan District, and in July 1983, Feixi County was returned to the jurisdiction of Hefei City.

   [46] Author’s interview with Mr. Yin Shusheng, former executive deputy director of Anhui Provincial Public Security Department, interview location: study of Mr. Yin Shusheng’s home, time: July 6, 2015.

   [47] Compiled by the Local Records Compilation Committee of Feixi County, Feixi County Records, Hefei: Huangshan Book Society, 1994, p. 448.

   [48] Propaganda Instructions on Quelling Rumors of “water spirits and hairy men”, Feixi County Archives, file no.

   X004-1954-002-0002, pp. 1-4.

   [49] Compiled by the Local History Compilation Committee of Feixi County, Feixi County, Hefei: Huangshan Shushe, 1994, p. 448.

   [50] “Sanhe District People’s Government’s Decision on the Punishment of Teacher Wang Xiaoming for the Mistake of Losing his Position and Spreading Rumors,” Feixi County Archives Collection, File no.

   x038-1954-002-0002, pp. 1-2.

   [51] “Report for Approval of the Transfer of Teacher Wang Xiaoming,” Feixi County Archives Collection, File No. X038-1954-001-003, p. 39.

   [52] “Report for Approval to Revoke the Dismissal of Wang Xiaoming, a Teacher Transferred to Wuxin Elementary School in Our District,” File No. X038-1954-001-003, p. 122.

   [53] Compiled by the Local History Compilation Committee of Feixi County, Hefei: Huangshan Book Society, 1994, p. 448.

   [54] Opinions on Refuting Rumors and Fighting Bad Elements, Feixi County Archives Collection, File No. X004-1955-002-0005, pp. 1-2.

   [55] Report on the Inspection of the Current Rural Security Situation, Feixi Archives Collection, File No. X001-1957-001-0115, p. 44.

   [56] Notice of the Public Security Bureau of the Feixi County People’s Government, Feixi County Archives Collection, File No. X038-1954-002-0002, p. 1; Supplementary Instructions for Quelling hairy man Rumors, Feixi County Archives Collection, File No. X001-1954-002-0065, pp. 1-2; Opinions on Refuting Rumors and Fighting Bad Elements, Feixi County Archives Collection, File No. X004-1955-002-0005, pp. 1-2.

   [57] “Supplementary Instructions for Quelling hairy man Rumors,” Feixi County Archives Collection, File No. X001-1954-002-0065, pp. 1-2.

   [58] Li Ruojian, “The Construction of Rumors: A Reanalysis of the “hairy man Water Monster” Rumor,” Open Times, No. 3, 2010, p. 120.

   [59] Liu Xiyuan, “The 1928 Nanjing Demented Storm”, Guangxi Social Science, No. 6, 2004, pp. 164-165.

   [60] According to the American scholar Zou honestly, the concept of “totalism” is different from the political science concept of “totalitarianism” used by Chinese and Western theorists in the 1930s. It highlights the relationship between the state and society and refers to “the guiding idea that the power of political institutions can invade and control every stratum and every sphere of society at any time and without limit. Omnipotent politics refers to a political society based on this guiding ideology” (Zou Zou, Twentieth Century Chinese Politics: From the Perspective of Macro-History and Micro-Action, Oxford University Press, 1994, p. 3). Xiao Gongqin summarizes the characteristics of the political form of “totalitarianism” as follows: “The regime penetrates into the lowest cells of society in all directions, there is no space for autonomous social activities and civil society, power is highly centralized, and an ideological belief with egalitarian utopian goals serves as the basis for the integration of a one-party system. the basis of integration of society, the realization of political goals set by the state elite through a high degree of social mobilization and mass political participation based on ideological orientation, etc.” (Xiao Gongqin, “Political Posture and Prospects of Various Social Classes in China,” Strategy and Management, 1998, No. 5, p. 43).

   [61] Hefei: Huangshan Shushe, 1995, p. 467.

   [62] Compiled by Huoqiu County Local History Compilation Committee: Huoqiu County Zhi, China Radio and Television Press, 1992, p. 27.

   [63] Compilation Committee of Local Zhi of Tianchang County, edited by Tianchang County Zhi, Social Science Literature Publishing House, 1992, p. 147.

   [64] Compilation Committee of Local Zhi of Anqing City, edited by Anqing Regional Zhi, Hefei: Huangshan Book Society, 1995, p. 334.

   [65] Wuhe County Zhizhi Compilation Committee, edited by Wuhe County Zhizhi, 1992, Hangzhou: Zhejiang People’s Publishing House, pp. 12, 419.

   [66] Compiled by Huoqi County Local History Compilation Committee: Huoqi County Zhi, China Radio and Television Press, 1992, p. 558.

   [67] Compilation Committee of Local Chronicles of Feidong County, edited by Feidong County Chronicles, Hefei: Anhui People’s Publishing House, 1990, p. 445.

   [68] Editorial Office of Public Security History, Anhui Public Security Department, Anhui Province: Chronicle of Public Security Events in Anhui Province (above), Internal Confidential Information, December 1996, p. 52.

   [69] Ma Junya, “Fear Reconstruction and Authoritarian Reinvention: A Study of the Historical Background of the “hairy man Water Monster” in Huaibei”, Journal of Nanjing University, Vol. 6, 2013, p. 109.

黄文治:安徽“水鬼毛人”谣言的意识形态化及地方政府应对

选择字号:   本文共阅读 467 次 更新时间:2017-10-12 15:08:02

进入专题: 安徽省   水鬼毛人   意识形态化   地方政府   地方督责政治

● 黄文治

   本文发表于《党史研究与教学》2016年第2期,发表时有删节。

   【摘要】上个世纪的1953至1954年间,在安徽省的淮河及长江水网地区发生大规模“水鬼毛人”谣言,并造成颇多群体性事件。但安徽省这次“水鬼毛人”谣言并非本地内生,是从邻省江苏传入,由东向西,多在水网密布地区爆发与蔓延。该谣言在安徽波及范围非常之广,达三十余县。谣言在传播过程中,逐渐走向意识形态化。“刑事犯罪分子”、“不法分子”和“反革命分子”这两类人是促使谣言走向意识形态化的制造者与煽动者。由于较早受到邻省江苏的警示,安徽省地方政府早在谣言大面积爆发之前即自上而下地应对,但处理过程中依然造成颇多干群冲突及乱果。在一些市县爆发尖锐的干群冲突之后,这种应对更是强力作为。其最大特点即采取“争取教育”、“严厉镇压”双管齐下的方式,通过组织、干部及意识形态化处理,逐实现督责式政治解决。应该说,社会治安领域里这种“地方督责政治”模式运转过程中,确实能够带来实效,却又暗含两难政治困境。

   【关键词】安徽省;水鬼毛人;意识形态化;地方政府;地方督责政治

   在上个世纪的1953至1954年间,中国的苏、皖、鲁等地区爆发大规模的“水鬼毛人”谣言,并造成颇多群体性事件,是20世纪中国最大谣言事件之一。该谣言在安徽多被称为“水鬼毛人”,但个别地方也被称为“毛人水鬼”、“毛人小鬼”、“毛人水怪”,名称有别,内容却相当一致。其发生在社会大变动时期,本质上是社会群体对外界怪力、乱神的恐惧,但又暗含太多政治寓意及隐情。此种谣言特性反映了民众传统的信仰体系与中共建国初强力推行的政治意识形态之间的直接对抗,并且这种对抗又因建国初历次政治运动而被不断强化。

   目前学界李若建、马俊亚两位学者做过开拓性研究。[1] 他们两人的研究,一方面都肯定了“水鬼毛人”谣言是社会变动与社会心理互应产物;另一方面也对地方政府的治标不治本的应对方式,持谨慎保留态度。不过,两位学者的研究只是轻描淡写地点到地方政府此种应对方式,并未细致梳理与深入挖掘。

    与他们相比,本文则不同。本文主要从新发现的档案资料、公安史资料及地方县志、文史资料的解读出发,选定1953至1954年间的安徽作为特定的地域,从政治社会史的研究角度分析安徽“水鬼毛人”谣言的传入、分布、意识形态化及地方政府自上而下应对的实况,进而透视出建国初社会治安领域里“地方督责政治”运转背后的实效及暗含的两难政治困境问题。某种程度而言,此项关于安徽“水鬼毛人”谣言事件发生的背景、地方政府应对策略及政治实践逻辑的透视、研究,仍不失为继续挖掘的尝试。

    一、“水鬼毛人”谣言的传入与分布

   在全国解放前,安徽即有“水鬼毛人”谣言流传。1949年7月,在蚌埠市域的新船塘、纬四路、大马路、二马路、小蚌埠一带,国民党军队散兵游勇陆云兴等3人装扮成“水鬼毛人”,深夜恐吓群众。群众因受恐吓,惊起吆喝,乱跑乱叫,每处少则百十人,多则四五百人,闹得人心惶惶。后经地方政府介入,事态方得平息。[2] 至于陆云兴等人制造“水鬼毛人”谣言的内容与原因,记载并不详细,但其它史料却有很好的补充。解放前的这起谣言系陆云兴制造,谣传“淮水涨,有水怪上来,拖人小孩,挖人眼睛”,目的是为“恐吓群众,乘机盗窃”。[3] 这次谣言带有内生性特征。

     不过,解放初的1953至1954年,“水鬼毛人”谣言又起,却是从邻省江苏传入的,在安徽的淮河与长江流域地区流传。大概1953年7、8月间,“由船民及来往群众自江苏蒋坝传入盱眙(当时属于安徽,后划江苏)境内。9月,蔓延至炳辉(今天长县——引者注)、嘉山(今明光市——引者注)、滁县、来安等县。10月以后,泗洪(当时属于安徽,后划江苏——引者注)、五河、定远、凤阳、全椒、肥东、肥西、和县、含山、巢县、无为、庐江及阜阳专区的凤台、蒙城、颍上、涡阳等五县,六安专区的一些县区,乃至合肥、淮南两市均有‘水鬼毛人’谣言流传”。[4] 这是安徽省公安志里的记载,但就分布地区而言,其所载并不全面。当时,宿州专区的宿县,六安专区的霍邱、金寨县,安庆专区的桐城、枞阳、岳西县,蚌埠专区的怀远县,芜湖专区的芜湖县,合肥专区的长丰县 (1965年由寿县、定远、肥东、肥西四县边缘结合部划并而成——引者注)等地区,“水鬼毛人”谣言都有流传。[5]

    1956年7月2日,安徽“水鬼毛人”谣言被平息之后,安徽省委书记曾希圣《在中共安徽省第一次党代表大会上的工作报告》中,就提到“水鬼毛人”谣言的流传范围,“几个月内即蔓延三十二个县的范围”。[6] 此说符合历史事实。

   可见,安徽这次“水鬼毛人”谣言从邻省江苏传入,由东向西,多在水网密布地区爆发与蔓延。虽非本地内生,其波及范围却非常之广。毫无疑问,“水鬼毛人”谣言流传的过程,即是一个源于特殊社会背景而被激活并被重新建构的集体恐惧记忆。就这种特殊的社会背景而言,李若建认为有四个方面因素值得重视,一是两年中的大水灾,二是治淮工程建设,三是农业合作化与粮食统购统销,四是建国初历次政治运动。[7] 这四个特殊的社会背景,累积并增加了民间的恐惧与不满,而这些恐惧与不满反过来又会增加谣言流布的速度与广度。

        二、“水鬼毛人”谣言的意识形态化

    解放前夕,安徽“水鬼毛人”谣言就以口耳相传的方式,并在政府部门未证实情况下流传,只是当时注意不够。在这起谣言中,“水鬼毛人”一般被描绘成一种源于水中的怪物,这种怪物,浑身是毛,水涨上岸,拖小孩,挖眼睛。1953至1954年的“水鬼毛人”谣言,内容与建国前的大体一致。在全椒县,“水鬼毛人”是“青面獠牙、专割男性生殖器和女性乳房”。[8] 在合肥市,“毛人”是“毛手毛脚,手、脚一伸就是火,刀枪不入,见人挖眼、割蛋、割奶头”。[9] 在枞阳县,“毛人小鬼、昼伏夜出”,“专割女人奶头、男人卵子”。[10] 在金寨县,“毛人水鬼”的“身体能大能小,大时身长数丈,脚有一尺多长,身穿白大褂,披散着很长的白头发,白发缝中隐现着青面獠牙。两只大如电灯的眼睛能射红绿亮光,两只手指甲长如利刃喜抓食生物。遇到女人就把乳房抓去,遇到男子就把睾丸捏走,人就别想活了。它要想进入屋时,就变的很小,能从窗缝中钻进去”。[11] 等等。从这些地方志与文史资料来看,建国前后,安徽“水鬼毛人”谣言在一定地域的流布与传播,恐怖与神秘色彩浓厚。

     但如果仔细比较解放前后两次“水鬼毛人”谣言,其内容却有所变异,流传过程中泛起强烈的意识形态化色彩,即谣言内容本身体现的思想意识及行为实践逐渐意识形态化。这体现在两个方面:一是谣言直指党、政府及干部,二是破坏中苏友好关系。反共产党政权与反苏联是谣言的核心政治倾向。因此,在谣言传播过程中,这两点不断被强化,并导致颇多激化群体性事件。

    据安徽省公安志记载:“水鬼毛人”谣言“传遍皖北各地。说什么‘美、英、法等5国进攻苏联,苏要制造原子弹以对付5国进攻,要中国提供女人奶头、男孩生殖器作为原子弹原料’等等。谣言愈传愈烈,有的添枝加叶,说得‘逼真’,如说某村某妇女奶头已被割走,某地某村已被‘水鬼毛人’杀死多人。如此等等”。[12]

    在滁州市,1953年8月中旬,“水鬼毛人”从苏北传入本区,10至11月,全区大部分地方流传“毛人”谣言,“谣言破坏中苏友好和党群关系”。[13] 在炳辉县,1953年9月,“水鬼毛人”谣言从“盱眙县传入,并很快风行全县。谣言称:毛人白天变成干部,晚上变成毛人,走路飞快,割男人的生殖器、女人的乳房,剖孕妇的肚子,还挖人的眼睛去做原子弹”。[14] 在肥东县,1953年10月,从定远传来“水鬼毛人”谣言,传言“水鬼毛人神通广大,割妇女乳房和男孩生殖器给苏联造秘密试器,政府干部为其做内线”。[15] 在含山县,1953年12月下旬,“县内发生‘毛人水怪’谣言,传‘毛人水怪’是苏联派来的,割女人乳、小孩睾丸,只伤群众,不伤干部”。[16] 在安庆地区,1953年底,“水鬼毛人”谣言“以桐城县大关、岳西头陀最为严重”,谣传“政府放出毛人”,“要人眼、人心、奶头、卵蛋”,“送苏联造原子弹”。[17] 在霍邱县,1954年2月,“水鬼毛人”谣言“主要攻击党和国家领导人,制造战争恐怖,造成社会动乱”。[18] 在无为县,“水鬼毛人”谣言主要是说政府“要挖妇女的奶头、胎儿和男人的生殖器、眼球共250吨,作为制造原子弹的材料,所以政府训练了大批‘毛人’下乡来搜集”,并且谣传“水鬼毛人”是“政府派下来的,规定有‘三不挖’——军烈属不挖,党团员不挖,干部不挖”。[19] 等等。

   如此,1953至1954年“水鬼毛人”谣言走向意识形态化主要体现在:“水鬼毛人”是苏联及中国政府放出来,专割中国人的身体器官,为苏联制造原子弹提供原料。在一些县乡地区,这类意识形态化的谣言往往发生在国家权力强势侵入的社会变革时期,并以妇女儿童等弱势群体作为势单力薄无力反抗之民众的象征,反映了民众对国家权力打乱并重新整合乡村社会秩序的排斥,以及因无力应对而产生的极度恐惧,这种情绪使得民众更紧密地团结在一起,共同抵御外来国家力量的侵扰与侵袭。如此,意识形态化的谣言特意把社会人建构为两个分裂性的区隔群体,在谣言中,党员、团员、干部是阴谋活动的内应,且被排除在受攻击范围之外,而民众则被建构为受攻击的对象。如此,谣言激发的群体性事件中,党员、团员、干部即被妖魔化,并成为受到现实攻击的对象。

    三、谣言意识形态化的制造者与煽动者

    1953至1954年安徽“水鬼毛人”谣言的传播走向意识形态化的制造者与煽动者,一般被称为“刑事犯罪分子”、“不法分子”和“反革命分子”。据安徽省政党志记载:“水鬼毛人”谣言所到之处,“反革命分子和各种刑事犯罪分子利用谣言,组织骚乱、抢粮、殴打干部等,锋芒直指党和政府”。[20] 李若建把这两类人称为“普通越轨者”与“变革中的受冲击者”。[21] 有其合理的成分,但“普通越轨者”,某种程度而言,也是“变革中的受冲击者”。

    其一、 关于“刑事犯罪分子”、“不法分子”。1953年,金寨县爆发“水鬼毛人”谣言,即因在军队表现不佳而复原回乡军人祝树基“发泄私愤”、“乘机发财”及“玩弄女人”而制造。[22] 1953年,岳西县实行粮食统购统销,“一些不法分子为破坏这一中心工作,散步各种谣言,其中‘毛人水怪’谣言,一度在全县传播,受骗群众达数万人”。[23] 等等。这些“刑事犯罪分子”、“不法分子”制造、煽动“水鬼毛人”谣言,多为获得私利或者达到私欲目的。

    其二、关于“反革命分子”,主要是指土匪、恶霸、特务、反动党团骨干、反动会道门等五个方面的“反革命分子”。1953年7月,来安县“水鬼毛人”谣言由“盱眙县传入县半塔一带,并很快传到本县各地。由于暗藏的反动会道门头子、特务、反革命分子乘机造谣破坏,县内谣言四起”,“秩序混乱”。[24] 1953年4月,全椒县开展了取缔一贯道、先天道、同善社、中华理教会等反动会道门工作,年底,“反动会道门制造‘水鬼毛人’等谣言,严重扰乱了社会秩序”。[25] 1953年冬,长丰县“反动会道门在农村制造‘水鬼毛人’谣言,由东向西传入境内,群众惊慌失措,社会秩序混乱”。[26] 1953年底,嘉山县“反动会道门制造的‘水鬼毛人’谣言,严重干扰社会秩序”。[27] 1954年大水时,凤台县“三佛门道首,称‘水鬼毛人’,制造十分吓人的谣言,气氛恐怖,造成男不敢下田、女不敢出门、学生不敢上学的局面,一度弄得人心惶惶,社会混乱”。[28] 1954年1月,五河县“反动道会门制造‘水鬼毛人’等谣言”,“致使不少乡村群众恐慌不安,彻夜不敢熄灯”。[29] 1954年2月,霍邱县出现“水鬼毛人”谣言,后查明谣言系“反革命分子”制造,这些“反革命分子”,包括“原土匪”、“恶霸”、“会道门头子”、“国民党军政人员”、“地主”、“兵痞流氓”。[30] 等等。这些“反革命分子”制造、煽动“水鬼毛人”谣言,多为扰乱社会治安及颠覆新政权之目的。

    应该说,在有意无意传播“水鬼毛人”谣言的群体中,普通民众肯定处于多数,但是促使其走向意识形态化,“刑事犯罪分子”、“不法分子”和“反革命分子”这两类人值得重视。这两类人作为社会变迁的受冲击者,不管是谋求一己之私者,还是追求政治利益者,他们充分利用民众的智识缺陷、传统绵延的谣言传说及地方政府管控的疏漏等因素,制造和煽动谣言走向意识形态化,谣言平息后,亦难免成为谣言事件的罪魁祸首。

    这些人在旧有权力格局中,基本都是社会精英。为何他们制造和煽动谣言走向意识形态化?这主要是在建国初的历次政治运动,诸如土改运动、剿匪反霸运动、镇反肃反运动、取缔反动道会门运动、取缔反动党团运动、农业合作化及粮食统购统销等运动中,旧有权力格局被打碎,他们沉入社会底部,成为社会变迁的受冲击者,他们对新政权及干部精英不满与恐惧,因此制造和煽动“水鬼毛人”谣言走向意识形态化,直指党、政府、干部及苏联,而新政权及干部精英对此,往往也会从先验性“阶级斗争”视角看待此类分子,直接将他们视为“阶级异己分子”,即抽象化的“阶级敌人”。在谣言发酵过程中,这些“阶级敌人”按照情节轻重及个人态度,一般被归类为“刑事犯罪分子”、“不法分子”和“反革命分子”两类人。在官方出版的地方志与文史资料之中,这两类人即被定性为谣言制造、煽动的罪魁祸首,谣言事件中一般都会受到不同程度的严惩。

   四、干群冲突及乱果

   李若建认为“水鬼毛人”谣言“刚开始传播时,可能是没有预计到其传播范围之大,对民众的影响之深,地方政府并不太注意”。[31] 这种说法可能与江苏情况比较符合,安徽则不然。安徽“水鬼毛人”谣言是1953年7、8月间从邻省江苏传入的,鉴于邻省江苏情况,安徽省委及公安厅在1953年3月12日,即安徽爆发大面积“水鬼毛人”谣言之前就发出《关于平息“水鬼毛人”谣言的情况和意见》的文件来指导地方“平谣”工作,应该说,地方政府的反应是比较快的。随后,安徽各级政府及公安系统即开展“平谣”工作。正因为地方政府反应比较快,党团干部与谣言本身几乎同步到达地方社会。这样,在“平谣”过程中,党团干部被派往地方“平谣”,与谣言传播者、煽动者及民众遭遇,就会有意无意地被误解为政府有意训练并被放出的“水鬼”、“毛人”,这样就难免不发生尖锐的干群冲突,并造成颇多干群冲突事件。

    据安徽省公安志记载:在“平谣”过程中,一些反坏分子则乘机煽动乡民,阻止干部进村工作,甚至捆绑、扣留、殴打、制造骚乱事件。一日,数名干部进入盱眙县桥镇工作,有人煽动说:“‘水鬼毛人’到了”。前来赶集的农民,纷纷逃散,形成“炸集”。炳辉县公安局一副局长去高桥乡检查工作,一些村民手持刀矛威逼副局长的胸口、不准进村。卫生部门前往调查妇女怀孕情况,以便推广新法接生,一些农民又怀疑是为“水鬼毛人”掏走胎儿提供线索,而进行刁难。肥东县邮电局一副局长下乡工作,被一些村民指责为“毛人”而被捆绑。……无为县泉塘区临河乡朱某煽动7000余人去乡政府捕捉“毛人”,打坏乡政府门窗,打伤4人。[32]

    从现有资料来看,“平谣”过程中,当时安徽颇多市县都发生了干群冲突,无为县最甚。

    据安徽省公安史料记载:1954年1月上旬,无为县的严巧、石涧、黄洛、徒沟等区的部分乡已有“水鬼毛人”谣言流传。月底,发展到全县14个区91个乡。一些反坏分子乘机煽动,制造骚乱。2月3日,无为县两名干部下乡调查谣言情况,路经严桥区闸北乡,部分群众在反坏分子煽动下,堵住公安干部去路,诬公安干部为“水鬼毛人”,夺取短枪2支,并私设法堂,对公安干部严刑拷打,逼迫公安干部承认自己是“水鬼毛人”,还诬治安主任“窝藏水鬼毛人”。将5名基层干部家具、农具全部烧毁。另一探亲的解放军干部听到此类谣言加以制止时,其头部亦被砍伤。2月4日,三水乡民兵队长率领部分民兵去团山村调查谣言情况,竟被坏分子打到在地,推入水中淹死。该县县委副书记、县委宣传部副部长等四人去闸北乡平谣时,亦被围攻审问,并夺去短枪2支,随同前往的区委书记亦被打伤。2月5日,县委组织部副部长等5人,去横山乡平谣,又被夺枪殴打。2月6日,铁钢乡办事员以及民兵队长等9人,去汪冲村检查工作,又被说成是“水鬼毛人”,遭到围攻殴打,致伤2人,夺去长短枪各1支。至此,共被打死1人,打伤20人,被捆绑27人,夺去长枪4支,短枪8支。事态发展日趋严重,形成骚乱。[33] 等等。

    1956年7月2日,安徽省委书记曾希圣还《在中共安徽省第一次党代表大会上的工作报告》中强调,在“水鬼毛人”事件中,“被反革命分子打死打伤的群众和干部一百一十七人,严重地影响了社会治安”。[34]

    应该说,“水鬼毛人”谣言本身就暗含着悖论,即挑拨新政权干群之间的矛盾,当自上而下参与“平谣”工作的党团干部与谣言传播者、煽动者及民众遭遇,难免不因有意无意的误解而发生干群冲突及乱果。

    五、地方政府应对

    中共建政之初,即对社会中的谣言问题即进行了意识形态化定性,认为“谣言是完全非法的,造谣惑众的人便是人民的敌人”。[35] 因此,要“对付反革命谣言,必须实行讲、驳、追三个字的政策,即加强宣传,对谣言正面加以驳斥,以及追究谣言的来源等”,并明确“追谣主要是各级公安部门的责任”。[36] 而公安部门一旦追查到“以反革命为目的”,“进行反革命宣传鼓动、制造和散布谣言者”,将“处三年以上徒刑;其情节重大者处死刑或者无期徒刑”。[37]

    在“水鬼毛人”谣言事件中,安徽省委及公安厅在应对谣言传播及泛滥时比较及时。

    1953年3月12日,安徽省公安厅即发出《关于平息“水鬼毛人”谣言的情况和意见》,要求各地公安机关:1、必须防止谣言的蔓延。通过对已破案件的处理,召开群众大会,让附近村庄派代表参加,使人不再听信谣言。2、每个干部不为谣言所惑,沉着而积极地揭穿谣言,教育说服群众。3、平息“水鬼毛人”事件,除大力宣传揭发之外,派较强的干部组织少数可靠的村干部和积极分子,事先对可能装鬼作怪的分子进行调查研究,于晚上选择适当地点部署隐蔽哨,监视其行动,若发现有乘机破坏的反革命分子或其他坏分子装神弄鬼,应及时予以打击。4、有重点、有目的地布置侦查工作。在谣言闹得最凶地区,应正面揭露谣言,团结群众,安定秩序,孤立坏人。情况初步稳定的地方,即应积极寻找坏人。[38]

     1953年12月,安徽省公安厅对含山“水鬼毛人”谣言情况进行检查。检查结果显示:该县计有7个区83个乡,自12月中旬起,谣言仅在个别区乡传播。27日已蔓延到7个区50个乡。含山县公安局在县委、县政府统一领导下,派出干部深入重点区乡,开展宣传、辟谣,揭露所谓“水鬼毛人”,纯系反坏分子有意造谣,旨在破坏中苏友好及党与群众的关系。对查有实据的造谣分子或谣言积极传播者,已分别不同情况予以处理,有的在对其揭发批判后予以拘留、逮捕,有的给于管制,有的令其现身说法,当众认错。通过各种措施,形势已经大有好转。[39]

    1954年1月8日,安徽省委转发了《芜湖地委关于和、含、巢三县发生“毛人”谣言问题的指示》,要求各地均应严密注意和检查所属地区的谣言情况,并及时采取有效措施,平息和防止此类反动谣言继续蔓延。对发生谣言地区,除结合当前工作抓着典型事例,揭穿谣言,教育干群,加强被管制分子的监管之外,公安部门应周密布置侦查工作,对为首制造谣言、假装“水鬼毛人”而有确证的反革命分子、地主份子、会道门头子、流氓分子等,应立即逮捕,予以依法惩处。对新近逃亡回归分子,亦应加以逮捕(或密捕),迅速审讯,分别处理。对为了偷窃、行奸等个人目的而伪装“水鬼毛人”,兴风作浪者,虽非政治活动,但同样扰乱社会治安,也应给于适当处分。在处理以上案件时,均应召开群众会议(尽量吸收临近区乡代表参加),令其坦白,当众揭穿,并当众宣布对其处刑,经批准判处死刑者在执行时,要将其罪状广为张贴。只有这样才能给反动分子以沉重打击,群众才能安心,谣言才能平息。在未发生“水鬼毛人”谣言的地区,亦应严加防范,防止类似反动谣言流传。[40]

    1954年1月14日,安徽省委发出《关于平息“水鬼毛人”谣言的通知》,要求各地、市、县委必须迅速设法平息谣言。对相信鬼怪者,要教育他们提高警惕。要求公安部门加强侦察,捕捉造谣的反革命分子和利用谣言为非作歹的坏分子。同时,省公安厅根据省委通知,要求各级公安机关在谣言已平息或过去谣言严重地区,有重点、有目标地普遍发动一次反谣言斗争,对破坏捣乱分子摸底排队,运用具体事例揭发坏分子的造谣破坏活动,以提高群众觉悟,检举造谣捣乱的坏分子。对为首制造谣言、积极传播谣言或借机撞鬼恐吓群众、扩大谣言、制造假情况而引起群众恐慌的分子,予以坚决打击。同时,省公安厅派出六个工作组,分赴滁县、宿县、阜阳、芜湖等专区的重点县,检查对谣言追查平息情况。各级公安机关,按省委、省公安厅指示,派出大批干部,深入谣言传播区域,开展平谣工作。[41]

    1954年4月,安徽省公安厅又发出《关于继续平息“水鬼毛人”谣言的通知》, 该通知明确说:鉴于“水鬼毛人”谣言仍在一些地区继续流传,要求各级公安机关要坚决遵照省委1月14日的指示,在谣言已告平息或过去谣言严重地区,应结合总路线的宣传教育,有重点、有目标地发动一次反谣斗争。应组织力量,深入群众,通过区乡干部,治安积极分子等,对在闹谣言过程中出现的破坏、捣乱分子,进行摸底排队,并利用具体事实,揭发他们利用“水鬼毛人”谣言进行破坏的种种罪恶,以使群众明白谣言的真相;发动群众诉说听信谣言的所受之害,从而提高群众觉悟,检举制造谣言的反坏分子。对于为首造谣或积极传播谣言以及借机装神弄鬼、恐吓群众,引起群众慌乱的分子,要坚决打击,其中如属五类反革命分子或地主、流氓、奸商等,一律逮捕法办;如系普通群众,要通过自我检讨,当众认错,个别情节严重恶劣的,也应该依法判罪。在平息谣言过程中,要对残存的反革命分子、敌对阶级分子、社会治安危险分子进行摸底排队,注意寻找反革命组织线索,布置侦察,在取得证据后,及时给予打击。[42]

    从上述史料解读来看,安徽地方政府这次在自上而下应对 “水鬼毛人”谣言时比较及时。不过,前后应对方式还是稍有差别,前期比较克制与谨慎,后期极为严厉与残酷,转向节点大概是一些市县爆发尖锐的干群冲突之前后。1956年7月2日,安徽省委书记曾希圣《在中共安徽省第一次党代表大会上的工作报告》中即说,在“水鬼毛人”事件中,开始“没有采取镇压的方针”,后来“改变了做法,采取了侦破和坚决镇压的措施,群众就积极地起来参加斗争,‘毛人水鬼’的谣言就很快地平息了”。[43]

    应该说,在安徽省委及公安厅严格指示、督责及检查之下,地方各市县区乡党政组织及干部随后即高效行动,在谣言集中爆发区,努力开展“平谣”工作。至1954年秋,全省政府部门在省委及公安厅指示下,“逮捕利用‘水鬼毛人’谣言,造谣煽动闹事的反革命分子和各种刑事犯罪分子1128人,处以死刑者20余人,谣言逐渐平息”。[44]

       六、肥西县的个案

    从行政区划沿革来看,肥西县建国初隶属皖北行署巢湖专区,后改属皖北行署六安专区。[45] 据尹曙生老先生的访谈记载:1953年12月,“水鬼毛人”谣言传入六安专区的肥西县,并迅速扩散,谣言传到之处,人人惊慌失措,社会秩序一片混乱。[46] 据当时统计,“全县各地在混乱中放枪打死3人,打伤4人,因过度恐慌而自杀2人,慌乱中挤撞致伤100多人”。[47]

    应该说,“水鬼毛人”谣言在肥西县造成了颇多乱果,但相较安徽其它部分地区,肥西县的“水鬼毛人”谣言因传播比较较晚,此时安徽省委及公安厅已基本形成比较系统的应对意见及策略。

    1954年1月5日,中共安徽省委宣传部将《关于平息“水鬼毛人”谣言的宣传指示》发到肥西县委。该指示开头即强调:“水鬼毛人”谣言的流传,显然是隐蔽的残余反革命分子破坏党在过渡时期总路线的宣传贯彻和当前粮食计划征购任务,破坏农民冬季生产和扰乱社会治安的阴谋。为此省委从宣传内容、宣传方法及管制手段等三个方面提出以下指示意见:(一)在宣传内容上,应着重宣传如下几点:1、强调指出“水鬼毛人”谣言是参与反革命分子散布的反动谣言,是反革命分子进行破坏活动的恶毒阴谋,他们造谣惑众的目的,是在于扰乱社会治安,破坏农民的生产,同时企图挑拨中苏两国人民的友好合作,破坏党和人民政府与群众的联系,破坏干部与人民群众之间的团结。2、说明在毛主席,中国共产党的正确领导下,中国人民的抗美援朝运动以及各项建设事业已经取得伟大胜利,正在胜利地逐步地向社会主义过渡,反革命分子是不顾中国人民过平安、幸福的日子的,但他们已计穷力竭,只能采取这样最卑鄙无耻的手段造谣言,欺骗人民。3、说明苏联对中国革命胜利和经济建设伟大的全面的长期的无私的援助,苏联人民是中国人民最好的朋友;说明党和人民政府一贯是为广大人民服务的,革命工作干部是人民的勤务员,过去、现在和将来都是在为全体劳动人民的幸福生活而奋斗的。凡是挑拨中苏关系、挑拨人民群众和党及政府的关系的谣言,都是反革命分子的阴谋,反革命分子是人民的敌人,人民群众绝不要上敌人的当。4、指出反革命分子的那些谣言是极端荒谬的,人民群众经过了党和人民政府多年的教育,觉悟已经大大提高,决不应当听信那些谣言,凡是听信了谣言的,不但弄得一家不安,而且浪费很多钱,耽误了生产,更上了反革命分子的当。这个教训大家都要接受。5、说明经历过剿匪、反霸、土地改革和镇压反革命运动之后,反革命势力已基本消清,但还有少数漏网的反革命分子存在,如果有人误信谣言,自行惊扰,就给了那些一小撮反革命分子的破坏活动以可乘之机。因此,全体人民群众绝不应当听信谣言,更不应当信口开河,捕风捉影,传播谣言,而应当提高警惕,使反革命分子无缝可钻,发现谣言立即加以驳斥和追根,堵塞谣言传播,以保证冬季生产、互助合作等运动顺利进行。(二)在宣传方法上:在发生谣言的地区,必须首先抓紧对基层干部、党员、团员、宣传员及积极分子进行教育,提高他们的政治警惕,保持清醒的头脑,保证不受谣言的愚惑,这是平息谣言的关键;然后再组织他们全力向群众进行揭破反动谣言的宣传教育。在进行此项宣传活动中,除应召开各种大小会议进行口头宣传外,并应利用造谣或冒充“水鬼毛人”的反革命分子去现身说法;组织吃过谣言大亏的人进行控诉;还应组织群众互相访问,看看事实真相,揭穿谣言;并可运用算细账(列举当地因误信谣言而发生失火、失窃、误伤和浪费及耽误生产等现实实例)的方法,与农民的切身利益结合起来进行宣传,经验证明,这都是行之有效的扑灭谣言的办法。在估计谣言可能波及的地区,应坚决实行预防,迅速地主动地向阶层干部和群众正面揭发谣言,以占领思想阵地,组成坚强的防线,坚决阻止谣言的侵袭,保证不使蔓延。领导上争取主动在这个斗争中是极端重要的关键。(三)在进行上述宣传工作的同时,应教育基层干部和广大群众加强对反革命分子和不法地主阶级分子的管制与监视,公开地警告他们,不准其乱说乱动。对于那些投机商人、小偷、二流子等企图乘机谋取私利而进行捏造和扩大谣言者,亦必须视其情况轻重,予以教育和经过上级批准的必要的处置。但在推行宣传活动中,对反革命分子的恶毒谣言和群众思想落后的言论必须严格加以区别;决不可对群众采取粗暴作法,但也不能把反动谣言简单的视为群众的迷信活动,致放松警惕,消弱粉碎反革命分子阴谋活动的斗争。[48]

   通过以上史料的梳理,可见这份发给肥西县委的安徽省委宣传部的宣传指示内容极为细致周密。随后,肥西县委及公安部门,根据这个宣传指示,即开展“平谣”工作。1954年元月,肥西县委“指示各区,以平息‘水鬼毛人’谣言为治安主要任务。县公安局分6组赴谣言严重地区平息谣言。各地用实例,使群众认清坏人阴谋。一些造谣、传谣和煽动群众闹事的为首分子被捕法办”。[49]

    应该说,肥西县在“平谣”工作中,确实有不少造谣、传谣和煽动群众闹事的为首分子被捕法办,但也有法外开恩的幸运分子,比如三河区的王孝明。据档案资料记载:三河区“第二小学教师王孝明一贯思想落后,政治认识不清,此次特务造谣,该王不但不积极向群众揭穿谣言,反而信以为真,更为严重的该王竟鼓动群众拿刀持棒阻止我干部下乡工作,并扬言说,‘毛人’跟在政府干部后面,‘毛人’是干部带来的,王的这一错误行为,严重丧失了一个人民教师的应有立场”,因此,肥西县政府“为了严明纪律教育干部,经研究决定给王孝明行政上撤职处分”。[50] 随后,三河区政府根据县委指示进行了“降职处分”,即“将教师王孝明调五新小学任教员”,而把五新小学教师“孙孝珍调到三河第二小学工作”。[51] 王孝明在被调入五新小学工作将近一年后,三河区政府查王孝明教师“自接受处分后已经认识错误,并在工作上表现积极负责”,”同意撤销其处分”,并“报请县府处理”。[52]

   综上所言,在“平谣”过程中,肥西县委及公安局根据中共安徽省委宣传部的宣传指示,采取的是“争取教育”、“严厉镇压”双管齐下的方式开展“平谣”工作,这种剿抚并用的方式所达到的效果明显。1954年元月底,肥西县“谣言平息,秩序恢复正常”。[53] 但是,这种效果也并非地方志中记载的那样立竿见影,总有反复出现的可能,即便已是小范围地偶发。1955年1月17日,中共安徽省委宣传部及省公安厅党组部门还向肥西县委下发《关于驳斥谣言和打击坏分子的意见》,在该意见里,指出肥西县1955年元月初,“又有七个区的十九个乡闹‘水鬼毛人’谣言”。[54] 甚至1957年3月15日中共肥西县委《关于当前农村治安情况的检查报告》中,还透露肥西县已平息“龙潭等4个乡曾发现坏分子造谣说:‘挖眼割蛋又要来了(指毛人水鬼)’”的谣言。[55]

    可以说,肥西县的“水鬼毛人”谣言,并不是一次性地平息,其间循环往复地出现过。而地方政府的应对,更是遵循着自上而下的锁定路径进行处理。这期间,安徽省委、公安厅、六安地委及肥西县委针对肥西县反复出现的“水鬼毛人”谣言,也曾下发多个文件指示地方“平谣”工作。[56]

    比如1954年12月16日,中共六安地委给肥西县发来《平息毛人谣言的补充指示》,该补充指示明确指出:1、当前在农村工作的所有省、专、县、区等干部,均必须高度重视,不能轻视麻痹,在刚开始发生谣言的地区,应结合粮食统购统销工作,迅速组织党组织、团员、干部深入群众,就地把“水鬼毛人”谣言平息下去,决不能使谣言蔓延扩大。2、接近传谣地区,和尚未发生谣言地区,及可能受到谣言波及的地区,应立即召开党团员和积极分子会议,教育干部,弄通思想提高认识,准备好思想阵地,以便随时主动揭发与制止谣言。3、在宣传粮食统购统销中,应加强政治思想教育,提高群众政治警觉,防止敌人造谣破坏。4、对五方面的反革命分子,要加强监督、管制,严防破坏活动。5、各地发生谣言后,要立即跟踪追迹,找出传播的首要分子,马上逮捕法办;对一般传谣者,也应根据情节,使其当众认错,揭发谣言,以真人真事教育群众。[57]

    从这个些文件所反映的内容来看,谣言反复出现后,地方政府总是自上而下地进行处理,处理模式一样,但手段更加强化,这俨然成为一种锁定的依赖路径。不过,正如李若建所言,“每次谣言的结局都一样,在政府的有力镇压下平息。这种镇压的方式会产生巨大的威慑力,而人们对镇压的恐惧可能会超过对‘毛人水怪’的恐惧,因此在短期内谣言会很快消失。不过民间对‘毛人水怪’的理解和记忆并没有消失,也就是保留了一个产生谣言的温床,当时机到来时,谣言又可能复活”。[58]

    七、地方督责政治

    其实,国民党统治下的南京市1928 年春夏之交也曾爆发过一种妖妇摄魂谣言,谓中山陵墓的合拢需要儿童的生魂,北伐战争的前线需要阴灵战助等。由此在南京引起了一场巨大的谣言风波,市民恐慌、社会无序、秩序混乱。当时,南京特别市市政府、教育局、公安局、首都卫戍司令部等各职能部门积极做出依法管控性反应,通过召开会议、散发传单、举行座谈会等方式来向市民进行宣传、解释,并痛诋所谓“地痞流氓、孙传芳党羽、共产党徒”从中鼓闹,以期消除市民的恐慌情绪。此外,首都卫戍司令部、公安局及市政府还布告禁止“聚众攒殴”,公安局也对违犯者进行必要的惩罚,以期达到平息谣言,稳定社会秩序之目的。[59]

    相比较解放前国民党统治区的这次谣言事件处理情况而言,新中国的地方政府在应对及处理“水鬼毛人”谣言事件方面自有一套前后相因性的政治实践逻辑。

    应该说,包括上文所叙述的肥西县的个案在内,地方政府在应对及处理这起突发性的谣言事件过程中,在社会治安领域加剧形成了一种“地方督责政治”运转模式。这种政治运转模式,正是建国初贯彻“政治全能主义”[60]的关键环节,其内核表现在以下三个方面:

    其一,组织与干部:自上而下的督责运作。

    安徽“水鬼毛人”谣言传入之前,安徽省委及公安厅即以集中领导、统一指挥的形式,出台多方配合的应对意见。随后各市县的领导、人武部门、公检法部门及区乡干部即根据这些应对意见去组织调查组,分赴谣言集中区,努力开展“平谣”工作。在和县,1953年10月,“香泉区绰庙乡流传着‘毛人’、‘水鬼’的谣言,不到40天,传遍全县所有区、乡农村”,“为平息谣言,安定社会秩序,县委书记唐九奎、人武部长韦新春、公安局副局长吴志桂等人率领32人,成立调查组,分赴各地进行辟谣工作”。[61] 在霍邱县,1954年1月20日,“刘李、三元、洪集等区乡出现‘毛人水鬼’谣言,县公、检、法部门及时配合区乡干部,进行宣传教育,同时逮捕造谣惑众的地富反坏分子82人”。[62] 等等。应该说,在“平谣”工作中,从省厅到市县,再到区乡,自上而下逐层的督责、检查,逐达到一种压力机制的刚性传导,政治中心的一元性、政治执行的高效性得到充分体现。

    其二,意识形态化处理:教育争取(普通民众及基层干部)与严厉镇压(阶级敌人)相结合。

    安徽“水鬼毛人”谣言在传播过程中,发生变异,泛起强烈的意识形态化色彩。正因为如此,政府部门在处理这次大面积的谣言事件过程中,也简单直接地从先验性“阶级斗争”视角出发,进行意识形态化处理。处理过程中,采取双管齐下,宽严相济,区别对待,逐达到全面禁谣之目的。

    具体来看,即当地方政府所组织的调查组进入谣言集中区之后,首先召开党员干部会议,加强思想教育,破除谣言迷信及澄清事实真相;其次,发动群众,检举揭发及追查谣源。对谣言传播的普通民众及基层干部,采取“争取教育”的方式,而谣言意识形态化的制造者与煽动者,往往被定性为抽象化的“阶级敌人”,对其则采取“严厉镇压”的方式。这样,在调查组的领导之下,专政机关与基层干部及人民群众有机磨合与结合,“平谣”工作进展甚为顺利。在炳辉县,“平谣”过程中,“县委召开紧急会议,发出辟谣提纲,抽调机关干部协同县公安局全力以赴到各地向群众宣传教育,同时采取严厉措施,狠狠打击乘机捏造与扩散谣言的坏分子,处决2人,逮捕关押7人。经过50天的努力,谣言逐渐平息下去”。[63] 在安庆地区,“平谣”过程中,“各县公安局首先对传谣地区干部进行教育,查清慌乱的实情,向群众剖明真相,并依法逮捕了造谣、传谣及乘机破坏的为首分子108人。历经三个月。平息了‘水鬼毛人’谣言”。[64] 在五河县,“平谣”过程中,“公安部门抽调干部100多人下乡辟谣”,“取缔反动道会门组织,逮捕大小道首35人” 教育群众,使“受骗群众万余名退道”,历经近两月,“谣言平息”。[65] 在霍邱县,“平谣”过程中,“县公安局发动群众,揭穿谣言假象。追查谣言制造者”,“共逮捕造谣生事者156人;其中原土匪22人,恶霸1人,会道门头子1人,国民党军政人员3人,地主6人,兵痞流氓3人;判处死刑3人,徒刑47人。教育释放106人”。[66] 在肥东县,“平谣”过程中,“县委、县政府决定,以公安局、武装部为主,发动各级治保人员,深入群众进行宣传教育,并逮捕了43名破坏分子,其中山王乡韩某民愤较大,判处死刑”,历经几个月,“谣言平息”。[67] 在无为县,“平谣”过程中,“无为县委、无为县公安局、芜湖专署公安处、省公安厅接报后,分别派出人员,率领公安武装到达出事地点,一面开展宣传,揭露谣言,争取群众;一面对煽动群众、制造行凶的反坏分子,迅速逮捕”,同时,“又配合人民法院,选择典型,经批准后,……在严桥区闸北乡召开有19个乡近万人参加的公审大会,对造谣生事、制造骚乱事件的为首分子施新春等7人判处死刑,执行枪决。随即在全县范围内开展政治攻势,先后召开万人大会7次,逮捕为首分子331人,事态逐步平息”。[68] 等等。在这次逐层督责、检查“平谣”工作中,对普通民众及基层干部的“教育争取”,初步解构了一个迷信谣言,但对“阶级敌人”进行具体化操作,并“严厉镇压”,则再塑了新政权的权威,也重塑了普遍性群体恐惧。政治动员的广泛性与意识形态操作的工具性得到充分体现。

    其三,两难政治困境:地方督责政治的悖论。

    安徽“水鬼毛人”谣言大面积爆发之前,地方政府其实已经开始自上而下地应对。在一些市县爆发尖锐的干群冲突之后,这种应对更是强力作为。其最大特点即采取“争取教育”、“严厉镇压”双管齐下的方式,通过组织、干部及意识形态化处理,逐实现督责式政治解决。毫无疑问,通过此种操作,能够达到政治权力主宰、重塑社会,并维护社会刚性稳定的目的。

    但在“水鬼毛人”谣言事件中,地方政府如果不实施督责式政治解决,就无法高效解构“水鬼毛人”谣言,这肯定不利于新政权的巩固与稳定,难免会带来正统合法性政治困境。但如果强力实施督责式政治解决,能够高效解构一个迷信谣言,却又带来另一政治困境。这正如马俊亚所言,地方政府平息“水鬼毛人”谣言,“在解构迷信的同时,出于政治需要,虚拟世界的怪力乱神被移植为现实世界的异己分子”,“而对大量异己分子——潜在的社会动员者的控制、逮捕、公审和当众枪决,显然重构了普遍性的恐惧”,但“这种先验性消灭阶级敌人的暴力途径,显然没有解构‘毛人水怪’产生的社会根源,仅是重构了群体性恐惧”。[69]

    这即是说,当先验性且污名化的“阶级异己分子”被镇压,普遍性群体恐惧被重构并蔓延,即不再有反对性力量对督责政治进行有效的制约与控制,长此以往,必然有损于新政权的根本性巩固与稳定,甚至造成更大的灾难与危机。政治动员的高效性与政治参与的空乏性得到充分体现,这也是“地方督责政治”实施的最为吊诡的两难政治困境。

      【作者简介】:

     黄文治:(1980-)男,历史学博士,安徽大学社会与政治学院教师,安徽大学农村社会发展研究中心研究员,安徽大学台湾研究中心研究员,主攻方向:中国近代以来的革命与转型、二十世纪中国政治史、社会与政治运动等。

      [1] 可参见李若建:《社会变迁的折射:20世纪50年代的“毛人水怪”谣言初探》,《社会学研究》2005年第5期,第182-200页;李若建:《谣言的建构:“毛人水怪”谣言再分析》,《开放时代》2010年第3期,第105-125页;马俊亚:《恐惧重构与威权再塑:淮北“毛人水怪”历史背景研究》,《南京大学学报》2013年第6期,第101-109页。

   [2] 蚌埠市地方志编纂委员会编:《蚌埠市志》,北京:方志出版社,1995年,第897页

   [3] 安徽省地方志编纂委员会编:《安徽省志·公安志》,合肥:安徽人民出版社,1993年,第216-217页

   [4] 安徽省地方志编纂委员会编:《安徽省志·公安志》,合肥:安徽人民出版社,1993年,第217页;

   [5] 安徽省地方志编纂委员会编:《安徽省志·公安志》,合肥:安徽人民出版社,1993年,第217-218页。安徽省地方志编纂委员会编:《安徽省志·政党志》,北京:方志出版社,19983年,第467页;霍邱县地方志编纂委员会编:《霍邱县志》,中国广播电视出版社,1992年,第558 页;安徽省金寨县地方文史资料编纂委员会编:《金寨县志》,上海人民出版社,1992年,第23页;安庆市地方志编纂委员会编:《安庆地区志》,合肥:黄山书社,1995年,第334页;枞阳县地方志编纂委员会编:《枞阳县志》,合肥:黄山书社,1998年,第403页;岳西县地方志编纂委员编:《岳西县志》,合肥:黄山书社,1996年,第310页;芜湖县地方志编纂委员会编:《芜湖县志》,社科文献出版社,1993年,第30页;安徽省长丰县地方志编纂委员会编:《长丰县志》,北京:中国文史出版社,1991年,第17页。

   [6] 曾希圣:《曾希圣文选》,北京:人民出版社,2008年,第194页。

   [7] 李若建:《谣言的建构:“毛人水怪”谣言再分析》,《开放时代》,2010年第3期,第115-116页。

   [8] 安徽省全椒县地方志编纂委员会编:《全椒县志》,合肥:黄山书社,1988年,第449页。

   [9] 沈友信主编:《合肥公安大事记》,合肥:黄山书社,1998年,第40页。

   [10] 枞阳县地方志编纂委员会编:《枞阳县志》,合肥:黄山书社,1998年,第403页。

   [11] 许效前:《“毛人水鬼”之谜》,《金寨文史资料(三)》,1986年,第188页。

   [12] 安徽省地方志编纂委员会编:《安徽省志·公安志》,合肥:安徽人民出版社,1993年,第216-217页。

   [13] 滁州市(县级)地方志编纂委员会编:《滁州市志》,北京:方志出版社,1998年,第42页。

   [14] 天长县地方志编撰委员会编:《天长县志》,社会科学文献出版社,1992年,第146-147页。

   [15] 肥东县地方志编纂委员编:《肥东县志》,合肥:安徽人民出版社,1990年,第445页。

   [16] 含山县地方志编纂委员会编:《含山县志》,合肥:黄山书社,1995年,第18页。

   [17] 安庆市地方志编纂委员会编:《安庆地区志》,合肥:黄山书社,1995年,第334页

   [18] 霍邱县地方志编纂委员会编:《霍邱县志》,中国广播电视出版社,1992年,第558页。

   [19] 张永松、吴志霄:《解放初期发生在无为县的“毛人水怪”》,《江淮文史》1999年第4期,第165页。

   [20] 安徽省地方志编纂委员会编:《安徽省志·政党志》,北京:方志出版社,19983年,第467页。

   [21] 李若建:《社会变迁的折射:20世纪50年代的“毛人水怪”谣言初探》,《社会学研究》2005年 第5期,第193页。

   [22] 许效前:《“毛人水鬼”之谜》,《金寨文史资料(三)》,1986年,第191-192页。

   [23] 岳西县地方志编纂委员编:《岳西县志》,合肥:黄山书社,1996年,第310页。

   [24] 安徽省来安县地方志编纂委员会编:《来安县志》,北京:中国城市经济社会出版社,1990年,第299-300页。

   [25] 安徽省全椒县地方志编纂委员会编:《全椒县志》,合肥:黄山书社,1988年,第449页。

   [26] 安徽省长丰县地方志编纂委员会编:《长丰县志》,北京:中国文史出版社,1991年,第17页。

   [27] 明光市地方志编纂委员会编:《明光市志》,合肥:黄山书社,2014年,第22页。

   [28] 凤台县地方志编纂委员会编:《凤台县志》,合肥:黄山书社,1998年,第145页。

   [29] 五河县志编纂委员会编:《五河县志》,1992年,杭州:浙江人民出版社,第12页。

   [30] 霍邱县地方志编纂委员会编:《霍邱县志》,中国广播电视出版社,1992年,第558 页。

   [31] 李若建:《社会变迁的折射:20世纪50年代的“毛人水怪”谣言初探》,《社会学研究》2005年第5期,第197页。

   [32] 安徽省地方志编纂委员会编:《安徽省志·公安志》,合肥:安徽人民出版社,1993年,第217-218页。

   [33] 安徽省公安厅公安史志编辑室编:《安徽省公安大事记(上)》,内部机密资料,1996年12月,第52页。

   [34] 曾希圣:《曾希圣文选》,北京:人民出版社,2008年,第194页。

   [35] 《粉碎反革命谣言》,《人民日报》,1950年10月17日。

   [36] 《中央公安部关于全国公安会议向中央的报告》,1950年10月,载中国人民解放军国防大学党史党建政工教研室编:《中共党史教学参考资料》,第19册,解放军出版社,1986年,第207页。

   [37] 《中华人民共和国惩治反革命条例》,1951年2月20日,载中国人民解放军国防大学党史党建政工教研室编:《中共党史教学参考资料》,第19册,解放军出版社,1986年,第247页。

   [38] 安徽省公安厅公安史志编辑室编:《安徽省公安大事记(上)》,内部机密资料,1996年12月,第43页。

   [39] 安徽省公安厅公安史志编辑室编:《安徽省公安大事记(上)》,内部机密资料,1996年12月,第49页。

   [40] 《批转芜湖地委关于对和、含、巢三县发生“毛人”谣言问题的指示》,安徽省档案馆藏,档案号3-1-107-10,第1-2页。

   [41] 安徽省地方志编纂委员会编:《安徽省志·公安志》,合肥:安徽人民出版社,1993年,第218页。

   [42] 安徽省公安厅公安史志编辑室编:《安徽省公安大事记(上)》,内部机密资料,1996年12月,第53页。

   [43] 曾希圣:《曾希圣文选》,北京:人民出版社,2008年,第194页。

   [44] 安徽省地方志编纂委员会编:《安徽省志·政党志》,北京:方志出版社,19983年,第467页。

   [45] 肥西县,1948年12月,析取合肥县西、南乡建立的,以位于淝水之西得名。1949年10月,肥西县民主政府改称肥西县人民政府。1950年,肥西县隶属皖北行署巢湖专区。1950年4月,三河撤市设区,并入肥西县。1952年2月,肥西县改属皖北行署六安专区。1952年8月,皖南、皖北行署合并成立安徽省人民政府,肥西县隶属安徽省六安专区。1958年9月,肥西县划属合肥市。1961年4月,肥西县又划归六安专区。1983年7月,肥西县复属合肥市辖。

   [46] 笔者与原安徽省公安厅常务副厅长尹曙生老先生的访谈,采访地点:尹曙生老先生家书房,时间:2015年7月6日。

   [47] 肥西县地方志编纂委员会编:《肥西县志》,合肥:黄山书社,1994年,第448页。

   [48]《关于平息“水鬼毛人”谣言的宣传指示》,肥西县档案馆藏,档案号为:

   X004-1954-002-0002,第1-4页。

   [49] 肥西县地方志编纂委员会编:《肥西县志》,合肥:黄山书社,1994年,第448页。

   [50]《三河区人民政府对于教师王孝明丧失立场传播谣言的错误的处分决定》,肥西县档案馆藏,档案号:

   x038-1954-002-0002,第1-2页。

   [51] 《报请批准调动教师王孝明的工作》,肥西县档案馆,档案号X038-1954-001-003,第39页。

   [52] 《报请准予撤销我区五新小学教师王孝明调五新小学的撤职处分》,档案号X038-1954-001-003,第122页。

   [53] 肥西县地方志编纂委员会编:《肥西县志》,合肥:黄山书社,1994年,第448页。

   [54] 《关于驳斥谣言和打击坏分子的意见》,肥西县档案馆藏,档案号:X004-1955-002-0005,第1-2页。

   [55] 《关于当前农村治安情况的检查报告》,肥西档案馆藏,档案号X001-1957-001-0115,第44页。

   [56] 《肥西县人民政府公安局的通知》,肥西县档案馆藏,档案号:X038-1954-002-0002,第1页;《平息毛人谣言的补充指示》,肥西县档案馆藏,档案号:X001-1954-002-0065,第1-2页;《关于驳斥谣言和打击坏分子的意见》,肥西县档案馆藏,档案号:X004-1955-002-0005,第1-2页。

   [57]《平息毛人谣言的补充指示》,肥西县档案馆藏,档案号:X001-1954-002-0065,第1-2页。

   [58] 李若建:《谣言的建构:“毛人水怪”谣言再分析》,《开放时代》2010年第3期,第120页。

   [59] 刘喜元:《1928年南京的摄魂风波》,《广西社会科学》,2004年第6期,第164-165页。

   [60] 按照美国学者邹谠的说法,“全能主义(Totalism)”概念与上个世纪三十年代中国和西方理论家所用的政治学概念“极权主义(totalitarianism)”概念不同,它凸显的是国家与社会的关系问题,是指“政治机构的权力可以随时地无限制地侵入和控制社会每一个阶层和每一个领域的指导思想。全能主义政治指的是以这个指导思想为基础的政治社会”(【美】邹谠:《二十世纪中国政治:从宏观历史与微观行动的角度》,牛津大学出版社,1994年,第3页)。而萧功秦将“全能主义”这一政治形态的特点总括为:“政权全方位地渗入社会最基层的细胞,没有自主的社会活动空间与市民社会,权力的高度集中,以一种具有平均主义乌托邦目标的意识形态信仰作为一党制社会的整合基础,通过高度的社会动员与以意识形态导向为基础的大众政治参与,来实现国家精英所确定的政治目标,等等”(萧功秦:《中国社会各阶层政治态势与前景展望》,《战略与管理》,1998年,第5期,第43页)。

   [61] 和县地方志编纂委员会编:《和县县志》,合肥:黄山书社,1995年,第467页。

   [62] 霍邱县地方志编纂委员会编:《霍邱县志》,中国广播电视出版社,1992年,第27页。

   [63] 天长县地方志编撰委员会编:《天长县志》,社会科学文献出版社,1992年,第147页。

   [64] 安庆市地方志编纂委员会编:《安庆地区志》,合肥:黄山书社,1995年,第334页。

   [65] 五河县志编纂委员会编:《五河县志》,1992年,杭州:浙江人民出版社,第12、419页。

   [66] 霍邱县地方志编纂委员会编:《霍邱县志》,中国广播电视出版社,1992年,第558页。

   [67] 肥东县地方志编纂委员编:《肥东县志》,合肥:安徽人民出版社,1990年,第445页。

   [68] 安徽省公安厅公安史志编辑室编:《安徽省公安大事记(上)》,内部机密资料,1996年12月,第52页。

   [69] 马俊亚:《恐惧重构与威权再塑:淮北“毛人水怪”历史背景研究》,《南京大学学报》2013年第6期,第109页。

About 高大伟 David Cowhig

After retirement translated, with wife Jessie, Liao Yiwu's 2019 "Bullets and Opium", and have been studying things 格物致知. Worked 25 years as a US State Department Foreign Service Officer including ten years at US Embassy Beijing and US Consulate General Chengdu and four years as a China Analyst in the Bureau of Intelligence and Research. Before State I translated Japanese and Chinese scientific and technical books and articles into English freelance for six years. Before that I taught English at Tunghai University in Taiwan for three years. And before that I worked two summers on Norwegian farms, milking cows and feeding chickens.
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