Released now, part of the full text of Xi Jinping’s speech last December on economic development. A patern seen over and over is that major speeches seem to come out first as summaries and only later, perhaps after a process of review and reconsideration, are released as a canonical text.
Professor Zhang Xuebo of the Central Party School discussed China’s hybrid rule-by-dcoument system in his article 2017 Zhang Xuebo: Observations on the History of Rule by Document 1982-2017
In addition, an ongoing case of government by document are the “Two Studies and One Action” 两学一做 [Translator’s note: study the Party Constitution 党章 and Party regulations 党规, study Xi Jinping’s speeches, and be a good Party member.] Here, studying the Party Charter, Party rules and Xi Jinping’s speech series means learning and studying various documents. In fact throughout the history of the Chinese Communist Party, the organized group study of documents has been a sacred task. (10) The speeches of General Secretary Xi Jinping cannot be seen as merely the thinking of one particular individual. Once organized into the form of a document, it becomes an authoritative statement of the Party’s guiding ideology.  This is especially true for the “Code of Conduct for Political Life withinthe Party under the New Situation” 新情势下党内政治生活准测and the “Regulations on Internal Supervision of the Chinese Communist Party” 中国共产党党内监督条例“ adopted by the Sixth Plenary Session of the Eighteenth Central Committee. Here every single Chinese character counts. Every detail is significant. Education about the Party spirit is at the very heart of acquiring the ideology and behavior of a Communist Party member.  Moreover, at the core of education in Party spirit is the study and implementation of core Party Central Committee documents.
III. The Internal Logic of “Rule by Document”
Prior of the creation of New China by the Chinese Communist Party, the role of documents was still understood as “rule of the Party by document”. Documents, especially Communist Party Central Committee documents, embodies the will of the Party Center and were a symbol of power. The transmission of documents from level to level implemented the political organization of the Party. A document’s degree of confidentiality determined the scope of its circulation and so awareness of Party internal affairs showed the rank of a person within the organization and their extent of their identification with it as party members.  This served not only the need for secrecy but also was a sign of a person’s power within the Party since some internal reference documents circulate only among a defined group of Party members and government cadres. 2017 Zhang Xuebo: Observations on the History of Rule by Document 1982-2017
Correctly Understand and Master the Major theoretical and Practical Issues Affecting China’s Development
Source: [Communist Party ideological journal Seeking Truth 《求是》2022/10 2022/10
Author: Xi Jinping 2022-05-15 15:07:26
As it enters a new stage of development, the internal and external environment of China’s development has undergone profound changes. China now faces many new major issues that need to be properly understood and mastered. Here, I focus on a few issues.
I. Correctly understand and master the strategic goals and practical ways of achieving common prosperity.
“The country may be called wealthy if it cares about the prosperity of its people.” The creation and distribution of wealth is a major issue facing all countries. Some Western countries have a long-standing disparity between rich and poor and growing polarization even as overall social wealth continues to grow. Some Latin American countries, although they are not wealthy, have a large income distribution gap. Under our socialist system, we must not only continue to free up and develop the social productive forces, create and accumulate social wealth, but also prevent social polarization, and effectively promote the all-round development of people and the common prosperity of all people to make more obvious and substantial progress. In the past, we were egalitarian and had a low level of income. After reform and opening up, some regions and people got rich first. As the income gap gradually widened, and the improper appropriation of wealth brought risks and challenges to the healthy operation of the economy and society.
Common prosperity is the essential requirement of socialism with Chinese characteristics. How should the path of common prosperity be taken? We are exploring it. To achieve the goal of common prosperity, we must first make the “cake” bigger and better through the common struggle of the whole nation, and then properly handle the relationship between growth and distribution through reasonable institutional arrangements, so as to cut and divide the “cake” properly. This is a long-term historical process, we have to create conditions, improve the system, and steadily move towards this goal.
To promote high-quality development in the strengthening of our orientation towards making employment our top priority. Employment is the foundation of people’s livelihood. To improve the employment impetus of economic growth, and constantly promote the expansion of employment and quality improvement. We should support the development of small and medium-sized enterprises and give full play to their role as the main channel of employment. To learn from the lessons of some Western countries’ economic transformation “from the real economy to the virtual economy”, we should continue to grow the real economy and create more high-quality jobs. To increase investment in human capital, we should improve the quality of education, strengthen vocational education and skills training, improve the quality of the workforce, better adapt to the needs of high-quality development, and effectively prevent the risk of large-scale unemployment.
We need to actively assume the function and play the role of distributor.
- We should address the relationship between efficiency and fairness, and build a basic institutional arrangement for the coordination of the initial distribution, redistribution and third distribution.
- To adhere to the distribution of labor as the main body, increase the proportion of labor compensation in the initial distribution, and improve the policy of distribution according to factors.
- We should play the regulating role of redistribution, increase the regulation of taxation, social security and transfer payments, and improve the precision.
- We should play a good role in the third distribution, guide, support the willingness and ability of enterprises and social groups to actively participate in public charity, but not to engage in moral kidnapping type “forcing people to donate”.
We should improve the public service policy and system system. Promote common prosperity, not to engage in “welfarism” that set. When some Latin American countries engaged in populism and high welfare to support a number of “lazy” and unproductive people, the consequent national financial burden made them fall into a “middle-income trap” from which they could not over the long-term extricate themselves. Welfare benefits once they went up could not be reduced, engaging in “welfarism” beyond their capacity is not sustainable. It certainly leads to serious economic and political problems! We must insist on doing our best and living within our means, focusing on improving the level of public services, providing basic public services precisely in the areas of education, medical care, pensions, housing and other areas of greatest concern to the people, and holding the bottom line of basic living for the poor, without indulging appetites with empty promises.
II. Correctly understand and master the characteristics of capital and the laws of behavior.
Marx and Engels did not envision that a market economy could be engaged in under socialist conditions, and certainly could not foresee how a socialist country would treat capital. Although Lenin and Stalin led the socialist construction of the Soviet Union, at that time the Soviet Union practiced a highly centralized planned economic system and basically did not encounter the problem of large-scale capital. Engaging in a socialist market economy is a great creation of our Party. Since it is a socialist market economy, it is bound to produce various forms of capital. Capital in a capitalist society and capital in a socialist society are certainly different in many ways, but capital is all about chasing profits. “The one who unites all the world’s wealth is wealthy, and the one who manages all the world’s wealth is law.” We have to explore how to play the positive role of capital under the conditions of socialist market economy, while effectively controlling the negative role of capital. In recent years, due to insufficient understanding and lack of supervision, some areas in China have seen disorderly expansion of capital, reckless manipulation and profiteering. This requires the regulation of capital behavior, to avoid harm, not only to prevent the “capital predator” arbitrarily, but also to play the function of capital as a factor of production. This is a major political and economic issue that can not be avoided.
In practice, the following points should be taken care of. To set the “traffic lights” for capital. The “traffic light” applies to all vehicles on the road, treating capital as well, all kinds of capital can not run wild.
- Prevent some capital from growing wildly there are regulations with respect to anti-monopoly, anti-profiteering, anti-price, anti-malicious speculation, and anti-unfair competition.
- Strengthen the effective supervision of capital in accordance with the law. Socialist market economy is a rule of law economy, and capital activities should be conducted in accordance with the law.
- Curb the disorderly expansion of capital, it is not that we do not want capital but we must have an orderly development of capital.
- Relevant laws and regulations that are not sound should be improved. Laws and regulations should be strictly enforced to ensure adequate supervision.
- Support and guide the standardized and healthy development of capital.
- Adhere to and improve the basic socialist economic system, unswervingly consolidate and develop the public sector economy, unswervingly encourage, support and guide the development of the non-public sector economy, and promote the healthy development of the non-public sector economy and the healthy growth of the non-public sector economy.
III. Correctly understanding and master the security of supply of primary products
For a large country like ours, securing a good supply of primary products is a major strategic issue. We must strengthen strategic planning and make early adjustments to ensure security of supply.
Making saving a top priority. “Taking a systematic approach, if we are frugal, we will become prosperous. Without a system, we are not frugal in our use of resources and so become poor.” We should implement a comprehensive conservation strategy and promote conservation actions in all areas. In the field of production, to promote the overall conservation of resources, we should do intensive work on recycling, and on reducing energy consumption per unit of product consumption, accelerate the transformation of manufacturing technology, and improve input and output efficiency. In the field of consumption, to enhance national awareness of conservation, advocate simple and moderate, green and low-carbon lifestyle, oppose extravagant waste and excessive consumption, in-depth “eat everything on your plate” campaigns and other food conservation actions, and widely carry out the creation of green action groups, green families, green communities, green travel and other actions.
We should enhance domestic resource production security capacity.
Increase exploration efforts, the implementation of a new round of strategic action to create a breakthrough in mining, improve the level of development and protection of marine resources and mineral resources.
- Clarify the strategic bottom line of self-sufficiency in domestic production of important energy resources, play the role of state-owned enterprises to support the bottom, accelerate the application of advanced mining technology development of oil and gas and other resources.
- Strengthen the construction of the national strategic material reserve system, in critical moments to play a regulating role in the bottom line.
- Promote waste classification and efficient resource use, expand the use of domestic solid waste, and accelerate the construction of a waste recycling system.
We should optimize the ability to secure overseas resources. To make full use of both international and domestic two markets, and domestic and foreign resources in a mutually beneficial way, strengthen cooperation with relevant countries in energy resources premised upon effective prevention of foreign investment risks, and expand the interests of overseas high-quality resources.
Here, I would like to place special emphasis on the issue of security of supply of agricultural products. From the results of the latest land survey, we see that China’s arable land is still decreasing. In some areas basic farmland is not planted with grain and fruit trees, or other high value-added crops. I have repeatedly said that the rice bowl of the Chinese people at all times should be firmly in their own hands, our rice bowl should be mainly filled with Chinese-grown food. We should improve the overall agricultural production capacity on a more prominent position, continue to promote the construction of high-standard farmland, in-depth implementation of the revitalization of the seed industry action, improve the level of agricultural equipment, to ensure that farmers grow food reasonable income, to ensure absolute food security, basic self-sufficiency in grain, improve oil, soybean production capacity and self-sufficiency rate.
IV. Correctly understanding and master the prevention and resolution of major risks
Ever since the 1990s, China has effectively dealt with the Asian financial crisis, the international financial crisis, the novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic and other major tests. Now, in China’s economic and financial areas there are many areas of potential risk, but the overall risk is controllable. To adhere to the bottom line. The ancients said, “When the buds of an incipient disaster appear, they must be cut off; when an epidemic arises, it must be uprooted.” We must take full advantage of good party leadership and the advantages of our socialist system, and notice and take advantage of problems while they are still small and focus on avoiding major risks or crises.
In the previous stage, we effectively disposed of the shadow banking risk and Internet financial risk. At the same time, we must also see that new risks are still occurring, the “Black Swan” and “Gray Rhino” events continue to arise. When we analyze these phenomena, we find several important reasons for their rise.
- Problems that have long been accumulating. The impact of the “three overlapping periods” [Translator’s note: 1. The length of period of changes in the economic growth rate is determined by the objective laws of economic development. 2. The length of the period of painful structural adjustments results from the conscious choice to accelerate the transformation of the mode of economic development. 3. The period of digestion of the previous stimulus policy is a necessary stage to resolve the deep-seated contradictions that have accumulated over the years.] has not yet ended, the previous risks still need to be coped with.
- Regulatory capacity and system deficiencies. Serious failure to monitor the corporate governance of financial institutions, financial regulatory capacity and level of adaptation. Loose management of local debt, some places disguised as illegal borrowing, the debt burden continues to increase.
- Unruly behavior of borrowers. Some large enterprises blindly impulsive, irrational diversified expansion, excessive reliance on financial leverage, industrial capital excessive entry into the financial sector. Some shareholders and actual controllers operate and manage financial enterprises illegally and irregularly, with insider control, manipulation by major shareholders, financial fraud and massive misappropriation of funds.
- Government-business collusion and corrupt practices. Some financial institutions in charge and government officials dereliction of duty, corruption, enrichment, generous at the expense of the state, causing significant losses.
- Changes in the economic cycle. Rapid economic growth makes various kinds of hidden risks manifest themselves, making local risks systemic risks, and exposes enterprises to risks that its capital reserves cannot meet, triggering enterprise insolvency.
The next step is to continue to follow the basic policy of stabilizing the overall situation, coordinating, classifying and dismantling with precision, and grasp the risk disposal work. T
- We must follow the law, strengthen the financial rule of law, and explore the establishment of a system of regular amendments to the law.
- To stress responsibility, “people should be responsible for the consequences of their decisions”, stress the joint responsibility of both local party and and local government, for local stability and risk resolution;
- Stress responsibility for financial supervision, for industry supervision, discipline inspection and supervision and other departmental responsibilities, in accordance with their respective responsibilities to promote risk resolution;
- Stress the responsibility of enterprises for self-help main responsibility, the development of a viable risk resolution program.
- Strengthen capacity building, improve the level of regulatory technology, make up for regulatory shortcomings, and strengthen the construction of financial regulatory cadres.
Sufficient resources should be available to expedite the establishment of the Financial Stability Guarantee Fund, Deposit insurance system and industry protection funds in the management of risks, and study and develop support policies to promote mergers and acquisitions of financial institutions and the resolution of non-performing assets.
Localities should take the initiative to revitalize the stock of assets and resolve risks. Corporate shareholders should first bear the risk of loss until the equity is cleared. All parties should cooperate extensively, and the financial industry should establish an integrated risk disposal mechanism with full authorization and coordination to improve cross-market and cross-industry coordination and response capabilities.
Special attention should be paid to the risks inherent in some real estate enterprises. All localities should effectively take responsibility, strengthen supervision, guard the bottom line of no systemic risk, and maintain the stable and healthy development of the real estate market.
V. Correctly understanding and mastering peak carbon and and carbon neutrality
Promoting carbon peak and carbon neutrality is major strategic decision made by the Party Central Committee after careful consideration, which is our solemn commitment to the international community and an inherent requirement for promoting high-quality development. Recently, there are some problems discovered in the course of work. Some engage in “strong attacks on carbon emissions” while others engage in “one-size-fits-all” solution and even campaign-style movements to “carbon reduction”. Some go so far as to create a “pulling the plug to limit electricity consumption” phenomenon. These are not in line with the requirements of the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee. Green low-carbon development is a comprehensive transformation of economic and social development of complex engineering and long-term tasks; energy structure, industrial restructuring can not be achieved overnight. We should not divorce ourselves from reality. If the gradual reduction in use of traditional energy resources is not based on a safe and reliable alternative to new energy, it will have an impact on economic development and social stability. Pollution reduction and carbon reduction is an integral part of economic restructuring. We should build replacements before doing away with the old in a well-thought out manner.
At the Ninth meeting of the Central Finance and Economics Commission, I made a comprehensive deployment of the “clean carbon and carbon reduction” work, emphasizing the need to adhere to the principles of national coordination, conservation first, a double-pronged approach, internal and external smoothness, and risk prevention. The Central Committee of the Party has already issued the opinions on achieving carbon neutrality and approved the Carbon Neutral Action Plan. The goal of achieving carbon neutral carbon peaks should be set, but it is not possible to finish the job in one go, we must adhere to the steady progress and achieve our goal gradually according to our national conditions. Our energy resources are mostly coal-based: this is our basic national conditions. Our goal of achieving a carbon peak must be based on this reality.
- Stress the clean and efficient use of coal, accelerating the transformation of coal power unit flexibility, the development of renewable energy, and promote the optimal combination of coal and new energy to increase the capacity of new energy consumption.
- Pay close attention to green low-carbon technology research and development, accelerate the promotion and application of advanced technology.
- Using scientific assessments, improve the “clean carbon and carbon use reduction” system of energy consumption, create conditions to realize the “clean carbon and carbon use reduction” of energy consumption to the “clean carbon and carbon use reduction” of total carbon emissions and intensity as soon as possible, and accelerate the formation of incentives to reduce pollution and carbon use constraint mechanisms.
- All relevant departments in all regions should coordinate the work of “clean carbon and carbon use reduction” and “clean carbon and carbon use reduction” to prevent dislocations at different levels.
- To ensure energy supply, to achieve a multi-target balance, multi-channel increase in energy supply, large enterprises, especially state-owned enterprises to take the lead in ensuring supply and price stability, and never allow another major event such as a large area of “pulling the plug to limit electricity”.
- Promote the energy revolution, promote energy consumption, supply, technology, institutional reform, strengthen international cooperation, accelerate the construction of energy power.
This is part of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s speech at the Central Economic Work Conference on Dec. 8, 2021.
来源：《求是》2022/10 作者：习近平 2022-05-15 15:07:26