2022: Secretary Xi on Issues for China’s Development

Released now, part of the full text of Xi Jinping’s speech last December on economic development. A patern seen over and over is that major speeches seem to come out first as summaries and only later, perhaps after a process of review and reconsideration, are released as a canonical text.

Professor Zhang Xuebo of the Central Party School discussed China’s hybrid rule-by-dcoument system in his article 2017 Zhang Xuebo: Observations on the History of Rule by Document 1982-2017

In addition, an ongoing case of government by document are the “Two Studies and One Action” 两学一做 [Translator’s note: study the Party Constitution 党章 and Party regulations 党规study Xi Jinping’s speeches, and be a good Party member.] Here, studying the Party Charter, Party rules and Xi Jinping’s speech series means learning and studying various documents. In fact throughout the history of the Chinese Communist Party, the organized group study of documents has been a sacred task. (10) The speeches of General Secretary Xi Jinping cannot be seen as merely the thinking of one particular individual. Once organized into the form of a document, it becomes an authoritative statement of the Party’s guiding ideology. [11] This is especially true for the “Code of Conduct for Political Life withinthe Party under the New Situation” 新情势下党内政治生活准测and the “Regulations on Internal Supervision of the Chinese Communist Party” 中国共产党党内监督条例“ adopted by the Sixth Plenary Session of the Eighteenth Central Committee. Here every single Chinese character counts. Every detail is significant. Education about the Party spirit is at the very heart of acquiring the ideology and behavior of a Communist Party member. [12] Moreover, at the core of education in Party spirit is the study and implementation of core Party Central Committee documents.

III. The Internal Logic of “Rule by Document”

Prior of the creation of New China by the Chinese Communist Party, the role of documents was still understood as “rule of the Party by document”. Documents, especially Communist Party Central Committee documents, embodies the will of the Party Center and were a symbol of power. The transmission of documents from level to level implemented the political organization of the Party. A document’s degree of confidentiality determined the scope of its circulation and so awareness of Party internal affairs showed the rank of a person within the organization and their extent of their identification with it as party members. [13] This served not only the need for secrecy but also was a sign of a person’s power within the Party since some internal reference documents circulate only among a defined group of Party members and government cadres. [14]

2017 Zhang Xuebo: Observations on the History of Rule by Document 1982-2017

Correctly Understand and Master the Major theoretical and Practical Issues Affecting China’s Development

Source: [Communist Party ideological journal Seeking Truth 《求是》2022/10  2022/10

Author: Xi Jinping 2022-05-15 15:07:26

Correctly Understanding and Mastering the Major Theoretical and Practical Issues Affecting China’s Development*

Xi Jinping

From December 8 to 10, 2021, the Central Economic Work Conference was held in Beijing. Xi Jinping, general secretary of the CPC Central Committee, president of the country and chairman of the Central Military Commission, attended the meeting and delivered an important speech. Xinhua News Agency reporter Ju Peng / photo

   As it enters a new stage of development, the internal and external environment of China’s development has undergone profound changes.  China now faces many new major issues that need to be properly understood and mastered. Here, I focus on a few issues.

I. Correctly understand and master the strategic goals and practical ways of achieving common prosperity.

“The country may be called wealthy if it cares about the prosperity of its people.” The creation and distribution of wealth is a major issue facing all countries. Some Western countries have a long-standing disparity between rich and poor and growing polarization even as overall social wealth continues to grow. Some Latin American countries, although they are not wealthy, have a large income distribution gap. Under our socialist system, we must not only continue to free up and develop the social productive forces, create and accumulate social wealth, but also prevent social polarization, and effectively promote the all-round development of people and the common prosperity of all people to make more obvious and substantial progress. In the past, we were egalitarian and had a low level of income. After reform and opening up, some regions and people got rich first. As the income gap gradually widened, and the improper appropriation of wealth brought risks and challenges to the healthy operation of the economy and society.

  Common prosperity is the essential requirement of socialism with Chinese characteristics. How should the path of common prosperity be taken? We are exploring it. To achieve the goal of common prosperity, we must first make the “cake” bigger and better through the common struggle of the whole nation, and then properly handle the relationship between growth and distribution through reasonable institutional arrangements, so as to cut and divide the “cake” properly. This is a long-term historical process, we have to create conditions, improve the system, and steadily move towards this goal.

  To promote high-quality development in the strengthening of our orientation towards making employment our top priority. Employment is the foundation of people’s livelihood. To improve the employment impetus of economic growth, and constantly promote the expansion of employment and quality improvement. We should support the development of small and medium-sized enterprises and give full play to their role as the main channel of employment. To learn from the lessons of some Western countries’ economic transformation “from the real economy to the virtual economy”, we should continue to grow the real economy and create more high-quality jobs. To increase investment in human capital, we should improve the quality of education, strengthen vocational education and skills training, improve the quality of the workforce, better adapt to the needs of high-quality development, and effectively prevent the risk of large-scale unemployment.

  We need to actively assume the function and play the role of distributor.

  • We should address the relationship between efficiency and fairness, and build a basic institutional arrangement for the coordination of the initial distribution, redistribution and third distribution.
  • To adhere to the distribution of labor as the main body, increase the proportion of labor compensation in the initial distribution, and improve the policy of distribution according to factors.
  • We should play the regulating role of redistribution, increase the regulation of taxation, social security and transfer payments, and improve the precision.
  • We should play a good role in the third distribution, guide, support the willingness and ability of enterprises and social groups to actively participate in public charity, but not to engage in moral kidnapping type “forcing people to donate”.

  We should improve the public service policy and system system. Promote common prosperity, not to engage in “welfarism” that set. When some Latin American countries engaged in populism and high welfare to support a number of “lazy” and unproductive people, the consequent national financial burden made them fall into a “middle-income trap” from which they could not over the long-term extricate themselves. Welfare benefits once they went up could not be reduced, engaging in “welfarism” beyond their capacity is not sustainable.  It certainly leads to serious economic and political problems! We must insist on doing our best and living within our means, focusing on improving the level of public services, providing basic public services precisely in the areas of education, medical care, pensions, housing and other areas of greatest concern to the people, and holding the bottom line of basic living for the poor, without indulging appetites with empty promises.

  II. Correctly understand and master the characteristics of capital and the laws of behavior.

Marx and Engels did not envision that a market economy could be engaged in under socialist conditions, and certainly could not foresee how a socialist country would treat capital. Although Lenin and Stalin led the socialist construction of the Soviet Union, at that time the Soviet Union practiced a highly centralized planned economic system and basically did not encounter the problem of large-scale capital. Engaging in a socialist market economy is a great creation of our  Party. Since it is a socialist market economy, it is bound to produce various forms of capital. Capital in a capitalist society and capital in a socialist society are certainly different in many ways, but capital is all about chasing profits. “The one who unites all the world’s wealth is wealthy, and the one who manages all the world’s wealth is law.” We have to explore how to play the positive role of capital under the conditions of socialist market economy, while effectively controlling the negative role of capital. In recent years, due to insufficient understanding and lack of supervision, some areas in China have seen disorderly expansion of capital, reckless manipulation and profiteering. This requires the regulation of capital behavior, to avoid harm, not only to prevent the “capital predator” arbitrarily, but also to play the function of capital as a factor of production. This is a major political and economic issue that can not be avoided.

  In practice, the following points should be taken care of. To set the “traffic lights” for capital. The “traffic light” applies to all vehicles on the road, treating capital as well, all kinds of capital can not run wild.

  • Prevent some capital from growing wildly there are regulations with respect to anti-monopoly, anti-profiteering, anti-price, anti-malicious speculation, and anti-unfair competition.
  • Strengthen the effective supervision of capital in accordance with the law. Socialist market economy is a rule of law economy, and capital activities should be conducted in accordance with the law.
  • Curb the disorderly expansion of capital, it is not that we do not want capital but we must have an orderly development of capital.
  • Relevant laws and regulations that are not sound should be improved. Laws and regulations should be strictly enforced to ensure adequate supervision.
  • Support and guide the standardized and healthy development of capital.
  • Adhere to and improve the basic socialist economic system, unswervingly consolidate and develop the public sector economy, unswervingly encourage, support and guide the development of the non-public sector economy, and promote the healthy development of the non-public sector economy and the healthy growth of the non-public sector economy.

  III. Correctly understanding and master the security of supply of primary products

For a large country like ours, securing a good supply of primary products is a major strategic issue. We must strengthen strategic planning and make early adjustments to ensure security of supply.

   Making saving a top priority. “Taking a systematic approach, if we are frugal, we will become prosperous. Without a system, we are not frugal in our use of resources and so become poor.” We should implement a comprehensive conservation strategy and promote conservation actions in all areas. In the field of production, to promote the overall conservation of resources, we should do intensive work on recycling, and on reducing energy consumption per unit of product consumption, accelerate the transformation of manufacturing technology, and improve input and output efficiency. In the field of consumption, to enhance national awareness of conservation, advocate simple and moderate, green and low-carbon lifestyle, oppose extravagant waste and excessive consumption, in-depth “eat everything on your plate” campaigns and other food conservation actions, and widely carry out the creation of green action groups, green families, green communities, green travel and other actions.

  We should enhance domestic resource production security capacity.

Increase exploration efforts, the implementation of a new round of strategic action to create a breakthrough in mining, improve the level of development and protection of marine resources and mineral resources.

  • Clarify the strategic bottom line of self-sufficiency in domestic production of important energy resources, play the role of state-owned enterprises to support the bottom, accelerate the application of advanced mining technology development of oil and gas and other resources.
  • Strengthen the construction of the national strategic material reserve system, in critical moments to play a regulating role in the bottom line.
  • Promote waste classification and efficient resource use, expand the use of domestic solid waste, and accelerate the construction of a waste recycling system.

  

From September 13 to 14, 2021, Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee, President of the State and Chairman of the Central Military Commission, visited Yulin City in Shaanxi Province. This is the morning of the 13th, Xi Jinping in the National Energy Group Yulin Chemical Co., Ltd. annual output of 400,000 tons of ethylene glycol project site inspection. Xinhua News Agency reporter Li Xueren / photo

  We should optimize the ability to secure overseas resources. To make full use of both international and domestic two markets, and domestic and foreign  resources in a mutually beneficial way, strengthen cooperation with relevant countries in energy resources premised upon effective prevention of foreign investment risks, and expand the interests of overseas high-quality resources.

  Here, I would like to place special emphasis on the issue of security of supply of agricultural products. From the results of the latest land survey, we see that China’s arable land is still decreasing.  In some areas basic farmland is not planted with grain and fruit trees, or other high value-added crops. I have repeatedly said that the rice bowl of the Chinese people at all times should be firmly in their own hands, our rice bowl should be mainly filled with Chinese-grown food. We should improve the overall agricultural production capacity on a more prominent position, continue to promote the construction of high-standard farmland, in-depth implementation of the revitalization of the seed industry action, improve the level of agricultural equipment, to ensure that farmers grow food reasonable income, to ensure absolute food security, basic self-sufficiency in grain, improve oil, soybean production capacity and self-sufficiency rate.

  IV. Correctly understanding and master the prevention and resolution of major risks

Ever since the 1990s, China has effectively dealt with the Asian financial crisis, the international financial crisis, the novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic and other major tests. Now, in China’s economic and financial areas there are many areas of potential risk, but the overall  risk  is controllable. To adhere to the bottom line. The ancients said, “When the buds of an incipient disaster appear, they must be cut off; when an epidemic arises, it must be uprooted.” We must take full advantage of good party leadership and the advantages of our socialist system, and notice and take advantage of problems while they are still small and focus on avoiding major risks or crises.

  In the previous stage, we effectively disposed of the shadow banking risk and Internet financial risk. At the same time, we must also see that new risks are still occurring, the “Black Swan” and “Gray Rhino” events continue to arise. When we analyze these phenomena, we find several important reasons for their rise. 

  1. Problems that have long been accumulating. The impact of the “three overlapping periods” [Translator’s note:   1. The length of period of changes in the economic growth rate is determined by the objective laws of economic development. 2. The length of the period of painful structural adjustments results from the conscious choice to accelerate the transformation of the mode of economic development. 3. The period of digestion of the previous stimulus policy is a necessary stage to resolve the deep-seated contradictions that have accumulated over the years.]    has not yet ended, the previous risks still need to be coped with. 
  2. Regulatory capacity and system deficiencies. Serious failure to monitor the corporate governance of financial institutions, financial regulatory capacity and level of adaptation. Loose management of local debt, some places disguised as illegal borrowing, the debt burden continues to increase. 
  3. Unruly behavior of borrowers. Some large enterprises blindly impulsive, irrational diversified expansion, excessive reliance on financial leverage, industrial capital excessive entry into the financial sector. Some shareholders and actual controllers operate and manage financial enterprises illegally and irregularly, with insider control, manipulation by major shareholders, financial fraud and massive misappropriation of funds. 
  4. Government-business collusion and corrupt practices. Some financial institutions in charge and government officials dereliction of duty, corruption, enrichment, generous at the expense of the state, causing significant losses. 
  5. Changes in the economic cycle. Rapid economic growth makes various kinds of hidden risks manifest themselves, making local risks systemic risks, and exposes enterprises to risks that its capital reserves cannot meet,  triggering enterprise insolvency. 

  The next step is to continue to follow the basic policy of stabilizing the overall situation, coordinating, classifying and dismantling with precision, and grasp the risk disposal work. T

  • We must follow the law, strengthen the financial rule of law, and explore the establishment of a system of regular amendments to the law.
  • To stress responsibility, “people should be responsible for the consequences of their decisions”, stress the joint responsibility of both local party and and local government, for local stability and risk resolution;
  • Stress responsibility for  financial supervision, for industry supervision, discipline inspection and supervision and other departmental responsibilities, in accordance with their respective responsibilities to promote risk resolution;
  • Stress the responsibility of enterprises for self-help main responsibility, the development of a viable risk resolution program.
  • Strengthen capacity building, improve the level of regulatory technology, make up for regulatory shortcomings, and strengthen the construction of financial regulatory cadres. 

Sufficient resources should be available to expedite the establishment of the Financial Stability Guarantee Fund, Deposit insurance system and industry protection funds in the management of risks, and study and develop support policies to promote mergers and acquisitions of financial institutions and the resolution of non-performing assets.

Localities should take the initiative to revitalize the stock of assets and resolve risks. Corporate shareholders should first bear the risk of loss until the equity is cleared. All parties should cooperate extensively, and the financial industry should establish an integrated risk disposal mechanism with full authorization and coordination to improve cross-market and cross-industry coordination and response capabilities.

  Special attention should be paid to the risks inherent in some real estate enterprises. All localities should effectively take responsibility, strengthen supervision, guard the bottom line of no systemic risk, and maintain the stable and healthy development of the real estate market.

   V. Correctly understanding and mastering peak carbon and and carbon neutrality

Promoting carbon peak and carbon neutrality is major strategic decision made by the Party Central Committee after careful consideration, which is our solemn commitment to the international community and an inherent requirement for promoting high-quality development. Recently, there are some problems discovered in the course of work. Some engage in “strong attacks on carbon emissions” while others engage in “one-size-fits-all” solution and even campaign-style movements to “carbon reduction”. Some go so far as to create a “pulling the plug to limit electricity consumption” phenomenon. These are not in line with the requirements of the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee. Green low-carbon development is a comprehensive transformation of economic and social development of complex engineering and long-term tasks; energy structure, industrial restructuring can not be achieved overnight.  We should not divorce ourselves from reality. If the gradual reduction in use of traditional energy resources is not based on a safe and reliable alternative to new energy, it will have an impact on economic development and social stability. Pollution reduction and carbon reduction is an integral part of economic restructuring.  We should build replacements before doing away with the old in a well-thought out manner. 

From September 13 to 14, 2021, Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee, President of the State and Chairman of the Central Military Commission, visited Yulin City in Shaanxi Province. This is the morning of the 13th, Xi Jinping in the National Energy Group Yulin Chemical Co., Ltd. annual output of 400,000 tons of ethylene glycol project site inspection. Xinhua News Agency reporter Li Xueren / photo

    At the Ninth meeting of the Central Finance and Economics Commission, I made a comprehensive deployment of the “clean carbon and carbon reduction” work, emphasizing the need to adhere to the principles of national coordination, conservation first, a double-pronged approach, internal and external smoothness, and risk prevention. The Central Committee of the Party has already issued the opinions on achieving carbon neutrality and approved the Carbon Neutral Action Plan. The goal of achieving carbon neutral carbon peaks should be set, but it is not possible to finish the job in one go, we must adhere to the steady progress and achieve our goal gradually according to our national conditions. Our energy resources are mostly coal-based: this is our basic national conditions. Our goal of achieving a carbon peak must be based on this reality.

  • Stress the clean and efficient use of coal, accelerating the transformation of coal power unit flexibility, the development of renewable energy, and promote the optimal combination of coal and new energy to increase the capacity of new energy consumption.
  • Pay close attention to green low-carbon technology research and development, accelerate the promotion and application of advanced technology.
  • Using scientific assessments, improve the “clean carbon and carbon use reduction” system of energy consumption, create conditions to realize the “clean carbon and carbon use reduction” of energy consumption to the “clean carbon and carbon use reduction” of total carbon emissions and intensity as soon as possible, and accelerate the formation of incentives to reduce pollution and carbon use constraint mechanisms.
  • All relevant departments in all regions should coordinate the work of “clean carbon and carbon use reduction” and “clean carbon and carbon use reduction” to prevent dislocations at different levels.
  • To ensure energy supply, to achieve a multi-target balance, multi-channel increase in energy supply, large enterprises, especially state-owned enterprises to take the lead in ensuring supply and price stability, and never allow another major event such as a large area of “pulling the plug to limit electricity”.
  • Promote the energy revolution, promote energy consumption, supply, technology, institutional reform, strengthen international cooperation, accelerate the construction of energy power.

  This is part of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s speech at the Central Economic Work Conference on Dec. 8, 2021.


正确认识和把握我国发展重大理论和实践问题

来源:《求是》2022/10 作者:习近平 2022-05-15 15:07:26

正确认识和把握我国发展重大理论和实践问题

习近平

2021年12月8日至10日,中央经济工作会议在北京举行。中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平出席会议并发表重要讲话。 新华社记者 鞠鹏/摄

    进入新发展阶段,我国发展内外环境发生深刻变化,面临许多新的重大问题,需要正确认识和把握。这里,我重点讲几个问题。

  第一个问题:正确认识和把握实现共同富裕的战略目标和实践途径。“国之称富者,在乎丰民。”财富的创造和分配是各国都面对的重大问题。一些西方国家在社会财富不断增长的同时长期存在贫富悬殊、两极分化。有的拉美国家收入不算高,但分配差距很大。在我国社会主义制度下,既要不断解放和发展社会生产力,不断创造和积累社会财富,又要防止两极分化,切实推动人的全面发展、全体人民共同富裕取得更为明显的实质性进展。过去我们是低收入水平下的平均主义,改革开放后一部分地区、一部分人先富起来了,同时收入差距也逐步拉大,一些财富不当聚集给经济社会健康运行带来了风险挑战。

  共同富裕是中国特色社会主义的本质要求。共同富裕路子应当怎么走?我们正在进行探索。实现共同富裕的目标,首先要通过全国人民共同奋斗把“蛋糕”做大做好,然后通过合理的制度安排正确处理增长和分配关系,把“蛋糕”切好分好。这是一个长期的历史过程,我们要创造条件、完善制度,稳步朝着这个目标迈进。

  要在推动高质量发展中强化就业优先导向。就业是民生之本。要提高经济增长的就业带动力,不断促进就业量的扩大和质的提升。要支持中小微企业发展,发挥其就业主渠道作用。要吸取一些西方国家经济“脱实向虚”的教训,不断壮大实体经济,创造更多高质量就业岗位。要加大人力资本投入,提升教育质量,加强职业教育和技能培训,提高劳动者素质,更好适应高质量发展需要,切实防范规模性失业风险。

  要发挥分配的功能和作用。要处理好效率和公平关系,构建初次分配、再分配、三次分配协调配套的基础性制度安排。要坚持按劳分配为主体,提高劳动报酬在初次分配中的比重,完善按要素分配政策。要发挥再分配的调节作用,加大税收、社保、转移支付等的调节力度,提高精准性。要发挥好第三次分配作用,引导、支持有意愿有能力的企业和社会群体积极参与公益慈善事业,但不能搞道德绑架式“逼捐”。

  要完善公共服务政策制度体系。促进共同富裕,不能搞“福利主义”那一套。当年一些拉美国家搞民粹主义,高福利养了一批“懒人”和不劳而获者,结果国家财政不堪重负,落入“中等收入陷阱”,长期不能自拔。福利待遇上去了就下不来了,搞超出能力的“福利主义”是不可持续的,必然会带来严重的经济和政治问题!我们要坚持尽力而为、量力而行,重在提升公共服务水平,在教育、医疗、养老、住房等人民群众最关心的领域精准提供基本公共服务,兜住困难群众基本生活底线,不吊高胃口、不空头许诺。

  第二个问题:正确认识和把握资本的特性和行为规律。马克思、恩格斯没有设想社会主义条件下可以搞市场经济,当然也就无法预见社会主义国家如何对待资本。列宁、斯大林虽然领导了苏联社会主义建设,但当时苏联实行的是高度集中的计划经济体制,基本上没有遇到大规模资本问题。搞社会主义市场经济是我们党的一个伟大创造。既然是社会主义市场经济,就必然会产生各种形态的资本。资本主义社会的资本和社会主义社会的资本固然有很多不同,但资本都是要追逐利润的。“合天下之众者财,理天下之财者法。”我们要探索如何在社会主义市场经济条件下发挥资本的积极作用,同时有效控制资本的消极作用。近年来,由于认识不足、监管缺位,我国一些领域出现资本无序扩张,肆意操纵,牟取暴利。这就要求规范资本行为,趋利避害,既不让“资本大鳄”恣意妄为,又要发挥资本作为生产要素的功能。这是一个不容回避的重大政治和经济问题。

  实际工作中,要抓好以下几点。要为资本设置“红绿灯”。“红绿灯”适用于道路上行驶的所有交通工具,对待资本也一样,各类资本都不能横冲直撞。要防止有些资本野蛮生长。要反垄断、反暴利、反天价、反恶意炒作、反不正当竞争。要依法加强对资本的有效监管。社会主义市场经济是法治经济,资本活动要依法进行。遏制资本无序扩张,不是不要资本,而是要资本有序发展。相关法律法规不健全的要抓紧完善,已有法律法规的要严格执法监管。要支持和引导资本规范健康发展。要坚持和完善社会主义基本经济制度,毫不动摇巩固和发展公有制经济,毫不动摇鼓励、支持、引导非公有制经济发展,促进非公有制经济健康发展和非公有制经济人士健康成长。

  第三个问题:正确认识和把握初级产品供给保障。对我们这样一个大国来说,保障好初级产品供给是一个重大的战略性问题。必须加强战略谋划,及早作出调整,确保供给安全。

  要坚持节约优先。“取之有制、用之有节则裕,取之无制、用之不节则乏。”要实施全面节约战略,推进各领域节约行动。在生产领域,要推进资源全面节约、集约、循环利用,降低单位产品能耗物耗,加快制造业技术改造,提高投入产出效率。在消费领域,要增强全民节约意识,倡导简约适度、绿色低碳的生活方式,反对奢侈浪费和过度消费,深入开展“光盘”等粮食节约行动,广泛开展创建绿色机关、绿色家庭、绿色社区、绿色出行等行动。

  要增强国内资源生产保障能力。要加大勘查力度,实施新一轮找矿突破战略行动,提高海洋资源、矿产资源开发保护水平。要明确重要能源资源国内生产自给的战略底线,发挥国有企业支撑托底作用,加快油气等资源先进开采技术开发应用。要加强国家战略物资储备制度建设,在关键时刻发挥保底线的调节作用。要推行垃圾分类和资源化,扩大国内固体废弃物的使用,加快构建废弃物循环利用体系。

2022年4月10日至13日,中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平在海南考察。这是11日下午,习近平在五指山市水满乡毛纳村向村民们挥手致意。 新华社记者 李学仁/摄

    要优化海外资源保障能力。要以互利共赢的方式充分利用国际国内两个市场、两种资源,在有效防范对外投资风险的前提下加强同有关国家的能源资源合作,扩大海外优质资源权益。

  这里,我要特别强调农产品供给安全问题。从最新的国土调查结果看,耕地面积还在减少,一些地方的基本农田不种粮食种果树,或者其他高附加值作物。我反复讲,中国人的饭碗任何时候都要牢牢端在自己手中,我们的饭碗应该主要装中国粮。要把提高农业综合生产能力放在更加突出的位置,持续推进高标准农田建设,深入实施种业振兴行动,提高农机装备水平,保障种粮农民合理收益,确保口粮绝对安全、谷物基本自给,提高油料、大豆产能和自给率。

  第四个问题:正确认识和把握防范化解重大风险。上世纪90年代以来,我国有效应对了亚洲金融危机、国际金融危机、新冠肺炎疫情等重大考验。现在,我国经济金融领域风险隐患很多,但总体可控。要坚持底线思维。古人说:“祸几始作,当杜其萌;疾证方形,当绝其根。”我们要发挥好党的领导和我国社会主义制度优势,见微知著,抓早抓小,着力避免发生重大风险或危机。

  前一阶段,我们有效处置了影子银行风险、互联网金融风险。同时,也要看到,新的风险仍在发生,“黑天鹅”、“灰犀牛”事件不断。分析这些现象,有几个重要原因。一是长期累积的结果。“三期叠加”影响还没有结束,前期风险仍要消化。二是监管能力和制度缺陷。对金融机构公司治理问题严重失察,金融监管能力和水平不适应。对地方债务管理松弛,有的地方变相违规举债,债务负担持续增加。三是借债人野蛮行为。一些大企业盲目冲动,非理性多元化扩张,过度依赖金融杠杆,产业资本过度进入金融行业。一些股东和实际控制人违法违规经营管理金融企业,存在内部人控制、大股东操纵,财务造假,大肆挪用资金。四是官商勾结和腐败行为。一些金融机构负责人和政府官员失职渎职、贪污腐败、中饱私囊,慷国家之慨,造成重大损失。五是经济周期变化。经济增速下行使原本隐藏的各类风险水落石出,局部风险引发系统风险的概率加大,以企业资不抵债为特征的风险突出。

  下一步,要继续按照稳定大局、统筹协调、分类施策、精准拆弹的基本方针,抓好风险处置工作。要依法合规,加强金融法治建设,探索建立定期修法制度。要压实责任,“谁家孩子谁抱”,压实地方党政同责,负责属地维稳和化解风险;压实金融监管、行业主管、纪检监察等部门责任,按照各自职责推动风险化解;压实企业自救主体责任,制定可行的风险化解方案。要强化能力建设,提升监管科技水平,补齐监管短板,加强金融监管干部队伍建设。要有充足资源,抓紧设立金融稳定保障基金,发挥存款保险制度和行业保障基金在风险处置中的作用,研究制定促进金融机构兼并收购和化解不良资产的支持政策。地方要主动盘活存量资产,化解风险。企业股东要首先承担风险损失,直至股本清零。要各方广泛配合,金融业建立一体化风险处置机制,充分授权,统筹协调,提高跨市场跨行业统筹应对能力。

  对一些房地产企业的风险要格外重视。各地要切实担起责任、强化监管,守住不发生系统性风险的底线,保持房地产市场平稳健康发展。

  第五个问题:正确认识和把握碳达峰碳中和。推进碳达峰碳中和是党中央经过深思熟虑作出的重大战略决策,是我们对国际社会的庄严承诺,也是推动高质量发展的内在要求。近来在实际工作中出现一些问题,有的搞“碳冲锋”,有的搞“一刀切”、运动式“减碳”,甚至出现“拉闸限电”现象,这些都不符合党中央要求。绿色低碳发展是经济社会发展全面转型的复杂工程和长期任务,能源结构、产业结构调整不可能一蹴而就,更不能脱离实际。如果传统能源逐步退出不是建立在新能源安全可靠的替代基础上,就会对经济发展和社会稳定造成冲击。减污降碳是经济结构调整的有机组成部分,要先立后破、通盘谋划。

2021年9月13日至14日,中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平在陕西省榆林市考察。这是13日上午,习近平在国家能源集团榆林化工有限公司年产40万吨乙二醇项目现场考察。 新华社记者 李学仁/摄

    我在中央财经委员会第九次会议上对“双碳”工作作了全面部署,强调要坚持全国统筹、节约优先、双轮驱动、内外畅通、防范风险的原则。党中央已经出台做好碳达峰碳中和工作的意见,批准了碳达峰行动方案。实现碳达峰碳中和目标要坚定不移,但不可能毕其功于一役,要坚持稳中求进,逐步实现。要立足国情,以煤为主是我们的基本国情,实现碳达峰必须立足这个实际。在抓好煤炭清洁高效利用的同时,加快煤电机组灵活性改造,发展可再生能源,推动煤炭和新能源优化组合,增加新能源消纳能力。要狠抓绿色低碳技术攻关,加快先进技术推广应用。要科学考核,完善能耗“双控”制度,创造条件尽早实现能耗“双控”向碳排放总量和强度“双控”转变,加快形成减污降碳的激励约束机制。各地区各有关部门要统筹做好“双控”、“双碳”工作,防止简单层层分解。要确保能源供应,实现多目标平衡,多渠道增加能源供应,大企业特别是国有企业要带头保供稳价,决不允许再次发生大面积“拉闸限电”这类重大事件。要深入推动能源革命,促进能源消费、供给、技术、体制改革,加强国际合作,加快建设能源强国。

  ※这是习近平总书记2021年12月8日在中央经济工作会议上讲话的一部分。

About 高大伟 David Cowhig

After retirement translated, with wife Jessie, Liao Yiwu's 2019 "Bullets and Opium", and have been studying things 格物致知. Worked 25 years as a US State Department Foreign Service Officer including ten years at US Embassy Beijing and US Consulate General Chengdu and four years as a China Analyst in the Bureau of Intelligence and Research. Before State I translated Japanese and Chinese scientific and technical books and articles into English freelance for six years. Before that I taught English at Tunghai University in Taiwan for three years. And before that I worked two summers on Norwegian farms, milking cows and feeding chickens.
This entry was posted in Economy 经济, Environment 环境, Ideology 思想, Law 法律 and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

2 Responses to 2022: Secretary Xi on Issues for China’s Development

  1. Pingback: Bản Tin Biển Đông Số 109 | Dự án Đại Sự Ký Biển Đông

  2. Pingback: 2022: Xi Jinping Thought on the Economy Joins Legion of Xi Jinping Thought Books | 高大伟 David Cowhig's Translation Blog

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.