Esperanto in China

I remember noticing Esperanto 世界语 on Radio Peking shortwave broadcast in the 1970s.   Later, I read an account of the history of that Russian transplant in China, Lysenkoism/Michurinism, 米丘林科学 one of the many foolish policies that led to mass starvation after the Great Leap Forward that noted that Michurinism (deep plowing, cold conditioning of seeds to make them sprout earlier) reached China from Russia through Esperantists who saw the language as their window on the world.

A Xinhua Wenzhai in the early 1980s on Esperanto in China said that the Left Wing Writers Union  中国左翼作家联盟  promoted it in the 1930s.   Some leading Chinese intellectuals including Academica Sinica founder Cai Yuanpei, Lu Xun and Ba Jin studied Esperanto.

References:

Xinhua in 2004 ran an article from the Chinese National Esperatno Society on the 100th anniversary of Esperanto in China. http://news.xinhuanet.com/ziliao/2004-01/13/content_1272850.htm
世界语在中国一百年
来源:中华全国世界语协会

    世界语大概是在清朝末年传入我国的,至今已经100年。由于它能入乡随俗,同我国的进步文化运动和民族解放运动相结合,很快在我国扎下了根,新中国建立后它又服务于对外宣传事业以及中外文化交流,取得的成绩超过旧中国任何一个时期。由于得到党和政府的支持,加上改革开放的良好环境,世界语在中国能够不断发展。

三个渠道传入我国

1929年5月12日,巴金(后排左起第一人)与
上海世界语协会的负责人以及奥地利世界语者EBNER(前排左起第三人)合影

大约在二十世纪初,世界语便由俄国、日本和西欧三个渠道传入我国。经商的俄国人首先把它带到哈尔滨,又由哈尔滨带到上海,陆式楷等人参加了学习。以后陆式楷在上海开办夜校,使世界语逐步从上海传到全国。    在日本学习的中国留学生刘师培、张继等人向无政府主义者大杉荣先生学习世界语,他们回国后,一面鼓吹无政府主义,一面在上海创办世界语传习所,推广世界语。

留学法国的华南圭、吴稚晖、褚民谊、许论博等人,以及留学英国的杨曾诰先生,也学习了世界语,并创办《世界语科学文学》杂志和《新世纪》周刊,宣传、推广世界语。这批人回国后也热心世界语的传播。刘师复除用世界语宣传无政府主义外,还把推翻满清建立中华作为自己的目标,至死不渝。

一批知名人士倡导世界语

上世纪初,一批进步的知识分子也学习了世界语,如蔡元培、鲁迅、周作人、胡愈之、巴金、恽代英等人。有的虽然未学习过世界语,但对世界语的世界大同、人类一家的理想,也表示赞同,如孙中山、陈独秀、钱玄同等人。由于有上述两部分人的提倡,使世界语在中国逐步传播开来。上海、北京、广州、汉口是上世纪30年代前世界语运动最活跃的城市。在这些城市里,建立了世界语的组织,办起了世界语的刊物,创建了世界语的学校,甚至包括北京大学、上海大学、中山大学在内的数十所大学还开设了世界语课程。一批苏联、东欧的文学作品,也通过世界语介绍到中国来,中国的部分文学作品也通过世界语传播到世界各地,显示了世界语在中外文化交流方面的作用,这一点特别受到我国文化界的重视。

与进步运动相结合

1931年9月18日,日本军国主义者在沈阳制造事端,并很快占领东北。次年1月28日,又在上海发动战争,使上海世界语学会毁于炮火。日本侵略者的枪声,打破了一部分世界语者中立主义的美梦,在民族存亡的关键时刻,他们在中国共产党的感召下投入了民族救亡运动,走上了以世界语为中国的解放服务的道路。他们建立中国普罗世界语者同盟和外围组织上海世界语者协会,在国际上加入普罗世界语者国际,在国内加入中国左翼文化总同盟,致力于进步文化运动。

他们办刊物,报道中国工农红军和抗日救亡运动的消息,介绍苏联社会主义建设成就,使许多青年人走上了革命的道路。抗战爆发后,他们创办《中国在怒吼》、《远东使者》、《中国报导》等世界语刊物,揭露日本侵略者在中国的暴行,报道中国军民英勇抗战的事迹以及中国人民的苦难生活,在国际上取得了各国的同情和支持。与此同时,他们还将中国知名作家鲁迅、郭沫若、艾燕的著作和一批抗战文学作品译成世界语出版,介绍到国外去,又把一批通过世界语翻译的苏联和东欧文学作品介绍到中国来,促进了中外文化交流。此外,他们还积极提倡汉字拉化运动和大众语运动,使世界语为我国的民族解放运动和新文化运动服务方面取得了辉煌的成绩。

世界语运动的复兴

在旧中国世界语运动虽然取得了很大的进展,但由于第一、二次世界大战和连绵的国内战争,使之屡遭打击,有一段时间几乎完全停顿。人民政权的建立为世界语在我国的传播创造了从未有过的好条件。以胡愈之、叶籁士为首的一批世界语者首先在北京和上海恢复了世界语活动,在他们的倡导下,于1950年5月创办了世界语对外宣传刊物《中国报道》,次年3 月,建立了中华全国世界语协会。上海、成都、重庆、武汉也相继成立了世界语组织。中国人民大学由于校长吴玉章的提倡还开设了世界语班。1963年7月,“世界语对外宣传工作汇报展览”在北京开幕,陈毅副总理和各界知名人士参观了这个展览,一致肯定世界语在宣传新中国,促进各国人民对中国的了解方面的价值。在随后召开的全国第一次世界语工作座谈会上,陈毅副总理赞扬了世界语工作取得的成绩,表示政府今后将要更加重视世界语工作,他还倡议在北京召开一次国际世界语大会,这对全国世界语者是一个很大的鼓舞。

在陈毅副总理的关怀和支持下,高教部批准在北京举办世界语教师培训班,为11所大学培养了教师,使这些大学开设了世界语课。高教部还从全国几所大学调来一批学生学习世界语,培养了一批世界语的专职干部。1964年12月,中国对外广播开辟世界语节目,受到各国世界语者的欢迎。

值得一提的是高教部还下达文件,规定凡具备条件的学校可以开设世界语选修课,世界语可以作为第二外语科目。

在我国政府的支持下,一批大中城市,北自哈尔滨,南到广州,东自上海,西到成都,都纷纷建立了世界语组织,并定期开展活动,至此,我国世界语运动获得了全面的复兴。

改革开放促进世运大发展

同一切进步文化活动一样,世界语活动在十年“文革”动乱中也受到重创。但在七十年代末期,特别改革开放后,我国世界语运动的航船又鼓起风帆,破浪前进。

1979年秋天,在北京召开了第二次全国世界语座谈会。会议肯定了建国以来我国世界语工作取得的成绩,总结了经验教训,确定了新时期世界语工作的任务。以世界语为我国的改革开放服务,为社会主义现代化建设服务,为世界和平服务,增进世界对中国的了解,促进我国同各国人民之间的友谊,成为我国世界语者奋斗的目标。从此,我国世运进入了一个新的时期。

1981年12月,楚图南、胡愈之、巴金、谢冰心、白寿彝、叶圣陶、夏衍等知名人士发起的中国世界语之友会成立,130多位各界知名人士、人大代表、政协委员加入这个赞助世界语的组织,在社会上产生了广泛的影响。各省、市、自治区除贵州和西藏外都相继成立了世界语协会,包括大部分省的省会和主要中心城市在内的140多个城市也建立了世界语组织,全国性的科技、医学、铁路、教师、集邮、围棋等专业性的世界语组织也陆续出现。这些组织成立后,积极开展世界语的宣传、推广工作,他们或者办刊办报,举办世界语班和开展函授教学,或者举办世界语学术研讨会、世界语展览、世界语夏令周,在全国产生了不小的影响。这种形势在中国世界语运动史上是前所未有的。

对外宣传成绩卓著

巴金著作的世界语版本

《中国报道》是我国用世界语进行对外报道的图文并茂的刊物,在它存在的50年间,它用生动的形式全面介绍了中国的历史、经济建设、传统文化、文学艺术和人民生活,特别报道了自上世纪八十年代以来中国在各个领域所发生的巨大变化,受到国际世界语界的赞誉。2000年创办的《中国报道》网络版继承了印刷版的好传统,并发挥了网络的优势,全面报道了中国。《中国网》的世界语版则及时报道了在中国所发生的重大事件,它们对于各国人民更好地了解中国以及中国更好地走向世界,都发挥了其它语言不可替代的作用。
于1982年成立的中国世界语出版社用世界语出版了许多有价值的书,这对于各国世界语者全面了解中国的政治、经济、文化、科技、教育和历史,发挥了独特的作用。在它出版的近200种图书中,下列图书尤其受到读者的称赞:《中华五千年》、《中国近代史题话》、《中国小百科》、《中国四十景》、《中国医药史话》、《中国陶瓷史话》、《中国古代科学家》、《中国少数民族婚俗》、《周恩来传略》、《中国古代诗歌选译》、《中国古代短篇小说选》、《中国文学作品选集》(1919-1979)、《中国民间文学》丛书、《鲁迅小说集》、《红楼梦》、《聊斋志异》、《论语》、《家》、《寒夜》、《日出》、《雷雨》、《虎符》、《骆驼祥子》、《山村》以及部分商业、科技英世汉对照词典。

中国国际广播电台的世界语广播,在及时报道中国的时事、政治、经济建设、文化科技、人民生活方面发挥了独特的优势,就播送时间之长和覆盖面之广方面,在各国世界语广播中也名列前茅,一直受到国际世界语界的关注。

    世界语教学令世界注目

1982年,我国教育部再次下达文件,重申世界语可以作为第二外语,并规定大学毕业生、研究生报考或干部考核,世界语可以作为第二外语科目。为了落实这一文件,教育部批准中华全国世界语协会同北京外国语学院、上海外国语学院联合举办八期高等院校世界语教师进修班,为78所大学培训了132名教师,这些教师回校以后大多数开设了世界语课,约六千名大学生选修了世界语。在这些大学中,许多都是全国著名的大学,如北京大学、北京语言大学、北京外国语大学、北京邮电学院、南开大学、复旦大学、华东师范大学、上海外语大学、南京大学、暨南大学、中国科技大学、四川大学、华中师范大学、湖南师范大学、广西师范大学等。现在仍有一批大学坚持开设世界语选修课,并按教育部颁布的世界语第二外语教学大纲和规定的教材授课,按学分制计入学生的成绩档案。中国有这么多大学把世界语列为选修课受到国际世界语协会和国际世界语教师协会的称赞。

从上世纪八十年代初期到九十年代初期,世界语的函授、刊授、广播、电视教学也风行一时。比较有名的函授学校有中国世界语刊授学校;新华、重庆、淮南、黄石世界语函授学校;山西、辽宁、沈阳、吉林、安徽、广东等省以及中央电视台的世界语广播、电视讲座也受到社会各界的欢迎。世界语协会和部分大学也开办了各种形式的世界语班。据统计,参加学习的人达42万人次。虽然由于种种原因,多数人未能坚持学习世界语,但它们在传播世界语的理想和相关知识方面发挥了积极作用,同时也为各地世界语组织培训了一批人才,这些人才已成为现在从事世界语运动的骨干力量。

北京广播学院为专业世界语单位培养了几批世界语专业毕业生。2003年,最新一批世界语专业学生在国际新闻学院开始了世界语课程的学习。

日益提高的国际地位

1980年巴金在第65届国际世界语大会上致词

从1979年以来,我国加强了与国际世界语协会的联系。1980年中华全国世界语协会加入国际世协,成为它的团体会员;20多年来,我国每年都派代表出席一年一度的国际世界语大会。有时还派代表出席日本、韩国、南斯拉夫国内世界语会议和太平洋地区以及亚洲世界语大会。在大会期间,广交朋友,增进同各国世界语者的友谊。在此期间,国际世协和日本、韩国、越南、俄罗斯世界语组织的负责人也多次访问中国。数十个城市的世界语协会和组织也同各国的一些城市的世界语组织建立了经常性的联系。铁路、医学、教师、商业、集邮等专业世界语组织和青年世界语组织,也同相应的国际组织进行了广泛的交流。中国世界语运动已融入国际世界语大家庭。    1986年在北京召开的第71届国际世界语大会是欧洲以外参加人数最多,也是最成功的一届国际大会,受到与会者的称赞。1992年在青岛举行的第5届太平洋地区世界语大会和1996年在上海举行的第1届亚洲世界语大会也取得成功,证明中国世界语运动的实力。

中国世界语运动的迅速崛起,受到国际世界语界的注目,鉴于中国人口众多,中国日益强大,在国际事务中享有举足轻重的地位,国际世协非常重视中国世界语运动的发展。他们高度评价中国政府和社会各界支持世界语事业,热烈祝贺中国世界语运动所取得的成绩。1983年国际世协授予中华全国世界语协会流动奖杯——费恩杯,以表彰中国世界语运动多年来的工作成果。同时国际世协相继选举巴金、胡愈之、陈原为国际世界语协会荣誉监护委员会委员,选举李士俊、谢玉明为国际世界语学院院士。这些都反映了我国在国际世界语界的地位得到了不断提高 。

为了推动新世纪的国际世界语运动,国际世协决定2004年第89届国际世界语大会在北京举行,这一举措无疑会为我国的世界语运动注入新的活力,同时,也将积极推动包括亚洲在内的国际世界语运动的发展。

专家访谈:世界语在华一百年

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2014: “The Qing Dynasty was not a Chinese Dynasty”

When the PRC was founded in 1949, it called itself New China — as in the name of  the Xinhua press agency, the New China Press Agency.    A intriguing 2013 blog posting argued that “The Qing Dynasty was not a Chinese  Dynasty”  清元朝并非是中国朝代, noting that Sun Yatsen (Sun Zhongshan) wrote in his “Three People’s Principles”  that that China has been politically obliterated twice in its thousands of years of history.  Once time by the Yuan (Mongol)  Dynasty and the second time by the Qing  (Manchu) Dynasty.

Thinking about the continuities and discontinuities in Chinese history and the perspectives behind one or the other view is intriguing and naturally politically sensitive.  There are other.  For example was Deng’s Opening and Reform a refounding of the PRC? How much continuity is there between the first thirty years of PRC history and the decades since the end of the Cultural Revolution and the start of Opening and Reform?   Many countries think fondly of the time when they expanded to their greatest territorial extent at the expense of their neighbors. Can those historical glories of predecessor states form the basis of a territorial claim today?

I summary translated a few excerpts.

清元朝并非是中国朝代

…..  而且按照国际惯例,判断一个已去世的人的国籍,依据的是此人生前的国籍,而不是在他死后他的出生地属于哪个国家。李白出生在寓碎叶,此地在现在的吉尔吉斯坦境内。按照他们的说法李白应该是吉尔吉斯坦人了?孙中山在《民族主义》第二讲中说过:“中国几千年以来,受到政治上的压迫以至于完全亡国,已有了两次,一次是元朝,一次是清朝。”今天中国人一厢情愿地称清朝是中国王朝,可惜人家清朝统治者们根本就不认为自己是中国人。
In 2004, a professor from Ulaan Bataar University in Mongolia commented on Chinese anti-Japanese sentiment at the Asian Games.  “The Chinese take the great achievements of Mongolia and our Mongolian ancestors in conquering them as the achievements of their ancestors and national heros.  They take the time when we colonized them as the most glorious period in their history.  The Chinese are a people who do seem to have an idiotic kind of logic, what right do they have to criticize your country’s (Japan’s)  view of history? What right do they have to criticize your national heros, those so-called grade A war criminals who invaded them?
 2004 年蒙古乌兰巴托大学教授额日德雷根在访问日本时接受日本NHK电视台采访时针对当年亚洲杯足球赛上中国球迷的抗议日本活动说到:“中国人把我们国家和民族的伟大英雄,征服过他们的帖木贞当作他们的祖先和英雄,把我们对他们的殖民历史当作他们最强大的历史,这样一群拥有白痴一样逻辑的民族,又有什么资格去抗议你们国家民族的历史观呢?又有什么资格去抗议你们民族的英雄,当年侵略过他们的所谓‘甲级战犯’呢?我认为他们没有那个资格。”
Lu Xun in his “Random Notes” wrote how as a child he learned of the great heros and dynasties of Chinese history and how at 20 he heard that “our Da Qing” conquered Europe and that was the most glorious period of Chinese history.  When he turned 25, he that the “most glorious period of Chinese history” was when the Mongols invaded and made us their lackeys. Later I learned that the Mongols first conquered eastern Europe and only later conquered China.  But he conquered Russia first.  So really it should be the Russians saying “When our Genghis Khan conquered China, it was the most glorious period of our history”
鲁迅在《随便翻翻》中说过 : “幼小时候,我知道中国在‘盘古氏开辟天地’之后,有三皇五帝….. 宋朝,元朝,明朝,‘我大清’。到二十岁,又听说‘我们’的成吉思汗征服欧洲,是我们最阔气的时代。到二十五岁,才知道所谓这‘我们最阔气的时代’,其实是蒙古人征服了中国,我们做了奴才。直到今年(指1934年-引者)八月里,因为要查一点故事,翻了三部蒙古史,这才明白蒙古人的征服‘斡罗思’,侵入匈、奥,还在征服全中国之前,那时的成吉思还不是我们的汗,倒是俄人被奴的资格比我们老,应该他们说‘ 我们的成吉思汗征服中国,是我们最阔气的时代’的。 ”

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1997: Should Chinese Environmental Quality Reports No Longer Be Kept Secret?

I just ran across a translation I did twenty years ago — it is an interview in Sanlian Shenghuo Weekly with NPC Environment Committee Chair Qu Geping  曲格平 [China Vitae: http://www.chinavitae.com/biography/Qu_Geping%7C1685   ]

Interesting to meditate upon on how times have changed and not changed!
This translation is also on the Internet Archive Wayback Machine copy of the reports and translations released on the U.S. Embassy Beijing website at the time.

Should Environmental Quality Reports No Longer Be Kept Secret?

Sanlian Shenghuo Zhoukan No. 3, 1997

[Sanlian Shenghuo Zhoukan is a semiweekly newsmagazine published in Beijing. This article was written before twenty-seven cities, beginning with Nanjing, began making weekly air pollution reports during 1997. Beijing began making weekly pollution reports on February 28, 1998.] pp. 26 – 27

by Mei Bing and Cai Fang

The Pollution All Around Us

Just how much pollution from industrial pollutants and other sources do we put into our lungs and bloodstream each day just by breathing? Just how pure is the water we drink each day? How high does water quality have to be for it to suitable for drinking? What grade of water should we not drink or even not touch? What standard of air and water purity do we need to be assured that it will not injure our health? These are things that everyone should know and indeed has a right to know. But for a wide range of reasons, there still lies a vague amorphous barrier between information about the environment and the public. Take the Chinese capital of Beijing as an example: to this day Beijing Municipality has never issued an environmental quality report. Given this situation, how can people talk about public participation in and supervision of environmental protection work?

With these questions in mind, we visited several departments responsible for environmental protection.

Background: The 1989 PRC Environmental Law stipulates “The departments with administrative responsibility for environmental protection of the State Council, each province, autonomous region and municipality directly subject to the central government should periodically publish reports on the environmental situation”.

Premier Li Peng in his speech to the Fourth Environmental Protection Working Conference also stressed public participation and supervision of environmental protection work.

[The article has a photograph of the long-broken down noise pollution display in front of the Fine Arts Museum.]

How Much Should People Know About Their Environment? Official: “I haven’t thought that over yet”

We called up a Beijing Municipality environmental protection official. “Hello, I am a journalist. I have some questions about the publication of Beijing Municipality Environmental Quality notices.”

“That is not a simple question since it is linked to social stability, the public image of Beijing and to other matters such as foreign affairs.”

“But don’t you think these is a trend towards public participation in and supervision of environmental protection work?”

“Yes, I recognize that there is such a trend and I think about these matters. But it just won’t work now.”

“So how much do you think people can be allowed to know today?”

“I haven’t thought that over yet.”

Three weeks later, we visited this official. He still held the same views he had presented on the telephone.

“Let me give you an example. Beijing Municipality has three seriously polluted rivers. We call them “The Three Roundworms”. Today, after a great deal of efforts, we have solved the pollution problems of two of these rivers. But we will not be able to solve the problem of the third river anytime soon. If we were to tell the people, “This river is very seriously polluted but we can’t be able to do anything about it.”, wouldn’t that be encouraging civil disorders?”

Many Environmental Protection Officials Hold Similar Views

One leading official of the Shanghai environmental monitoring said, “Deterioration or improvement in the environment doesn’t happen over just a year or two. If we were simply to release environmental information to the public, the disadvantages would outweigh the advantages. The environmental consciousness of people today is very week. Even if we sent the environmental quality notice to every home in Shanghai, many people wouldn’t read it. But maybe the people who did read it would cause some social unrest. They might say, “The government did a bad job. Why did you give us such bad air?”

An environmental protection official from northwestern China said, “The main objective of the undeveloped areas is poverty alleviation. With our human and financial resources so weak, we need to do something. Moreover, some environmental data is kept secret out of diplomatic necessity.”

One top official involved in environmental monitoring said, “Just because we can do it doesn’t mean we should do it. We should make public environmental quality information, be we need to think about the consequences. For example, Beijing does not release its environmental quality information out of concern for its public image. Moreover, we are developing our economy and attracting foreign investment. But foreign investors are more and more concerned about the environmental quality of the region in which they are investing. If we were to release the environmental quality notice, the foreign investor would cancel investment plans. This would result in unnecessary harm to China’s economic development and especially to the economic development of the coastal provinces.”

It was not too hard to pick out a theme from these conversations. The environment is bad, so we can’t release information about it. Just like the old saying, “the ugly wife is afraid to face her mother-in-law”, this situation will be hard to change.

Why Isn’t Shenyang Afraid to Show Its Ugly Face?

We were surprised to learn that Shenyang has been issuing wintertime sulfur dioxide forecasts for eight straight years. This is because the World Health Organization in 1988 named Shenyang as one of the world’s ten most polluted cities. Shenyang was near the top of the list, right after Milan, as the world’s second most polluted city. Didn’t Shenyang, by taking the initiative to broadcast these forecasts on Shenyang television, put its ugliness on display for the whole world to see?

Shenyang’s pollution is worst in the wintertime and especially so during winter mornings. Therefore Shenyang television from December through February broadcasts a sulfur dioxide pollution forecast for each district of the city between six and seven each morning. People going to work or working out can plan to avoid or spend less time in the more severely polluted districts of the city.

Gao Jizhong, once Vice Mayor of Shenyang in charge of environmental protection and now a Vice Chairman of a Liaoning Province Peoples’ Congress Committee, said “We took that initiative with that in mind. First of all, this is an important science and technology research project. The success of this project filled a gap in China’s knowledge about how to do air pollution forecasting. Secondly, the project also helped spread knowledge about environmental protection and to make people more aware of the importance of environmental protection. Thirdly, the project brought a lot of pressure to bear on the polluters. For example, the Shenyang Smeltery [Shenyang Yelianchan] “contributes” forty percent of Shenyang’s sulfur dioxide pollution. Our broadcasts made the plant more conscious of this.”

“When Shenyang took this initiative, weren’t you concerned that the foreigners would find out, and that foreign investment in Shenyang would be affected? “

“Shenyang’s pollution is written all over the face of the city. Even if you say nothing, people will still know about it. Shenyang’s air pollution problem is the result of many historical factors. If we want foreign merchants to trust us, we need to attack the problem at its root.”

“Were you concerned at the time that when the people of Shenyang realized just how serious pollution was that they would take revenge against the government?”

Chairman Gao laughed, saying “From 1988 to the present I have never heard of such an incident. Just the opposite. When we did a survey in 1989, we found that 94 percent of the people of Shenyang favored the air pollution forecasts.”

“But what if such an event did occur?”

He laughed again. “In my experience of many, many visits from groups of citizens, there is always a reason for it. People don’t stir things up for no reason at all. The Chinese people are very reasonable. If you are really taking care of the problem or can give them a clear explanation, they will be reasonable.”

We asked Shenyang City Environmental Protection Bureau chief Liu Tiesheng “Did the Shenyang air pollution forecasts have any connection with promoting public participation in an supervision of environmental work?”

Liu answered, “Today, informing the public about the true state of the environment is very important. For example, many people today are not concerned about the environment. Only if “a feeling of urgency” about something arises does the public feel the need to get involved in environmental matters. But we mustn’t go overboard and scare people.”

(We understand that Shenyang City is not satisfied with just reporting only the sulfur dioxide index. Shenyang has already started to reported forecasting air pollution using a multiple indicator air pollution index.)

When we were doing interviews in Shenyang, we found that Shenyang is the place with the fewest air pollution “taboos”. Now we understand why, of the seven Chinese cities studying air pollution forecasting, Shenyang is the only one that is getting the information out to the people in order to serve the people.

Visiting NPC Environment and Resources Committee Chairman Qu Geping “It is not a matter if we may or may not but of necessity”

We visited National People’s Congress Environment and Resources Committee Chairman Qu Geping to discuss what we had learned in our interviews.

Journalist: “Many people agree that China should through newspapers, television and other mass media make periodic reports to the Chinese people about the serious pollution problems facing China. What is your view about this?”

Qu Geping: “Let me make one thing clear at the outset. The State Environmental Reporting System required by law. It’s the law. It is a great step forward in building a mechanism by which the Chinese people can participate in and supervise the environmental protection of China.”

“State environmental reports must distinguish between more important and less important matters. Everything can’t be reported. With that in mind, I support more detailed, wider ranging reports and reports that are more easily accessible to the general public that introduce China’s environmental situation. For example, television has a greater impact and moves people more than other media. We could consider using television advertising to constantly publicize the environmental situation. Environmental conditions are different in each city. Especially in the more seriously polluted cities, pollution information must become part of the information people use in their daily lives. If each city or district broadcast environmental information about its own specific areas, the people would certainly become interested in environmental issues. So that the people don’t just read about but also understand the environmental situation, I suggest that we learn from the experience of some Western countries. When an environmental situation report is released, a version of the report more easily understandable by the average person should be released so that knowledge of environmental protection will spread widely.

“Today many people are worried that foreigners knowing about China’s environmental problems will affect China’s foreign relations. Although I can’t deny that there is some environmental information that is not suitable for publication, but that is a relatively small part of the information about China’s environment. These is no contradiction between releasing information on environmental quality while still protecting certain environmental information. I believe that saying that publishing environmental quality information can affect foreign investment is just the same as saying that we gain the trust of foreign business people by hiding the truth. Doing that would just be a kind of trickery. Acting in this way would harm China’s reputation and do great damage to the country. Some people say that if the people find out about the environmental situation they’ll either have not reaction at all or start a “rebellion”. This is lacking trust in the people. This is a people’s government. We should never forget that in our work. We must trust in the people and rely on the people. Giving the relatively poor characteristics and inadequate education of the Chinese people, the publication of environmental quality information is a good way to get people to take the initiative and involve themselves in environmental protection.”

“These are really just excuses. The real reason behind them is that the quality of the environment is all messed up and that some officials don’t want to tell the Chinese people that this is so.”

Journalist: “So do you think that if the environmental quality is poor, then it should not be reported?”

Qu Geping: “No, of course not. That would be a stupid policy. These people are just frightening themselves. In actual fact, the release of environmental quality reports helps environmental protection work.”

“Some countries use environmental problems to attack China. But in fact, China has made much praiseworthy progress in environmental protection over the past few years. China is a developing country. As such it has no special responsibility to take on more arduous environmental protection responsibilities. But China decided to turn away from the old road of developing first and cleaning up later. As a result China has already racked up some impressive results. For example, the “Three Barrier Forest Belts” project which has been recognized by foreign environmental protection experts as an “unbelievable” accomplishment. We can hold our heads high in the international arena. The more you try to hide things, the more people will think that you have something to be ashamed of. ”

“Chinese environmental protection work has had its accomplishments but also has its problems. The most important thing is how we handle those problems. Treating the Chinese people like “opponents in a guerrilla war” is no way to build trust in the government. If there are achievements, we want to tell people about them; but if there are difficulties we need to explain to the people about them. Environmental protection is the job of all society. It is not something the environmental protection authorities can do on their own. Every single victory in environmental protection in China has come about because of the broad support of the Chinese people. I’ll put it this way: the degree of popular participation in environmental protection work is an important indicator of the success or failure of environmental protection in that country.”

“Therefore the participation in and supervision of the public is necessary for the development of environmental protection in China. This is not of a matter of we might or we might not. It is a necessity. Letting the Chinese people know about the seriousness of China’s environmental situation is the first step.”

Journalist: “Then who is going to take this first step?”

Qu Geping: “This is something we all have to push forward.”

Clearly, the main obstacles to letting the Chinese people know about the environmental situation in China are the ideas of some of the leading officials of the departments responsible for environmental protection as well as local government leaders. In China an environmental enlightenment movement is needed to spread environmental consciousness amongst the Chinese people.

With the spreading and deepening of environmental consciousness, the time has already arrived for openly and honestly reporting the environmental situation to the Chinese people and for allowing people from all parts of society to supervise and participate in environmental protection. Only in this way can environmental protection become everybody’s business. Only in this way can the great potential of environmental protection work be released.

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2014: A Chinese View on Chinese Cyber Security Challenges

A Chinese government view of China’s cyber security challenges in 2013.  Below is a summary translation of the April 2014 report  “2013 Report on Trends in China Internet Network Security — A Perspective from the Chinese National Computer Emergency Readiness Team”   《2013 年我国互联网网络安全态势综述
——CNCERT 观点》  from China’s cyber security focal point the Chinese National Computer Emergency Readiness Team.(CNCERT)

Foreign reporting on China often focuses on cyber threats coming from Chinese hackers and state actors.  This report  takes a different perspective, reflecting Chinese concerns about their own vulnerabilities to cyber attacks.

The report outlines the type of threats facing Chinese networks and concludes with recommendations on measures China could take to improve its Internet security.   Much of the threat information they have is apparently from Internet companies and CERTS in other countries.  They also mention that many of their original threat reports come in from Chinese hackers.  Their websites lists a thank you bar graph with hacker handles on it reflecting the number of threat reports  received from various hackers.  

 CNCERT’s National Vulnerability database also puts out monthly and weekly reports as well as bulletins about emerging problems.

The Chinese National Vulnerability Database (CNVD) is at http://www.cnvd.org.cn/      distributes the latest reports of computer viruses and other cyber threats received from Chinese companies, hackers and other partners.

Here is a screen capture of the top page of the Chinese National Vulnerability Database as it appeared on September 15, 2017.  Other pages within the database provide statistical analyses of cyber threats, research reports and weekly reports and monthly reports of cyber incidents.

China National Vulnerability Database

The summary translations concludes with these policy suggestions:

Policy Suggestions

 Accelerate the formulation of web security strategy, corresponding policies along with web protection capabilities

Given PRISMGATE and state-level advanced persistent threat actor incidents,  we suggest that China rapidly formulate a state-level network information security strategy.  The strategy should set forth strategic goals, overall guiding principles and specific guidance directed against specific types of security threats in order to provide overall strategic guidance.   Corresponding laws and regulations should clearly define tasks and responsibilities.  We suggest that attention be given to the design of the top level of the design to improve network security.  Attention should be paid to ensuring that work continues to assure cooperation across ministries as well as across industries and regions.   The network security resources of all departments should be organized so that each according to its defined responsibilities works together.  This will assure the coordinated mobilization of resources to protect China from attacks by state-level actors.

 Increase Investment in Network Security Work,  Make People More Aware of Network Security

We suggest that industries, companies and government departments increase their investment in network equipment and technology development,   strengthen their security management, and improve their capacity to respond to network security threats so as to reduce the extent to which network threats increase as technology advances.   Every unit should improve security awareness, establish system to improve security, and to regularly examine procedures and technologies for potential security threats and security vulnerabilities.

 Strengthen network security technology and methods and improve the capacity to track down the source of attacks

Network security technologies and methods should be strengthened to counter the threats of phishing websites, Trojans, mobile web malware, APT attacks, and other kinds of new threats.   Building capacity to identify sources of attacks, its target, and intentions, to gather data indicators, and restore to normal the system attacked, and to determine the ultimate origin of the attack will deter attacks to some extent.

 Increase the Chinese Domestic Content of Core Equipment,  Swiftly Establish a Complete Information Security Inspection and Verification System

We suggest strengthening the research, development, and promotion of key equipment and core technologies.  The domestic content of the internet equipment and software of key industries and of important information systems should be increased.  China needs to increase its self-sufficiency in hardware, software and service.  For a relatively long time, Chinese government departments have been unable to avoid using mainstream foreign network equipment and internet service.  We suggest strengthening security inspections and state monitoring capacity on systems connected to the Internet.  This will increase capacity to detect system vulnerabilities and to repair security vulnerabilities in a timely manner in order to ensure that Internet-connected systems are operating securely. 

 China should quickly establish an information security examination and verification system, define the range of  information production that are to be inspected and the nature of the inspection.  For each information product involved, according to its origin and its reliability, the capacity to monitor the product and the security characteristics of the product are to be examined.   The scope of applications for each product should be defined.  According to an established plan, information security testing locations could be established in order to improve China’s information and network security.

 Strengthen Capacity to Remove Malware, Maintain a Secure Mobile Operating Environment

We suggest that the government departments responsible strengthen their monitoring of the internet, require the companies involved to fulfill their responsibilities, strengthen security management of companies that sell mobile applications or provide value-added telecommunications services.   We also suggest that the communications industry, the internet industry,  hardware and software manufacturer and marketers strengthen industry associations and their sharing of information in order to monitoring of online malware,  make remedial measures more effective and to actively cooperate with government departments.

 Strengthen Net Security Educational Work and Improve the Ability of Net Users to Protect Themselves

We suggest that the government, industry, and the internet security companies work together with civic organizations to help net users increase their security awareness and security skills.   Through educational programming in mass media and on web sites, net users should be reminded to take better care of their data, to be careful in conducting transactions online, and to quickly repair security vulnerabilities. 


 China Internet Security Overview 2013 A CNCERT Perspective” — A Summary Translation

Chinese Communist Party Secretary Xi Jinping said “Without network security, there can be no national security”. Cyberspace has become the fifth strategic space after land, sea, air and space. The nations of the world are now stressing network security. During 2013, Snowden’s PrismGate revelations hit with the world with the impact of a big bomb. It ignited unprecedented concerns in international society and the public about network security.

In China, with the implementation of the “Broadband China” strategy, the internet has sped up and the number of user has climbed rapidly. The steady stream of new kinds of new mobile internet applications shows no sign of abating. 4G networks are beginning to be commercialized. More Virtual Network Operators are provided services through telecommunications networks. Internet connectivity and improved information processing capabilities improves the capabilities of traditional companies and making information consumption a new growth point in the Chinese economy.

This overview examines and analyzes the internet security situation and security threats in China during 2013.

The Internet Security Situation in China in 2013

During 2013, good progress was made in improving the security of China’s internet infrastructure. Many problems remain. There many information system security risks, particularly in the domain name systems that are part of internet infrastructure. Threats such as security vulnerabilities and DDOS attacks threatened the security weak points of the Internet.

During 2013, under the guidance of the PRC Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT), an overall evaluation and risk analysis of 3000 Chinese companies involved in internet infrastructure was undertaken. Ninety-seven percent passed — the same proportion as in 2012. The evaluation helped the companies place greater emphasis on preventing potential threats and protecting customer information.

Security Risks Remain in Internet Infrastructure Information Systems

During 2013, China’s National Security Vulnerability Database [CNVD ; web address cnvd.org.cn) 国家信息安全泄露共享平台 ] reported to telecommunications infrastructure companies 518 security vulnerability risk incidents, more than double the number reported in 2012. Security vulnerabilities reported by risk type were:

  • Commonly used hardware and software 42.1%,
  • Information security vulnerabilities 15.3%,
  • Bypassing authorization 12.7%,
  • SQL injection 12.0% and
  • Weak passwords 11.2%.

These security risk incidents affected 449 information systems. Of these, 54.6% of these were information systems of provincial-level subsidiaries of telecommunications companies. Another 37.2% of these systems belong to commercial groups. Although internet companies responded well to the reports, the access layers of the internet equipment of some companies were attacked. China is still fairly weak in its ability to defend against attacks organized by state-level actors.

The domain name system remains a security weak point affecting the stability of China’s internet.

Due to security vulnerabilities in the domain name server management system, attackers can arbitrarily change the domain name server record. On several occasions during 2013, the domain names of government websites and of internet service providers were stolen resulting in serious consequences. Moreover, denial of service attacks against name server systems are getting worse. On August 25, 2013, hackers in order to attack a website with a URL ending in .cn, launched a large-scale denial of service attack on the top level .cn domain name server. As a result, many government websites and important website such as the Sina microblog websites could not be reached or were very slow.

In August 2013, the service organization Aimin which has a registered Chinese domain name (22.cn) was attacked for a week. The peak attack data flow was several tens of Gbit/s. Several tens of thousands of domain names were affected. According to CNCERT, there were 58 relatively large DDOS attacks against Chinese domains.

A focus of CNCERT’s work during 2013 was reducing the flow of traffic from spoof IP addresses. CNCERT succeeded in reducing that flow to under 1%. Much data was coming in from spoofed IP address in other countries which made controlling them more difficult. Using DNS reflector technology, some hackers can greatly intensify DDOS attacks by a factor of 100 such as happened during the 2013 attack on Spamhaus, the international anti-spam mail organization, which hit a peak speed of 300 Gbit/s.

During 2013, CNCERT eliminated Trojans from 34,000 servers, and 720,000 hosts that were brought under control. 1455 relatively large zombie networks were eliminated. Hacker control of over 375,000 hosts was ended. As a result, the number of infected hosts fell, although the proportion of remotely controlled Trojans increased by 4.4%. These remotely controlled Trojans extracted important documents and sensitive information.

In March 2013 the international anti-spam mail organization Spamhaus suffered the largest DDOS attack ever. The DDOS attack peaked at 300 Gbit/s. Attackers used domain name server reflector techniques to increase the scale of the attack by a factor of 100.

With the great increase in the number of services provided over the Internet, there has been a corresponding increase in security problems affecting many users.

Frequent Security Problems in the Internet Service Company Traffic Carried on the Internet Infrastructure

Over the Top (OTT) services such as Zhengxin have often had reliability problems. On July 22, 2014, a failure caused loss of service to 60 million users. A check found that overloading and inattention to

security was the cause of the problem. A failure on a single circuit affected services to users on many different telecommunications networks.

During 2013, the website names of internet company websites were stolen in some parts of China. Sometimes traffic was diverted a webpage with advertisements. Some broadband connection providers on their local routers diverted traffic intended for certain websites, harming the business of some companies and the internets of internet users. CNCERT investigated these cases and worked together with the appropriate authorities to resolve them.

Number of Trojan Infected Internet Hosts in China Declines for First Time in Five Years

According to CNCERT monitoring, during 2013 11.35 million zombie internet hosts were infected by Trojans and 160,000 servers were controlled. These numbers are down 22.5% and 44.1% compared with 2012. This first decline in five years is the result of continuing work by China to eliminate Trojans and zombies and daily security work.

CNCERT working together with internet infrastructure companies 34,000 Trojan infections on servers and ended and carried out eight projects to eliminate malware. CNCERT eliminated 1455 relatively large zombie networks and cut off hacker control of 3.75 million infected computers.

CNVD analysis determined that there are backdoors on many commercial routers, including routers from D-LINK, Cisco, Linksys, Netgear, Tenda, etc. CNVD reports that using these backdoor hackers can steal information, do DNS theft etc. As of January 2014, some companies had still not fixed the problem or issued an upgrade.

Loss of Personal Information Online Undermines Credit Systems

With the proliferation of cloud computing, mobile internet service, and social media, protecting personal information is becoming harder. Much of this information is leaking onto the Internet where it is sometimes bought and sold.

In October 2013, CNCERT worked together with USCERT to prevent further information leaks after the Chakaifang website problem as revealed which exposed to collection data on 20 million travelers.

A security vulnerability in the Apache Struts 2 software was revealed in July 2013 when information was stolen using remote control of servers. Online merchants, insurance companies and government websites were affected.

Attacks on the Android mobile operating system up sharply

CNCERT noticed during 2013 a tripling of malware attacks on mobile phones using the Android operating system, amounting to 99.5% of all malware attacks on mobile phones that year. Malware attacks against all mobile operating systems reached 703,000 – over triple the 2012 total. Seventy percent of the malware aimed to create unauthorized charges.

During 2013, the number of phishing website increased by one-third. CNCERT found within China mainland 30,199 phishing pages directed against Chinese banks etc.

Mobile phone online financial transactions increased greatly during 2013, bringing with them increased targeting by hackers. In December 2013, the online payment site Zhifubao customer terminal had a security flaw that allowed anyone to set a new password after five failed login attempts.

Chinese government websites are often attacked to change a page. Ninety percent of the government websites belonged to local governments which typically have less skilled IT staff and so less security. During 2013, attacks on all websites jumped 46.7% to 24,034 while attacks on government websites rose 34.9% to 2430. CNCERT reported 1600 information leaks from Chinese government websites.

CNCERT organized eight anti-malware campaigns during 2013 in accordance with the Ministry of Industry and Information Industry “Mechanism for monitoring and Resolving Mobile Internet Malware Problems” . In 2013, the China Anti-Web Virus Association (ANVA) created the “Mobile Internet Application Voluntary Whitelist” mechanism, organizing companies and merchants to make a group of secure white-listed applications.

Cellphone Malware Proliferation Channels Diversify

CNCERT found that during 2013, cellphone malware was often downloaded from many different kinds of websites including commercial websites, blogs, and cloud drives. Over 12 million different IP addresses downloaded malware to mobile phones. Over 300 companies sell mobile phone apps. Many of these companies have inadequate security – one of them, the Anfeng Market, had several thousand apps that were infected by Trojans and then downloaded by mobile phone users over 2 million times.

Foreign hacker organizations attacks on Chinese government websites included attacks from “Anonymous”, “Algeria Hackers” etc. The “Anti-Communist Hackers” were very active, attacking government offices, universities and companies. The “Anti-Communist Hackers” during 2013 attacked over 120 Chinese government websites in Mainland China. Monitoring has revealed that these attackers take advantage of security vulnerability and then install a backdoor. It attacks a social media website about once every three days on average. Moreover, the “Anonymous” and the “Algeria Hackers” etc. defaced 187 Chinese government websites.

Some hackers attack Chinese government websites to take revenge against new government policies. On December 19, 2013, after the People’s Bank of China stated that it did not recognize Bit Coins and requested that companies in Mainland China that engage in third party financial transactions stop providing platforms for charging and payment in Bit Coins, the official government website of the People’s Bank of China and its official microblog were attacked by hackers. The attack made it difficult to use the site and resulted in many problem reports.

State-sponsored organized hacking attacks have increased and are a serious threat to key state infrastructure and essential information systems. According to surveys by CNCERT [China’s Computer Emergency Readiness Team] China faces serious threats and challenges coming from outside Mainland

China in the form of back door attacks on websites, phishing attacks, Trojan horse attacks, and zombie network attacks.

Since June 2013, when Snowden revealed the “Prism Plan” revelations showed how U.S. intelligence agencies have been spying on many countries and foreign citizens by eavesdropping and by infiltrating computer networks. The revelations showed how the U.S. has heavily invested in information collection through the Internet, and attacks on telecommunications networks, corporate servers and other invasive methods. Targets included senior state officials, diplomatic systems, media networks, large corporations and international organizations. China is an important monitoring and attack target. Both national security and the privacy of internet users are under serious threat.

During 2013, many advanced persistent threats (APT) were revealed. APTs became a new kind of weapon in confrontations between nations. On March 20, 2013, during a U.S. – Republic of Korea military exercise, many broadcasters, banks and other financial institutions in the ROK suffered a cyber-attack on an unprecedented scale. CNCERT contacted KrCERT, its ROK counterpart, and assisted in the investigation and in clearing up any misunderstanding that an attack was coming from China. Mcafee and Kaspersky revealed the existence of powerful hidden threats capable of persisting for years such as “Troy Action”, “Red October”, and “IceFog”. These APT attacks have robbed important information from government and scientific institution websites. In 2013, CNCERT monitoring determined that 15,000 hosts within the China mainland are controlled by APT Trojans. This is a serious threat to key Chinese infrastructure and key information systems.

China Remains Threatened by Many Attacks from Outside the China Mainland

During 2013, 31,000 foreign hosts established remote control over 61,000 hosts within the China Mainland through backdoors. Compared with 2012, the number of controlling foreign hosts dropped 4% but the number of controlled hosts in the China Mainland rose by 62.1%. The U.S. had the most controlling hosts with a total of 6215 which controlled 15,349 websites in Mainland China or about 2.5 websites for each controlling host. This is 78.6% higher than in 2012. Next comes China’s Hong Kong SAR which controls 13,116 websites within China, up 179.5% compared with 2012. In third place is the ROK, which controls 7502 websites, down 11.1% compared with 2012.

Of Phishing websites directed at the Chinese Internet, 90.2% are located outside the China Mainland. A total of 3823 foreign IP addresses serve imitating pages of 29,666 China mainland websites, up 54.3% and 27.8% respectively compared with 2012.

The 10.9 million Trojan-infected zombie websites in China Mainland are controlled by 29,000 foreign hosts. Of these, 41.1% (4.485 million hosts) are controlled by 8807 controlling servers in the US. The breakdown of controlling servers by country has the U.S. holding on to first place, increasing its share from 17.6% in 2012 to 30.2% in 2013. The ROK and China’s Hong Kong SAR hold second and third place with shares of 7.8% and 7.7%. Counting by the number of servers controlled within the China Mainland, the U.S. is still in first place, followed by Portugal and the ROK, which have3.988 million and 839,000 hosts respectively.

CNCERT constantly works to improve its cooperation with CERTS in other countries. As of end 2013, CNCERT had established ties with 127 organizations in 59 countries and regions. During 2013, CNCERT cooperated with foreign organizations in resolving 5498 network security issues within Mainland China. This was a 35.5% increase compared with 2012.

Focal Points for 2014

The increasing “intelligent” functionality being incorporated into industrial control systems, medical machinery, and home and office equipment will make security issues more serious on the Internet of Things. Security issues in rapidly developing technologies and failure to consider internet security issues means that security vulnerabilities will appear in new types of intelligent equipment. Hackers will take advantage of them to launch web attacks. During 2013 at Black Hat hacker conferences, ten types of attack and monitoring technologies aimed at the intelligent control systems of electric power networks, intelligent houses, cars and other system were demonstrated. At the same time, “refrigerator zombie network”-like attacks were occurring – malicious attacks taking advantage of intelligent functions being built into home appliances. This shows that there has already been a breakthrough in attack technology using web-connected intelligent equipment. The Android operating system has spread quickly from mobile devices to the Internet of Things. During 2014 security weaknesses will be a continuing issue as the Internet of Things develops.

Social media websites are becoming a key route for hacker attacks and net crime.

Social engineering is an important method for carrying out network attacks. Social media, which is becoming a more important part of our social networks, has become a hotbed of social engineering attacks. Personal data dug up on social networks can be stored and used to precisely target objects of social engineering. Profit-driven malware attacks on social media that could go so far as issuing order to social media site servers or create a new kind of zombie server. This will create new opportunities for criminal activities.

Advanced Persistent Threat Attacks will become

As cyberspace attack countermeasures steadily improve, advanced persistent threats (APT) with their characteristic high targeting accuracy, will become the main weapon of both hackers and inter-state cyber confrontations. APT combining various technologies will become an integrated monitoring and attack system. In addition to traditional malware, and techniques for exploiting hardware and software security vulnerabilities, there will appear new methods and new technologies. In December 2013, the NSA revelations showed how the US NSA created dozens of spy tools. These included backdoors built into motherboards, hard disk controllers, SIM cards and other hardware to implement a physical intrusion. Inserting the backdoor in hardware ensured the persistence of the intrusion despite any change in the operating system, software upgrade or installed software scanning system. Another method was using wireless technology to overcome the physical separation of traditional LAN networks to enable remote attacks. These methods broaden and deepen the APT threat and make them increasingly hard to detect.

Mobile Payment Security and Security Vulnerabilities in Mobile Terminals will be a new challenge to mobile web development

In 2014, the continuing development of 4G networks, faster mobile network and hot spots and the ever-wider use of better smartphones will make payments by mobile phone more common in transactions with merchants, banks and other financial institutions. Hackers will develop APPs and malware to attack the hardware and operating systems of smart phones. More security vulnerabilities will be discovered and attacks against mobile networks and smartphones will grow.

The Scale of Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS) Attacks will continue to Grow

In 2014, hackers will turn to new methods since the traditional DDOS method of using many zombies on a broadband connection will no longer be effective. Hackers will use the Network Time Protocol (NTP) and the Character Generator Protocol (CHARGEN) in Network Time Protocol Distributed Reflective Denial of Service” attacks which will enable them to easily increase attack volumes by a factor of ten to one hundred times. This attack will exhaust limited server, router and bandwidth resources and make it harder to determine the IP address at the source of the attack. Attackers will also find new technologies to create the greatest amount of net traffic for the least amount of effort. They will be looking for technologies that will enable them “to borrow the knife used in the killing”.

Microsoft Ending Windows XP OS Service will lead to an increase in the number of zero day exploits

On April 8, 2014 Microsoft will end Windows XP operating system technical support and updates. It will no longer provide security patches, updates or anti-virus software updates. After that date it will no longer be responsible for operating system viruses or security vulnerabilities. Windows XP has a large market share in China with about 200 million users. Once security updates end, this operating system will face a serious security threat. Hackers may become even more assiduous in digging up zero day exploits to use against the XP OS.

New Security Threats for Traditional text message verification and the new two-dimensional scanning method

Today when making an online purchase or making a payment online, you will often use a verification code sent in a text message. In 2014, smartphone Trojans that steal the payment verification code message and steal your account information will become common. Hackers use smart phone Trojans to catch the verification code number and then go on to use your web payment account and password, resulting in a large financial loss for the user.

Policy Suggestions

Accelerate the formulation of web security strategy, corresponding policies along with web protection capabilities

Given PRISMGATE and state-level advanced persistent threat actor incidents, we suggest that China rapidly formulate a state-level network information security strategy. The strategy should set forth strategic goals, overall guiding principles and specific guidance directed against specific types of security threats in order to provide overall strategic guidance. Corresponding laws and regulations should clearly define tasks and responsibilities. We suggest that attention be given to the design of the top level of the design to improve network security. Attention should be paid to ensuring that work continues to assure cooperation across ministries as well as across industries and regions. The network security resources of all departments should be organized so that each according to its defined responsibilities works together. This will assure the coordinated mobilization of resources to protect China from attacks by state-level actors.

Increase Investment in Network Security Work, Make People More Aware of Network Security

We suggest that industries, companies and government departments increase their investment in network equipment and technology development, strengthen their security management, and improve their capacity to respond to network security threats so as to reduce the extent to which network threats increase as technology advances. Every unit should improve security awareness, establish system to improve security, and to regularly examine procedures and technologies for potential security threats and vulnerabilities.

Strengthen network security technology and methods and improve the capacity to track down the source of attacks

Network security technologies and methods should be strengthened to counter the threats of phishing websites, Trojans, mobile web malware, APT attacks, and other kinds of new threats. Building capacity to identify sources of attacks, its target, and intentions, to gather data indicators, and restore to normal the system attacked, and to determine the ultimate origin of the attack will deter attacks to some extent.

Increase the Chinese Domestic Content of Core Equipment, Swiftly Establish a Complete Information Security Inspection and Verification System

We suggest strengthening the research, development, and promotion of key equipment and core technologies. The domestic content of the internet equipment and software of key industries and of important information systems should be increased. China needs to increase its self-sufficiency in hardware, software and service. For a relatively long time, Chinese government departments have been unable to avoid using mainstream foreign network equipment and internet service. We suggest strengthening security inspections and state monitoring capacity on systems connected to the Internet. This will increase capacity to detect system vulnerabilities and to repair security vulnerabilities in a timely manner in order to ensure that Internet-connected systems are operating securely. China should

quickly establish an information security examination and verification system, define the range of information production that are to be inspected and the nature of the inspection. For each information product involved, according to its origin and its reliability, the capacity to monitor the product and the security characteristics of the product are to be examined. The scope of applications for each product should be defined. According to an established plan, information security testing locations could be established in order to improve China’s information and network security.

Strengthen Capacity to Remove Malware, Maintain a Secure Mobile Operating Environment

We suggest that the government departments responsible strengthen their monitoring of the internet, require the companies involved to fulfill their responsibilities, strengthen security management of companies that sell mobile applications or provide value-added telecommunications services. We also suggest that the communications industry, the internet industry, hardware and software manufacturer and marketers strengthen industry associations and their sharing of information in order to monitoring of online malware, make remedial measures more effective and to actively cooperate with government departments.

Strengthen Net Security Educational Work and Improve the Ability of Net Users to Protect Themselves

We suggest that the government, industry, and the internet security companies work together with civic organizations to help net users increase their security awareness and security skills. Through educational programming in mass media and on web sites, net users should be reminded to take better care of their data, to be careful in conducting transactions online, and to quickly repair security vulnerabilities.

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Sichuan Food and Hunan Food

Ran Yunfei in his 2009 book  Wu Yu: A Life in the Republican Era 1911 – 1949  吴虞和他生活的民国时代   examined the many diaries of Prof. Wu Yu of Sichuan University (known in the May 4th era as a critic of Confucius), mining them for a thematic examination of life in Chengdu during the Republican period.
Part of the first section (pp. 20 – 30) discusses food and restaurants in Chengdu.  Ran fills in some background, saying that the original Sichuan culinary style was largely lost after much of the population was killed in the slaughters surrounding the uprising and suppression of the peasant leader Zhang Xianzhong  张献忠  of the late Ming and early Qing.  (Some argument about whether crazed peasant revolutionary or the repression by the reactionary cliques was largely responsible for the slaughter, it seems) [ Wiki https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%BC%A0%E7%8C%AE%E5%BF%A0 ]   See the scan of pp. 20 – 21.
Large scale immigration of Hakka and other people from Guangdong and Hunan regions planted sweet potato and hot pepper etc. to Sichuan that were arriving from the New World with foreign trade. These newcomers together with competition among restaurants as outsiders came to rapidly growing cities largely produced Sichuan food.  He said that while some of the Sichuan food came from family recipes, if it were not for the competition among restaurants in the cities it could not have developed so quickly in only a 150 years or so.
It does make me wonder about the concept of history.  If the people are all killed, does history continue?  Or is it just the history of a place, and the people are secondary.  It makes me wonder about the differences that apparently grew up between Hunan and Sichuan food.  I remember learning about food origins at dinner in Kaifeng one evening having some “Peking Roast Duck”.   My host grumbled “This is really Kaifeng Roast Duck.  The Beijingers stole the dish from Kaifeng in the late 19th century and then called it Peking Roast Duck!”
I only made one weeklong trip to Changsha and then to visit Mao’s and Liu Shaoqi’s homes.  I don’t know enough to compare cuisines.  One good thing about living in China is that they have lots of good Chinese restaurants!  I miss the spicy food and friendly restaurants of Chengdu.
Some of the sources quoted in the Chinese language Wiki article on the slaughter in Chengdu and Sichuan:

计六奇明季南略》记载:“献忠遂屠重庆,砍手三十余万人,流血有声。”  “Zhang Xianzhong continued the slaughter in Chongqing, where he killed over 300,000 people. So much blood that you could hear it flowing by!”

客滇述》:“献忠既陷成都,尽伐梨树,做宫室驰道,练兵于此。贼兵之樵采者,尽入城中,拆毁房屋以为薪。又发兵四出,搜各州县山野,不论男女老幼,逢人便杀;如是半载。八月,献忠毁成都城,焚蜀王宫殿,并焚未尽之民房。凡石柱亭栏,皆毁之;大不能毁者,更聚薪烧裂之。成都有大城小城,本张仪所筑,汉昭烈帝修之。甃以大石,贯以铁絙,壮丽甲天下。宫殿之盛,亦不减京师。至是,尽为瓦砾矣。献忠又令其大家遍收川兵杀之,及其妻子男异性,惟十时以下者仅留一、二。 ”

外国传教士吉洛东圣教入川记》:“残杀之后,成都为之一空。除少数官员外,别无居民。荒凉惨象,不忍瞩目。献忠剿灭成都后,命令各乡镇村民移居成都。”  “After the slaughter, Chengdu was totally empty.  Except for a few officials, there were no residents left.  The scene was so horrible, one couldn’t bear to look at it.  After that Zhang Xiangzhong viper’s nest was cleared out, it was ordered that the various townships and villages send some people to live in Chengdu”

在张献忠死后出现了清军跟南明军对峙的局面,清军的势力于川北保宁一带,而南明军队占据着四川境内大部分州县[13]。根据《蜀龟鉴》的记载,经过张献忠军队的屠杀,川南的人口损失约50%,而川北的人口几乎损失殆尽。尽管川南和川北都遭到了张献忠的军队的屠杀,可是到了张献忠死后,南明与清朝对峙的时期,南明控制的川南,人口明显多于清朝控制的川北。川北遭受的破坏,比川南严重得多。因此,综上所述,清朝军队以十三年的时间才平定四川,并不是表示清朝一直在屠杀四川人[14][15]

此外,明末清初四川人口的锐减,是多股势力混战的最终恶果,张献忠并不是唯一的屠川元凶[16]。至于张献忠屠杀六万万人有奇一说,有文献显示事实上是四川当地的地主以及南明将领污蔑和嫁祸张献忠[17],另外古代计量单位“万万”虽然等于“亿”,但“万万”和“亿”在下数系统中表示的却是“十万”(参看中文数字)。

 

The food in Hunan and Sichuan didn’t get spicy though until the late Ming and early Qing dynasty (17th century) when chili peppers arrived from the New World.

历史[编辑]

古典川菜的出现可追溯至,在宋代已经形成流派,当时的影响范围主要是中原[1]

初,辣椒美洲欧洲引入中国,川菜也开始用上辣椒调味,遂潮形成以麻辣味为主的料理方式,现代意义上的川菜开始成形。1646年,肃亲王张献忠后,大批汉人西徙四川,创制出四川独有的迩调技艺。[2]乾隆年间,四川罗江文人李调元在其《函海·醒园录》中系统地搜集了川菜的38种烹调方法

晚清以来,川菜逐步形成地方风味极其浓郁的菜系,由筵席菜、大众便餐菜、家常菜、三蒸九扣菜、风味小吃等5类菜肴组成完整的风味体系。其风味则是清、、浓并重,并以麻辣著称。对长江上游和等地均有相当的影响。

特点[编辑]

川菜以成都重庆两地的菜肴为代表。所用的调味品有花椒胡椒辣椒,合称“三椒”;,合称“三香”;以及郫县豆瓣酱永川豆豉等亦使用频繁,以调味为重点的有“鱼香”、“怪味”等菜。川菜的风格朴实而又清新,官家川菜精细别致,农家川菜具浓厚的乡土气息。

 

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Understanding the Chinese Police State — Thoughts Towards a Reading List

First of all,  I would recommend  Stein Ringen’s  2016 book The Perfect Dictatorship — China in the 21st Century is a fine overview and analysis of China as a police state.

Less comprehensive works focusing on a particular aspect of the police state could include

There has been great hope in both China and the West that China will gradually evolve in a democratic direction. Article One in the PRC Constitution is an obstacle to that could be used to justify nearly anything in the name of protecting ‘socialism’.     http://en.people.cn/constitution/constitution.html

Article 1. The People’s Republic of China is a socialist state under the people’s democratic dictatorship led by the working class and based on the alliance of workers and peasants. The socialist system is the basic system of the People’s Republic of China. Sabotage of the socialist system by any organization or individual is prohibited.

There are many brave people who stand up or have stood up to state repression.  If people like this do not respond to warnings, pressure is ratcheted up to include police beatings and arbitrary detention.  Relatives including children, friends and co-workers  may be harassed, fired, or lose their opportunity to get an education in order to pressure them to put pressure on the target of state political pressure.

There is a vigorous exile Chinese-language media in the West.  Some of them worked as journalists in China before (see He Qinglian’s book for information on the constraints they worked under) .  Angered by their own suffering at the hands of the Chinese regime and having suffered themselves been trained within the Party-run journalism-propaganda complex, they are often not as careful about cross-checking using multiple independent sources as the best professional journalists in verifying information.

Chinese ‘news’ often circulates as often rumor because of heavy censorship.  Sometimes true, often false, with many exiles and exile media finding any negative information about the Chinese Communist Party very plausible.  Of course the regime is not evil all the time.  Even when the Chinese Communist Party and PRC state do good things, they don’t get credit for it because censorship and repression severely reduces their credibility.

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2011: How to Write Chinese Internal Communist Party and Government Information Reports

This article presented below in summary translation discusses how to write for internal confidential Chinese Communist Party and PRC government bulletins and reports gives insights into the characteristics Communist Party’s internal information system (many Chinese journalists write for both the internal information reports and for the mass media) and the Chinese mass media.  Afterwards a November 2013 article by Anhui Province journalist Zhang Dapeng that discusses relationship between journalists and party organizations gives some glimpses into how the  internal information/news dichotomy works at the local level. 

He Qinglian in her 2008 book The Fog of Censorship: Media Control in China available online as a free PDF download from Human Rights in China describes China’s internal confidential media on pp. 68 – 75 in a section of her book that gives a taxonomy of the kinds of internal circulation only  (nèibù fāxíng  内部发行) ‘information bulletins” and reports that begins with:

Classified documents and public access to information

        Let us first examine why the Chinese government needed to establish an internal
(neibu) documents system and how it differs from the systems adopted by governments of other countries.
      In addition to the large number of documents classified by the government
and the armed forces, a privileged stratum within the Communist Party also has
exclusive access to information known as “internal documents.” What “state
secrets” do these internal documents contain? In fact, these internal documents
contain absolutely no state secrets, but merely news of the sort that is often
reported by the media of democratic countries.
      Most genuinely important and valuable news is filtered by the government,
resulting in a critical shortage of publicly available information. Chinese people
must then rely on foreign reports, not only for an understanding of international
affairs, but also to find out about important events that occurin China and even in
their own city. Consequently,the only reliable source of news in China is the“rumor
mill. ”Foreigners who have been living in China for a long time also know this to be
the case. And most Chinese people have come to take delight in spreading rumors.

Some of the points made in articles in this genre of writing advice for aspiring bureaucrats and for people just starting out in the Chinese bureaucracy would be good advice for aspiring American government bureaucrats writing reports (even if they are not Communist Party members!).  Other parts would be a bit startling to people not used to working in Chinese bureaucracies like this passage:

Official secrets.   Party and government information often involve Party and state secrets or relate to information that is not convenient to release such as information on disasters, epidemics, events that erupted suddenly.  If this information were to be casually disclosed, they could cause social instability and could make resolving the problem more difficult.  The Secretariat of the Central Committee office has red encrypted telephones that connect to the Ministry of State Security, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Public Security, the second and third departments of the general staff, Xinhua etc.  The “Daily Summary” that they produce every day is the highest level of top secret document.  Naturally, the educational system also has much information that is not convenient to disclose.  Therefore, information should be reported after it has been checked by the senior leader at your level.

权威机密。党政信息反映的多是涉及到党和国家的秘密或者一些不宜公开的信息,如灾情、疫情、突发性事件等,这些情况如果随意公开,将会对社会稳定、事件的处理产生一些负面效应。中央办公厅秘书局综合处有四部红色加密电话机同国家安全部、外交部、公安部、总参二部、三部、新华社等联通,他们所编发的《每日汇报》号称天下第一绝密文件。当然,教育系统也有许多不宜公开的信息,因此,信息的报送必须经本级领导审查。

The article comes from a website that offers model documents for people preparing for examinations or writing up government reports.  It belong to a genre of article aimed at helping Chinese bureaucrats improve their report writing skills.  A search quickly turned up similar articles about and examples of how to write for Chinese Communist Party internal information bulletins and reports:

[summary translation begins:]

党政信息写作的几点体会

党政信息写作的几点体会        更新时间:2011-06-19  华考范文网    found at URL  http://www.zk168.com.cn/fanwen/xinde/fanwen_274744.html     (I checked this link recently and it came up as a malware site. Perhaps evil viruses or subversive thoughts within.)

 Some Pointers on Writing Information Reports for Party and Government Work 

Posted June 6, 2011 on  Huakao Fanwenwang

 First question: Why do we want to write reports about information?   First of all, writing reports about information is our responsibility.  Li Shiming, the founding emperor of the Tang Dynasty said “Faults in administration are caused by blocking the flow of information.”  Deng Xiaoping said “Doing management without information is like having your nose blocked and being blind and deaf.”   Both the state and the various levels of Party and government organizations depend on the flow of information upwards and downwards; otherwise society catches a cold. 

 You teachers are on the front line and are the eyes and ears of the educational administration.  If information work is not done properly, and leaders aren’t told about problems, then the party and government will “catch a cold”.  For example, if there is a sudden  accident or an epidemic at a school, then if the school administration and the upper levels of administration don’t get this information the party and government will be deaf and blind.  Policy will be affected.  If the incident were to be exposed by the news media, then it will harm the work of the government and the school even more.  That is why we say that everyone has the responsibility to report information.

 There is an old saying that “A person’s face is like the bark of a tree”.   The image of a person, of a work unit or an occupation is extremely important.  Some of you have been working for a long time in education and have had some achievements.  But if something happens because the propaganda work wasn’t done properly, most leaders and the public will not understand. …..

 I remember when I was teaching at the Tongliang County Bachuan Middle School, our principal told us that we should try hard to publish articles.  If you don’t publish articles it will be hard to get promoted.  To get promoted from the intermediate rank to the upper rank generally requires publishing two to four articles.   The discipline of writing helps you improve your ability to analyze and solve problems.

 There are many definitions for internal information bulletins [note: literally information xinxi].  What we are talking about today is Party and government information.  Party and government information are documents that reflect that management activities of Party and government and their constituent departments.   These documents are the basis for scientific decision-making by the various levels of leaders.  Education and pedagogy are in themselves and important area of work for the Party and government and education information is also a kind of Party and government information.  That is easy to understand but many people have trouble don’t understand the difference between internal information bulletins and news.  They think that information and news are the same thing.  Writing an informational report, they think, is the same thing as writing a news story.  These people write reports that are of poor quality and don’t get many “hits” on their reports.   Here first of all I want to make clear the distinction between information and news.

 One: The distinction between information and news

 Information bulletins and news differ in six respects:  

  •  The first is their audience:  the information bulletin  is aimed at leaders at all levels — it is clearly meant to inside information for officials that is secret.   On the other hand, news is aimed at the mass audience,  it is information that is shared with everyone,  it is either very informative or very entertaining.  
  • The second is the objective use of the information:  the internal information bulletins is meant to help party committees and government understand a situation,  make decisions and provide guidance.  The principal objective of news is the propagandize the masses, the educate the masses and to guide opinion.
  • The third distinction is in their contents.  For internal information bulletins, the stress is on describing what happened and what are the work problems together with some policy suggestions for solving these problems.  Both bad news and good news should be reported.  For news, the most important thing is reporting the Party line, overall guidelines and policies, spread news of outstanding experience, and insisting on the positive in propaganda. 
  • The fourth is in the writing style: information should be presented clearly,  with close attention to verifying facts, and avoiding ornate language.  For news reports, similes, liberal use of comparisons and analogies is fine. 
  • Fifth, information should be plain and direct while news should have an introduction, body and a conclusion. 
  • Sixth, information can predict what is likely to happen while news should only be about what is happening now or has happened.

 Examples of information are the internally circulated bulletins such as “Education News” , the “Daily Summary” of the county party committee etc.  It is important to know the distinction between information and news because you will write a different article depending if you are writing for an information or for news such as newspapers with titles such as Chongqing Daily, China Education News etc.

[end of summary translation]

How is the internal information/news dichotomy (信息/新闻)handled at the local level in China?  After all, local party officials often try to avoid news of their mistakes from reaching higher levels and through their local control over press, the police and the courts (that is what the Political and Legal Affairs Committee 政法委员会 and the Propaganda Committee 宣传委员会  of a local party organizations are for.)   Local party organizations are often successful in keeping news of local mistakes local.  Kind of like the Las Vegas slogan “What happens in Vegas stays in Vegas”.

The provincial Party leader and governor have access to a high level of  central party/government  internal information and lower level officials to lower levels of the central internal information stream.  China being such a vast place one would think that local data streams should be more detailed.  A level of Party organization might want to have its own private information stream if they don’t want the center to know what is going on.  I suspect that they would not set this up explicitly as say “Sichuan Party Organization Internal Only”  since that might amount to committing the cardinal sin of “splittism” against the Center.
China is so decentralized and the central party and government organs are so small the task of ‘supervision’ especially where the locals don’t want the Center to know and the Center is reluctant to admit that it knows about a problem until it has a solution in hand and is capable of imposing itself on the local.  To admit that it knows before it is capable of taking effective action would risk looking impotent, I imagine.

 

After the Chinese text of the article summarized above I added Zhang Dapeng’s article from the November 2013 issue of the Xinhua magazine The Journalist 记者  on his relations with local party organizations and government during his many years as a journalist in Anhui Province.

I can think of many occasions where there was some dispute with peasants or disturbance that the local authorities didn’t want the center to know about — this is often revealed when we read news of petitioners going to provincial capitals or Beijing. Huang Qi’s website 64tianwang.com is full of those stories. One would imagine that local leaders have many formal and informal channels through their guanxi connection networks.

Probably larger party organizations need to handle this more formally. Certainly counties have special data streams like the big buildings full of telephone monitors (in every county seat I was told). Perhaps the telephone monitoring staff and the local security people like the National Security group of the local public security Guo Bao would report to local officials. There were stories from the Chengdu suburbs about local authorities manufacturing fake dissidents so that the locality could collect central government social stability funding ostensibly to cover the cost of locking people up. I don’t know at what level the fake reports would have been concocted.

Zhang Dapeng mentions several times about how important it is to stay in touch with the local Party propaganda committee to know what to report as well as how on several occasions the journalist made personal reports to local leaders about problems rather than reporting it in the newspaper.

This gives a bit of a flavor. I would imagine that local party committees have their sources formal and informal.

This article is from the “Local Column” of the “The Journalist” #11 issue of 2013 magazine. Perhaps similar columns in other issues of that magazine would also further illuminate how the local party organizations collect and distribute internal  information  内部信息. Local is naturally likely to be less formal.


党政信息写作的几点体会

更新时间:2011-06-19  华考范文网  http://www.zk168.com.cn/fanwen/xinde/fanwen_274744.html

 

按照这此培训安排,今天由我来和大家共同交流探讨信息写作方面的问题。坐在这里我感觉很忐忑,在座很多同志都是写作高手,因此,我就只能凭借个人从事信息工作的体会,把向其他老师学到的一些东西和大家分享,从以下六个方面,同大家交流一下我的感受,权当抛砖引玉。前两个方面,解决认识问题,中间三个方面解决技巧问题,最后一个方面解决实效问题。如果有说得不对的地方,还请在座的各位同仁批评指正。

 

第一个问题:为什么要写信息?

 

写信息是一件枯燥的事情,会写的不想写,想写的不会写,但很多时候又因为领导安排不得不写,工作效率和成效大打折扣,因此,我认为首先要搞清为

 

什么要写信息?以此提高我们从事信息工作的积极性和主动性。

 

首先,从职业道德上讲,写信息是一种责任。唐太宗李世明说过:“为政之弊,在于雍蔽。”邓小平讲:“做管理工作的人没有信息,就是鼻子不通,耳目不灵”。雍蔽就是阻塞、不通气的意思。人不通气就会鼻塞,感冒,不舒服。一个国家、一级党委政府,上情不能下达,下情不能上达,就会造成全社会的感冒。作为身处基层一线的教育工作者,就是教育行政主管部门甚至是各级党委和政府的“耳目”,如果因为信息工作不到位,没有及时反馈存在的问题、出现的情况,导致党政“感冒”,决策失误,那就是我们的失职。举个例子,如果一个学校突发校园安全事故、传染病疫情等突发事件,如果学校不及时向上级主管部门报送信息,通报情况,那就势必造成主管部门以及党委政府“耳目不灵”,影响决策,如果事件被新闻媒体提前曝光,更会使政府和学校的工作陷入被动。由此可见,报送信息人人有责。

 

其次,从单位来讲,写信息能够树形象。俗话说“人的脸树的皮”,形象对于一个人、一个单位、一个行业的影响至关重要。大家身处教育工作第一线,日复一日,年复一年,上了那么多的课,做了那么多的事,教了那么多的人,有的还创造了一些独特的经验、取得了一些研究成果,但就是因为宣传不到位往往不能为大多数领导和社会所了解。因此,为了争取全社会的理解、支持和关心,为教育事业发展营造良好的环境,提升教育部门的形象,就只有搞好信息宣传。但这项工作绝不仅仅是县教委的事,因为教委机关的工作力量、信息量都很有限,需要各教管中心、各学校为共同努力,把大家的辛勤劳动和工作业绩宣传出去。换个角度,从各个学校和教育工作者个人来讲,更是这样,一些人信奉“是金子总会发光的”道理,可是,如果金子被深埋在土里或者这块金子地处偏远地区,那么,即使它发光,别人也不一定能看到,更何况现在是信息时代,大家都乐于接受信息,乐于打造自身形象,而只有你一个人甘愿闭塞,那么结果就很可能会是,力没少出,汗没少流,劲儿没少使,你的工作虽然干得也很有成绩,但你宣传不出去,别人都不知道,创造了价值也体现不出来。因此,这个时候,就需要我们共同把工作中的闪光点给它挖掘出来,把工作中的亮点给它宣传出去,推广好经验,分享好办法,宣传好成绩。

 

再次,从个人来讲,写信息是一种锻炼。随着经济社会的发展,新的形势和任务要求我们不但要会说、会干,更要会写。举个简单的例子,记得以前我在铜梁县巴川中学教书,召开第一次教务会的时候,我们的校长就要求我们要多多总结经验,争取发表文章,他说,“你要是没有论文发表以后连职称都晋升不了的”。来之前,我也问过,说是现在有中级晋升到高级需要2-4篇论文发表。从实践看,信息写作就是锻炼写作能力的最好途径,大家都知道,我们的很多领导干部都是从教育战线上长期磨砺成长起来的,长期坚持开展信息工作,不但能增强宏观服务意识,还能有效提高其政策水平、理论水平、分析水平和写作水平,有助于复合型人才的培养。正因如此,这次集中培训才安排了信息写作这个专题,我想其初衷并不是把大家都培养成作家,而是想通过“写”来锻炼提高大家分析问题、解决问题的能力,提升大家的综合素质。

 

第二个问题:什么是信息?

 

关于信息有很多定义,我们在此要谈的信息,只限于党政信息。所谓党政信息,就是用以反映党委、政府及其组成部门管理活动的文稿,是各级领导科学决策的重要依据。教育教学本身是党和政府的一项重要工作和事业,其信息当然也是党政信息。这个话很好理解,但是对很多人而言,主要是搞不清楚信息和新闻的区别,认为信息就是新闻,写信息就是写新闻稿件,造成信息质量不高、中稿率较低,以此我们首先要区分信息和新闻的区别。

第一,信息和新闻的区别

信息与新闻的实质区别有6个方面:一是服务对象:信息服务对象是各级领导,具有明显的内参性、机密性;新闻服务对象是社会大众,其消息是共享的,具有很强知晓性或娱乐性。二是服务目的:信息主要是为党委、政府了解情况、进行决策和指导工作服务;新闻则主要是宣传群众、教育群众、引导舆论

 

。三是反映内容:信息侧重反映实际工作情况、工作中存在的问题,及解决这些问题的对策建议等,要求喜忧兼报;新闻主要宣传党的路线、方针、政策,推广先进典型经验等,坚持正面宣传。四是写作要求:信息文体基本上采取直叙的写法,庄重朴实,力戒修饰;新闻可借用比喻、描写、拟人拟物等多种手法。五是结构体式:信息文体是直言表述,一般不要开头、结尾,一段成篇;新闻通常由导语、主体、结尾三部分组成,题目还有引题、主题、副题等。六是时态要求:信息反映的内容可以超前,对将要发生的事可以进行预测;而新闻必须是已经或正在发生的事情。

 

简单而言:凡是在各级内部简报上刊发的,比如县教委简报《教育信息》、《教育动态》,县委简报《每日要闻》、《要情快报》,县政府简报《政务信息》《昨日简况》等都算信息;凡是在各类报刊上公开发表的,比如《中国教育报》、《重庆日报》、《丰都报》等都是新闻。

把握了信息与新闻的区别,有利于我们在具体写作时提高针对性,做到“适销对路”。比如,同样一个题材,你要送到报刊发表就得按新闻的特点和要求来写,送到各级简报上发表就得按照信息的特点和要求来写。此外,同样是信息,党委信息和政务信息也有区别,这种区别主要体现在关注的重点不同。党委侧重宏观领导、党建工作、社会管理,主要关注的是重大工作推进情况、重要工作的典型经验、社会各方面的动态、各方面运行中出现的新情况、新问题、新矛盾以及对此提出的对策建议;政府侧重微观管理、经济工作,主要关注经济运行动态、经济发展项目、经济工作举措、经济形势预测、经济工作中好的做法和面临的新情况、新问题及对策建议。

明确了党政信息和新闻的区别,下面我们来讨论党政信息的特点。

 

第二,党政信息的特点

 

1、真实准确。这是党政信息的生命。所谓真实准确,就是要尊重事物本质特征,反映事物的客观性、真实性,有一说一、有二说二,不夸大、不缩小,不任意拔高或添枝加叶,更不允许在数字上来大概加估计。这就要求我们对模糊不清的信息要追根溯源,做到反映成绩要恰如其分,反映问题要实事求是,不管是好事坏事,都必须如实报告。

 

2、全面宏观。所谓全面,就是要把触觉范围遍及所有政务活动,全面反映各项政务活动的各个方面、各个层次;所谓宏观,是指党政信息的效应直接或间接体现在决策方面。对教育系统而言,这一特性要求我们要围绕教委和教育教学的工作中心抓大问题,抓有碍全局的实际问题,抓政策性问题,而不是摄取小镜头,捕捉小花絮。

 

3、新颖快捷。新,是指在时间上是最近的,在内容上是新鲜的或独特的。“快”是指生成信息要快,传递信息要快,不拖延、不积压、讲时效。信息就像山里的药材,适时是宝,过时是草,一条有价值的信息由于没能及时编发而延误,可能变成“昨日黄花”;相反,报送越快,决策越快,对解决问题、做好工作更有效。特别是紧急信息,绝不能迟报、漏报、瞒报。

 

4、精炼深刻。信息的语言文字要简练,力求达到“由简而繁繁而简、简中俱是精华点”;信息篇幅要短小精悍,不穿靴戴帽,以利于领导从琐碎的事务中解脱出来。但是精练不是简单,反而要求深刻,在内容层次上必须有一定深度,这就要求我们根据决策需求和重点工作,深入调查研究,拿出有分析、有观点、有建议的信息,不能只看表面现象;要从大量信息资料中分析、挖掘,揭示信息内涵,以实现信息从低层次到高层次的升华和增值。

 

5、权威机密。党政信息反映的多是涉及到党和国家的秘密或者一些不宜公开的信息,如灾情、疫情、突发性事件等,这些情况如果随意公开,将会对社会稳定、事件的处理产生一些负面效应。中央办公厅秘书局综合处有四部红色加密电话机同国家安全部、外交部、公安部、总参二部、三部、新华社等联通,他们所编发的《每日汇报》号称天下第一绝密文件。当然,教育系统也有许多不宜公开的信息,因此,信息的报送必须经本级领导审查。

 

第三个问题:怎样才能发现信息?

 

要做好信息工作的前提是发现信息,首先,就是要明白信息到底反映那些内容,总的来讲,可以用以下8句话概括:发现通报情况、反映

 

改革举措、反馈工作思路、提供对策建议、宣传工作成果、提供领导新论、分析研究问题、观注社会热点。其次要有善于发现信息的能力。对足球运动员而言,这种能力叫“无球跑位”,对信息工作者而言,这种素质就是信息敏感。主要体现在四个方面。

 

第一,善于从政治的高度分析问题。信息工作直接服务领导决策,决定了信息工作者必须时时处处从政治的高度分析问题。对于教学工作者而言,所谓的政治是指政治鉴别力和政治敏锐性,就丰都而言,三峡移民就不单纯是一个经济问题,更是一个政治问题,涉及到移民女子入学等问题都容易被别有用心的人“钻空子”,小题大作,因此一旦涉及到与移民相关的教育信息,要慎之又慎。这就要求我们的头脑里要牢牢绷紧“政治”这根弦,不断提高政治鉴别力和政治敏锐性,去伪存真,去粗取精。

 

第二,善于从全局的角度观察问题。古人云:“不谋万世者,不足谋一时;不谋全局者,不足谋一域”。全局不是全部,是事物发展的趋势和走向。具体而言,主要有:一是要从全国和全市、全县经济社会发展的任务和形势知全局。二是要从县委、县政府的重大战略部署和县领导的重要讲话、批示中知全局;三是要结合本单位、本系统的实际,从提出的新思路、新目标、新打算中知全局。同时,我们还要从领导角度观察思考问题、从事物发展的规律上观察思考问题,只有这样,我们的信息才能立得高,看得远,谋得深,报得准。

 

第三,善于从时代的大潮把握问题。古人云:识时务者为俊杰。在我看来,做好信息工作也应该顺势而上、适时而为。一句话,就是所报的信息要体现时代性,饱含人间的喜怒哀乐,以小见大,以叶知秋。这样的信息来源于基层、来源于民间,来源于第一线,因而更真实与鲜活,更为各级领导所关注。一些同志报的信息大多数质量平平,可编价值不高,关键就是找不准切入点,抓不住载体,空话套话太多,信息的选材,必须遵循小中见大,平中出奇,巧中取胜的原则。比如,工作总结类的信息,不能只着眼于加强学校管理等常规方面,而应把成绩作为支撑点,去探寻载体,这个载体应是能见大的“小”,有出奇的“平”,在构思上则是能取胜的“巧”,它可以是写一个学生、一个村校、一堂课的巨变,让平凡中见伟大,让一滴水见太阳。

 

第四,善于从时代的创新思考问题。“天天短平快,年年马拉松”,这是从事信息工作有一段时间的同志的共同体会,大家一年四季,春夏秋冬,所报的就是春季开学夏季放假、秋季开学冬季放假等信息,容易产生一定的“信息疲劳感”,长此以往,感到老办法不管用,新办法又不会用,束手无策,疲于应付。这主要是由于我们对新情况、新问题思考不够、研究不深。当今时代是一个创新的时代,新观念、新事物、新名词层出不穷,互联网每年就新产生如“给力、神马、浮云”等网络词汇,让人目不暇接。作为信息工作者,要学会用发展的眼光和辩证的思维来思考和研究不断发展变化的新情况、新问题,从观念、认识和行动上与时间赛跑,追赶“正在发生的未来”,才能推动信息工作跟上时代步伐。

 

第五,善于从基层和群众的创造中发现问题。“人民群众是历史的创造者”。我们教学工作中一些好的方法,多数也源自教师教学的第一线。大家经常为找不到一个好的信息点子而苦恼,怎么办?我认为要眼睛向下看,只要我们把关注和发现的目光投向基层和群众,投向第一线的教职员工,就会发现“后退一步天地宽”。因此,我们应积极关注教育教学的第一线,用心去发现,去思考,好的信息点子就会源源不断地涌出出来。

 

第四个问题:发现信息后如何选题?

 

在我看来,信息选题是做好信息工作的关键所在。根据向一些前辈的学习和自己的一些肤浅的思考和体会,我认为,信息选题要围绕“三心”、抓住“三点”、拓展”三源“。

所谓“三心”:

 

一是核心。信息服务的使命和核心是各级领导。信息工作者应急领导之所急,想领导之所想,思领导之未谋,积极贴近领导开展信息服务工作,善于从有关文件、会议、领导讲话以及客观情况的发展变化中了解领导对信息的需求。领导需要什么信息,我们就报送什么信息,而不是坐等靠要,有什么信息就报什么信息;领导没有想到的地方,我们应该以信息的形式为其想到,对其建议,这是前瞻性的问题。同时,上级领导的批示、指示、要求或交办事项的落实情况、取得的成效、办理中存在的问题和困难,也是信息工作的重要题材,往往很容易被采用。

 

二是中心。县委、政府的中心工作,教育系统的中心工作,往往体现在一些重大决策部署上,这就是信息应该关注的中心。我们应该围绕决策部署挖掘信息源。县委县政府以及市县教委作出重大决策或重大工作部署后,要注意报送本系统、本单位贯彻落实的安排和措施,并在平常的工作中注意收集各方面的反映和意见;然后报送实施决策中取得的成效、出现的情况、存在的问题;决策实施告一段落后,要报送总体情况。上级政策在基层实践中的“空白点”、“矛盾点”、“梗阻点”,或者各有关部门之间的政策“棚架”、“撞车”现象,也是我们在工作中容易发现的问题,这些都是很好的信息题材。

 

三是重心。所谓重心,是指党委政府、教育系统某个阶段举足轻重的重点工作。这就需要大家始终保持较强的政治敏锐性,平常就关注国家的大政方针政策,避免偏离重点报信息。比如,当前对教育公平、统筹城乡教育发展、优化教育资源配置、提高职业教育水平等,应当成为大家关注和思考的重要问题,成为信息反馈的重心。

 

所谓“三点”:

一是抓难点。所谓难点,是指长期难以解决而又影响整个工作的主要问题。抓住这些问题开展信息工作,分析产生问题的原因,进而提出有针对性的对策建议,这对推进教育事业健康发展有着重要意义。比如当前比较关注的留守儿童问题、中小学和幼儿园大班额问题等等。

二是抓热点。所谓热点,是指社会各界比较关注、党政领导又急于解决的一些问题。如果我们在工作中发现带有苗头性、倾向性的新情况和新问题,要及时发现及时报送;如果是原有且未能很好解决的问题,需要加强研究,挖掘问题发生的深层次原因。

三是抓亮点。所谓亮点,就是工作经验和成果。要善于进行挖掘。教学方法创新、素质教育建设、绩效考核管理、师资队伍建设、学校财务管理等方面,都可以找到很好的亮点。

 

所谓“三源”:

 

一是机构信息。主要是指各级党政机关和教育主管部门出台的一些重要文件,颁布实施的一些重要规定等等。注意从大量文件中去发现和捕捉信息点子,是提高一个地方和单位信息质量最便捷、最有效的方法。但是,这类信息一般容易出现三个问题,需要注意。一是掐头去尾,照搬照台,作一些简单的技术处理就报,仅仅起了“二传手”作用;二是断章取义,往往所报信息前后矛盾,不能自圆其说;三是不注重进一步挖掘藏在这些文件后面的信息点子,使不少好信息失之交臂。

 

二是会议信息。会议是党政机关行使自己职权的“三大法宝”之一。因此,会议信息是目前信息来源的重要渠道。有会议就有领导讲话,因此,对会议信息的处理主要体现在对领导讲话的提练上。一是要善于摸清各类领导讲话的风格,准确找出领导讲话的精髓和要义。二是要善于从领导讲话中去捕捉信息需求,了解他们在思考什么、关注什么,需要我们为其提供什么信息。三是要善于从领导讲话中发现调研选题,围绕领导的兴趣点开展调研,拿出信息调研成果。

三是媒体信息。目前,各类媒体的不断增多,如互联网、手机短信等,导致信息来源和渠道日益广泛。我们要善于从各类资讯中发现和捕捉社会各方关注的焦点,把握各方面的变化,时刻关注和收集有关本地区、本系统、本单位的网络言论,及时整理提炼后报送领导

 

第五个问题:选好题后如何写好信息?

 

信息选题解决了信息素材的问题,接下来就是如何写信息了。凡是预则立不预则废,个人认为,动笔写之前,首先应明确信息主题和机构。

所谓主题,就是信息所表达出来的基本观点或中心思想。我们编任何一条信息,总有一个目的,就是通过反映什么问题,说明什么观点,提出什么建议,达到什么目的,这就是主题,必须首先搞明确。主题贵在提炼,对掌握的信息进行高度概括,提炼出反映事物本质的东西。我个人体会,主题与内容要做到“题常意要新,意常语要新”。就是说题目很平常,内容要新颖;内容很平常,语汇要新颖。所谓结构,就是文章的表现形式和框架。安排好结构,关键要搞清楚四个问题:一是为什么做。二是做了什么?三是怎么做的?四是做的成效如何?可以用一是、二是、三是来分别表述。

确定了主题和结构,信息写作就很容易了。下面,我重点围绕好信息的标准、信息标题、信息正文以及重点信息的写作谈一些个人的肤浅体会。

 

第一,关于好信息的标准

采编信息的过程,实际就是在描述事物的基础上进行分析判断的过程。描述和判断是采编信息的两个方面,二者相辅相成缺一不可。仅有描述而没有判断的信息是肤浅的,只有判断而没有描述的信息是苍白的。因此,描述清楚、判断准确,是高质量信息必须具备的基本品质。在这个大前提下,一篇高质量的信息还应具备这样一些特点。一是立意高。也可以说是选材好。要点是站在领导的角度审视题材,这个领导可大可小,可以是县委领导,也可以是市委甚至国家、中央的领导,但既然是向县委报送信息,至少应站到县委领导的高度,做到身在兵位、胸有帅谋;二是根基稳。要点是抓好“三结合”,紧密结合上情、下情和本单位的实际工作采编信息;三是定性准。要点是客观准确,是什么就是什么,既不危言耸听,也不文过饰非,特别要符合经济社会生活的一般常识;四是逻辑严。要点是题文相符合,描述和判断相符合,不能自相矛盾;五是形式新。在表现形式上不拘泥于固定模式,尽量做到一气呵成。少用官话、套话,多用一切平实亲切的语言,言简意赅,有比较强的可读性和感染力。

 

第二,关于信息标题的写作

“看报看题,看书看皮”、“人靠衣装马靠鞍”的道理大家都懂,标题就好像一篇信息的衣服一样,衣服穿的光鲜漂亮,自然回头率高。每天面对大量的信息,作为选编人员大部分都是靠标题来看信息的,标题引不起兴趣,不管文章如何,内容很可能就不看。一个好的标题,其基本要求是:言简意骇、一目了然,开门见山、一语破的,直观明了、一看就懂,新颖别致、别具一格。写好标题,具体有五个技巧:

 

(1)巧用数字。一是对比使用。如《11名党员干部和农民在抗灾中英勇献身6名干部擅离职守违反防汛纪律受处分》就是两个数据对比使用,形成鲜明反差,增加了表达效果。二是串联使用。如《XX镇引进项目11个资金5655万元》,就是将数与数、数与词有机的串联起来联合使用,像连珠炮一样,增强了表达效果。三是整体综合使用。有些数字看起来不起眼,孤立使用信息价值不大,但经过分析综合后,就能使之成为一条价值较高的信息。如有一则信息题目是《某地一粮食企业21名职工白手起家年创利税40万元》。四是灵活选择使用。标题所用数字一般有两种形式,一种是保持原汁原味的原始数,如《县农村信用社三月底累放支农贷款16416万元》,一种是经过技术处理的人工数,如平均数、百分数等,如《XX精减2成警车并进行公开拍卖》。至于采取哪种为好,要根据标题所反映的对象和内容来定。一般来说,能用原始数说明就尽量用原始数;用平均数、百分数等更加能说明问题,就将数字处理后再用。

 

(2)巧用口语。口语的特点是生动活泼,通俗易懂,表现力强,用得好,可以收到妙笔生花之效,如《今年农民手头偏紧年货操办呈降温趋势》、《XX县为招商引资画好路线图》等,“手头偏紧”和“路线图”口语性强,明白如话,听起来像拉家常一样,很有味道;又如《XX3108名“挂空”党员重新落“娘家”》、《气象台预报今春冷暖变幅大谨防“倒春寒”袭击》中“娘家”、“倒春寒”等词用得很形象。

 

(3)巧用成语。成语是人们长期以来沿用定型的比较特殊的词组或短句,具有结构上的稳定性和意义上的整体性,言简意赅,节奏匀称,使用得当可增强表达效果。如《各地未雨绸缪做好防汛抗灾工作》、《XX镇不遗余力营造良好投资环境》、《水利设施整险加固刻不容缓》等。运用成语制作标题要注意三点:一是要弄清词的本意和实际意义,使其恰当;二是成语一般要用原形,不得随意更改,但在特殊语言环境中出于修辞需要,可灵活运用;三是成语使用时要概括,做到文约事丰,信息密集,避免不必要的语义上的重复。

 

(4)巧用补语。这个补语,是指对标题某些重要成分进行必要的补充说明的词语或短句,补语用得好,可以提高标题的信息价值,增强对读者的吸引力,有的可用补语说明问题的严重程度,如《城区下水道井盖被盗严重有55个井口缺盖》、《部分地方棉花收购资金供需矛盾日益突出目前陷入等钱开秤境地》等标题中,“55个井口缺盖”是对“被盗严重”的补充说明,“等钱开秤”是对资金矛盾的补充说明。有的可用补语交代信息背景的原因,有的可用补语点明事件的意义,巧用补语关键在于恰到好处,真正做到“补”的作用,要谨防画蛇添足、喧宾夺主。

 

(5)巧用术语。各种行业和各门学科都有自己的专用术语,直接使用可突出行业或学科特点,不带感情色彩,使用恰当能增加标题语言的平实感。如《某地第一批200公斤水稻发芽率在50%以上》中的“发芽率”,直接用来反映稻种情况,使人感到朴实无华,真实可信。间接使用术语更是丰富多彩,其中移花接木便是常用技法之一。平时用得较多的是借科技术语说明社会现象,如《某些乡镇干部“遥控指挥”现象不容忽视》中的“摇控”、《XX市全面打响食品安全卫生防控阻击战》中的“阻击战”等。这些术语都用得很妙,意思没直说,但含义很清楚,读起来有兴味。但要注意的是,术语不论直接还是间接使用,都应当准确、简洁、平实、生动,易于理解,既约定俗成,又推陈出新。

 

第三,关于信息主体的写作

信息主体是信息的精髓,其基本要求是:条理清晰,层次清楚,要么以时间先后为序,要么以逻辑为序,不东拉西扯;材料运用得当,文字精练准确,既不拖沓,也不含混。信息主体必须要具备这么几个要素,即何时何地,发生什么事件,事件的程度,当地领导是否知道、有什么态度。对正文的写作应把握五句话:

 

一是长稿写短。有写信息为了说明某个工作措施得力,成效大,往往将工作中所采取的措施都列出来,弄个十几点,一看就头痛。因为我们信息的载体内容有限,容纳不下这种信息,而且领导也没有那么多时间和精力详细的看每一条措施。怎么办?有技巧,就是事不过三,写三点才能琢磨出新词、新的语汇,点多了就没有那么多新语汇了。点位越多,哲理性就越差,语汇也就差,容易显得层次不清,语意混乱,而且太长也没人会爱看。因此,千万不要写六点、七点、八点,就写三点。比如某某乡镇谈班子建设要做到三分三合(职能上分,思想上合;工作上分,目标上合;责任上分,决策上合),然后再具体解释,结构上非常好,这样写要比班子建设制定若干规定、措施、制度要好得多。

 

二是大稿写小。浓缩才是精华。除了调研信息外,信息的文字量一般应在500字以内,最高不超过1000字。因此应尽量写小,力求用最精炼的文字把最闪光的、最兴奋的观点写出来,切忌贪大求洋。举个干部选拔任用的例子,干部选拔是一个大题目,某某乡镇选干部四个往前排(一是干事的往前排,二是心术正的往前排,三是不怕得罪人的往前排,四是经济发展速度快的往前排),然后对这四个小题逐一解释,两句语一解释、两句语一解释,总共就是八句话。这个信息文稿观点鲜明,语言流畅,内容精短,结构非常好。

 

三是散稿写精。信息不贪全,只求精。所谓精,主要是内容要精,一篇信息只反映一项工作、一件事情的精华点,其它枝叶尽量舍掉,让人一眼就能发现最有价值的东西。举个例子,反映发展县域经济的信息很多,但是多是写改革的思路、目标、措施等常规内容,显得很散。我们以“丰都县做好加减乘除法推动县域经济提质提效赶超发展”为题写了一篇信息(加法就是延伸产业链条,做大特色产业集群;减法就是整合提升传统产业,推动产业结构升级;乘法就是提高核心竞争力,带动特色产业提速增效;除法就是营造优良发展环境,提高服务效率)。我们把加减乘除用在了信息标题上,题目就非常新颖;通篇只介绍发展县域经济的新思路,其他如宣传、组织领导等内容避而不谈,精炼简洁,很快就被市委办公厅采用了。

 

四是虚稿写实。过程不是信息,指导思想不是信息,表达的目的和意义不是信息,这些都不要写,不要把政治宣传、口号语言、背景交代的语言与信息混为一谈,要去掉一些报纸、新闻的语言,去掉一此形容词和不必要的副词。写实就是写思路,写举措、反映成果。而且不要加入主观的东西,不作了字文章,避免出现“提高了”、“加大了”“增强了”词汇。因为信息是客观情况的反映,是一些领导不知道的、有价值的、能用得着的,客观情况的反映。

五是重点写好。对信息的重点部分,或者说信息的闪光点,要尽量写实、写细、写到位。我们收到的信息,多数在这个方面存在问题,整偏信息除了套话、废话之后所剩无几,该详写的部分没有详写,根本无法采用。在这个方面,大家应该特别注意,对该详写的部分一定要详写,如果没有现成资料,要多方收集,不能草率了事。

 

第四,关于重点信息的写作

工作经验类信息。交流工作经验,是党委信息的重要内容之一。所谓“工作经验”,是指在工作实践中总结出来的好做法。经验不是编出来的,谈经验之前应先打几个问号:工作成效是不是比别人好?有没有突出的亮点作支撑?特色做法或“自选动作”是不是与众不同且能够被其他单位借鉴?反映的工作是不是大家都关注的焦点?采编经验类信息,洞察力是关键。一是要精心选题,跳出自身看自己,着眼全局看自己,纵横比较看自己,避开“规定动作”,着眼“自选动作”,切忌面面俱到,选好推介经验的“点子”,力求拿出来的经验在全县、全市有典型性;二是要找准规律,注重从事实中找出规律,从成效中带出做法,从个性中引出共性,力求具有较强的探索性、超前性、指导性,以利于借鉴和推广;三是要挖掘提炼,把最有特色的做法写深写透,增强典型性,其它诸如背景、目的等在整篇信息中只起点缀作用,要少写。

 

工作成效类信息。顾名思义,工作成效类信息主要反映某项工作所取得的成绩。这类信息的最大特点是工作成效必须是显著的,在同类单位中应该居于前列,这种显著可以是纵向的,也可以是横向的。这类信息一般有两种写法:一是单纯就成效写成效。将取得的成绩从不同的方面予以归纳总结,全面反映工作成效。二是借助做法谈成效。这种写法相较于第一种写法更有说服力,一般先写某项工作采取的做法,然后反映工作成效,但是工作措施只是起一个铺垫作用,信息的真正目的还是在于宣传所取得的成效。成效类信息不是有什么工作成效就报什么信息,必须要围绕各级领导的关注点和党委政府中心工作、重大决策部署、阶段重点工作来写。

 

工作动态类信息。动态性信息主要反映某单位工作动态,主要包括创新工作推进情况、重点工作进展情况、目标任务完成情况、重点工程建设情况等。这类信息最容易写,数量也最多,但是容易千人一面,流于形式。比如,开了个什么会、搞了个什么活动等等,简单报道某件事情,中稿率很低。写好动态类信息需要高度的政治敏感性,要时刻关注全县中心工作,紧扣领导关注的情况来写。具体要注意两点,一方面要快。要讲求信息时效性,做到生成信息快、传递信息快,不拖延、不积压。尤其是县委领导对某个地区、某项工作提出的工作要求,必须尽快整理上报。另一方面要深。要挖掘对领导决策和实施决策具有见微知著的效力和超前预测作用的内容,在客观反映所开展的工作以外,还应善于将零碎的、表面的、片面的初级信息进行综合归纳,揭示事物本质和内在规律,形成有一定深度的信息。

 

贯彻落实类信息。贯彻落实类信息主要指反映贯彻落实上级党政领导机关的重大决策、重要工作部署、重要会议精神、重要决定、领导的重要指示等情况的信息。此类信息可在标题或在信息开篇简单交待清楚是贯彻落实什么精神,然后详细、重点写本单位落实上级安排部署的情况,其重点应落脚到结合本部门、本乡镇工作实际的具体贯彻落实情况,而不是仅仅上报召开职工学习会传达、成立领导机构、加强督查考核等常规的方面,更不能将上级精神甚至上级文件照抄照搬后通过信息报送,而应结合本地、本单位工作实际,上报在贯彻落实上级决策部署中创造性开展工作的情况。

 

意见建议类信息。意见建议类信息是调研类信息中的“精品”和“极品”,对服务领导的决策具有较大的价值,能够很好的体现一个地方和单位信息工作的实力和水平。这类信息一般包括提出问题、分析问题、解决问题三个部分,撰写这类信息的总体要求是:反应的事物和问题要具有典型性、调查的情况要客观真实、提出的对策建议要有操作性,但整篇信息的重点在解决问题即建议部分。提出的问题不宜太大,应当是比较具体的问题;分析问题要力求条理清楚,理由充足,切中要害,为提出建议作好铺垫;解决问题要提出具有可操作性的建议,力戒原则笼统,对现行政策措施的重复罗列。

 

情况反馈类信息。情况反馈类信息主要包括工作情况反馈和社会现象反馈。写好工作情况反馈信息要抓住两点。一是要抓难点,上级政策在基层实践中的“空白点”、“矛盾点”、“梗阻点”,或者各有关部门之间的政策“棚架”、“撞车”现象。二是要抓热点,抓住社会各界比较关注、党政领导又急于解决的一些问题。另外,还要注重选题,切忌撒大网,要找好工作的突破口和切入点,题不可选得过大,要重点关注工作中出现的新情况、具体工作的细小环节但同时也是关键环节出现的新问题。社会现象反映类信息主要指反映社情民意、重大社会动态情况的信息,其采编技巧主要是善于捕捉,并分不同情况深入挖掘,同时要注意实事求是,切忌为了报送信息,胡编乱造一些情况,对现象、情况的阐述既不能夸大,也不能缩小;要注意区分所反映的情况是属于个别现象还是普遍现象,是苗头性、倾向性问题还是突发情况等,依据不同情况,进行有理有据有节地采编。

 

专题调研类信息。专题调研类信息主要是通过深入调研摸清情况,提炼典型经验,进行专题推介,供人学习借鉴,字数一般在3000字左右,容量较大。一个好的专题类信息,必须要具有思路独特、做法先进、效果显著三个特点。写活专题类信息,没有现成的模式,没有标准的套路,应多从受众的角度考虑,使其有“耳目一新”、“恍然大悟”、“豁然开朗”之感。一是要在“为什么”上启迪思路。要说明当初为什么要这么做,介绍当时面临的新情况、新问题、新矛盾,如何透过现象看本质,找到解决问题的办法。二是要在“如何做”上提供借鉴。专题类信息不能像记流水帐一样详细介绍所有做法,也不能把开会、发文件等常规做法、例行公事的内容作为“经验”,必须突出重点,写出新意,要跳出领导重视、统一认识、建立班子、明确责任、狠抓落实、协调配合等老套路,集中笔墨介绍解决矛盾问题的主要做法、重点措施和保证手段。三是要在“效果如何”上激发兴趣。效果介绍不能只偏重增长幅度和纵向比较,要多在横向排序和走向预计上下功夫。另外,专题类信息还需要提炼一些感概,这些感慨是“经验的经验”,用于揭示经验的真谛、道出经验的根源、指明经验的意义,起到画龙点睛的作用。

 

第六个问题:当前信息写作常见问题剖析

 

没有质量、没有参考价值的信息大体可能归为四种。第一种是一般化。这种信息最多,往往说某项工作取得进展,列个标题,摆个数字,缺乏对客观实际的深入分析,缺乏对信息价值的深入分析。有的甚至连数字都不摆。第二种是没内容。全篇信息都是概念罗列,空话多,套话多,穿靴戴帽多,缺乏实实在在的内容,很难进行加工处理。第三种是不完整。信息反映的情况不完整,或只有情况而无原因无解决问题的办法,或只有表象陈述没有背景交代,更没有实质分析。第四种是没特色。现在泛泛反映工作成绩的信息多,但没有特色,大多千篇一律,缺乏深入加工,没有把好经验和好做法总结提炼出来。影响信息价值。

 

例一:某某县建立96所家长学校 某某县以家长学校为依托,举行家庭教育经验交流会、专题讲座,开展“优秀家长”评选活动,提高了家庭教育的整体水平。全县开展大型家教知识报告会30余场,受益家长5万余人。到目前为止,该县已建立了96所家长学校,其中,1所家长学校被评为全国优秀(示范)家长学校,5所家长学校被评为重庆市示范家长学校,9所家长学校被评为重庆市优秀家长学校。

 

主要问题:中心内容或主旨不明确。一条信息反映的重点不明确,内容模棱两可,令人匪夷所思,无法了解信息所要报道的真正意图;或者对信息报送的重点阐述不够深入,欲言又止,使读者不能了解事件的真实动态。

例二:某某镇推进新农村示范工程建设打造幸福家园   一是着力改观基础设施面貌。实施完成新修村社道路4公里,整治12公里………;二是着力解决人蓄饮水。投资33万元完成全村人饮自来水工程………;三是着力发展骨干产业。投资70万元完成诚康兔业养殖厂,实现存栏4300只………;四是着力壮大集体经济。投资80万元实现渔业养殖股份管理,投资30万元兴办预制厂,兴办竹丝加工厂………;五是着力推进社会事业全面发展,投资16万元新建占地500平方米五保家园,解决入住五保老人10人。

 

主要问题:1、层次不清。一二点均属基础设施,三四点均属经济发展。2、语义不准确。着力推进社会事业全面发展,但仅写了五保家园。3、缺乏提炼。

例三:常见学校信息  某某学校在礼堂举行了“颂歌献给党”中学生歌唱比赛,共15个代表队400名选手参加了角逐。通过本次活动,大大推进了学校文体工作,为建党某某周年献礼。为更好地落实我校校本教研工作,促进教师专业化和学生创新实践能力的发展。某某镇中心校教科室与某月某日组织学生开展了“即兴作文”竞赛活动,为增强学生习作兴趣,提升学生写作能力起到了很好的促进作用。某月某日,由教委组织、某某镇学校承办的全县中小学校外教育工作会在某某镇学校隆重召开,与会代表一致认为要……。

主要问题:这类信息是常见的动态信息,在一定程度上的确起到了通报工作情况的作用,但从信息为领导科学决策提供参考这一主要作用来看,这些常规工作、常规举措、常规活动,既不新也不特,除了让领导知道这个单位还在运转外,几乎起不到辅助决策的作用;从锻炼提高写作能力的角度看,作用也不明显。能否围绕这些活动和常规工作进行深入挖掘,才是信息工作的真正功夫。

最后,非常荣幸今天有机会能够和大家交流信息写作,讲的不对的恳请各位领导、前辈指导,谢谢大家。


Zhang Dapeng article from the November 2013 issue of the Xinhua magazine The Journalist on his relations with local party organizations and government during his many years as a journalist in Anhui Province.  This gives a glimpse on how the internal information/news dichotomy (信息/新闻) is handled at the local level in China.

提要:作为一个特殊群体,驻站记者是媒体与地方的“交集”所在。当好驻站记者应处理好三大辩证关系:把握好与当地政府的“贴近”与“距离”的关系;把握好报道内容上“宏观”意识与“微观”体现的关系;把握好与兄弟站记者及当地新闻媒体“联合”与“独立”的关系。

关键词:驻站记者 媒体 地方 辩证关系

 

把握三大关系,当好驻站记者

——一名党报老驻站记者经验谈

 

□ 张大鹏

 

驻站记者是媒体与地方的“交集”所在,既是媒体的新闻采集人,也是媒体派驻地方的“使节”,既要处理好与地方的关系,又不能一味牵就地方,丧失独立性。

笔者从事新闻工作20多年,在《安徽日报》编辑部门工作10多年,又在省辖市长期担任记者站站长,对于驻站记者应把握与处理好的几种关系较有体会:

把握好与当地政府的“贴近”与“距离”的关系

驻站记者和地方党委政府在方向和宗旨上是一致的,驻站记者首先不能因为人与财不受地方管辖,就认为可以独来独往,不接受地方党委政府的工作领导与指导,因此要有“贴近”意识:

1.工作关系上的“贴近”。要摆正位置,自觉接受地方党委政府的工作领导或指导。我驻站期间内,通常每年都要专门抽时间拜会地方市一级的常委和各位副市长,向主要负责同志征求报道意见,通报报社报道要求,有时也会利用会议间隙进行工作上的交流。在县一级,也是利用采访的方便,主动拜访县里的书记和县长,了解他们宣传上的要求与建议,做到心中有数。这样的拜见,有时一年有5-10次之多。有时一些重大的情况反映,可通过电话随时向主要领导通报。工作关系的建立,想他们所想,可加深理解,取得他们对工作的支持。

2.宣传报道内容上的“贴近”。驻站记者要通过新闻宣传将地方党委政府工作上的典型点、兴奋点报道出来,主动贴近地方党委政府的工作。如果一名驻站记者,只对自己认可的新闻有兴趣,对地方党委政府每年开展的主要工作却认为没有新闻可挖,长此以往,会大大影响媒体在当地的影响力。2010年,我所驻站的六安市大力开展了廉政风险防控工作,市委市政府经过清权确权、绘制权力运行流程图、排查廉政风险点、并制定防控措施,较好地实现了权力依法依纪、公开透明运行,为公职人员构筑起一道坚实的防腐“堤坝”。对这样的工作,我从新闻角度,在《安徽日报》焦点新闻版加以报道,取得了很好的社会效果。

3.感情上的“贴近”。要与地方党委政府工作人员多交流,建立良好的私人关系,与当地人民群众建立感情,想他们所想。但贴近不等于融合。除了贴近,驻站记者还应保持一定“距离”。把握这个“距离”的度,关键在于处理报道的方式方法。我在实践中,认为要从以下几个方面来判断把握:

对严重违规违纪行为,造成人民群众利益严重受损,而上级又不知情的相关情况,可通过先内部报道后公开的形式加以处理。2009年,当地一县级开发区,在没有获得上级相关部门批准的土地指标情况下,大肆拆迁圈地,老百姓怨气很大。我了解到这一情况后,经过认真核查与了解,通过内部报道形式向省里反映情况。这一问题得到迅速制止。

对部门工作中出现的小失误,没有造成实质性影响的事件,可以通过信息沟通的方式转达给当地的主要负责人加以解决。我在基层采访时曾发现某乡部分村在实施民生工程中,对享受低保的人员没有按上级规定张榜公布,接受评议,群众有意见。我将了解的情况向该县、乡的相关部门负责人作了通报,问题很快得到解决。类似不影响全局的局部性问题,媒体驻站记者不可熟视无睹,但也不可大动干戈,口诛笔伐。

对于地方日常的工作内容,包括主要领导活动如调研等应保持距离。驻站记者时间久了,和各方面领导关系熟了,他们分管或主管的工作如调研、开会之类,往往邀请记者参加。对类似活动,驻站记者应保持距离。如每年的水利冬修,如没有特殊的新闻点,我基本不参加诸如此类的领导督查、现场会之类会议。

对突发性新闻事件、造成人民群众利益严重受损的事件,驻站记者有责任在最短的时间里了解情况、发布消息。在追责制成为今天施政的一个普遍规则背景下,地方一旦出事,其担忧被追责是常态。但作为党报驻站记者,我认为要有报道事实之胆,但不可有炒作之心。当地某县曾发生多个病人因输血感染丙肝事件,涉及群众20多人。尽管包括县里的主要领导都希望记者不要报道,但我还是顶住说情,在《安徽日报》一版位置给予报道,促成了问题的解决,维护了群众利益。

 

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