Kong Lingping’s “Bloody Chronicles”: Lin Biao’s Flight and Aftermath

Another excerpt from my draft translation of Kong Lingping’s Bloody Chronicles 

Section Two   The shock waves of September 13th

During the historically unprecedented butchery of the Cultural Revolution, while terrible violence and terror enveloped the entire country, the Central People’s Broadcasting Station in March 1969 that fighting had broken out on Zhenbao Island on Heilongjiang Province’s border with the Soviet Union. In the fierce fighting on snow and ice Sun Yuguo become a new Chinese hero. The conflict showed that that the Sino-Soviet split may progress from a “war of words” would inevitably develop into an “armed struggle”.

The socialist camp had officially disintegrated from that moment onwards.

– 349 –

何庆云在组织农六队的政治学习时,面对刘顺森等人提出的问题,掩饰不了他的迷惘和 无知,好在《九评苏共中央公开信》给他空虚的脑瓜里垫了底。

陈力被枪杀前,中共九大在北京召开。开幕那一天晚上,我们集合在院坝里,收听开幕 式的实况录音,我们对林彪作毛的接班人并不感到意外,至于将这个决定写进修改的党章,没 去思考为什么,也不会想它的后果。

独裁者间不可避免的倾轧,在权力争夺中很快暴露出来,仅只隔了两年,毛泽东便在他 亲自选定的接班人中,上演傀儡大换班了。

1971 9 13 日,温都尔汗的叛逃经过,只有在中共的档案揭密时才能大白真像,但温 都尔汗事件,像地震一样振松了毛泽东的皇位宝座。

毛泽东害死了他的政治盟友,也换来了危机四伏墙倒从人推的报应。长期被他愚民政策 锁在闭塞状况下的大陆百姓,就犹如在死一般寂静的夜空里听到了一声惊雷,揭开这个无产阶 级专政铁幕,那里原来掩盖着一些各怀鬼胎政客们,演出的争权夺位丑剧。

He Qingyun couldn’t hide his confusion and ignorance when he when Liu Shunsen and others in the Sixth Agricultural Brigade asked him questions in the political study group that he had organized. Luckily, the “Open Letter with Nine Criticisms of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union” gave his empty mind something to grapple with.

The Ninth Congress of the Chinese Communist Party had already opened in Beijing when Chen Li was shot to death. The evening the party congress opened, we gathered in the courtyard to listen to the live broadcast of the opening ceremony. We weren’t surprised that Lin Biao was designated the successor to Mao Zedong. We didn’t wonder why that decision was written into a revision of the Party Charter and never imagined what the consequences of that revision would be.

Strife among dictators is unavoidable. The power struggle quickly revealed in just two short years later played out a puppet performance showing that he had made a big change in his successors.

On September 13, 1971 there occurred the betrayal and escape of Lin Biao and his plane crash at Öndörkhaan in Mongolia. We’ll only know the full story when the secret archives of the Chinese Communist Party are opened. The Öndörkhaan incident was a great shockwave that weakened Mao’s hold on his imperial throne.

Mao had persecuted to death his political ally. The result was a political crisis created by response of his followers all around him. Ordinary Chinese who had been walled off from what was really going on by the long time policy of keeping the people ignorant were suddenly awakened as if by a clap of thunder. They looked behind the iron curtain of the people’s democratic dictatorship and saw that it had been hiding a group of political hacks. Each of them had his or her own axe to grind in the power struggle.

中共对老百姓封锁严密,9.13 事发当天,国内的新闻、广播、报刊对这一事件没有报导! 似乎北京城压根就没有发生过任何事,大槪经过一阵搓商后,新华社向全国公布这个消息时, 按照毛泽东的诏令,全国上下同声谴责和声讨林彪。一个“批林、批孔运动”从幕后推了出来。

此时林彪形象由副统帅,变成了孔夫子的忠实追随者和门徒。下发的批林批孔文件说他, 言必称“克已复礼”;言必“悠悠万事,唯此为大,克已复礼”由“毛主席的好学生和继承人” 变成了怀着鬼胎的封建时代“雅儒”!

当然,毛泽东大权在握,任意评价历史人物,不仅是他的狂妄,更是他一贯独裁的需要。 距 9 13 日整整相隔十二天之久,9 25 日借国庆节例行的卫生大检查的掩盖,农六队



上午八点钟,全队进行集合,宣布卫生大检查开始。然后,我们被士兵和管教干事们团 团围住,按一般的搜查程序,依次地将各自的行李搬到坝子中,只是感觉气氛与以往那种人为 紧张和恐怖有些不同。

The news blackout that the Chinese Communists imposed on Chinese people was so rigid that Chinese domestic newspaper, broadcasts and periodicals did not report the September 13th incident the day that it happened. It was as if nothing had happened in Beijing at all. Apparently after long consultations, the New China News Agency announced to the entire country that according to Mao Zedong’s edict, the entire country at every level was to condemn and denounce Lin Biao. A campaign to “Criticize Lin Biao and to Criticize Confucius” was pushed forward from behind the curtains.

At that moment, the image of Lin Biao changed from Deputy Commander-in-Chief to a loyal follower and disciple of Confucius. The documents sent down on the campaign to criticize Lin Biao and Confucius said what should be said characterized Lin Biao by his saying “control yourself in order to maintain propriety” [Note: a Confucius quote] and “Of all the myriad things in life, this is the most important: control yourself in order to maintain propriety” [Note: a Lin Biao quote modeled after Confucius and the upright, martyred Han Dynasty cabinet official who died in a power struggle fighting a corrupt faction in the imperial court.] Lin Biao went from being called the “excellent student and successor of Mao Zedong” to a “an elegant Confucian” out of feudal times filled with evil designs!

Naturally, Mao Zedong was in overall control and so could make official any evaluation of historical figures that he liked, no matter who crazy it might be, if that fit his needs as dictator. Twelve days after September 13, under the pretext of the routine major inspection done before the October 1 National Day holiday, the Sixth Agricultural Brigade carried out the a “major inspection” with a special purpose. This inspection had an additional purpose that made it the strangest inspection we had during all our time in prison.

The entire brigade assembled at 8 AM and we were told that the major health inspection had begun. Then we were surrounded by soldiers and discipline and education cadres and our bags were brought out to the courtyard according to the routine procedure. This time however, we felt that the tension and terror in the air were different from previous inspections.

轮到我了,两个老管走到我的眼前,先叫我取出“毛主席语录”,这是场部统一下发给每 个人人手一册的必读物。

蹬在我面前的那年青士兵,从我手中接过那“红本本”后,翻开了扉页,直截了当的把 那篇林彪所写的“再版前言”撕了下来,丢进一个专门准备好的匣子里,同时在他的笔记本上 划上一笔,脸上毫无表情。

两个搜查人草草翻了我的行李,整个对我的检查不到五分钟便结束,还不到十一点钟, 全队的检查便结束了,抬到队部去的是一箩筐纸片。

When it was my turn, two old official walked over to me and asked that I take out my copy of “Quotations from Chairman Mao”. Mao’s book was compulsory reading that had been distributed to every member by farm headquarters.

The soldier standing in front of me took “the red book” from me. Then he opened up the flyleaf and tore out the foreword for the reprinting by Lin Biao and threw it into a specially prepared small box. With no expression on his face, he made a mark in his notebook.

The two inspectors went through my suitcase. They spent no more than five minutes inspecting my luggage. The inspection of the entire brigade was over by 11 AM. They carried a big bamboo basket back to brigade headquarters.

– 350 –

以后对 9.13 事件,当局就没有正式的宣布过,我们当时也知道,他们之所以对此事讳莫 如深,反映了他们自己的惶恐。他们的最高统帅发生了什么?他们是绝对说不清的。

其实 9.13 事件刚刚暴发,盐源县的农家已从国外的广播里获悉了这个消息,那时在外捡 粪的张华富,每天下午,都会在梅雨镇获得一些在国内报纸上得不到的消息。

9 25 日大检查中,我们一直都在观察六队的老管们的反映,他们显然早已在几天前进 行了专门学习!大检查一完,老管们失去了往常的骄横劲。

令人奇怪的是,那个林副统帅,最高权力眼看就归他了,怎么突然仓皇坐着飞机撞死在 温都尔汗?“批林批孔”也好,“克已复礼”也好,在人们心理上此刻投下的全是骗人的疑惑。

林彪事件触动他们去思考:江山如此不太平,就是当一个卖身杀手都会感到无可靠主子 可倚,使他们在心理上对残暴发生动摇。

The authorities never made a formal announcement about the September 13th incident. We knew at the time that they treated this matters as a deep secret. This reflected their own deep anxiety. What had their commander-in-chief done? They just had no idea at all.

In fact when the September 13th incident occurred, the peasant families of Yanyuan County already had heard the news from foreign radio broadcasts. Zhang Huafu, every afternoon while he was out in the countryside collecting manure, would while he was out in the misty plum rains hear news that China’s domestic newspapers were not reporting.

During the September 25th major inspection were were all constantly watching the old officials to discern their reaction. They had clearly gone to a special political study session several days before! When the inspection was over, the old officials seemed to have lost their arrogant and overbearing attitude.

What puzzled people the most was why would Deputy Commander-in-Chief Lin Biao, when he would shortly assume supreme power, hurriedly get on a plane that would crash in Öndörkhaan? People at the time suspect that all this stuff dumped on them at that time, whether it was “Criticize Lin Biao” or “keep control of yourself to maintain propriety” was all just a fraud.

The Lin Biao incident made them think: if the state was this unstable, the henchmen of the regime would no longer feel that they could rely on the emperor’s support. This will shake their own faith in brutality and violence.

其实中国的专制主义在任何时代都是极端自私的,人性都没有的杀手,同情友爱心全在 “斗争”中泯灭,奢谈“斗私批修”,在灵魂深处闹革命,明摆又是欺人之谈?

郭川小曾是高德胜的贴身警卫,身材高大,他的豪爽和直率,容易沟通我们间的鸿沟。 林彪事件刚刚才过,这天在苗圃我碰到了他,等他按往常那样,捡了一个苗圃用的木架



他眯缝着胖脸上的小眼睛看了一下我,微笑着回答道:“我们学习还不是跟你们一样,基 本上就是报纸上登载出来的那些东西,对这样的大事,谁也不敢妄加评议。”

在六队郭川小,算是农牧场中最了解我的干部之一,对他少了许多介惧,于是我说道:“现 在报纸上登的东西有几分是真实可信的?还不是毛主席怎么说就照着登,就比方这林彪,一会 儿说他是全党全军学习毛主席,紧跟毛主席的榜样,是毛主席最信赖的接班人!怎么说变就变 了,变成叛徒、野心家?”

In fact, Chinese autocrats of any era are always extremely selfish. The are all cruel murderers all die in “struggle”. Aren’t all those big words that “we should fight selfishness and criticize revisionism” and be revolutionaries in the depths of our own souls just a big lie?

Guo Chuanxiao was a security guard attached to Gao Desheng. He was a tall man who was both honest and straightforward who easily bridged the big gap between us. Just after the Lin Biao incident I ran into him in the nursery garden. When I saw him as usual find a piece of log in the nursery to sit down on, I asked him, “Brigade leader Guo, after the Lin Biao incident, was there any “internal reference” news that reveals something about the inside story you heard about in your own political study sessions that you can share so that we can understand things better?”

He squinted at me through the small eyes on his plump face and laughed saying, “What we study in our political study sessions is the same as what you study in yours. We read articles published in the newspapers. Nobody dare comment on such a major event.”

Guo Chuanxiao was one of the cadres on the farm who understood me the best so I could speak directly to the point with him. “Can we believe everything that is written in the newspapers these days? They still publish according to Chairman’s Mao’s direction. With respect to Lin Biao, they used to say that he is a fine example for the entire nation in studying from Chairman Mao and closely following Chairman Mao and was the chosen successor whom Chairman Mao relied upon! How could that change, that he would now be called a renegade and a careerist?”

他依然平静回答我说:“你这个人总是爱钻牛角尖,所以吃了不少亏,原因就在你不认输。 但是我还是要奉劝你,事事得讲究实际。中国有句俗话,叫好汉不吃眼前亏,现在的形势下老 是同毛主席过不去,行得通吗?别说你一个小小的犯人,就是中央的大人物哪一个斗得过他? 林彪同他斗,最后还不是自讨苦吃,摔死在温都尔汗的大山里?依我看哪!平时不开腔的人并 不是蠢人,遇到政治上的问题,大家怎么说,我就怎么说,叫大智若愚,没人会说你傻!”

这种装糊涂,恐怕是狱吏的普遍态度。像林彪事件这样的大事连一般的中国人都看得出 来,这位下层“狱吏”岂有不懂的?既然懂了而故意装糊涂,是因为怕惹祸上身?

那么,你当然知道林立果的小舰队,能不能透露一点五七一工程纪要?林彪说,不说 假话办不了大事,共产党有几句是真话?当年林彪肉麻地吹捧说毛泽东是当代最伟大的革命领


He replied calmly, just as he had before, “You are the sort of person who likes to split hairs so you have been treated unfairly. The reason is that you don’t admit it when you have lost. However I would still like to offer you a very practical bit of advice. There is an old Chinese saying, that a good man does not fight against impossible odds. Under present circumstances, Chairman Mao is unbeatable, so how can you successfully oppose him? Never mind just an insignificant prisoner like yourself, this holds true even for the major figures on the Central Committee. None of them can defeat him either. Lin Biao fought him and in the end brought disaster upon himself. Didn’t he die in a plane crash in the mountains of Öndörkhaan? That is what I say. Ordinarily the person who does not speak up is no fool. Whenever there is a political issue, I see what everyone is saying and so I say the same thing. If you call great wisdom dumb then nobody will call you a fool!”

This pretended ignorance was the shared attitude of our jailers. Ordinary Chinese people knew what was going on with the Lin Biao incident so how could low level people like our jailers not understand it? Even if they understood it but pretended to be ignorant, wasn’t this because they were afraid of what would might happen to them otherwise?

“Then you must know the story of Lin Liguo’s [Note: Lin Biao’s son Lin Liguo was accused to plotting an armed uprising against Mao.] small detachment. Can you tell us anything about Project 571? Lin Biao said, “If you don’t tell lies you will never be able to achieve anything important” so does that mean that the Communist Party hardly ever tells the truth? When Lin Biao did his over the top flattery of Mao Zedong calling him the greatest revolution of modern times, and praised him to skies, how is it that Mao Zedong never noticed that barefaced lie?”

– 351 –

郭川小犹豫起来,为了掩盖自己避免作正面答复的尴尬,他向远处的夏守愚喊道:“给我 端一根小板凳来。”

等到夏守愚慢慢从棚子里将板凳送过来后。他在冬瓜架下坐好,开始回答:“我不是早就 跟你说,我现在只考虑自己的家庭和生活,一切不该我思考的问题,我是决不会去想的。”

当然林彪红极一时,是他的运气!我们跟着也喊:‘祝林副主席身体永远健康’。而现 在他的阴谋大暴露,我们就说他是一个阴谋家。”

他为什么会这样?我们这些老百姓是无法知道的,也没任何资料解释这一切,我们就 知道他的私心大膨胀,现在不是重新在斗私批修吗?我觉得你也不要再钻牛角尖。中国的政治 就是这样,私心杂念太重,林彪这样的事不知道今后还会有多少?”

他的回答反映了一个中共党员,对共产党的认识。中共上层的权力斗争终于使他们意识 到自己不过是这个战场上厮杀的雇用兵!他们只能奉行“随大流”。

Guo Chuanxiao hesitated. In order to avoid embarrassment at not giving me a direct response, he called out to Xia Shoyu in the distance, “Bring a small stool over here.”

He waited for Xia Shoyu to slowly bring the stool from the shed and then sat down and began to answer my question. “Haven’t I told you this before. Now you should only be thinking about your own family and your own life. I certainly never think about anything that I shouldn’t be thinking about.”

“Certainly Lin Biao was very popular for a time. That was his luck! We went along a shouted, ‘We wish Vice Chairman Lin eternal health’. Now that his plot has been exposed, we say that he is a conspirator.”

“Why did he do that? We ordinary people will never know. Neither do we have any documents available to us that would explain all that. We only know that his he became much more selfish. Today haven’t we gone back to fighting selfishness and criticizing revisionism? I think you shouldn’t go splitting hairs anymore. That is just the way Chinese politics is. There is just too much selfish considerations involved. Who knows how many incidents like the Lin Biao incident will occur again in the future?”

His answer to my question reflecting the understanding that a member of the Chinese Communist Party had of his own party. In the end, the power struggles at the top levels of the Communist Party had made him come to realize that he was just a pawn on the battlefield! All he could do was to “go along with the mainstream”.

那么在你看来毛泽东选定林彪作‘接班人’,是不是把他当成与刘少奇抢夺权力的枪手 在使?”我这样的提问是对中共信仰的公开挑战!

然而他回答说:“谁也摸不清他的用心,过去他把刘少奇指定为接班人,后来成了水火不 容的仇人,还可用庐山会议去解释!而现在又同林彪反目,只能用‘权力’争夺来解释。”

林彪说要抢班夺权,让人看不懂。当然毛泽东不是神人,事事都料得那么准,但他必 竟是一个了不起的人物。说实话,我们何尝没有发生过与你同样的问题,但我知道这是不能乱 讲的,我劝你不要老在这些问题上钻牛角尖,车到山前必有路,中国有的是能人,用不着你瞎 操心。”

看来,对这次有关林彪事件的探讨,郭川小已够坦率了。在经历林彪事件后,中共营垒 里的多数人,都从他们对统帅的盲目崇拜中走了出来,郭川小是四十出头的中年人了,从小跟 随红军从陕北山里打出来,可谓当今的新贵族,但将近三十年的实践,他终于明白他的周围, 那些崇奉共产主义的信徒,原来都是些很自私的人。

于是他变成了只知道如何保护自己的老婆和孩子很现实的人,此刻在他的心里不再装着 阶级斗争和社会主义空幻路线斗争,不再有那种拼杀的热情,当然也不会违抗他的领导去做各 种危险事,只要尽责,便是他所追求的满足。

“So now do you think that Mao Zedong having previously chosen Lin Biao as his “successor” now puts him in the same category of someone like Liu Shaoqi who was trying to seize power?” That kind of question was an open challenge to his faith in communism! Now that he has fallen out with Lin Biao, we can only explain it as a “power” struggle.”

But he simply answered, “Nobody can know what was in his heart. In the past he also had designated Liu Shaoqi as his successor, but later Liu became Mao’s personal enemy. You might look at the Lushan Conference to explain that!

“But people can’t understand why Lin Biao would want to seize power. Of course Mao Zedong is not a god, the facts prove otherwise, but he was nonetheless a very extraordinary person. Although we didn’t run into the same problems as you did, and I know that one has to be careful talking about this, but I have to ask you again not to keep splitting hairs. By the time the car gets to the mountain, a way forward will have been found. China has able people, you needn’t waste time worrying about it.”

Guo Chuanxiao had already been quite frank in his discussion of the Lin Biao incident. After the Lin Biao incident, most people in the communist camp had already stopped blindly worshiping their commander-in-chief. Guo Chuanxiao was a middle-aged man in his early forties who had fought with the Red Army since he was a young man in Shaanxi Province. He might have been called a member of the new aristocracy. Thirty years of practice had made him finally understand what had been going on around him. Those devoted disciples of the communism had turned out to be all very selfish people.

Therefore he had become a very practical man who only focused on how to protect his wife and child. By that time he no longer had any illusions about the class struggle or about socialism. No longer was he passionate about those kinds of deadly struggles. Naturally he would not disobey the orders that his superiors gave him about all kinds of dangerous matters. He would just do his duty and be satisfied with that.

讨论到此该告一段落。 我立即把话题转到我们最喜欢的历史故事上面去,因为那无伤大雅,隔阂可以彼此化解。

今天我有意讲起了秦汉交替时期刘邦殊杀异姓王候的故事。我问他:“韩信在被杀时,曾 仰天高叹:‘飞鸟尽,良弓藏,狡兔死,走狗烹’还有什么其它的意义么?”他眯缝着双眼, 彷佛在思考着什么,但他不能讲!

Our discussion ended there. I immediately switched the topic to my favorite stories from history because those stories would not cause any offense and can help break down the barriers between us. Today I wanted to tell the story about how Liu Bang, in a battle between the fall of the Qin Dynasty and the founding of the Han Dynasty, had killed kings who were not of the royal blood. I asked him, “When Han Xin was killed, he looked up to the sky and said, ‘All the birds have flown away, the excellent archer has hidden his bow, the cunning hare has died, and the hunting dog has been cooked’. What did he really mean by that? He squinted as if he were thinking something over, but he couldn’t answer!


– 352 –

厥一时的打人风收敛了,那套随时可尝老管饱拳的繁锁报告制度,也无声无息的取消了。 打人的魔鬼好像暂时被林彪带到温都尔汗的荒漠上去了。

不知道是因为换防还是调整,原先那批对我们任意施暴的暴徒,不知何时悄悄地离开了 这里,六队围墙里的秩序暂时又回到了“文革”以前的样子。每晚的政治学习,再也没有像林 扯高那样督促各小组,向学习者提出一些莫明其妙的问题。

林彪事件以后,流传对中共高层的种种猜测,夹着社会上流行的各种小道消息,一时十 分活跃。处在狱中的奴隶们彷佛看到一线希望,广播里重复播放着“批林批孔”的刮噪,竭力 掩盖中共正处在一个断层上的那种尴尬。

无产阶级专政”铜墙铁壁的神话被打破了。 人们在旧秩序的惯性作用下渐渐复归平静,但魔头不归天,压在中国人民头上一党专制


The open betrayal and flight of Lin Biao had tamped down the spirits of the officials who here who were ordinarily so bold and brazen. The customary practice that allowed jailers to arbitrarily beat up prisoners ended without notice. It seemed as if the devils who were always beating people up had themselves been dragged off by Lin Biao to the desert wastes of Öndörkhaan.

I don’t know if this was because the garrison was relieved or there were some changes made. That group of soldiers and guards who would commit arbitrary acts of violence against the prisoners disappeared from the prison. Order surrounding the prison walls of the Sixth Brigade returned temporarily to what it had been before the “Cultural Revolution”. At political study every evening, there were no longer people like Lin Chegao who would be urging the group on and raising all sorts of baffling questions.

After the Lin Biao incident, there were many guesses circulating about what was going on at the top levels of the Chinese Communist Party. All the various channels of gossip became very lively for a while. We slaves locked up in prison seemed to see a few rays of hope. Broadcast overflowed with the noise of repeated slogans to “Criticize Lin Biao and Criticize Confucius” as if in an effort to hide the great political fault that had opened up in front of the Communist Party.

The once-invincible ideological fortress of the “dictatorship of the proletariat” had been broken. People were still under the influence of the old order so the return to calm normality was gradual. But the devils had not died off. The powerful one-party dictatorship still sat oppressively on the heads of the Chinese people. There would be no breakthroughs in China so of course some time as needed for changes to appear!

农六队流放者,还要在徐老大和老管淫威下,完成每天十个小时的超强劳役,晚上疲惫 不堪的人们,在学习时间仍一如既往,在自己的铺上呼呼大睡,或者点燃自卷的兰花烟,用燥 辣的烟云驱散疲劳。

大陆被毛泽东的中共任意践踏已为世界公认,为了求真,在此期间,一位意大利的记者 安东尼奥尼,对神秘大陆现状完成了“写真”,他采用实地拍照,再经汇总的方法,将中国大 陆的实况展现在世人面前,并以《中国》,命名了这部新闻记彔片。

为了突破中共密探的阻绕,听说他不得不采用照像机代替摄像机,拍摄成片后,为了能 完整顺利的通过中国海关,他不得不化整为零,分批送出大陆。《中国》在国外上映轰动国际 影坛,这部记录片拍摄的成功,耗费了这位民主斗士的多少心血啊。

《中国》中有危房相倚的老百姓住所;有破烂校舍;有依桥而立的晾衣竿上晾着破衣烂 裳;有在街头争抢臬币的乞丐,这些真实的照片,展现了一个真实的中国。

蔡先录因此感叹道:“安东尼奥尼,如果能进入中国监狱,他定会把我们挨打挨捆,完不 成任务,晚上围坐院坝等等监狱实况摄入他的《中国》”。

The exiles of the Sixth Brigade still needed to do ten hours of hard labor under the abusive power of Old Man Xu and his officers. Returned back dead tired, we still had to go to political study just as we had before. We slept soundly in our beds or lit orchard smokes that we had rolled for ourselves and let the dry spicy smoke relieve our fatigue.

The world already know how Mao Zedong was abusing his own people. In order to find out the real story, at this time an Italian journalist Michelangelo Antonioni a film portrait of mysterious Mainland China. Antonioni collected his own photographs and showed the people of the world Chinese reality. The news documentary was called “China”.

I heard that in order to avoid hidden obstacles set up by the Chinese Communists he had to use still cameras instead of movie cameras. Once the shooting was complete, in order to get everything smoothly past Chinese Customs inspection, he had to break the whole up into many parts and send them little by little out of China. “China” was a sensation in the international film world. That fighter for democracy spent a lot of blood and sweat on that documentary film!

The film “China” included people’s houses in danger of collapse leaning against one another, old decrepit school buildings, lines of ragged clothing on clotheslines attached to bridges, beggars on the street scrambling for coins. This honest film showed the real China.

Cai Xianlu sighed at this, saying, “If Antonioni could enter a Chinese prison he would certainly have put scenes of us getting beaten for no reason and being made to sit outside in the courtyard if we had not fulfilled our production quotas in his film ‘China’.”

张锡锟说:“一个外国人冒着危险不远万里,远涉重洋,掇下这部真实的作品,一定会永 载在中国历史上。”

中共统治下的大陆,必然孤立于国际社会中。 第三节 公有奴隶制下的特权阶级 六队的最高行政长官徐世奎,最懂得他的身份和如何扮演在这种特权群体中的角色。他



Zhang Xikun said, “It will go down in Chinese history that a foreigner would brave dangers of traveling so far and put together such a truthful work of art.”

China under the rule of the Chinese Communist Party was necessarily isolated from the outside world.

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China’s Diplomacy: How Many Kinds of Major and Minor Partner “Relations” 夥伴關係 Does China Have?

With President Xi’s visit to the US, one might wonder how China evaluates its broadening and deepening global network of diplomatic relationships.

A 2015 article from Hong Kong’s Wenhui Bao, translated below, discusses the gradations in the hierarchy of China’s diplomatic relationships.

From the article, one gets the impression that China’s diplomatic relationships with Japan and DPRK are the most difficult.

  • All – round strategic partnership 全方位戰略夥伴關係
  • Comprehensive strategic cooperative partnership 全面戰略合作夥伴關係
  • Comprehensive strategic partnership 全面戰略夥伴關係
  • Strategic cooperative partnership 戰略合作夥伴關係
  • Strategic partnership 戰略夥伴關係
  • Non-partnership relations

You can get a flavor of the terms by looking at the China – foreign country X diplomatic relations characterizations on the PRC Foreign Ministry website in English at http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/gjhdq_665435/ and in Chinese at http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/…/gjhdq…/gj_676203/yz_676205/

How Many Kinds of Major and Minor Partner “Relations” Does China Have?


http://news.wenweipo.com [2015-04-22]

[Wenhuibao Net report] There are three different types of relations between states: partnership relations, alliance relations and non-alliance, non-partnership relations. China has not made alliances with other countries. Most of the relationships that China has with other states that are friendly and close are partnership relations.

According to the April 22, 2015 report from the China Youth Daily, an April 20, 2015 joint communique by China and Pakistan proclaimed that that two sides agreed to raise the level of the Sino-Pakistan relations from strategic cooperative relations to an all-weather strategic cooperative relations 全天候戰略合作夥伴關係 and to continually deepen the Sino-Pakistan community of common destiny and to strive to build friendship between the coming generations of Chinese and Pakistanis. A search in the People’s Daily database revealed that at the 2010 Asian Games held in Guangzhou, when then Premier Wen Jiabao met Pakistani President Zardari, who had come for the opening ceremony, Wen had mentioned “the strengthening and the deepening of the all-weather strategic cooperative relations between our two countries”. The most recent joint statement provides a document that makes this relationship clearer.

There are three different types of relationships between states: partnership relations, alliance relations and non-alliance, non-partnership relations. China has not made alliances with other countries. Most of the relationships that China has with other states that are friendly and close are partnership relations.

Comprehensive strategic partnership relations 全面戰略協作夥伴關係

In addition to Pakistan, which is the only state with a relationship characterized as an “all-weather strategic coordination relations”, China has a unique relationship with the Russian Federation. The formulation “comprehensive strategic partnership coordination relations” is only used to describe the relationship between China and Russia.

In November 2007, when Wen Jiabao visited and had informal discussions with Russian legislators, he mentioned that he wanted to promote “Sino-Russian comprehensive strategic coordination partners”. At that time, the relationship between China and Russia was called a “strategic coordination partnership”. That was the first strategic partnership relationship that China established with any foreign state.

In June 2001, on the tenth anniversary of the signing of the “Sino-Russian treaty on friendly and cooperative neighborly relations”, then Chinese President Hu Jintao and Russian President Dimitri Medvedev issued a joint statement in which they agreed to add the word “comprehensive” to their characterization of the bilateral relationship.

All-round strategic partnership relationship relations 全方位戰略夥伴關係

In China’s relations with the states of the European Union, one stands out by its special appellation. That is China’s “All-round strategic partnership” with Germany. In March 2014, during Xi Jinping’s visit to Germany, the two sides agreed to establish an all-round strategic partnership.

In fact, the first country to propose, in its relations with China, an “all-round strategic partnership” was Brazil. Already in 1995, the Brazilian president had proposed during a 1995 visit to establish an all-round strategic relationship between the two countries. In 2012, the two states raised the level of the Sino-Brazilian relationship to a comprehensive strategic partnership. Officially it was called “entering a new stage in the good comprehensive development” 進入全方位良好發展新階段 of the relationship between the two countries.

Comprehensive strategic cooperative partnership relations 全面戰略合作夥伴關係

With the addition of the word “cooperative” 合作, the scope of bilateral relations widens. China’s relationship with the Southeast Asian countries Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia and Laos all fit into this category.

China with these countries cooperates across a wide range of issues in highly sensitive areas such as politics and diplomacy as well as in economics and other less sensitive areas so those relationships are characterized as “comprehensive strategic cooperation”.

Comprehensive strategic partnership relations 全面戰略夥伴關係

This list is longer. Searches through recent issues of People’s Daily found that states that have a comprehensive strategic partnership relationship with China include Indonesia, Australia, South Africa, Algeria, Belarus, Mongolia, the United Kingdom, Malaysia, Kazakhstan, Argentina, Italy, Venezuela, Egypt, and Brazil among others.

Taking Egypt, which recently formed a comprehensive strategic partnership relationship with China, as an example, the joint statement of the two countries includes “Taiwan is an inseparable part of China” and strongly condemned terrorist acts that had taken place in the two countries.

Strategic cooperative relationships 戰略合作夥伴關係

These are states on the “greater periphery” of China. They include countries that directly border on China such as India, South Korea, and Afghanistan as well as Turkey and Sri Lanka which lie within China’s “greater periphery” and now fall within the scope of the “One Belt One Road” project.

Compared with the relationships at the next higher level, they lack the word “comprehensive”. That means that the scope of the bilateral strategic cooperation is not as broad. For example, although Afghanistan shares a common border with China, it is still preoccupied with war at home and has deep domestic security concerns. Therefore the bilateral relationship focuses more on security and strategic areas and less on the economy, trade and investment.

Strategic partnership relations 戰略夥伴關係

In January 2015, the Costa Rica government announced that China and Costa Rica had agreed to establish a strategic partnership relations. This indicates that China’s influence in Central America is growing. It will also help Chinese companies gain a foothold in the region.

Over ten states have strategic partnership relationships with China including Canada, Nigeria, Turkmenistan and other countries in Europe, the Americas, Africa and Asia.

Other types of partnership relationships

China’s relationships with the states listed above all include the word “strategic”. The absence of the word “strategic” suggests that those states do not have any special importance to China for political or security reasons or as a supplier of strategic resources. However, this means that the stress in the partnership relationship is not political but economic.

Among these the relationship with Bangladesh is characterized as “particularly close”. As it does in the case of Pakistan, this means that that state’s relationship is closer to China than that of other states. The China-Bangladesh-India-Myanmar economic corridor and the Maritime Silk Road are two important highways that link China and Bangladesh.

In addition to the above, there are also an all-round friendly cooperative partnership relationship (Belgium), comprehensive friendly cooperative relationships (Romania, Bulgaria, Maldives), comprehensive cooperative partnership relationships (Ethiopia, Croatia, Nepal, Tanzania, Congo (Brazzaville), The Netherlands, and East Timor), friendly cooperative partnership relations (Hungary, Maldives [sic], Senegal, etc.) and friendly partnership relations (Jamaica), and new type of cooperative relations (Finland) etc. There is no need to list them all here.

Non-partnership relations

When Bill Clinton was the U.S. president, there was one year in which the two heads of state characterized the Sino-American relationship as a “strategic cooperative relationship” but this fine name for the relationship was not carried on during the administrations of George W. Bush and Obama. In 2013, Xi Jinping and Obama at the Sunnylands talks arrived at a consensus to “not to confront or clash with one another, to have mutual respect, and to always search for win-win solutions”. 「不衝突不對抗、相互尊重、合作共贏」 They agreed to do their utmost to create a new kind type of Sino-American great power relations.” After that meeting, the formulation “new type of great power relations” became widely known.

In 1998, China and Japan proposed to “devote their best efforts to a friendly cooperative partnership for peace and development”. Later, after various twists and turns in Sino-Japanese relations, Japan was clearly not included in the list of China’s diplomatic “partners”. In 2008, when then Chinese President Hu Jintao visited Japan, the two countries in their joint statement firmly agreed to promote “strategic mutually beneficial relations”. 「戰略互惠關係」

As for North Korea, the Chinese Foreign Ministry characterizes China’s foreign relations with North Korea as “traditional friendly cooperative Sino-Korean relations”. 「中朝傳統友好合作關係」

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Qing General Zeng Guofan on Precursors to Social Chaos

Golly I hope he wasn’t talking about the USA these days!

I assume he must have had the Taiping Rebellion in mind.
The famed Qing statesman, scholar and general Zeng Guofan  曾国藩 (died 1871) talking about the three necessary precursors of great social chaos. 
1) No matter what the matter is, people can’t tell the difference between black and white.
2) Good people get ever more humble and polite; useless people get ever more outspoken and bold.
3) When problems become very serious, people rationalize and normalize them, everything is just tacitly accepted. Insincere responses without rhyme or reason are given to every issue.
曾国藩 quote on social chaos
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Kong Lingping’s Bloody Chronicles: The Meetings to “Intimidate the Many by Killing a Few” “杀一小批”宣判大会

Another except from my draft translation of Kong Lingping’s Bloody Chronicles

(2) Killing Jiang Zhenjun and Liu Zhihe

The Yanyuan Farm, like other jails and reform through labor brigades throughout the country, held a series of many “kill a small group to intimidate the others” meetings to pronounce verdicts. Along with it came a sharp increase in the number of prison arrests, the number of captured escaped prisoners and in the number of those trying to escape across and international border. Some were political prisoners angry at a fiendish system while many others were simply imprisoned because of a random set of circumstances.

The afternoon before Chen Li was shot to death He Qingyun and Old Man Rong stood in front of our assembled ranks and announced: “This afternoon nobody will go to work. This afternoon will be for sweeping and cleaning. Tomorrow the Yanyuan County public security organs and the military supervision committee will come here for a public judgment meeting.” He Qingyun stressed that “From the start of the judgment meeting until its conclusion, nobody from the Sixth Brigade will be permitted to leave.” The atmosphere became became even bleaker and more terror-filled.

Early the next day, a truckload of soldiers drove up to farm headquarters. Soon on the watchtower and all about the wall surrounding the prison were people in green military uniforms. Machine guns were added to the southern and western watchtowers. Everywhere there were guns pointed towards the pitch darkness of the Sixth Brigade courtyard. Upon entering the meeting place, every one felt that they were immersed in a terrifying murderous atmosphere.

After 9 o’clock in the morning, the members of each of brigades of the Yanyuan company brigades walked past the two iron gates to their assigned positions. This was the third session since the “The kill a small group” since these large scale murdering verdict pronouncement sessions had begun. Together with Liu Xunsen, Cai Xianlu and other people that the authorities were determined to deal with harshly I was assigned a spot near the chairman’s seat on the platform. The objective was for us to see every detail of the unbearable sight of people with death sentences just before they were to be executed so as to terrorize us more effectively.

当押解待处决犯人的囚车开进了农六队的两扇大铁门时,全场的眼光都朝囚车看去。主 席台上的麦克风里不断传出“安静、安静”的喝令声。大家屏住呼吸,不敢喧哗。

疯狂的“杀一小批”运动,撕下了改造政治犯的遮羞布,仅这一次宣判会,就夺走了八 名反抗者的生命。

蒋正君出身于一个工商业兼地主的家庭里,从娘胎里出来,就属于毛泽东划定的黑五类, 是被这个政权永远踩在脚下的人。


– 346 –


When the truck bringing prisoners condemned to death came through the two big iron gates, the eyes of everyone was upon the prisoners. The microphone at the chairman’s position on the platform kept shouting the order “Quiet, be quiet”. Everyone held their breath, fearing to make noise.

The terror of the “kill a small group” movement tore the cover of pretense off the reform of political prisoners. At just this one meeting alone, the lives of eight opponents of the regime were taken.

Jiang Zhengjun was from a family that were both business people and landlords. From the time he left his mother’s womb, he fell into the “Black Five” categories that Mao Zedong had set down. Therefore he was a person whose political rights had been trampled upon all his life.

He was naturally timid. Before the authorities forced him on the road of no return, he had carefully avoided politics. He had managed to escape being caught up in the anti-rightist campaign but he couldn’t in the end couldn’t avoid getting swept up in Mao’s campaigns.

他原是美术学院的学生,他的雕塑和绘画天赋,在毛泽东时代不但没有为他造福,而是 最终把他送进了地狱。

大跃进后,书已无法读下去,1960 年的大灾荒中,他背着画板卖艺求生,流浪各地。但 是在那个饿殍遍地年代,人们只关心能果腹的食物,谁又有兴趣请他绘画?穷困潦倒中,他扛 过苦力,拾过破烂。

拾荒中,有一次捡到了几根铜丝,拿到废品收购站时,被怀疑偷盗电线,将他送进收容 所收容审查。

收容所里的管教员组织了斗争会,逼他承认捡到的电线是有意的反革命破坏,饥寒交迫 的他求生不能,转而求死,横下一条心,破口大骂收容所里的管教人员,于是他被升级为现行 反革命,得到一张蹲监八年的判决书。

A student as an institute of fine arts, he had a genius for sculpting and painting. During the age of Mao Zedong, his talents not only were not rewarded, they in the end sent him straight to hell.

After the Great Leap Forward began, he was no longer able to continue studying. During the famine of 1960, he traveled all around the country, carrying his drawing board, looking for students. During those years of starvation, people only worried about filling their stomachs so how could even lovers of art afford to ask him for art lessons? He fell into abject poverty. He did hard manual labor and collected rags.

During his searches for scrap materials, he found a few pieces of copper wire. When he brought them to the salvage station to sell, he was suspected of stealing electric power line wire. He was sent to a camp while his case was investigated.

The discipline and education cadres at the camp organized struggle meetings. They forced him to admit that his collection of electrical war was a deliberate act of counter-revolutionary sabotage. Overcome by hunger and cold, he couldn’t beg for his life. Instead, he sought death by violently cursing the discipline and education cadres. His case was upgraded to a case of a flagrant counter-revolutionary and he was sentenced to eight years in prison.

判刑劳改不久,蒋正君被送到盐源农场。开始,他被编在农二队,当局发现他会画画, 让他绘毛泽东人头像。那时文革已进入军管时期,蒋正君自告奋勇雕塑了一个毛泽东半身石膏 像,石膏像塑成,获得了军管会的赏识。于是将绘制“毛主席在安源”的巨幅油画任务交给了


蒋正君花了一个多月时间,绘制成一幅高 3 米宽 2 米巨幅油画,摆在场部办公大楼的前



专业“画师”。他每到一个中队,享受着干部食堂免费就餐的待遇,在食不果腹的年代里,这 已是相当丰厚的报酬了。

蒋正君在画画过程中,在各中队结交了不少朋友,这些年轻人都是在文革派斗中的失败 者。他们充满了逃向国外的幻想,认为只有到了国外,才能过上自由富足的生活。

Soon after he was sentenced to reform through labor, Jiang Zhenjun was sent to the Yanyuan Farm. At first he was assigned to the Second Agricultural Brigade. The authorities discovered that he could paint and so asked him to paint a portrait of Mao Zedong. By that time, the Cultural Revolution had already entered the period of military control and so Jiang Zhengjun volunteered to sculpt a half-body plaster bust of Mao Zedong. After he finished it, the military authorities praised the bust. They gave him the assignment of painting a big picture “Chairman Mao in Anyuan”.

Jiang Zhengjun spent over two weeks painting a big two by three meter portrait and displayed it outside the farm office building.

From then onwards, the various companies asked him to paint paintings for them. With the support of the military management committee, he went with his easel and paints around to the different brigade headquarters and became an expert “court painter”. Every time he arrived at a new company, he would be fed free of charge in the cadre’s cafeteria. In those days when most people couldn’t eat their full, that was already fairly good compensation for his work.

Jiang Zhengjun made friends among the prisoners in the various companies he visited during his painting trips. These young people had all been losers in Cultural Revolution factional struggles. They dreamed of escaping to a foreign country. They imagined that if they could only escape to a foreign country, they would become free and prosperous.

不久,各中队毛泽东塑像告一段落,出乎他的意外,他没有被招回场部,而是重新回到 了农二队。蒋正君疑神疑鬼,怀疑他在各中队商量外逃的事情被人检举。

就在这个时候,蒋正君碰到了当年在孙家花园里的两个“老前辈”,请他们分析他被突然 召回二队的原因。两个“老前辈”是看守林业队苹果园的,一个在国军中担任过中校军医的黄 孝德,一个是任少校副官的陆存虞。从此他和两位老人结为朋友,互通消息。

他在绘画期间积攒了些钱和粮票,因为听说距云南边界上的李弥残部就在附近,便向两 人询问那里的情况。有一次两位老人向他画了一张李弥残部所在地域的示意图。没想到这张随 手绘制的草图,在“杀一小批”运动中,竟夺去了五条人命。

没出几天,传来了蒋正君逃亡的消息。并说他组织了一支庞大的逃亡队伍。这次盲目出 逃,很快就被抓获,军管会硬说两名国军军官是这次投敌判国的黑后台。

Soon, the sculpting of Mao busts for the various companies came to an end. By chance, he was not called back to farm headquarters but instead sent once again to the Second Agricultural Brigade. Jiang Zhengjun was a very timid soul. He suspected that someone he had met during his travels to the various companies had informed on his conversations about escaping to a foreign country.

Just at this time, Jiang Zhengjun met by chance two “old-timers” that he had know at Sunjiahuayuan. He asked them what did they think the reason was that he would suddenly be called back to the Second Agricultural Brigade. The two “old timers” guarded the apple orchard of the forestry brigade. Huang Xiaode had been a lieutenant colonel in the Nationalist Army while the other “old timer” Chen Cunyu major. He became friends and traded news with the two of them.

During his painting work he had accumulated some money and ration coupons. Jiang had heard that Li’ercanbu near the Yunnan Province border was nearby so he asked the two of them about the place. One of the old men drew a map for him showing the location of Li’ercanbu. He couldn’t have imagined that that hand drawn map would end up costing five people their lives during the “kill a small number to frighten the others” movement.

Several days later, the news spread that Jiang Zhengjun had escaped. It was also said that he had organized a big group of escapees. He was captured soon after he put his poorly thought out plan of escape into action. The military management committee insisted that the two old Nationalist Army officers were behind this plot to defect to the enemy.

– 347 –

于是,一个以蒋正君和黄孝德为首的判国集团的案卷,便报到了西昌中级人民法院的办 公桌上,这一“叛国投敌集团案”的涉案人员达四十余人,在本次宣判大会上拉出去枪杀的达 五人之多。

当时,枪杀一批人是不用经过最高法院核准的。直到十一年后,他们自己复查的结果, 这个所谓“叛国投敌集团案”,全是屈打成招罗织出来的大冤案,不过是一帮年轻人聚在一起 瞎吹。但是人头已经落地,事后的“平反”又有多大意义?

另一个被杀的人刘志和,更令人惊叹,当局把一个精神失常的人也推上了断头台。刘志 和捕前原系重庆的一个街道派出所所长。因在国民政府时期当过警察,还掩护过中共重庆地区 的几个地下党员,他应该属于中共潜伏在国民党警察里的地下人员。

中共夺得政权以后,给了他一个派出所所长的官,文革初期的四清运动中,他的历史问 题被红卫兵们揪出,认定他是一个“隐藏极深”的国民党特务,将他判了十年徒刑。

Therefore a dossier about a “conspiracy to betray the country” led by Jiang Zhengjun and Huang Xiode was reported to the office of the Xichang People’s Intermediate Court. This “conspiracy to betray the country and go over to the enemy side” involved over 40 people. Five of them were dragged to this public judgment meeting and shot to death.

In those days shooting a small group of people to death did not require the permission of the Supreme Court. When the case was reviewed eleven years later, the court itself found that the so-called plot of “betray the country and go over to the side of the enemy” was a gross injustice built on confessions to false charges under torture. It was just a group of young people who had boasted to one another. But heads had already rolled and fallen to the ground. How much could “exoneration” mean after their execution?

Another man executed in a different case, Liu Zhihe, was an even greater cause for regret. The authorities had sent an insane man up to the executioner. Before he was captured, Liu Zhihe was the the head of a street committee in Chongqing. Although he had been a policeman during the days of the Nationalists, he had protected several underground Communist Party members and so he should have been considered one of the Communist Party’s underground workers in the Nationalist Party police force.

After the Communist Party seized power, he was made a police precinct captain. During the Socialist Education Movement at the start of the Cultural Revolution, the Red Guards uncovered problems with his personal background and determined that he was a “deeply hidden” secret agent of the Nationalist Party. He was sentenced to ten years in prison.

刘志和入狱后,老婆改嫁跟了他人,三个孩子无人照料流落街头,他经受不了这些精神 打击,被逼疯了。从此口中常念念有词,一上工地,便坐在工地上唱歌,见人就傻笑,任凭老 管怎么打他和捆他,都没有任何改变,且病情越来越重。

寒冷的冬天里,刘志和将自己的被子撕成一条一条的,送给别人补衣服。同病相怜的同 难制止他,他除了傻笑外,还将棉絮撕碎抛向天空,说是九天玄女来接他了。

晚上,刘志和裹着烂棉被,冻得瑟瑟发抖。然而毫无人性的老管罚他站在霜雪铺地的坝 子里,看他狂喊狂跳以此取乐。

开饭时,刘志和拿过罐罐饭,往里面抓泥沙,再用手抓着连泥带饭的往嘴里塞。何庆云 眯缝着近视眼武断地说,刘志和在装疯,用装疯来发泄他对共产党的仇视。并狠狠的对他说: “你真疯的话,为什么还知道排队拿饭?”未经医生鉴定,便把他关进了小监。

刘志和被关进小监后,从早到晚都可以听到他从小监传出来呼喊报告声。到了深夜,听 见他高声的吼叫和唱歌。

巡逻的兽兵听得厌烦了,从办公里取来小监门上的钥匙,打开他的监房,给了他一顿暴 打。夜半传出的惨叫声十分凄厉。我常常担心,总有一天,刘志和会被活活的打死在小监里。

After Liu Zhihe went to prison, his wife remarried and their three children, neglected, wandered the streets. He could withstand that tragedy and so it made him go insane. From then on, he would always be mumbling something to himself. When he arrived at the work site, he would sit down and sing songs. He laughed foolishly whenever he saw someone. No matter how much he was hit or tied up as punishment, his behavior never changed. His illness just got worse and worse.

One cold winter night, Liu Zhihe tore the cover of his bed into strips of cloth and gave them to other people to patch their clothing. His miserable fellow prisoners tried to stop him from doing that. In an addition to his foolish laughter, he would through bits of torn cotton into the air and call on the Fairy of the Ninth Heaven to come and get him.

In the evening, Liu Zhihe wrapped in a ragged quilt, shivering violently as he froze. When the merciless warders punished him by making him stand outside in the courtyard in the frost and snow, they saw him dancing around wildly as if this made him happy.

At mealtimes, Liu Zhihe would take his can of food and put soil in it, and then stuff it all into his mouth. He Qingyun narrowed his nearsighted eyes and and arbitrarily assert “Liu Zhihe is just pretending to be crazy and was using his pretended insanity to vent his anger and contempt at the Communist Party. He Qingyun told him angrily, “If you were really insane, how would you know enough to line up at mealtime?” Without bothering to get a physician’s advice, he put him in solitary confinement in the small prison.

After Liu Zhihe was sent to the small prison, we heard shouts and reports coming from his cell from morning to night. Late at night we would hear him loudly yelling and singing. A brutal soldier patrolling the prison got tired of hearing his singing so he went to the office to get the key to Liu’s cell door, opened the door and give him a savage beating. He yelled bone-chilling screams of pain in the middle of the night. I often feared that one night Liu Zhihe would be beaten to death in his cell.

有一次,老管打开刘志和的监门叫他出来倒屎尿,他突然将手伸进自己屙的屎尿中,抓 出来住自己脸上一把一把的糊,一边糊一边还向老管们浪笑说:“抓屎糊脸,抓屎糊脸!”兽兵 用枪托拼命的打他,并逼他抓屎吃,只见他一面吃自已的屎,一面浪声大笑。

监狱主管明知刘志和精神失常,不但不对他治疗,反而更加紧了对他的虐待。有一次, 一个兽兵用铁丝套在他的颈上,牵着铁丝驱赶着他,好像在耍猴戏。逗得围观的兽兵哈哈大笑。 作孽啊!人到了这种地步,还受到这般折磨。

最后残暴的监狱当局竟把刘志和凑成了“杀一小批”的人数,稀里糊涂地把他送上了刑 场。以免他再在监狱中叫喊不休,落得个耳根清净。

Once a warder when open Liu Zhihe’s cell door and asked him to come out and dump his urine and shit, Liu suddenly put his own hand into the shit bucket and covered his face with shit and urine. As he plastered his face with shit, he laughed at the warder, “Grab some shit to coat your face, grab some shit to coat your face!” That brute of a soldier hit beat him furiously and forced him to eat shit. As he ate his own shit, he laughed and laughed.

The leaders of the prison knew very well that Liu Zhihe was insane. However they not only did not give him any care, they treated him even more cruelly. Once a brutish soldier tied wire around Liu’s head and then led him around by the wire as if playing with him. This made all the other beast soldiers gathered round laugh and laugh. How evil they were! Someone is in such a terrible plight and still they are tortured that way.

Finally, the prison authorities decided to put Liu Zhihe in among the people who were to be “killed to frighten the others”. All muddleheaded, he was sent to the execution ground so that he would never again yell on and on endlessly in prison and their ears would never hear him again.

– 348 –

枪杀刘志和的那天上午,两个戴着大口罩的士兵,像拎一只小鸡,把他拎到行刑判决的 位置上。只见他披着一身巾巾挂挂的破布,满身粪迹。所经路上,洒下一路恶臭。

枪决刘志和的死刑材料上认定:他以“长期以装疯作掩护,大闹监狱,肆意诋毁共产党 的改造政策,验明正身执行枪决。”

刘志和站在车上,脸色铁青,拼命地想抬起头来,彷佛要从地狱里扒开一条缝隙透口气 似的。为使他临刑前变得安静些。听说给他注射了镇静剂。

只可怜他三个流落街头的孩子,不知道他们还活着不?他们若能幸存下来,得知他们的 父亲在狱中因思念他们成疯,后来又被惨绝人寰地虐杀,不知道他们将作何感想?

The morning that Liu Zhihe was shot to death, two soldiers wearing surgical masks picked him up as if they were carrying a small bird and carried him away to the execution ground. I could only see that he was wearing some broken rags with traces of shit all over his clothing and body. A stink spread along the path the soldiers took as they carried him along.

The death penalty document for the execution by shooting of Liu Zhihe determined that he “has for a long time pretended to be insane in order to defend himself, has caused serious disturbances in the prison, and has recklessly slandered the Communist Party’s policy of personal transformation. After due consideration, all this shows that he should be shot to death”.

Liu Zhihe stood in the truck, his complexion pale, and tired to lift his head as if he were trying over and over again to open up a small crevice in his hell through which he could speak. It was said that to make him calmer before his execution he was injected with a sedative.

I feel sorry for his three children who are wandering the streets. I don’t know if they know whether he lives or not? If they manage to survive, they will know that their father went crazy with worry in prison as he thought about them and later was savagely mistreated and murdered. I wonder what they will think of all that?

阿弥陀佛!从今往后,六队再也听不见刘志和那凄厉的狂喊乱叫了,再也听不到他三更 半夜里的哀嚎了,看守和兽兵总算六根清静了。

在这一批加刑的人中,还有一个人因说话没忌避“毛”字而判刑的。因为他平时说话常 说:“你这人得坏了毛病!”“你别毛手毛脚的!”“你这毛脾气”……竟往“伟大领袖”身上扯, 成了给他加刑“法办”的依据。

立案者问:“中国字有那么多,什么字不好用?偏要用这个‘毛’字?”“你知不知道‘毛’ 字是谁的姓吗?这一次念你没有见识,算从轻发落。以后再不注意,就要掉了脑袋。”

五十名被判刑的人到齐,每个赴刑者在两名军警夹持下,五花大绑被推到台前,排成长 长的两列。他们早已被打得血肉模糊,紧紧捆在他们身上的绳子入肉三分。

手臂和肩头已呈青紫色,不到五分钟,“绳刑”发作,他们便前仰后翻地痛苦挣扎起来。 我坐在会场的最前面,清晰看到他们脸上的痛苦痉挛,清晰听到他们的痛苦呻吟,不敢


Merciful Buddha! From then on, the Sixth Brigade never again heard the bone-chilling cries of Liu Zhihe. They never again heard his sorrowful cries in the middle of the night. The wardens and brutish soldiers seemed to be completely devoid of all human feeling.

One prisoner among that group had his sentence increased because he didn’t avoid using the taboo word “mao” when he spoke. That person in his speech often used inauspicious phrases in Chinese expressions that contained the common character mao such as “There must be something wrong with you” 你这人得坏了毛病!, “you shouldn’t be so ham handed” 你别毛手毛脚的!, “that bad temper you have ….”你这毛脾气 that seemed to deprecate the “glorious leader”. That was sufficient evidence to increase his sentence “according to law”.

According to the indictment in that case, “The Chinese language has very many characters that can be used in any situation. Why does he keep using the “mao” character?” “Don’t you know whose surname has the character “mao”. We’ll assume this time that you aren’t too bright and so we’ll let you off lightly. If you are not careful in the future, your head will roll.”

Once all the fifty people who had been sentenced had arrived, each of the people sentenced was flanked on both sides by a soldier or policeman. Bound tightly and thoroughly, they were pushed up onto the speaker’s platform and arranged in two rows. They were all bloody from having been beaten. The ropes bound tightly around them dug into their flesh.

Their arms and shoulders had already turned black and blue. After lying there for less than five minutes the felt the effects of this “rope punishment”, they twisted around forwards and backwards as they struggled to get up. Sitting in the front row as I was, I saw clearly the pain on their faces and their convulsions. I heard their painful moans. I didn’t dare look directly at them.

主持人紧一声慢一声地宣读着每一个人的判决书,整整持续了一个多小时。每宣判完一 个判决,高音喇叭里立即响起歇斯底里的口号声。

我只能默默替受难者祷告,盼望尽块结束这场恐怖的酷刑。 陈力被害后,我想在共过患难的同难中寻找他遗留的物品和遗笔,可惜没有收获,直到


被中共封死的大陆只有中共的颂歌,大量血惺的罪悪,被封杀得无影无踪…… 第二节 9.13 冲击波

正当史无前例的文革屠杀,在大陆掀起了一幕幕惊心动魄的暴力恐怖时,1969 3 月中 央广播电台的喇叭里,传来了黑龙江省中苏边境上珍宝岛的火并消息。在冰天雪地里激战,孙 玉国成了新的英雄,冲突表明,中苏两大国的分歧由“嘴仗”,不可避免的升格到“武力格斗”。


The master of ceremonies slowly read the court verdict on each one of them. That took a full hour. After each verdict was read the loudspeaker played hysterical shouted slogans.

I could only pray for the victims of this tragedy. I hoped that these cruel tortures would soon be over. After Chen Li was murdered, I had hoped to find something that had belong to him or some writing that he had left with our fellow sufferers but never found anything. Ten years later, when my case was redressed and I returned to Chongqing, I went to the Bashu Middle School of the Hualong Spring Steel Factory and tried to find where he had lived but I failed. In Mainland China, thoroughly walled off from the outside world, the only things that had survived were things that celebrated the Chinese Communist Party. No trace was left behind of their very many bloody crimes.  They had been wiped away without a trace.

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The Wisdom of Mao’s Former Number Two Man Lin Biao

Today I happened across some intriguing quotations from Chairman Mao’s former second in command and close comrade in arms Lin Biao on Wikiquote. Lin Biao was accused of betraying Mao and died in a mysterious plane crash in Öndörkhaan, Mongolia on September 13, 1971.

These quotes may  have some relevance today.


On Handling Work Responsibilites

The Three No’s: (1961 – 1964)

Don’t speak out (avoid taking responsibility and avoid getting into a fight with the leader)
Don’t criticize
Don’t report bad news (so that you won’t be suspected of casting aspersions)三要:要响应、要表


The Three Shoulds: You should be responsive, You should give praise, and you should report good news. (1961 – 64)
Don’t speak the truth, stress fitting in.
Someone who won’t lie will never achieve anything important.
Whoever refuses to lie is doomed to fail. (1961 – 64)
Agree even with bad decisions — that is what is most important. Otherwise you are just a bookworm.
闭目养神 照上面办 面带三分笑(1961—1964)
Close your eyes, build your strength, and obey orders and you will win awards (1961 – 64)
Prevent you opponent from exceeding the set limits or they will destroy unity.  (1961 – 1964)
I just can’t stand dealing with foreigners! (In October 1968 Lin Biao was warmly embraced by the visiting Albanian Defense Minister Beqir Balluku. This is what Lin Biao exclaimed when he got home afterwards.)

Source: Wikiquotes at https://zh.wikiquote.org/zh-hans/%E6%9E%97%E5%BD%AA



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“The Execution of Chen Li” from Kong Lingping’s Bloody Chronicles


Excerpt from my draft translation from Kong Lingping’s Bloody Chronicle. I knew Kong Lingping when I worked in Chengdu. The story of the political prisoner Chen Li who was executed at the beginning of Mao’s Cultural Revolution.  I am one third of the way through the Chinese now.  You can read the first thirty pages of my draft translation at https://gaodawei.wordpress.com/2014/10/03/translation-of-first-20-pages-of-kong-lingpings-rightist-memoir-blood-chronicle-by-one-of-the-long-time-prisoners-of-mao-zedong/

Chapter Eight Metamorphosis

Trials by judgment of the people held in 1968 and later were not like the trials held in April 1967. In 1968 and later, the formalities were respected — the accused were allowed to present their views and requests. The people to receive sentencing were trussed up during the entire meeting.

During the eleven savage years of the Cultural Revolution from 1967 to 1977, the farm each year held several big meetings to judge people accused of “murder”. The number of murderers varied from three to a dozen or more. By the time they were beaten so their heads would be bloody and an armed soldier would tie their hands behind their backs, they no longer looked quite human. The prisoners who had been beaten so savagely that death seemed worse than life were then made to kneel down on the stage to intimidate the large convict audience. The audience was terror-stricken until sentencing was complete.

However, starting in 1977, the one-man dictatorship of Mao Zedong started to meet widespread resistance from the people. Although they were surrounded by enemies on all sides, the “capitalist roaders” within the Chinese Communist Party not only had not been pushed off the stage of history by the “Cultural Revolution”, later they assumed more and more of Mao’s powers and gradually moved towards center stage.

The murders were a sign that Mao’s dictatorship had been going down a dead end street….

Section One The movement to kill a small group of people

The “Tough Crackdown Struggle” was the climax of the Cultural Revolution savage butchery. Many political prisoners at the Yanyuan Farm were murdered after that cruel campaign of murder began.


1962 年 3 月,由重庆和成都监狱汇集起来的五百名“劳改”人员,在调往甘洛的流放途 中,大闹了雅安三元宫监狱,引发著名的四川“监狱抢馒头事件”。在那一晚上,在监狱探照 灯的照射下,我看到了一个高个子的人在振臂高呼:“我们这一点吊命粮,都要被老管克扣, 真是喝人血不眨眼,大家去把本该我们的囚粮抢回来!”此人就是陈力。

事件过后,我们这支队伍被调到甘洛,他被押去了斯足中队,我被押到西西卡中队。残 酷的炼狱使成渝两地集中的五百人,在短短十个月中,就有一半埋骨在这里的荒山野岭中。

1964 年 10 月,在经历了生死磨练后,我俩逃出了甘洛的鬼门关,作为幸存者,我们最后 在二道沟的“反省室”里相逢了。

在小监里,我俩打破了小监的规矩,彼此传递信息。并隔着墙,在反省室里交流了彼此 的身世。

1951 年,陈力刚从初中毕业,年仅 16 岁就应征入伍,“保家卫国”的大红花,使他在无 知中参加了“中国人民志愿军”,开赴朝鲜战场。经过两个月训练便跨过鸭绿江,充当了中共 的炮灰。


(1) Shooting Chen Li to Death

In March 1962, while a a group of 500 prisoners from the Chongqing and Chengdu prisoners were gathered together and sent along the road of exile to Ganluo, there was a big disturbance at the Sanyuan Palace monastery at Ya’an. This led to the famous Sichuan “Stealing steamed buns in prison” incident. That evening, under the illumination of the prison searchlights, I saw a tall man raising his arm and shouting, “The food we need to survive is being embezzled by the wardens. They are bloodthirsty monsters who care not a whit about us. Everybody, let’s go steal back the prison food that is rightfully ours!” That man was Chen Li.

After that event, our detachment was transferred to Ganluo. He was sent under armed escort to the Sizu Company while I was sent under armed escort to the Xixika Company. That cruel purgatory in just ten short months saw the bones of half of the 500 men sent there from Chengdu and Chongqing buried in the mountain wilderness.

In October 1964, after tempering by deadly dangerous trials, we two managed to escape as survivors from Ganluo’s gates of Hell. The last time we met was in the “soul-searching circle” at Erdaogou.

In the small prison, we broke small prison rules by exchanging information back and forth. Through the wall that separated us we exchanged our life stories as we sat in our soul-searching rooms.

In 1951, Chen Li had just graduated from middle school. He joined the army when he was just 16 years old. The bright red flowers given to those who “protected their homes and country” inspired him to join the “Chinese People’s Volunteer Army” and head for the Korean War front lines. After two months of training, he crossed the Yalu River and became Chinese Communist canon fodder. Day and night battles alternated with forced marches. Through the smoke and mist of the battlefield, he advanced to near the 38th parallel where he was involved in bloody battles in the mountains of Ganling. Braving carpet bombing, he really did fulfill his oath to “protect the motherland”. The battles were so confused that he wasn’t able to explain clearly just what had happened.

– 340 –
战上甘岭的战斗。冒着地毯式的轰炸,在地道里进行“保卫祖国”的宣誓,这一切是战争和炸 弹不能讲清楚的。

惨烈的战斗七天七夜下来,他所在的排只剩下了最后两个人。幸存的陈力当上了代理排 长,成了当时人们称之为“最可爱的人”。身负八处重伤的陈力抱着机枪,向冲上来的美国士 兵扫射,直到流血过多,昏迷过去。

经抢救清醒过来以后,陈力睡在离前沿阵地仅两百米的担架上。炮弹夷平了他所守的战 壕,如果不是后续部队赶上替换下他,他已经永远葬身在异国他乡了。接替他守卫阵地的后续 部队,全在炸弹轰炸下成了齑粉。

侥幸存活的他因此获得了三等功臣的“殊荣”,并在火线的医院里宣誓加入了中国共产党。 然而冷静下来后,身处异国的他,却在寻思为什么而战?潜意识里一种模糊的后悔爬进了他的 脑海。
不久韩战结束,他复原回到了重庆。 复原回到重庆后,陈力被安排在位于化龙桥的重庆弹簧钢板厂,作厂长办公室的秘书。
在工厂生活两年中,1955 年,他在“内部参考”上读到了铁托的“普拉讲话”,读到南斯拉夫
共产主义联盟发表关于社会主义民主和农业劳动组合的论述,接触到与苏联不同的工厂自治管 理等文章。他对工厂党委会包揽一切、大权独霸的作风产生了很深的反感。

After fighting fiercely for seven days and nights, there were only himself and another soldier left in his unit. Chen Li, the lucky survivor, was the deputy squad leader, what people in those days called “the most lovable person”. Chen Li, with eight serious wounds, took up his machine gun and charged forward sweeping the American soldiers with gunfire until he had lost so much blood that he fainted.

Waking up after getting first aid, Chen Li lay on a stretcher just 200 meters behind the Chinese front line. Shellfire had already flattened the trenches that they were defending. If the reserves had not come forward to relieve them, he would have been buried forever in a foreign land. The troops that had replaced him on the front lines were completely wiped out by the bombing.

Having survived by a stroke of luck, he was awarded third class military honors for his outstanding service and sworn into the Chinese Communist Party in the battlefield hospital. Later calming down he started to wonder. Here I am in a foreign country. What am I fighting for? A vague feeling of regret crept into his subconscious mind.

The Korean War ended soon afterwards and he returned to Chongqing. After returning to civilian life in Chongqing, Chen Li was assigned to the Chongqing Spring Steel Plate Factory at Hualongqiao as the secretary to the factory director. He worked in the factory for two years. In 1955, he read in “Internal Reference News” about Josef Tito’s speech at Pula in Croatia and raid discussions of the Yugoslav Communist Alliance on socialist democracy and the partnership between peasants and workers.

陈力回忆当时两名工人因家庭负担太重,不得不抽出时间为邻人修补锅盆,换些零用钱 以补不足,被党委书记抓住,上纲上线,残酷斗争,除批斗外,还将其开除。说他们利用公家 材料为自己谋私利,是资本主义的典型。
而这个书记却可以平时不劳动,靠公款三天两头出外“旅游”。 工厂因管理不善,浪费随处可见。成吨的钢条在天井里锈烂。设备因没人及时保养,很

南联盟所发表的文章,对他的早期启蒙,使他对这个制度产生怀疑。陈力在 1957 年的在 大呜大放中,犮表他对工厂管理的见解,在鸣放会上斥责他的顶头上司,说他是一个饱食终日 无事生非的政客,根本就不懂得工厂管理。
同时他抛出了一套工人成立自治委员会,由工人选举产生的委员会独立行使管理的办法。 那一次犮言,他赢得工人们的阵阵喝彩,也赢得了一顶右派帽子,从此削掉了他的“官

Chen Li recalled that at the time there were two workers who because of heavy household responsibilities needed to take time out from work to help neighbors fix pots and pans in exchange for some spending money. They were caught by the secretary of the local party committee and having been criticized from the higher plane of principle and the two-line struggle, endured cruel struggle sessions. More over they were expelled from the Communist Party for having done a committed a classic capitalist offense: using public property for personal profit.

The party secretary involved didn’t have to work and could use public funds to make two or three day tourist trips. The factory was poorly managed with a great amount of obvious waste. Tons of steel lay rusting away in the courtyard. The factory equipment was not being regularly maintained so it quickly became scrap metal and the workers were all becoming lackadaisical. Chen Li had an argument with the party secretary about the management of the factory. As the two quarreled more and more frequently, they both dug into their positions and refused to compromise. That soon led to the party secretary taking personal revenge against him.

The articles from the Yugoslav Communist Alliance enlightened him and bred doubts in his mind about China’s own system. Chen Li during the “Speak Up” sessions during the “Let a Hundred Flowers Bloom” period in 1957 expressed his views about the management of the factory. Chen Li criticized his direct superior at the factory, calling him a well-fed political hack who never does any work and had no idea at all how to manage a factory.

At the same time, he threw out the idea of a autonomous committee set up by the workers that would independently manage the factory through a committee elected by the workers. This suggestion won the strong support of the workers. Not only that, but it also got him labeled as a rightist. Once that happened, he lost his “official position” and was expelled from the Communist Party.

一腔为真理而斗争的理想化为灰烬后,他从办公室搬了出来,搬进了后勤组,由秘书贬 为受管制的清洁工人。


– 341 –

Chen Li’s idealistic fight for the truth turned to ashes in his mouth. He was moved out of the office and put into the logistics department, demoted by the party secretary to a cleaning person working under close supervision. That experience of what happened to him when he revealed his abilities made him realize that the Chinese Communists are an unreasonable gang that doesn’t know right from wrong. They didn’t deserve any respect from him and were not worth his devotion.

紧接着,陈力又亲身领教了大炼钢铁的荒唐闹剧,在三面红旗万岁的狂噪中,切身体验 了毛泽东带给全国人民的灾难。生活的经历,使他从对中共的迷惑中清醒了过来。

当共产主义的海市蜃楼消失以后,他看到了中共的骄横拔扈,看到了中国百姓被奴役和 饥寒煎熬的现状,看到了人们连挨饿都不敢直言。活生生的社会现实,使他对中共的敬仰、追 随,转变为怀疑和敌视,经过慎密的思考,成为反对独裁追求民主的战士。

Immediately thereafter, Chen Li encountered the farce of the everybody make steel campaign. In the furor of the Three Red Banners campaign, he personally experienced the disasters that Mao Zedong brought to the people of the entire nation. His life experience gave him a rude awakening from his blind devotion to the Chinese Communist Party.

After the mirage of communism dissipated, he realized how arrogant and domineering the Chinese communists were. He saw for himself how cold and hungry Chinese people were and how they had been reduced to slavery. He saw how people dared not even admit aloud that they were hungry. His respect and allegiance for the Chinese Communist Party changed to doubt and hostility. After much thought, the decided to devote himself to fighting tyranny and promoting democracy.

1959 年,因为继续的反对工厂党委,被保卫科扭送沙坪坝区看守所。接着,在看守所里, 又同管教干部们唇枪舌剑,使他的“反革命”日益“升级”。

有一天,有人发现监狱厕所里的墙壁上,有人用铁钉歪歪扭扭地刻写着“打倒共产党” 五个字。监狱管教如临大敌,立即封闭了厕所,把所有在押的犯人赶回了各自监舍,并立即进 行字迹鉴定。

根据管教干部所收到的“检举”和狱方的“笔迹鉴定”,狱方武断认定这一“反动标语” 系陈力手迹。

在提审他时,陈力愤怒地抗议了这种凭空捏造,断然加以否定。他说:“这种对‘粪便’ 进行宣传的行为,实在是一种既无用又可笑的的勾当,我是决不会干的。”

In 1959. because he continued to oppose the party committee in the factory, the security section of the factory took him to the Shaping District detention center. While he was there, he often had fierce arguments with the disciplinary and education cadres there so he “rose in rank” as a “counter-revolutionary” with each passing day.

One day someone discovered scratched unevenly on the toilet wall the characters “Down with the Communist Party”. The discipline and education cadres immediately shut the toilet as if they were facing a dangerous enemy and forced all the people in custody back to their cells and to take calligraphy samples to see who had written those characters.

According to “reports” received by the discipline and education cadres and according to the “calligraphy appraisal” done by the prison, the prison authorities made the arbitrary judgment that the “counter revolutionary poster” had been written by Chen Li.

During his interrogation, Chen Li denied everything and angrily disputed the frame up. He said, “This kind of ‘piss and shit’ propaganda work is useless and ridiculous. I certainly didn’t do it.”

他说他会公开陈述他的政治观点,而不会作这种蹲在厕所里写几条标语给屎看的蠢事。 但是,看守所的狱卒们不顾他的申辩,把这条“反动标语”硬栽在他的头上。并以此作

在我进入孙家花园监狱后的半年,陈力也随之来到了这个监狱中,并于 1962 年发配甘洛 农场,成为 500 名“流放大军”的一员。

在途径雅安监狱的抢馒头案件中,陈力又被当局认定是为首的鼓动者,成为甘洛农场的 重点监管对象。

我在西西卡中队同死神较劲,同“张棒棒”肉搏时,陈力也在斯足中队公开的拒绝劳役。 我俩因为公开喊出:“我们要生存”的口号,遂被当局认为是对犯人进行破坏性鼓动宣传者, 是最危险的反改造份子。

1964 年,当我们经黄联关来到盐源农场,以后不久,我被调往古柏,陈力却留在二道沟 地区。

同年八月,我在古柏被关进了反省室,陈力在二道沟地区被关进了场部的小监。直到九 月,我们合并一处不期而遇。

从此以后,我们俩便成为农场中人人注目的“反改造分子”。并戴上了一顶时髦帽子:“国 际修正主义的急先锋”。后来,我们又被关进了“羊圈”,直到 1965 年 10 月,当局才将我俩放

He said that he expresses his political views openly. He would not do something idiotic like squatting in the toilet scrawling slogans that only shit could see. The prison lackeys paid no attention to his protests. They attached the label of “writer of counter-revolutionary slogans” to him. Then they gave him a twenty year prison sentence that upgraded him from rightist to counter-revolutionary.

Six months after his imprisonment at the Sunjiahuayuan Prison, Chen Li was transferred to this prison and then sent to the Ganluo Farm in 1962 where he became a member of the “contingent of 500 exiles”.

The authorities determined that Chen Li was one of the instigators of the Ya’an steamed bun theft incident that occurred as the group was being transferred to Ganluo and so was watched particularly closely after he got to Ganluo.
While I was in the Xixika Company grappling with the angel of death while in hand-to-hand combat with Big Stick Zhang, Chen Li at the Sizu Headquarters Company was refusing to do forced labor. We both were accused by the authorities of inciting the prisoners to sabotage by shouting the slogan “we want to survive!” and so classified among those most stubbornly resisting our personal transformation.

In 1964, soon after I was sent through Huanglianguan on the way to the Yanyuan Farm I was transferred to Gubai. Chen Li however remained in the Erdaogou region.
In August of that same year when I was sent to solitary confinement in a soul-searching room, Chen Li was send to the small prison at Erdaogou farm headquarters. During August and September we would sometimes run into each other by chance.

From that time onwards, we two were the ones on the farm seen as most “stubbornly resisting personal transformation”. We were given the most fashionable label at the time: “very determined henchmen of international revisionism”. Later, we were sent to the sheep pen until October 1965 when the authorities returned as to main prison.

– 342 –
1966 年 5 月,全国“无产阶级文化大革命”狂飙初起时,在农六队讨论文革的学习会上, 我又当着在场的犯人和干部,公开为文革下了“宫庭政变”的结论。这在当时视若禁区,而不 敢“妄猜”文革内幕的情况下,起到了振聋发馈的作用。

我们相信,当时的这种“揭密”,对农场的干部们起了很大的摧醒作用。尤其当时就预言 了毛泽东路线将因中共党内的分裂而走到尽头。

感谢老鼠在足有 40 厘米厚的泥墙上穿洞。我俩便依靠这个洞,传递着各自写下的文章和 信息,而今想来,他的文章记载了监狱的暴行,揭露了中共的虚伪,抨击毛泽东复辟专制主义 等等,成为最珍贵的监狱“遗笔”。可惜,我们没有办法将它保存下来。只能依凭着我的记忆, 回忆其主要内容了。

In May 1966, when the violent outbreak of the “Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution” engulfed the entire country, at a Sixth Brigade study session discussing the Cultural Revolution, I again explained to the assembled prisoners and cadres my conclusion that the Cultural Revolution was a “palace coup”. Making guesses about what was going on inside the Cultural Revolution broke taboos of the day and so caused a big commotion.

I believed that “revealing the truth” destroyed the illusions of the farm cadres, in particularly since I predicted that Mao Zedong’s line would go to extremes because of divisions within the Chinese Communist Party.

I am grateful to the rat that made a 40 mm hole in the mud wall of my cell. We two used that hole to exchange information and the articles that we had written. Now that I look back on them today, his writings about savage prison atrocities, his exposes of communist hypocrisies, and Mao Zedong’s restoration of autocracy etc. were the most valuable “testimony of the deceased” that I saw during my prison days. Unfortunately, I was unable to preserve them. I can only rely on my memory to preserve the main points that he made.

记得当年在报纸上读到“燕山夜话”的文章时,讽刺高产卫星为“一个鸡蛋的家当”;讥 讽顽梗不化的“皇帝”在事实面前,还要遮掩真像的“皇帝的新衣”;劝戒主观武断的“领袖” 认错回头的“放下即实地”,这些文章中不无温和的规劝。

而陈力的文章没有任何的温情和幻想,而是直抒胸怀,痛斥毛泽东,斥其祸国殃民,痛 快淋漓。

他在狱中写下的五十万字,每一个字都是射向独裁统治的一颗子弹,每篇文章都是一柄 直刺独夫民贼的利剑。

记得有一篇描写人民公社化时期,一个农家五口人饿死了,最后只剩下一个大娘。老大 娘来到埋葬她年仅十六岁的儿子的墓前哭唱的吊亡诗,情节哀惋凄凉,如泣如诉,我当时边读 边流泪。

I remember how that year I read a newspaper article entitled “Evening Chats on Yan Mountain” that ridiculed extraordinary claims of miracles in production as “the kind of hen’s eggs that everyone has”. The article made fun of the obstinate and unchanging face of the “emperor” being put ahead of the facts of any particular situation, and concealing the truth just as in the story “The Emperor’s New Clothes”. The writer admonished the subjective and arbitrary “leader” to admit his errors and to step aside. This articles also had a moderate tone and were written with grace and style.

Chen Li’s articles however had no warmth or illusions. He spoke straight from the gut, bitterly attacking Mao Zedong, denouncing him for the disasters that he had brought to China and its people. His articles covered it all very well.

He wrote 500,000 characters in prison. Everyone of them was a bomb thrown at dictatorial rule and a sword striking at the dictator and his henchmen.

I remember an article that discussed the period when the people’s communes were being organized. Five members of a peasant family had starved to death. The only one left was the wife of the father’s elder brother. The old aunt went to her son’s grave — he was only 16 years old — and through her tears read a memorial poem. The poem was heartbreaking. I wept as I read it.

这些年来,当局强逼老百姓从每月十八斤吊命粮中扣掉两斤,还美其名曰:自愿献给社 会主义建设;毛贼忍心看着百姓穿补疤衣、吃观音土,却“无私”施舍为他唱赞歌的国际乞丐 霍查希尔之流;他评述 1964 年中国第一颗原子弹的爆炸,是“从饥寒交迫的百姓身上抽出血 输给疯狂战麾下的狼群”。

点明,原子弹才是中国的独裁狂用来唬人的“纸老虎”,除了使周边弱小民族不敢对中国 的胡作非为表示异议外,无异于“玩火自焚”。

在陈力的笔下,毛泽东是比周厉王还要残暴、比杨广还昏馈的暴君。是一个连百姓家中 一只碗都要抢到手,再拿到国际政治赌场上“豪赌”的赌徒。是一个撞进知识殿堂里强虏豪夺 祖国文化遗产的巨盗,是一个连加法都不会的文盲村夫。

嘻怒笑骂,尽情鞭鞑!思想灵活,妙笔生辉。陈力借一个因饥饿求生被置死地的中国人 的愤怒控诉,为死于运动的中国数百万冤魂呐喊。淋漓尽致,痛快之极。

他还写了大量的诗文,不仅表达了他壮志未酬、报国无门的悲哀,表达他追求真理反被 残害的呐喊,舒发他对毛泽东极权统治下中国未来的忧虑。这就是陈力的文风。


– 343 –
Since those years, the authorities have forced people to accept a reduction in their monthly grain ration from 18 pounds to 16 pounds. They euphemistically called it “voluntary contributions to the construction of socialism. Bandit Mao was so hard-hearted the he could let the people wear clothes that were nothing but patches upon patches and to eat dirt to reduce hunger pangs. Yet all the while he would “unselfishly” be giving alms to international beggars like Enver Hoxha of Albania while loudly singing “The Internationale”. Chen Li had this to say when China exploded its first atomic bomb in 1964: “Blood drawn from the veins of a starving nation to feed the crazed wolves of war”.

He pointed out that the atomic bomb was just the weapon that the Chinese dictator has been crazily trying to trick people into believing was a “paper tiger”. Other than its us in intimidating the small countries on China’s periphery from getting out of line, the atomic bomb was just something that would come back and hurt China just like a fire might singe the fingers of the person lighting it. Incisive writing that was a joy to read.

Chen Li also wrote many poems. The poems not only expressed his disappointment at unrealized lofty ambitions and sadness that he had not been able to dedicate himself to serving his country. He cried out as someone who had suffered for seeking the truth and his concerns for China’s future under the totalitarian rule of Mao Zedong. That was what the writings of Chen Li were like.

It is most unfortunate but I fear that those extremely valuable manuscripts were all burned by the authorities. In those days, nobody was able to hold onto anything.

Chen Li wrote that Mao Zedong was even crueler than King Li of the Zhou Dynasty and an even more confused tyrant than Yang Guang, the founding emperor of the short-lived Sui Dynasty. Mao was the kind of person who will even steal dishes from peasant homes to raise funds to pay for his high stakes gambles in the arena of international politics. He cursed Mao as a country bumpkin who robs the great halls of China of great cultural relics but who can’t even do simple arithmetic.

Chen Li wrote with a passion that covered all registers from astonishment, to laughter to cursing. His writing was both subtle and elegant. Taking as his own the anger of Chinese who had starved to death, Chen wrote thundering condemnations. He spoke for the wronged ghosts of the millions of people killed in Mao’s campaigns.

1966 年 7 月,当何庆云将我从农六队粮食库房的小监,转到大监一个星期后,一辆蓝色 吉普车开到了农六队的监狱大门边。陈力被两名警察从临时小监里押了出来。我看见他拖着沉 重的脚镣,一只手反背着一床破棉被,另一只手拎着一个蓝布包,从容不迫走过农六队前的大 坝。所有在场的人都目送着他,陈力一边走一边不时停下来环顾四周,频频点头致意。与我们 一一告别。

当我俩的眼光最后一次碰撞以后,便成了留在我脑海中再也没有褪掉的记忆。他那坦然 平静而爽朗的笑容里,不但给我传递着难以割舍的情谊,还暗含着永别的嘱托。

陈力昂首而去了,以一种义无反顾的决绝,一步一顿的坚定步履,走向刑场。为他的信 念和正义而献身。陈力一步一顿地走出了农六队的大铁门。大铁门边,留下了陈力永远无法消 退的身影。

In July 1966, one week after He Qingyun moved me from the Sixth Agricultural Brigade food storehouse small prison to the big prison, a blue jeep drove up to the main gate of the Sixth Agricultural Brigade prison. Chen Li was escorted from the small prison by two policemen. I saw him dragging his leg irons, one hand behind his back holding on to a ragged bed cover, the other hand holding on to a blue bag, walking calmly across the embankment in front of the Sixth Agricultural Brigade. Everyone watched him go. From time to time Chen Li looked around him as he walked, often nodding as he made his farewells to each of us.

The last time we locked eyes with one another left in my mind a memory that would never fade. He calm and hearty smile not only expressed a friendship hard to lose but also that he had secretly entrusted me with something.

Chen Li left with his head held high. As a just man with no regrets, he walked at a deliberate pace to the execution ground. He sacrificed himself for his beliefs and for justice. I will always remember Chen Li as he walked step by step out the prison gate.

这么多年来,为了保护我们追求真理的神圣心扉,我们习惯了在棍棒和绳索下同监狱当 局对话,习惯了长期伴着镣铐渡过寒冷的冬夜,习惯了在阴暗的小监中写下对独裁者口诛笔伐 的檄文。我们不会奢望当局会赐给我们自由,也从不幻想个人的前途。在如此深重的灾难之下, 面对当局的种种诱惑,我们只是报以轻鄙一笑。

我们曾为相隔千里、十年不闻音信的亲人倚窗舒怀,也曾为这种发自肺腑的牵挂而吟诵 断肠的哀歌。但此时此刻,陡增了一种与难友生死永别的悲伤。

我曾目睹许多与自己生死相许、患难与共的伙伴从容就义,并多次从饮弹刑场的同伴身 旁擦身而过,每到此时,都难以控制内心的哀伤!

For many years, for the sake of holding fast to our search for the truth, we had become accustomed to speaking frankly to the authorities despite being beaten with clubs or tied up. We had gotten used to spending long periods in chains during cold prison nights. We had become used to writing denunciations of the dictator by the dim light of our solitary confinement cells. We held no hope that they authorities would give us our freedom. We had no illusions about our future. Under those terrible conditions, facing various temptations from the authorities, we only answered them with a disdainful smile.

The decade that I had been without any word of love and support from my thousand kilometer distant family had made me recite mournful, heartfelt prayers in my mind for them. Now I suddenly there was added yet another friend with whom I would be parted forever.

I have seen many people cadaverous as they hovered between life and death and endured terrible things together with them as we bravely faced our fates.

公判大会会场之惨烈,常使我恶梦连连。血腥的恐怖笼罩着全国。陈力在盐源县城被枪 杀,我们不知道具体情形,难友多方打听见证人,才大致获知如下一点情况:

1969 年 8 月 21 日,在戒备异常森严的盐源县看守所里第 5 号监舍,一大清早,陈力像往 常一样漱洗完毕,然后整整衣着,再将被脚镣擦伤的地方用绑脚布重新包扎好,便正襟危坐在 铺满乱草的“床上”闭目养神,静静等候着狱卒来给他打开铁门。

十天以前,在县法院一间秘密的审讯室里,审讯官向他宣布了西昌中级法院对他所作的 死刑判决。判决书说他“疯狂地、明目张胆的反对毛主席,攻击文化大革命。”

审讯官宣读完毕,便把判决书递交给他道:“现在允许你提出最后要求和遗言。同时,请 你告诉法庭,你的死刑宣判应当通知你的什么家人?”并宣布给他十天的上诉期限。十天上诉 期不提出上诉,便在第十一天验明正身,执行枪决。

面对着这个胆怯的“法官”,陈力从容地回答道:“我感到遗憾的是,当年美国人的大炮 没有置于我死地,而今我却死在我曾誓死保卫的共产党人手里。”

The violence of the public judging meetings gave me streams of terrible nightmares. Bloody terror enveloped the entire country. I don’t know the details of the shooting of Chen Li in the county seat of Yanyuan. Some of my fellow sufferers asked people who saw it and were able to piece together some information about it:

On August 21, 1969, in cell number five of the Yanyuan Detention Center which was then under strict martial law, one early morning, after having washed up, dressed, and wrapped a new cloth bandage over the part of his leg that had been hurt by wearing leg irons, sat upright, looking straight ahead on his straw “bed”, shut his eyes to relax and waited quietly for the prison guards to come and open the iron door for him.

Ten days earlier, in a secret interrogation room in the county courthouse, the interrogating officer had given him the death sentence from the Xichang Intermediate Court. According to the verdict, he was guilty of “crazy and brazen opposition to Chairman Mao and of vilifying the Cultural Revolution”.

The interrogation officer read the verdict, handed it to him and said, “Now you may state your final request and testament. You should also tell the court who should be informed of your death sentence.” He was then allowed ten days to make an appeal. If he did not make an appeal within ten days, and this was verified on the eleventh day, he would be executed by shooting.

Facing this cowardly judge, Chen Li answered calmly, “I regret that the American artillery did not kill me on the battlefield and now I must died at the hands of the Communist Party to which I had once sworn to protect.”

对于这个宣判,陈力早已有了思想准备。在他看来,属于他的时间只剩下十天了,他还 有很多事情没有做,尤其感到遗憾的是,他没有看到独夫民贼毛泽东死后中国犮生了翻天覆地

– 344 –

Chen Li had been long prepared for this verdict. He had only ten days to live and still had much to do. His only regret was that he did not see the tremendous changes in China after the death of the dictator Mao Zedong.

陈力的母亲已经亡故,父亲是巴蜀中学的国文教员。家教自幼熏淘和老父的悉心指点, 造就了他深厚的文学功底和流畅犀利的文笔。文革狂飙如火如荼的时期,他的父亲也被打成了 学校的“反动学术权威”遭到批斗,朝不保夕。

陈力坚信,他的狱中著述,会成为珍贵的历史资料。在最后十天中,陈力唯一的心愿便 是想尽一切办法将他的著作保存完好,以留给后来的人们。

后来这些遗著不知是焚毁了,还是封存在档案中了。同我在狱中的著述一样,至今也不 知保存在那里。

八点钟光景,通往小监的铁门被打开,随着一阵急促的脚步声,监舍门上传来了开锁声。 监门打开以后,两名押解士兵急速地跨了进来。

陈力从容地从铺位上站起来,两名如狼似虎的士兵已经窜到了他的身边。一左一右,猛 然地将他掀翻在地。并且死命地将他的头按到地上,让他感到一阵强烈的窒息。

Chen Li’s mother was already gone. His father was a Chinese literature teacher at the Bashu Middle School. His father had taken great pains with his education ever since he was a small child. This was why he had a deep understanding of literature and an excellent literary style. In this period the Cultural Revolution had spread fast like a wind driven wildfire and his father had been struggled against as a “reactionary academic authority” and was in a precarious state.

Chen Li was confident that what he had written in prison would become precious historical material. During the last ten days of his life, Chen Li’s only concern was how to find a way to preserve what he had written so that posterity would have it.

Later those writings were either burned or preserved in an archive somewhere. Just like the various things that I wrote in prison, to this day I don’t know if it is preserved somewhere.

In the 9 AM morning light, the iron door of his solitary confinement cell opened along with the sound of hurrying footsteps and of a key turning in the lock. After the door opened, two armed soldiers charged into the room.

Chen Li calmly got up from his bed. The two soldiers had already scurried to his side. Standing on his left and his right, they forced him to the ground. They ordered him to put his head on the ground. He felt like he was suffocating.

一阵强烈的剧痛后,他的嘴巴被撬开,舌头被割去,满口鲜血。原打算在生命最后一刻 振臂高呼的想法成了泡影。

陈力拼命的用脚上的脚镣,向按捺他的士兵猛烈的撞去。然而这一切都成徒劳。他被紧 紧地压着没有动弹余地。

十分钟以后,陈力被反捆着双臂,由那两名士兵挟出了监舍。那间收拾得很整洁的“监 房”,现已乱成一团。

两名士兵挟持着五花大绑的他,走出住了三年多的盐源看守所,将他推上门外停的一辆 军用卡车上。在六名士兵簇拥下,他站在车厢的中间。

After a sharp pain, his mouth was forced open and his tongue was cut off. His mouth filled with blood. The idea that he had had that he would raise his arms and shout a protest at his last moment disappeared.

Chen Li used to chains on his feet to lash out at the two soldiers restraining him. But it was futile. He was pressed down so hard that he couldn’t move.

Ten minutes later, Chen Li’s arms were tied behind his back and the two soldiers forced him out of his cell. His very neat “prison cell” was now a mess.

The two soldiers tied him up thoroughly and forced him out the doors of the Yanyuan Detention Center where he had lived for three years and pushed him onto a military truck stopped outside. He stood in the middle of the truck with six soldiers surrounding him.

卡车启动,向盐源县城的主干马路驰去。车头上的大喇叭里传出歇斯底里的嘶叫,这时, 陈力满口是血,发不出任何声音。他的耳朵里,突然响起了牺牲在北京西城菜市口谭嗣同,题 于狱壁的绝命诗:
望门投止思张俭,忍死须臾待杜根。我自横刀向天笑,去留肝胆两昆仑。 他那视死如归的壮烈场面,已用他的血将要讲的话留给活着的人了……



上午十一点钟,在一处高高的山岗上,在一处可以看到山下的小金河蜿蜒流淌的开阔地 上,陈力被枪杀在这里。

The truck started up and sped towards the main road to the Yanyuan county seat. Loud voices sounded from the loudspeaker mounted on top of the truck. Chen Li’s mouth was full of blood. He couldn’t make a sound. Suddenly in his ears resounded the words of Tan Sitong who had been executed in Beijing’s Western Vegetable Market. The words that Tan Sitong had written on the prison wall just before he was executed:

Looking for doorways where I might seek refuge, I though of the old wronged Han official Zhang Jian, facing death for justice I will soon meet the righteous Han official Tu Gen. I stand erect, look towards the heavens and laugh. I leave behind the noble spirit incarnated in my liver and gall dwell forever in the mighty Kunlun Mountains.”

The scene of this brave man’s death who took death as a returning home left behind words written in his own blood for the generations that followed.

The road was crowded on both sides with noisy crowds. Did the older people in the crowd not recognize the man in the prison truck or know what crime he had committed?

The prison truck soon passed out of Yanyuan’s streets and drove straight out to the execution grounds.

At 11 o’clock in the morning, high on a range of hills in a place one could look down to see the Jin River meandering through open fields, Chen Li was shot to death.

(2009 年 4 月 10 下午,我们雇车找到陈力被害的刑场,那里已是一片茂密葳蕤的白桦林

– 345 –
地。林下仆倒一块断成两截的水泥石碑,石碑上大书“刑场”两个大字。这次重返盐源,我才 从文天华、李禄云、吕洞良等幸存难友的口里知道,陈力被杀害前,已被割掉了舌头。行刑前, 行刑的兽兵强摁陈力下跪,但陈力仍然高昂着不屈的头颅……兽兵遂用刺刀从陈力背后刺穿了 陈力的膝弯,再将其杀害。)

(On April 10, 2009, we hired a vehicle to go out to the execution grounds where Chen Li had been shot. Today there is a dense grove of birch trees there. Beneath the trees is a concrete tablet that has broken in two. On the stone tablet is written “execution ground”. Only on the way back to Yanyuan did I learn from Wen Tianhua, Li Luyun, Lu Dongliang and others whom I had shared prison life with that Chen Li’s tongue had been cut out before his execution. Before he was executed, the brutal soldiers forced Chen Li to kneel down but Chen Li would still not bow his head. The brutes stabbed the back of his knees with their bayonets and then killed him.

陈力被杀害后,我常陷入深深的痛苦中,在他生命的最后时刻,我身陷囹圄,无法与他 见面,“献身愿作万矢的,著论求为百世师”。陈力被杀害后多年时间里,我都没找到他五十万 言遗著。

但我发誓,只要我一息尚存,我会将我们这段同狱吏斗争的历史,告诉中国的下一代, 请他们知道毛贼东独裁的残忍本性,再不要相信他们在“革命”名义下的花言巧语,牢记只有 民主才是中国今天所要实现的目标。


After Chen Li was murdered, I often fell into deep depressions. During the last moments of his life I was stuck in jail and could not see him. “I made many vows to those who had given their lives to write a book so that they could instruct the generations to follow.” In the years that followed Chen Li’s murder, I never did find those 500,000 characters of manuscripts that he had written.

But I swore, as long that there was breath in me, that I would write the history of our long struggle with our jailers to inform future Chinese generations. I wanted them to know the cruel nature of bandit Mao’s dictatorship so that never again would they believe the succumb to the flowery blandishments of “revolution” and for them to always remember that democracy is the main goal that China must now work towards achieving.

(二)杀蒋正君和刘志和 同全国各地的监狱和劳改队一样,盐源农牧场接连召开了好几次“杀一小批”的宣判大
会。就刑的人有越狱者,有外逃的拒捕者,有企图越出国境线的人,有斥骂专制魔头的政治犯, 也有纯属为了凑数的莫明其妙受害者。

枪杀陈力前一天下午,何庆云和荣老头站在队列前宣布:“全体人员今天下午不出工,打 扫清洁。明天盐源县公检法、军事管制委员会要在这里召开公判大会。”何庆云还特别强调: “从宣判大会开始,直到宣判大会结束,禁止六队的任何人外出。

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PRC Politburo First Ever Property Disclosure


An intriguing article on the  China Banned Book website about the Chinese Communist Party’s Chinese New Year’s Party’s seating arrangement ‘kremlinology’.

Further down is even more interesting news. Quoting the February issue of the Hong Kong monthly publication Chaoxun.

More interesting though is a report of the Party’s Politburo members  first ever internal report of personal property to Chairman Xi in late 2016.

I wonder if there will be an emoluments clause in the Chinese Communist Party Constitution?

There was no mention of Secretary Xi making a report of his personal property.


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