2022: China Protests and Retribution

This poem which appeared at Tsinghua University is circulating online in China. Many dots are added around the Chinese characters, apparently to frustrate the character recognition software that online censors used to scrub the Chinese networks clean. I found the two items below on on the Twitter feed at 冷山时评 @lengshanshipin

Xi Jinping Step Down!

Shared : this notice appeared at Tsinghua University

Step down, the people have had enough of your performance,
No matter how beautiful your costume,
You can’t be the Qin Shihuang or Han Wudi.

Step down, the Constitution and the Party Charter can’t save you,
Even if you carve your resolve into solid rock,
The people would still abandon you.

Step down. You should at one good decision
Know that no amount of self-confidence
Can make up for your IQ.

Step down, don’t hold onto on your position,
The people have put up with you for ten years
Power is a sex drug, you have drunk
Too much of it for far too long.

Step down, don’t wait until the people
See to it that you end up like Ceausescu,
You must know this.

Step down, take your over-rated singer,
Go to some quiet place to live in peace,
That’d be best for the people,
Save yourself one last bit of face.

Step down, don’t hesitate
It’s for your own good!

This report I also found at 冷山时评 @lengshanshipin

The Party Starts to Settle Scores

Yesterday I met with another friend who was arrested on the 27th, she was taken to the Tianlin New Village Police Station. Many young men and women were beaten there. One young woman was given a concussion, one was kicked in the stomach, and some were slapped. One young man was not released after 24 hours. After expressing his displeasure, he was taken by the police to a “dark room” where they heard him screaming. When they entered, they were strip-searched. When they were released, their cell phones were seized for an additional three days. While inside, they were told not to sleep, not to talk (they were scolded even when they sat down to sleep), given a few slices of bread when they were hungry, and threatened with other words.

In terms of information collection, the female officers at the police station in Kangjian Xincun collected photos, fingerprints, and irises. They also collected voices. They screamed in their faces. When they entered, they were asked to strip and examined, and when they were released, their cell phones were held for an additional three days. While inside, they were told not to sleep and not to talk. (They were scolded even if they sat down to sleep) They were given a few slices of bread when they were hungry. In addition they were verbally threatened. In terms of information collection, the Kangjian New Village police station collected photos, fingerprints, and iris photos. They also collected voices.

In addition to these, they also collected voices (by repeatedly reading out articles), probably to match the people who shouted the slogans. It is safe to assume that none of the above police actions were legally permitted for questioning/summons. I can provide additional evidence and vouch for this information if anyone wishes to verify and disseminate it.

昨天和另一个27号被逮捕的朋 友见面,她被带去的是田林新 村派出所。那边好几个女生/男 生都被殴打,其中一个女生被 打出了脑震荡,一个被踢了肚 子,还有的是被扇了耳光。有 一个男生关了24小时后还没有 被释放,他表达不满后被警察 拉去了“小黑屋”,她们听到里 面传来他的尖叫。她们进去之 后被要求脱光检查,放出来后 手机被额外扣押了三天。在里 面的期间,被要求不能睡觉、 不能说话(哪怕坐着睡觉也会 被呵斥),饿到不行的时候才 给了几片面包,除此以外还有 其他语言威胁。

采集信息方 面,我在的康健新村派出所采 集的包括照片,指纹,虹膜, 她们除了这些还采集了声音面传来他的尖叫。她们进去之 后被要求脱光检查,放出来后 手机被额外扣押了三天。在里 面的期间,被要求不能睡觉、 不能说话(哪怕坐着睡觉也会 被呵斥),饿到不行的时候才 给了几片面包,除此以外还有 其他语言威胁。采集信息方 面,我在的康健新村派出所采 集的包括照片,指纹,虹膜, 她们除了这些还采集了声音

(通过反复朗读文章的方 式),可能是用来比对喊口号 的人。可以肯定的是以上所有 警察的行为都不在问询/传唤的 允许范围内,以上信息如果有 人希望核实和扩散,我可以提 供更多证据并为此担保。

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2012: Jiang Zemin When Soviet Union Collapsed

When the Soviet Union Collapsed: the Choice of Zhongnanhai


来源:《思想理论动态参阅·文史参阅》2012年第45期 2021-03-01



Source:《Thought and Theory Reference – Literature and History Reference》No.45, 2012

by Author: Yi Tian, Heng Zhang, Xiao Wang


In April 1990, researcher Yu Shen made a special trip to the Soviet Union to find out what “humane and democratic socialism” 人道的、民主的社会主义” meant. When he returned, he wrote a 10,000-word report, summarizing the shortcomings of the Soviet model in three sentences: rigid and dogmatic ideology and theory; solidified and opportunistic economic management; and lack of democracy in political life.

A telephone rang in an office on the fourth floor of the Foreign Ministry building on Chaoyangmennei Street in Beijing. Li Jingxian, deputy director of the Soviet-European Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, picked up the phone, the call coming from the Chinese Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the Soviet Union, Wang Arthritis, who was far away in Moscow. “The Soviet Central Television anticipates an important news broadcast tonight at seven o’clock!” and ” I had expected that Gorbachev would have to step down sooner or later, but not so soon.” In the afternoon of December 25, 1991, Li Jingxian put down the phone and immediately reported to Foreign Minister Qian Qichen and other leaders.

  At 00:00 Beijing time on the 26th, seven or eight people from the Soviet Union Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs gathered in front of a 20-inch television set. On the screen Gorbachev began his famous seven-minute “farewell speech”, and the “king”, who no longer had even an inch of the country, calmly announced that he was stepping down. On the same day, the House of Peoples of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR met for the last time, the delegates raised their hands and the USSR disappeared legally and silently. “This is not a comedy, but a tragedy”, the communiqué said.

  That afternoon, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs was notified to meet in Zhongnanhai early the next morning. The decisions that needed to be made at this important moment in history tested the political wisdom of China’s top leadership, as it was not only about a shift in the diplomatic arena, but also about the future direction of China.

   ”Urgent” telegram

  On 27 December, the Central Committee’s discussion on countermeasures to the dissolution of the Soviet Union lasted only half an hour. According to Li Peng’s Foreign Affairs Diary, the meeting was chaired by Jiang Zemin, and an analysis of the situation after the dissolution of the Soviet Union was made, and it was agreed that our side would recognize the independence of the 12 former Union Republics.

  ”China has to stick to socialism, and as long as it gets its economy going, it is not afraid of anything.” According to Li Peng’s Foreign Affairs Diary, at the meeting Jiang Zemin said this, and then instructed that a telegram be sent immediately to Li Lanqing, Minister of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation, who was the visiting the foreign ministers and economics ministers of Russia and other countries, to so inform those countries. Li Jingxian drew the prepared telegram from his bag, drafted a page and gave it to Qian Qichen for revisions. Then the top leaders went through it and drew circled their names to indicate that they had approved it.

  On the 27th, Chinese state media kept a low profile. “People’s Daily” only published the news of the disintegration of the Soviet Union in the international edition and a reporter’s feature “Records of Changing Flags on Red Square”, which mentioned that people in Red Square had”very complicated” feelings. On the 28th, the decision of the Zhongnanhai meeting was published on the front page of the “People’s Daily”. In addition to some countries recognizing the independence of Russia and other countries, the international edition also quoted a report from the TASS news agency that the ruble circulation has increased sharply this year, and prices had risen by 96% in the first three quarters and that this was the cause of some concern.

  About a week after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Jiang Zemin called a meeting of 36 people for several days, in the morning and afternoon, and asked everyone to speak for no less than half an hour and to be thorough. These 36 people were all important officials and scholars associated with the Soviet Union or Russia. Some old comrades did not want to see the collapse of the Soviet Union; others believed that the collapse would objectively do more good than harm to China, as years of inequality and threats from the north disappeared and the international environment was conducive to improvements on China’s periphery. In the face of such a “sudden change”, all kinds of emotions, mentality and views are complex and subtle. Some scholars have put forward the “traitor theory from the top”, while some have expressed the “system theory”.

   A “Political mission” becomes “economics and trade mission”

  An hour or two after the Soviet flag had been lowered for the last time, a Boeing 767 chartered plane landed in Moscow carrying a Chinese government delegation headed by Li Lanqing. On the eve of departure, Li Peng expressed the need to send a minister, and changed the name of the trip from “political mission” to “economics and trade mission”, with Minister Li Lanqing as the head and Deputy Foreign Minister Tian Zengpei as the deputy head. The delegation included over 30 people from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs along with some entrepreneurs. At this time, the countries had not yet become independent and it was not appropriate to visit them on a “political mission”, but there was no delay in maintaining contacts.

  During the first few days of the Chinese delegation’s arrival in the Soviet Union, the negotiations progressed slowly. After the Zhongnanhai meeting on the 27th, when Foreign Minister Qian Qichen called the foreign ministers of the former Soviet republics to inform them of the recognition of their independence and their readiness to negotiate the establishment of diplomatic relations, the Chinese delegation was warmly received by all countries and the negotiations went extremely well.

  In fact, in September of that year, the day after the Soviet Union recognized the independence of the three Baltic States, Qian Qichen stated that the Chinese Government recognized the status of the three independent states. Three days later the Chinese delegation arrived in the three countries with the Chinese, Russian and English versions of the draft communiqué and the authorized signatures, followed by the signing of three communiqués on the establishment of diplomatic relations in three days, which was internationally remarkable for its speed.

   Respecting the countries’ own choices was the general idea. Zhou Xiaopei, who was the head of the Soviet Union Division of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Chinese Minister to Russia, revealed in an article that at that time “according to the decision of the Central Government and the instructions of the leadership of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, our focus was on observing the situation. We prepared for rainy days ahead and made various contingency plans. As soon as the Soviet Government publicly recognized the independence of a republic or formally declared its own dissolution, the issue of relations with Soviet countries was immediately resolved in one fell swoop in accordance with the three-step package of ‘recognition, establishment of diplomatic relations and setting up an embassy’.”

   Study of the “8-19 incident”

  The effects of the foreign ministry and the central leadership’s forethought and proactive planning months before was already evident.

  On 4 August 1991, Gorbachev went on holiday to the Crimean peninsula, after months of restlessness. The series of economic and political reforms he had introduced since taking office were running into difficulty and desiring “national self-determination”, the Union States of the USSR wanted to set up their own states.

  In 1990 and 1991, the three Baltic states became independent. Soon thereafter, Russia also issued the Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. In response, Qian Qichen said, “Russia is the big one; its declaration of independence was tantamount making the Soviet Union untenable.”

  To prevent the disintegration of the Union and to maintain a minimum of national unity, Gorbachev found a lifeline – the New Union Treaty. As originally planned, the treaty was to be signed on August 20, 1991. What Gorbachev never expected was that on August 19, a coup d’état was staged by eight people in the top echelons of the Soviet Union who saw Gorbachev’s reforms could not succeed and were determined to rescue the Soviet regime as it tottered at the edge of precipice.

  The then Chinese ambassador to the Soviet Union, Yu Hongliang, promptly reported the news to the home country a little after 5:00 a.m. Beijing time on August 19. The PRC embassy in the Soviet Union called almost every quarter of an hour thereafter to report on developments.

  At 12:15 p.m. that day, Yeltsin announced from a tank outside the White House that he “opposes this ‘palace coup”. The leaders of the other republics echoed his call.

  At 3 p.m. on the 20th, Ambassador Yu telephoned home to say that the Prime Minister Pavlov, who had been involved in the “palace coup”, had just told reporters that he had been hospitalized with a “cold”. According to Ambassador Yu, the Soviet Premier was suffering from a “political illness”, indicating that the leaders involved in the event had panicked. When Foreign Minister Qian was informed, he said: “The situation seems to have been reversed.” On the morning of the 22nd, Gorbachev returned to Moscow from Crimea, and the “August 19 incident” ended in failure.

  In the afternoon of the 22nd, when Soviet Ambassador Solovyov called on Qian Qichen, he specifically conveyed Gorbachev’s greetings to the Chinese leader. After the meeting, Qian Qichen told Li Jingxian that there were two possibilities for the evolution of the situation in the Soviet Union: either there would be some kind of turnaround, or the situation would take a sharp and unmanageable turn. We have to pay special attention to the latter possibility. Later developments showed that Gorbachev was powerless and that the victor was Yeltsin. in early September, three Baltic republics declared independence and three months later the Soviet Union was dissolved.

  The “last” visit to the Soviet Union

  The Soviet revolution, reform and destiny weigh heavily on the minds of Chinese leaders, and their choices have changed according to the times and circumstances in the midst of the unpredictable world winds.

  In the early spring of 1991, during the continuing turmoil in Eastern Europe, Jiang Zemin, then General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee, was pondering whether to visit the Soviet Union. “Some people say that the ruling party of the Soviet Communist Party has faltered, what is really going on?” One day in February 1991, Jiang Zemin asked Zhou Xiaopei, head of the Soviet Union Division of the Soviet-European Department of the Foreign Ministry, and others, after Jiang had received several invitations from Mikhail Gorbachev to visit the Soviet Union and along with a recent personal letter from Mikhail Gorbachev. Eventually, Jiang Zemin decided to visit the Soviet Union in May. At this time, Gorbachev was on the cusp of a storm: “It was difficult for me to do. Both the ‘left’ and the right criticized me. Some wanted to go backwards, which was unrealistic; some proposed to speed things up, which was risky.”

  ”Gorbachev’s confidence had been growing during months leading up to August 19. He was confident that the New Union Treaty would keep the country united – “Now all 15 of the constituent republics are here, meeting in Moscow to discuss the issue.” Qian Qichen recorded Gorbachev’s optimism at this time in his Ten Notes on Diplomacy, “Like the election of a pope in Rome, no one can leave the Sistine Chapel until the results are known.” However, after the August 19 incident, everyone had left the “church” never to return. Jiang Zemin’s visit became the last visit of a Chinese leader to the Soviet Union.

   Soviet Chronicle

  The “August 19 incident” was indeed unpredictable. Before Jiang Zemin’s visit, the representatives who had discussed the communiqué with the Soviet side had also had many exchanges and visits with friends and people in the Soviet diplomatic community. Their overall impression was that power at the top was tilting in Boris Yeltsin’s favor, but that Yeltsin did not necessarily want to dismantle the Soviet Union, a union of more than 20 million square kilometers of territory that could presumably continue to exist.

   Li Jingxian, who participated in the negotiations and research, also felt deeply the indifference of the lower classes to the question of the survival of the Soviet Union. “At that time, the Soviet Union was like sitting on a volcano. Although it was calm on the surface, people were restless. The situation looked good, but what people thought was completely different from what the top brass said.

   ”Tian Chunsheng, a researcher at the Chinese Academy of Social Scienceswas a visiting scholar in the Soviet Union from 1989 to 1991. She recalls, “For example, I was living in the dormitory of the graduate school of the Russian Academy of Sciences and often chatted with Russians who had ideas about doing business, going abroad and so on. The situation did not feel very stable.”

  At the end of 1990, Tian Chunsheng was had been invited by a friend to travel to the three Baltic Soviet republics told her, “You have to hurry, if you don’t go, these three republics will leave the Soviet Union and you will need a passport to go there.”

   In April 1990, researcher Yu Shuo made a special trip to the Soviet Union in order to find out what “humane and democratic socialism” was. When he returned, he wrote a 10,000-word report that summarized the shortcomings of the Soviet model in three sentences: rigid and dogmatic ideology and theory; solidified and opportunistic economic management; and lack of democracy in political life.

   All handshakes, No hugs.

  The various kinds of surveys and research done prior to the collapse of the Soviet Union was actually to a greater or lesser degree to the judgments of the senior Chinese leadership, especially Deng Xiaoping.

  At 9.35 p.m. on 16 May 1989, in the East Hall of the Great Hall of the People in Beijing, Deng Xiaoping sat quietly waiting for a guest. He told the comrades present that for more than three years he “had been thinking about what to say to him today”. It was just a minute or two before 10 o’clock.

  At 10 o’clock, Mikhail Gorbachev came to Deng Xiaoping and the two top Soviet leaders shook hands for 35 seconds. But there was “no hug” on principle as Deng Xiaoping had specifically instructed for that meeting.

  There was no agenda, not even a speech. Even the Chinese did not know beforehand what he would talk about. With a microphone and a cup of tea in front of him, Deng Xiaoping spoke for most of the two and a half hours with Gorbachev responding occasionally and nodding more frequently. “I am going as a junior to meet an elder.” So Mikhail Gorbachev had told his entourage earlier. That year Deng was 85 and Gore was 58.

  ”Ending the past and opening up the future” was the tone set first by Deng Xiaoping. This broke the ice in the normalization of relations between the two powers. After Deng Xiaoping’s meeting with Mikhail Gorbachev, the situation in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union became even more turbulent. At one point, while talking with several central government officials, Deng said: “I think it is inevitable that there will be chaos in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, and it is not easy to predict to just how bad it will get.”



来源:《思想理论动态参阅·文史参阅》2012年第45期 2021-03-01 11:25:06






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Posted in Bilateral Relations, Foreign Relations 外交, History 历史, Russia | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

2022 Jiang Zemin: Architect of Russia-China Friendship

I have been trying out the new DeepL machine translation Chrome extension on my Chrome browser to read some Russian websites. I studied only a year of Russian twenty years ago which I have since forgotten so I am dependent on the machine translation. DeepL produces much more readable text than I expected from a machine translation program. DeepL can automatically translate what your browser ‘sees’ into English or several other languages.

The DeepL Chrome extension joins the standalone DeepL translation program (online and downloadabe) and Google Lens as another tool that makes translating quicker and easier. While the poison cookie problem of machine translation has not gone away — I still need to check my Chinese translations, correct or retranslated complex or scrambled passages, and check for passages in the original that were left out or repeated.

See my Notes on Chinese-English and Chinese-Chinese Translation Tools for more.

Here I have translating Russian blind (since my faded Russian doesn’t give me anything more than knowing vaguely what the passage is about) so in using machine translation I am being a bit of a daredevil. Looking over this text, I didn’t see any obvious poison cookies — though it is just the hidden ones that kill you. I wouldn’t consider this text as reliable as what I do in Chinese even though I can’t see anything wrong with it.

I made only slight adjustments to the text in several spots to smooth out the wording. These two TASS reports are examples:

What an architect of Russian-Chinese friendship Jiang Zemin was!

Каким был архитектор российско-китайской дружбы Цзян Цзэминь

Former PRC President and former General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China Jiang Zemin

© Sergey Velichkin, Vladimir Rodionov/TASS archive

BEIJING, Nov 30. /TASS/. Former Chinese President and former General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee Jiang Zemin died Wednesday in Shanghai at the age of 96. Jiang Zemin was the leader of China’s third generation of leaders. Unlike Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping, he was not an active participant in China’s revolutionary struggle. Jiang Zemin is a hereditary intellectual whose linguistic, musical and literary talents are legendary. He has gone down in history as one of the most brilliant Chinese politicians, and in the history of Russian-Chinese relations he will be remembered as the architect of modern Russian-Chinese friendship.

“Comrade Zimin.”

Jiang Zemin was born on August 17, 1926 in Yangzhou, Jiangsu province. His youth fell on difficult time for China – civil war and Japanese occupation. Jiang Zemin received the basics of traditional Confucian education: he studied music, poetry and calligraphy.

He joined the CCP in 1946, while studying at the Electrical Engineering Department of Jiaotong University in Shanghai. In the same city, Jiang Zemin, an electrical engineer by training, began his working career in a food factory.

In 1955, China sent 500 workers for training to Moscow at the 1st State Automobile Plant named after I.V. Stalin in Moscow (ZIS, the future ZIL). Young Jiang Zemin was among them.

The Chinese interns impressed the Soviet workers with their diligence. As the Soviet specialists recalled, Jiang Zemin was never late, did not raise his voice and was not sad. Then he received a consonant “Russian name” – in the factory he was called “Comrade Zimin”.

In Moscow, Jiang Zemin learned Russian. This allowed him to later read Pushkin’s and Simonov’s works in the original. In addition, he learned many Russian phrases during this internship. Later, Soviet correspondents would often address him from the crowd of foreign journalists, “How are you doing, Comrade Jiang?” “Business is going, the office is writing,” Jiang Zemin answered them cheerfully and with a smile in Russian.


He worked for the Ministry of Mechanical Engineering of the People’s Republic of China for about 30 years: from an assistant factory engineer to the director of a major research institute, having also had time to undergo “re-education through labor” in the countryside during the “cultural revolution”.

It is believed that one of the important stages of his ascent to the political Olympus of China was the difficult years for the country in the 1980s. In 1985 he became mayor of Shanghai and in 1987 he became head of the city’s Party Committee. When student unrest broke out in Shanghai in April 1989, Jiang Zemin was able to resolve the conflict peacefully, avoiding troops and bloodshed. This was noted by the leadership and enabled him to become Deng Xiaoping’s successor.

After becoming General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee (1989) and Chairman of the People’s Republic of China (1993), Jiang Zemin continued Deng Xiaoping’s course of reforming the country’s economy. During his rule, China’s GDP grew at an average of 10% a year. Hong Kong returned under Chinese sovereignty in 1997, and Macao returned in 1999. Moreover, under his leadership, the country successfully overcame consequences of the 1997-1998 Asian financial crisis. In 2001, Beijing was chosen as the host city for the 2008 Olympics, and China joined the WTO.

Jiang Zemin also spoke Romanian and English, and read Japanese and French. He remains the only top Chinese leader who spoke English.

Architect of Russian-Chinese Friendship

During his years in power, Jiang Zemin advocated the development of Russian-Chinese relations. In 2001, he and Russian President Vladimir Putin signed the Treaty of Good Neighborhood, Friendship and Cooperation. After signing the document, Jiang Zemin said: “We have accomplished a great deed today, but our grandchildren will benefit from it.”

Jiang Zemin praised the significance of this document. “Two points of this treaty are worth emphasizing. First, ‘to pass on friendship from generation to generation, never to be enemies with each other. Second, to lay a solid legal foundation for China and Russia to become good neighbors and good partners for all time,” he recounted.

An Admirer of Russian Literature and a Poet

As Jiang Zemin himself admitted, he developed a love for Russian literature even before his internship in the USSR. “Even before I left China, I fell in love with Russian literature. We were all into Pushkin’s poetry back then. We liked Pushkin’s lyrics and romantic poems. We also liked such works of Tolstoy as “Anna Karenina”, “Resurrection”, “War and Peace”. With pleasure read Chekhov, Turgenev, were interested in Gorky. We also liked Simonov’s poems, especially ‘Wait for Me’ because they encouraged us a lot,” he said.

It is also known that Jiang Zemin was fond of the ancient Chinese poets of the Tang and Song dynasties and often quoted them and wrote poems himself.

A fan of Mozart and Elvis Presley

Jiang Zemin played the Chinese bamboo flute, piano, harmonica, guitar, and the Chinese bowed instrument erhu. In 1999, when he visited Austria, he visited Salzburg and played a Chinese song on the piano in Mozart’s house. In addition, Jiang Zemin was known to love the works of Beethoven and Tchaikovsky.

Another passion of Jiang Zemin was singing. He could be heard singing Chinese opera and Soviet hymns of the 1940s and 1950s. He sang in English and Italian. In 1996, during a dinner in the Philippines with that country’s president, Jiang Zemin sang Love Me Tender by Elvis Presley and tried his hand at performing the cha-cha-cha.

In 1997, Jiang Zemin performed a part from a Beijing opera during an official visit to the United States in Los Angeles. In Hawaii, he attempted a local hula dance and dazzled everyone with his swim: the 71-year-old Chinese president donned a bathing cap and swimming trunks and spent about an hour in the waters of the Pacific Ocean.

In addition, he had a passion for sports since childhood. At school he won competitions in running. Later he played basketball and volleyball, and in recent years he loved swimming.

A Meme Hero

Many foreign journalists recall that Jiang Zemin broke the image of the strict leader of the Chinese Communist Party. His wide smile, large square glasses and love of jokes, including in English, distinguished him from the usually rather reserved representatives of the Chinese leadership.

In recent years, now retired, he has become a real hero of memes. Stickers with his photos are actively circulating on social networks. At the XIX Congress of the CPC in 2017, the always bored politician, who was 91 at the time, was remembered by journalists for scrutinizing documents with a huge magnifying glass.

A Strict Father and an Indulgent Grandfather

In an interview with TASS, Jiang Zemin admitted to being a strict father to his two sons. He said he demanded that his children “love the motherland, study hard, set themselves the right goals, truly master knowledge and be useful to the country, people and society”. “As for grandchildren and granddaughters, let this young generation be brought up by their parents,” he explained.

The life of the former PRC chairman and the features of his biography from beginning to end were filled with contradictions. He seemed to combine incongruities. And as if he did it deliberately. This is exactly what modern China is today – a combination of seemingly contradictory phenomena. And it is this country, with all of its contradictions, Jiang Zemin put it on the rails, which led it to what later was called an economic miracle: under him China’s GDP grew several times over.

Jiang Zemin was tough but able to compromise, a pragmatist who set out to improve the country’s prosperity. Even his name (“Zemin”) can be loosely translated as “doing good for the people. 

Biography of Jiang Zemin

Биография Цзян Цзэминя

Jiang Zemin

© Keivan/Getty Images

Former President of the People’s Republic of China died on 30 November at the age of 96

TASS RELEASE. Former President of the People’s Republic of China Jiang Zemindiedon November 30, 2022 in Shanghai at the age of 96 .

Origins and Education

Jiang Zemin was born on August 17, 1926, in Yangzhou, eastern Jiangsu Province. His grandfather Jiang Shixi was a merchant and a doctor of traditional Chinese medicine. Little is known about his father, Jiang Shijun. According to some reports, he was a collaborator and worked for the puppet government in Nanjing (Jiangsu was occupied by Japan from 1937 to 1945). According to Jiang Zemin’s official biography, he was adopted in 1939 with his parents’ consent by the widow of his uncle, communist Jiang Shanqing. Reliably, his family is known to have belonged to the intelligentsia. Along with modern education, Jiang Zemin received the basics of traditional Confucian education: he studied music, poetry, and calligraphy. In 1946 he joined the Communist Party of China (CPC), a year later he graduated from the Faculty of Electrical Engineering of one of the leading universities of the country – Jiaotong University (Shanghai).

Labor Activities

Before graduating, he began working in a food processing factory in Shanghai, later becoming deputy director of a soap factory and then heading the electric equipment department at the Shanghai Design Bureau of the First Ministry of Machinery of the People’s Republic of China.

In 1955 he did an internship at the 1st State Automobile Plant named after I.V. Stalin in Moscow (in 1956-2016 – Likhachev Plant, ZIL), and then worked until 1962 at China’s first automobile plant in Changchun (northeastern province, Jilin, built with the assistance of the USSR).

From 1962-1980, he worked in various enterprises and research institutes in Shanghai and Wuhan, as well as in the International Liaison Department of the First Ministry of Mechanical Engineering in Beijing.

In the party and the government

Since 1980, Jiang Zemin held senior positions in the State Import-Export Control and Foreign Investment Committees. During this period, he supervised the establishment and operation of China’s first Shenzhen Special Economic Zone (SEZ).

From 1982-1985, he served as Minister of Electronic Industry of the People’s Republic of China.

In September 1982 he was elected a member of the Central Committee, in November 1987 – a member of Politburo of the CPC Central Committee.

In 1985 he became mayor of Shanghai and in 1987 he became secretary of the Shanghai Municipal Committee of the CPC. In these positions, he promoted reforms and policies to broaden ties between the country’s largest city and the outside world. When anti-government unrest broke out in Shanghai in April 1989, Jiang Zemin was able to resolve the conflict without introducing troops (while in Beijing the student protests in Tiananmen Square were suppressed with the help of the army). Jiang Zemin’s actions in this situation were noted at the highest level: he was chosen to succeed the de facto leader of the PRC – Chairman of the PRC Central Military Council Deng Xiaoping.

The Leader of the PRC

In June 1989, Jiang Zemin became a member of the Standing Committee of Politburo and General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee. In November of the same year he became chairman of the Military Council of the CPC Central Committee, in April 1990 chairman of Central Military Council of the PRC, and on March 27, 1993 chairman of the PRC. Thus, Jiang Zemin was considered to be the leader of the so-called third generation of the Chinese leaders (after Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping). The official Chinese press referred to him as the “core” of the country’s collective leadership.

As Chairman of the PRC he consistently pursued Deng Xiaoping’s policy of building “socialism with Chinese characteristics”, which implied liberal reforms in the economy while maintaining the Party’s control over the political sphere. During the period when Jiang Zemin led the Party and the state, the Chinese economy was adding 10% to GDP on average. It was at the same time that China experienced important domestic political events such as the reunification with Hong Kong in 1997 and Macao in 1999 as well as its accession to the WTO in 2001 and the successful recovery from the 1997-1998 Asian financial crisis.

In 2000, Jiang Zemin first put forward the idea of “three representations”, according to which the party should “express the interests of the advanced productive forces, advanced culture and all Chinese people”. As a result, the CCP partially abandoned the class approach in personnel policy. In practice, this meant that restrictions on entry into the Party by entrepreneurs and other categories not traditionally classified as proletariat were lifted.

Jiang Zemin played an important role in the establishment of relations between Russia and China, the result of this process was the signing during his visit to Russia in July 2001 of the Treaty of Good Neighborliness, Friendship and Cooperation. He was also one of the initiators of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO, 2001).

On November 14, 2002, Jiang Zemin officially resigned as General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee. On March 15, 2003, he also left the top state post – Hu Jintao, a member of the fourth generation of Chinese leaders, was elected Chairman of the People’s Republic of China. The transfer of power was completed in March 2005 when Hu Jintao succeeded Jiang Zemin as Chairman of the Central Military Commission. 

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2019: DARPA Management Mechanism Characteristics and Intelligent Development: Lessons for China’s Military S&T III

The translation below is a translation from a foreign periodical into Chinese that I have translated into English. China also translates vast quantities of U.S. Department of Defense publications. Why re-invent the wheel?

Some Comments on Translations in China

Foreign technical standards too are often translated into Chinese and promulgated as Chinese national technical standards: one example was the U.S. civil air regulations in the 1990 and the PLA Navy translating U.S. Navy standards into Chinese and making them GJB or HJB PRC national standards.

The Compilation and Translation Bureau of the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee also does translations into Chinese. I visited there once with some colleagues from U.S. Embassy Beijing in 2010. One of them, an expert on Chinese publications from the Open Source Center, told pointed to the 1980s translation of Lenin’s Collected Works into Chinese and told me “When they translated Lenin into Chinese, they massaged the translation from Russian so that Lenin would support Deng Xiaoping Theory.”

Translations projects can be sensitive in China or even when the translation project starts with collecting as many texts as possible as Japanese scholars led by Takeuchi Minoru and translators of Mao Zedong discovered. The Party didn’t approve of publishing Mao’s earlier works (he didn’t agree himself with some of them later) and Mao’s works were revised or updated from time to time. The question even arose whether Chinese scholars should have access to the early writings of Mao! The solicitude of the Party extends to protecting tender scholarly minds from going astray.

The Japanese edition of Collected Works of Mao Zedong includes materials mainly from Mao’s texts before 1949, and today, most of these materials and even many documents not included in “Mao Zedong’s collection” have been published publicly in China one after another. We can safely say that the number of domestic publications of Mao’s texts before the founding of the PRC, especially before 1920, is by no means comparable to the Japanese edition of Mao’s Collected Works, except for a limited number of texts. However, the Japanese edition has a high academic research value in terms of both the “whole” and “original” texts.

Firstly, from the perspective of “complete”, according to Mr. Zhou Ping’s testimony, there are still many texts that have been included in the Japanese edition but have not been officially published in China, including more than 30 texts from 1921 to July 1927 and more than 300 texts after August 1927. [10]

Secondly, from the point of view of the “original”, the Japanese edition includes many first-hand, uncorrected manuscripts that have not yet been published in China. For example, the article “Analysis of the Classes in Chinese Society” has been officially published in China, but there is a difference in content between the original version of the article and the current version. Moreover, the revision of this text was done by Mao himself, indicating that Mao himself no longer agreed with his own ideas and views at that time, which is not too influential in the general readership outside the researcher, but helps the reader to understand Mao as a real individual. If this issue is avoided excessively, it may instead be deliberately distorted by those with ulterior motives.

The author believes that, under the present conditions, researchers can be allowed in some cases to use the Japanese edition of Mao’s Collected Works in their academic studies. The publication (internal distribution) of the Early Manuscripts of Mao Zedong has proved to produce good results, and a large body of scholarship has begun to use it as a documentary basis to objectively and openly reproduce the process of Mao’s early ideological changes.

Mao Zedong Studies in a Documentary Perspective – From the Editorial Principles of the Japanese Edition of the Collected Works of Mao Zedong“, Nanjing University, Marxist Social Theory Research Center, Nanjing 210093 Journal of Nanjing University, No. 2, 2006.

(Nanjing University, Marxist Social Theory Research Center, Nanjing 210093)

The China – US Translation Gap

China translates oceans of materials from US media, publications and books while the United States government does far less and has shown over that it intends to do even less. My own experience working at State Department on both Russia and China has shown me this. When I worked on the Russia Desk 2002 – 2004 it seemed that if anything important was happening, I would have in a few days available good translations and analysis on the issue. It was amazing. This kind of expertise on Russia took generations to develop and perhaps after the Soviet Union dissolved, some of that expertise was lost as people retired. Working on China I noticed there was far less available.

When I worked in China Beijing 2007 – 2012 and Chengdu 2007 – 2012 I was able to plug into a wealth of Chinese expertise (many Chinese officials were very kind in explaining things to me and answering my questions) and open sources — books, journals and newspapers, Chinese think tank materials were available to me. I suppose just because of the high language barrier with China, I found impressing people back in Washington was much easier than I expected. One day in fall 2007 my Science Counselor Marco DiCapua told me that he hadn’t been allowed to attend a conference on science and technology reform but his contact on science affairs had given him the conference volume entitled Science and Education for a Prosperous China 科教興國. He asked me to look through it. I wrote a series of reporting cables that made a big impression in the State and intel world. Just a book summary and report really. I imagine if we had a much larger translation effort, we would have picked up earlier on the reform initiatives discussed at the conference.

My Book report: Science and Education via the Internet Archive

When book summary reports can make a big impression, that could be a sign that we are not paying attention. Including not selecting significant articles, translating and analyzing them. The Open Source Center (re-incarnation of FBIS) did a lot of good work but is underfunded. The U.S. effort could never be as large as the Chinese effort, just thinking of the linguistic manpower involved yet a great deal more could be done than is being done now. Much can be done outside the intelligence agencies where this work has traditionally resided. The U.S. government loses a lot of good talent from unnecessary security clearance requirements.

A Blog Editorial: The U.S. Government and Congress Should Act

The U.S. Congress should create a new public open-source translation and material service for China and other countries, along the lines of the Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS). 

FBIS was a crucial tool for helping democratic countries to understand and craft better policies towards the Soviet Union, the People’s Republic of China (PRC), and other countries around the world. Our failure to embrace widespread, public open-source material has demonstrably hurt U.S. foreign policy. The Open Translation and Analysis Center Authorization Act  would have provided a strong model for how we can develop the open source capabilities necessary to further US interests, maintain national security, and compete in the global information competition.

It seems unlikely to pass in this Congress. I hope something like it will be introduced in the next Congress. I would imagine that this would not be a partisan issue but you never can tell these days!

In the information age, open source material has never been as readily available and in the United States case it has never been so underutilized. 

Historically, open source material has been constrained by its traditional home in the U.S. intelligence community where it has played a supporting role as “collateral” information. Although clandestine work is essential, open source material is indispensable in gaining a full understanding of a country. 

Yet, the Intelligence Community continues to devote a worrying low level of resources to open source translation and analysis. Even the output it still produces is not widely shared with other government departments let with the media or general public. This has reduced their understanding of the PRC and the threat it poses to the democratic world.

By contrast, the PRC commits substantial amounts of economic resources and places a strong emphasis on open source material. Although many in the U.S. may dismiss PRC speeches and documents as propaganda, that is not how Beijing views them. In fact, PRC officials are required to spend a growing amount of their time studying public speeches and documents from the top leadership. Similarly, China translates vast quantities of US media, Congressional debate, and government publications, including Department of Defense publications, to better understand us.

Our understanding of China, both inside and outside the US government, has thus been crippled by our neglect of open source information, placing us at a severe disadvantage. 

Chinese media and publicly available documents, in their stunning variety, can provide a clearer picture of Chinese Communist Party regime in its many local rivalries, complexities, strengths and weaknesses.  Our failure to engage with open source material also allows China to use the language barrier to “maintain the distinction between the inner and the outer.” That is, it allows Beijing to present itself to the world as it wants to be seen, even as it depicts a different picture internally. Changing this is essential in the global information competition.

A new approach is needed—namely, a U.S. government funded China open source organization outside the intelligence community. It’s role would be to produce translations, brief overviews, and occasional longer reports inspired by Congressional Research Service reports which will serve the US more effectively. Unlike, the intelligence community, this information would be shared publicly, expanding the US public’s understanding of China as well as the world’s.

The open source effort would develop personnel with a deep understanding of China and other countries, maintain regular contact with the academic community, media, allied governments, and recruit talent throughout the US. 

Personnel with deep expertise will provide the necessary context to help top officials, the media, and the general public understand the documents that are translated. Although modern translation tools can streamline work, they cannot replace human beings in providing this critical context.

A U.S. government-funded open source collection, translation and contextualizing effort would be a  public good that will make China in all its complexities – including the turmoil of domestic politics and the domestic political context of the China’s foreign relations – more easily understood so that the US government, allied powers, and publics around the world can  better understand a regime increasingly seeks opposed to their values which seems to challenge the international rules-based order.

Previous Chinese translations on DARPA

I find the history of science and technology fascinating. Technology and Culture and Isis are two journals I like in that field. Probably why I am doing this series on the Chinese military S&T people looking at DARPA that they put together with PRC military S&T domestic concerns in mind. The first Gulf War and the “revolution in military affairs” was a big shock to Chinese military thinkers.

DARPA Management Mechanism Characteristics and Intelligent Systems Development

April 26, 2019 

from a foreign periodical March 2019 an overview

As the cradle of U.S. defense science and technology innovation, DARPA’s role has generally been to engage in basic research that has potential military applications but is not on the current agenda of the Army, Navy, or Air Force. Although not often visible, DARPA has always played an extremely important role as a rare mirror of our efforts to advance defense science and technology innovation, whether in the armed-to-the-teeth U.S. military or in the various new technologies of everyday life, from the military to the civilian sector.

I. Incubators of innovation born out of the Cold War

On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first human satellite, Sputnik-1. The satellite was 58 centimeters in diameter and weighed 83.6 kilograms (about 184 pounds). Due to the Cold War underway at that time, both the U.S. and the Soviet Union paid close attention to the armaments of each other’s “important enemies”, and the successful launch of Sputnik-1 undoubtedly brought a huge shock to the United States. The next day, the New York Times printed in bold 0.5-inch capital letters across the front page: “Orbiting Earth at 18,000 Miles per Hour Radio Signal Confirms Satellite Passed Orbit Over United States”. The British newspaper Manchester Guardian also reported, “‘Sputnik-1’ satellite has shown unmistakably that Moscow can now build intercontinental ballistic missiles capable of attacking any given target in the world, and it is clear that the Russians have taken a great lead in the field of outer space. The superiority of American nuclear power will henceforth be history, a brutal fact that the free world will find doubly painful but has to accept.”

On the same day, the Soviet Union also announced the successful launch of the Sputnik-1 artificial satellite in its official newspaper Pravda: “News came of a new outstanding triumph of Soviet science and technology that stirred the world yesterday. Thanks to the extremely intensive work of our scientific institutes and design schools, we have created the world’s first artificial Earth satellite. The satellite now orbits the Earth in an ellipse at a speed of about 8,000 meters per second, and its orbit takes one hour and 36.2 minutes ……” The Soviet newspaper Pravda did not fail to take the opportunity to mock the meaning of this artificial satellite for the United States: “Now is not the time for the American ruling clique to come out of the dead end into which they have drilled themselves? You know, it was they who initiated the arms race, claiming their monopoly on atomic weapons. But their calculations have fallen flat. They continued the arms race by shouting about the hydrogen bomb, which the US had a monopoly on, and their calculations fell apart again. They rejected Soviet disarmament proposals and bragged about their rocket weapons. This time they were defeated again because the Soviet Union had made an intercontinental ballistic rocket.”

To avoid another technology surprise that would leave the US a passive bystander and to ensure its own technological superiority, in February 1958, the U.S. government announced the establishment of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), the predecessor of today’s Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). As an agency of the U.S. Department of Defense, DARPA has maintained its mission to “maintain U.S. technological leadership and prevent potential adversaries from unexpectedly overtaking”. DARPA has done much exploratory work to promote technological innovations and new capabilities with disruptive impact. These include the Internet, GPS, stealth warplanes, unmanned aircraft, hypersonic aircraft, intelligent voice assistants. In many other areas as well DARPA’s work has led to important breakthroughs DARPA science and technology has provided a solid foundation for U.S. military technological leadership and today many institutions worldwide that aim to be innovative see it as the benchmark for cutting-edge, exploratory, and disruptive research in the eyes of global innovation institutions.

In recent years, DARPA has continued to support research in artificial intelligence and related fields. The special nature of defense strategic research, means it has limited application in other areas, and cannot be directly applied there. However, we can still from unclassified technical reports get an idea of the direction of its research work and understand something of the application of artificial intelligence in warfare from its strategic explorations of certain areas of cutting-edge science and technology. 

II. Science and Technology Innovation for Intelligent Warfare

The hard power and strategic deterrence of the U.S. military relies heavily on its constant ability to be innovative in science and technology, especially its keen capture of strategic frontier technologies. In recent years, DARPA has increased its focus on and escalation of smart technology, laying out a series of scientific research and exploration projects, aiming the target at the future intelligent reconfiguration of the battlefield.

(i) Upgrading of smart technology

1. Transparent Computing Technology – “Transparent Computing”

When a computation result finishes close but not precisely correct, then computation intelligence aims to “open up the black box” of reaching the result by making an approximation that is only infinitesimally different from the precise result in order to arrive at the optimal solution. However, since people’s knowledge of the inner workings of computer systems is like a black box, there is almost no way to observe the exact process. This greatly limits the ability to fully understand cyber operations and, naturally, to detect and respond to certain major cyber threats, especially those that employ more complex mechanisms and are persistent. 

DARPA’s Transparent Computing project aims to make currently opaque computer systems more transparent by providing high-fidelity visibility with minimal system performance loss. Transparent computing supports research on computational models and systems involved in scientific research and experimentation, as well as inferential computing and communication. The project will develop techniques for recording and preserving the origin of all system elements/components (inputs, software modules, processes, etc.) to dynamically track interactions and causal relationships between networked system components, integrating and analyzing these relationships in end-to-end system operations. At the same time, Transparent Computing will develop basic technologies and experimental prototypes consisting of multi-layered data collection systems and analysis/execution drivers to enable proactively enforced idealized policies (allow/disallow interactions), near real-time intrusion detection and argument and analysis, and a new jumping off point for upgrading computing technologies.

2. The ultimate search system – “Memex Deep Web Search

An experiment was conducted with Google in the United States, where the search engine would prioritize the sentences and websites with the highest weight based on these words or phrases by typing “the 10 deepest lakes in the U.S.” into the Google search bar. In response to the experiment, Google’s explanation was that the search engine could not yet understand that the phrase entered was a problem. In addition, the search algorithm sometimes misses web information that cannot be retrieved by standard search engines, resulting in the loss of shared content across pages. This shows that even the very best performing web search engines still face technical challenges.

DARPA’s Memex Deep Web Search project aims to create better ways to interact and share information so that users can quickly and comprehensively organize and search for subsets of information relevant to their personal interests. Deep Web Search is an analog computing technology that supplements human memory by storing and automatically cross-referencing all of a user’s books, records, and other information to achieve the ability to quickly and flexibly search large amounts of information to efficiently gain relevant insights. The project will develop mechanisms for advanced online search capabilities that go well beyond current levels and provide improved content exploration, information extraction, information retrieval, user collaboration, and other key search functions.

3. Precision information platform – “Mission-oriented Resilient Clouds

Although the United States has long been planning for a “cloud strategy” – a shift in information technology from traditional workstations to cloud computing environments in future warfare – the security questions related to moving compressed sensitive data and computing into cloud computing systems have not yet been fully addressed. The key issue here is that the national perimeter defense focus of traditional security solutions cannot cover the “silo” security of today. In a cloud environment. Traditional security will be further marginalized in the cloud environment by a high concentration of similar hosts in a high-speed network environment, with absolute confidence in the hosts within a limited perimeter defense area without internal checks.

DARPA’s “Mission-Oriented Resilient Cloud” project aims to address some of the potential security challenges by developing attack detection, diagnosis, and response technologies in the cloud. To this end, the project will focus on completing assigned cloud defenses, creating shared situational awareness and dynamic trust models, introducing manageable and assignable to task diversity into other similar cloud systems, and developing mission-aware adaptive networking technologies. The project will also work in parallel with the U.S. Department of Defense’s “Clean-slate design of Resilient, Adaptive, Secure Host” initiative to limit host security vulnerabilities.

III. Improving Learning Capacity

Pedro Dominguez, a professor of computer science at the University of Washington, noted that “if robots mastered all human capabilities except for learning, humans would soon abandon them.” But it is the autonomous learning function of artificial intelligence, whereby it can acquire “rules” as things progress and gradually develop strategies to improve its performance without being told in advance what to do in conceptual form. Here, the difference between the human brain and neural networks is that learning enhancement in the human brain is a biochemical process, whereas learning enhancement in neural networks occurs by a different mechanism, namely by modifying its own code to find connections between inputs and outputs or between causes and outcomes in complex situations.

1. Theoretical framework construction – “the fundamental limits of learning”

The International Data Corporation estimates that the amount of data currently online is about 4.4 zettabytes, and if this data could be fed into an IPad Air (Apple’s ultra-thin tablet), the resulting stack of IPads would be able to cover 2/3 of the distance from the Earth to the Moon. However, figuring out the correlations among that ocean of data is the key to autonomous machine learning. For example, machine learning lacks an understanding of the trade-offs and mathematical limitations of relevant domains, problems, or database related techniques. This deficiency is in the fundamental theoretical framework for understanding the relationships among data, tasks, resources, and performance metrics, elements that can help us understand the matching relationship between AI and tasks.

DARPA’s “Fundamental Limits of Learning” project aims to develop methods and application rules for assessing the capability of learning system design solutions. The project will investigate mathematical frameworks that can provide quantifiable and generalizable learning measurements to design systems with good performance. In addition, the project will help characterize the fundamental limits between existing and new normative approaches to machine learning and elucidate methods for evaluating trustworthiness in a variety of applications.

2. Complex systems modeling – “Deep Purposeful Learning

Facebook has created a facial recognition technology called “DeepFace” that uses deep learning capabilities to compare two photos and see if they show the same person. Shortly thereafter, Facebook developed another technology based on “DeepFace” that could describe images for blind users. For example, if a picture shows someone cycling through the English countryside on a summer’s day, the technology recognizes it and then describes the scene by voice. Of course, in the military, deep learning systems for artificial intelligence are much more complex than “facial recognition” and “scene description” here, and modeling of complex systems is an integral part of deep learning.

DARPA’s Deep Purposeful Learning project aims to advance the modeling of complex dynamical systems using efficient information analysis and processing methods, and to achieve optimal applications of data and known physics at multiple scales. The project will use high-throughput multimodal scientific data to develop new methods for noise reduction and interpolation of stochastic time series data; generative models for predicting the trajectory, resilience, and stability of systems; and new methods for tuning the trajectory of the final state of such systems.

3. Battlefield countermeasure development – “adaptive electronic warfare behavioral learning”

Can intelligent warfare actually be achieved? There are perhaps two reasons why we are convinced of this: the first is the demand for AI technology; the second is the process of evolution of AI. For the former, we are now experiencing it, and the latter, it is not pie-in-the-sky speculation. For example, the U.S. Army’s Robotics and Autonomous Systems Strategy 2015-2040, released by the U.S. Army, sets out a series of plans including enhanced situational awareness capabilities for autonomous systems.

DARPA’s  Behavioral Learning for Adaptive Electronic Warfare  program aims to develop new machine learning algorithms and technologies that will enable rapid detection and identification of new radio threats, dynamic synthesis of new countermeasures, and accurate battle damage evaluation. These would be based on changes in wireless observations of threats,  It will play an important role in developing countermeasures as the battlefield environment changes. 

IV.  Reducing ‘loss of control’ Risk

For humans, we are accustomed to attributing the “loss of control” of “man-made objects” to accidents or malfunctions. Such as plane crashes and train collisions. Usually, when we troubleshoot such failures, we look at the manufacturing process of the plane or train for clues. The root of this is that AI is an autonomous system that is guided by judgments and probabilities that do not give a completely certain outcome, which inadvertently creates the risk of loss of control in systems that rely on AI.

1. Accountability for Malicious Acts – “Enhanced Identity Attribution

Some people may wonder, since at this stage, AI is not quite able to understand the value pursuit and cannot make multiple value trade-offs, but can only “play within itself” according to the set goals. So when the set goal is not in line with the value pursuit, will the AI do something “extremely paranoid” to accomplish the goal? The answer is yes. Back in 2005, in a self-driving test in the United States, a Volkswagen Touareg ran at a constant speed of 32-40 km/h on a desert road with four passengers wearing crash helmets. The car’s computer sensed the external environment through five sensors and controlled the steering wheel. When the car pulled into a depression, its LIDAR scanned a tree branch above the vehicle as it tilted upwards, but the autopilot system didn’t know what it was, so something went wrong and the car became “paranoid” and fell off the road and into the thorns.

DARPA’s Enhanced Attribution project aims to provide transparency into currently opaque malicious behavior by providing high-fidelity visibility into malicious behavior. The project will develop technologies and tools to control the “extreme paranoia” that can occur in artificial intelligence systems.

2. Data pollution control – “Explainable AI”

Microsoft once launched a chatbot called Tay, but it was taken offline less than a week after its launch. The reason for this was that the product expressed radical views that were not in line with mainstream values. This was unacceptable to Americans, and so Tay was quickly taken offline to prevent the situation from getting even worse. In the aftermath, Microsoft’s vice president for Research and Development, Peter Lee, responded, “We are deeply sorry for the unintended offensive and hurtful tweets from Tay, which do not represent who we are or what we stand for, nor how we designed Tay.In fact, what Tay’s downfall reflects is a problem of data pollution. Under the “data-learning algorithm-behavior” chain, it is clear that the data itself will have a key impact on the final behavior. However, because of the sheer volume of data, many times we have no control over what data is fed to the learning algorithm and therefore no way of knowing what will be the exact behavior of the AI.

DARPA’s Explainable Artificial Intelligence project aims to create new machine learning systems with the ability to explain fundamentals, describe strengths and weaknesses, and express awareness of future performance. The project will be combined with state-of-the-art human-computer interaction technologies to translate models into understandable, practical explanatory dialogues for end-users, thereby generating an updated set of methods to address the data contamination that can occur with artificial intelligence systems.

3. Safe system operation – “insight”

If we leave each AI system in an invisible sandbox, the other side systematically detects the various data and records produced by such an AI system. Once anomalies are detected, they are adjusted or shut down. Here, we can think of the sandbox as an artificially set AI boundary through which we control the development of AI. However, if perhaps one day when humans use AI they will have already decided to lose the ability to maintain tight control over a particular machine or program. It’s as if in the “man vs. machine” battle between AlphaGo and Lee Sedol, we have no control over whether it makes a good move or a bad move in every situation it encounters. In fact, the safe operation of AI systems requires a socialized system of authority and responsibility.

DARPA’s Insight program is designed to develop the ability to receive, index, and store data from multiple sources, analyze that data, and request and share relevant information with analysts and data providers. The project uses an open and standardized plug-and-play architecture to rapidly integrate existing and developing intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) technologies and sources, and an intuitive multi-user interface for timely decision making to enhance intelligence analysts’ support for real-time battlefield-aware operations, thereby facilitating the safe operation of artificial intelligence systems.

V.  Unique Features of the DARPA Innovation Mechanism

  • 1958, ARPA explored the development of a large launch vehicle, Juno V, which was later transferred to the newly formed NASA; 
  • 1959, ARPA launched the Sail Constellation project to detect nuclear explosions; 
  • 1960, ARPA and the CIA jointly funded the Corona reconnaissance satellite project, which successfully returned the first photographs; 
  • 1965, ARPA funded the Williams Corporation to develop the WR19 small turbofan engine, an improved version of which was later returned. 
  • 1965, ARPA funded Williams to develop the WR19 small turbofan engine, a modified version of which became the AGM-86 air-launched missile and the BGM-109. “Tomahawk cruise missile; 
  • 1969, the world’s first ARPA-funded network, the ARPA Network, was launched; 
  • 1971, ARPA launched the “Small Remotely Piloted Unmanned Aircraft” project for reconnaissance; 
  • 1975, DARPA launched research on manned stealth aircraft; 
  • 1977, DARPA funded the first flight of Tacit Blue, which later developed into the F-117 stealth fighter; 
  • 1982 to 1984, DARPA launched a secret program called Copper Creek Valley, which evolved into the X-30 airplane program; 
  • 1997, DARPA launched the Miniature Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (MAV) program; and 
  • 2001, DARPA launched the Advanced Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing program;
  • 2007, DARPA launched the three-year Wideband Semiconductor for Radio Frequency Applications (WBGS-RF) program; 
  • 2008, DARPA proposed the integration of speed and range for aircraft 
  • In 2008, DARPA proposed the concept of “submarine aircraft”, which combines the speed and range of an aircraft, the cruise capability of a surface ship, and the stealth capability of a submarine. 
  • From 2008 to 2018, DARPA has laid out strategic and strategic frontier technologies such as artificial intelligence, big data, cloud computing, hypersonic vehicle technology, and quantum computing.

The report card on defense science and technology innovation above has made many curious about DARPA’s plans to promote innovation in military or civilian science and technology. At the same time, DARPA is often shrouded in secrecy because of its affiliation with the U.S. Department of Defense.

The birth of the DARPA mechanism of the United States Department of Defense is an example of successful decision-making remarkable in the history of modern defense science and technology.  In the six decades since its birth, DARPA has achieved world-renowned successes. The military technologies developed by DARPA helped the United States to occupy an undisputed position as the global leader in military science and technology research and development. Moreover, in recent years, the demonstration of these high-tech weapons and equipment in the first Gulf War, the Kosovo War and the second Gulf War launched by the United States stimulated a global revolution in military technology. The study of DARPA is a window into the decision-making mechanisms of U.S. defense science and technology, at both the theoretical and practical levels.

For DARPA, creativity is everything. At an agency that is home to some of the best minds in the business, as former DARPA Director Tony Tether said, “We can hire thousands of people to execute ideas, but the most important thing is to have the ideas first.” Maximum potential comes from mechanisms that work effectively. In summary, the DARPA model has some of the following characteristics.

First, foresight. Michael Tushman and Charles O’Reilly have suggested that successful innovative leaders create “dualistic” organizations-that is, organizations that are able to “get today’s work done efficiently and also anticipate discontinuity of tomorrow.” Organizations with such managers are not only capable of winning in the present, but do even better when they are dealing with the future.

DARPA focuses on future needs, emphasizing ideas, concepts, and tricks rather than solutions to real-world problems. The “flash of ideas” is the starting point for DARPA’s research programs, whose primary responsibility is to perceive the military’s potential future needs rather than to validate the military’s proposed real-world needs. As a result, its research on certain new technologies often precedes their practical application by decades. For example, DARPA began research in 1969 on ARPAnet, which has since evolved into what is now the international Internet.  Beginning in 1973, DARPA began research on drones, which to this day have become an integral and critical player in the U.S. military equipment system.

By its very nature, this forward-looking research uses traditional scientific research methods to study technological solutions for the realization of a possible future product, and its application prospects are strong. However, its benefits can be described as both unattainable and distant, so that its success must be backed by the sustained efforts of many professionals.

Second, independence. A certain independence in the operation of scientific research institutions can stimulate the generation of new ideas and facilitate the establishment of a broader range of contacts with the outside world. Although DARPA is part of the Department of Defense, it is independent of the military services and has a strong independence from the U.S. Navy, Army, and Air Force services as clients. It recruits visionary technicians, top scientists, and engineers into a series of small research institutions that build scientific communities with universities, the public sector, and technology companies that aim to overcome specific technical challenges. It gives them very high levels of autonomy in the use of research funds to support ideas that are likely to come to fruition. To decide whether to fund a project, a program officer usually needs to convince only two people: the head of his or her technical office and the DARPA director.

Independence frees DARPA from the traditional approach of administrative assignment, which allows it to fully exploit its foresight and stimulates the spirit of inquiry among scientists, facilitating communication and collaboration among them to achieve breakthroughs in some major, forward-looking areas of science and technology.

Third, DARPA operates in an apparently elusive manner: funding decisions are made without expert review and at the whim of program managers, following the sole principle of DARPA’s ongoing mission to support imaginative and creative, high-risk research in the interest of U.S. defense. Research.

For DARPA, it is more concerned with acumen (agile) than fairness. DARPA encourages its staff to cut funding to groups that are not making progress and to reallocate resources to groups that have more promise for technological breakthroughs. Therefore for the sake of increased efficiency in decision making, the project funding process can be done without peer review.

Erica R.H. Fuchs, Assistant Professor in the Department of Engineering and Public Policy at Carnegie Mellon University (USA), points out in “Successful Cloning of the DARPA Model” that the most significant success factor of the DARPA model is its unique system of program officers. In scientific research, the quality of the researcher determines the pace and level of program implementation, and acumen literally forms the basis for implementing and executing the research program.

Fourth, effectiveness and efficiency. Effectiveness and efficiency are dimensions that every research institution must take into account. Will the product developed advance the technology in the relevant field? Can its research be used to maximum advantage at the lowest possible cost? In this respect, DARPA seems to be unique.

DARPA provides funding to university researchers, companies that are just starting out and steadily gaining a foothold in the industry, and industry groups, among others.  The technology results it obtains on many of its projects can only be transferred to the military services and industry to eventually lead to products that support the operational capabilities of the U.S. military. Therefore its ultimate goal is to advance applied technology. This mission naturally extends to helping companies commercialize their products and so the agency provides far more than funding to companies.

At the same time, through data mining analysis to measure and analyze the scientific literature. , if DARPA finds that two scientists are working on the same problem at the same time, but taking different technical routes, they will be funded separately, thus preventing potential duplication of research between the two in the future. Both avoid the complicated funding application process, and each side gets what it wants. If only one of the two ends up with a DARPA grant, both must share their research ideas and work progress at a workshop organized by DARPA. Thus DARPA fosters a community of researchers, promotes coordination and collaboration among community members, and improves overall research efficiency.

Fifth, risk tolerance. Development and risk are often inseparable, and thus the trade-off between the two is often difficult. Esther Dyson Dyson (Esther Dyson) once warned readers of the Harvard Business Review: “You must be willing to take risks, to experiment, to look at failures dialectically. My credo is, ‘Even when you make a mistake, it has to be a new mistake.’ There’s no shame in making mistakes. Just learn from them and don’t make the same mistakes again. What I’ve learned, I’ve learned from my mistakes.”

In the field of innovation, policymakers must recognize the close relationship between risk and reward. For DARPA, its emphasis on “high-risk, high-reward” research has led to tolerance of failure, open learning and a culture of risk-taking. It emphasizes risk management rather than risk avoidance. As a result, it encourages personal responsibility and initiative in its organizational, management and personnel policies. Project managers have a high degree of flexibility in defining projects.  A key decision at the top of DARPA is to select project managers who are risk-taking and driven by innovative ideas.

However, “high risk” does not equate to “high cost”; DARPA allows projects to fail, but its rigorous program review mechanism reduces the high cost to some extent. This model is very similar to a technique used in poker. A savvy poker player knows that if he dwells on a dead hand, he can’t expect to eventually win, so he stops betting, gives up the hand, and waits for the cards to be dealt again. If the hand is good, he will continue on, raising the stakes. Whenever he draws a new card, he always judges whether it’s worth continuing the hand. And his rule is to get out of it as quickly and as cheaply as possible once he realizes that the hand is bound to be lost. Similarly, DARPA’s practice of terminating a project or experiment just after it has been shown to be “unworkable” reduces the cost of its failure somewhat by “calling it quits” quickly.

Sixth, broad connectedness. The spark of an epiphany is small, but, by connecting extensively with the outside world, it can be gathered from the small to the large, eventually producing a breakthrough innovation. Morse came up with the idea of dots and dotted lines and used them to transmit four-digit codes, but it was only in working with Weir that he came up with the idea of transmitting letters based on the difference between dots and lines.

To improve decision making and promote technological innovation and translation, DARPA has extensive external contacts. It meets regularly with DoD civilian officials and leaders to learn about issues that need to be studied; conducts regular visits and research to military bases, commands, training centers, and other military agencies to gather information; consulting widely with senior military leaders to learn about the issues that concern them most and are difficult to address. DARPA studies the latest military operational war stories to identify weaknesses and problems that limit the capabilities of the U.S. military; discusses technical developments in relevant areas of expertise with the many components involved in national security, both inside and outside the military, and explores the feasibility of innovative approaches to the challenges faced.


2019-04-26 14:53:53




1957年10月4日,苏联发射人类第一颗人造卫星“Sputnik-1”。卫星直径58厘米,重83.6公斤(约184磅)。由于当时冷战的特殊背景,美苏两国都密切关注彼此“重要敌人”军备动向,而“Sputnik-1”的成功发射无疑给美国带来了巨大的震撼。第二天,美国《纽约时报》即以醒目的0.5英寸大写字母横贯首页刊印:“时速18000英里环绕地球 无线电信号确认卫星通过合众国上空轨道”。英国《曼彻斯特卫报》也报道,“‘Sputnik-1’人造卫星已明白无误地显示,莫斯科现在可以制造能够攻击世界任何既定目标的洲际弹道导弹了,显然,俄国人在外空领域已经取得了极大的领先地位,美国的核力量优势从此将成为历史,这是令自由世界倍感痛苦但又不得不接受的残酷事实。”


为避免再次出现此类对美国造成被动局面的技术突袭,同时确保其自身的技术优势,1958年2月,美国政府宣布成立高级研究计划局(Advanced Research Projects Agency,简称ARPA),即今天美国国防部高级研究计划局(DARPA)的前身。作为美国国防部的直属机构,DARPA始终坚持其“保持美国技术领先地位,防止潜在对手意想不到的超越”宗旨,在推动创新具有颠覆性影响的新技术和新能力方面做了大量探索性工作,包括互联网、GPS、隐形战机、无人机、高超声速飞机、智能语音助手等在内的诸多领域,都取得了重要突破性科技创新,为美国保持军事技术领先地位奠定了坚实基础,并成为全球创新机构眼中开展前沿性、探索性及颠覆性研究的标杆。









有人曾对美国的谷歌做过一个实验,在谷歌搜索栏中输入“the 10 deepest lakes in the U.S”(美国最深的10个湖),而搜索引擎将优先展示基于这些单词或者词组权重最高的句子和网站。针对该实验,谷歌的解释是,搜索引擎还不能明白输入的这句话是一个问题。此外,搜索算法有时还会漏掉不能被标准搜索引擎检索的网络信息,造成跨页共享内容的丢失。由此可见,即便是表现非常出色的网络搜索引擎,也依然存在着亟待解决的技术难题。







































美国卡内基梅隆大学(Carnegie Mellon University)工程与公共政策系助理教授Erica R.H.Fuchs在《成功地克隆DARPA模式》中指出,DARPA模式最主要成功因素是其独特的项目官制度。在科研工作中,科研工作者的素质决定了计划实施的进度和水平,而敏锐性又实实在在地构成了落实与执行科研计划的基础。




其五,风险宽容性。发展与风险往往难解难分,因而,对两者的取舍常常让人为难。埃丝特.戴森(Esther Dyson)曾告诫《哈佛商业评论》的读者:“你必须乐于面对风险,乐于进行试验,辩证地看待失败之处。我的信条是:‘即便犯错误也必须是新错误。’犯错误没什么羞耻。只要从中吸取教训不再犯同样的错误就好。我学到的东西,都是我从错误中获得的。”





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PRC Taiwan Office Liu Jieyi: Party’s Strategy for Taiwan Issue in the New Era

This article appeared on the Aisixiang website on December 1, 2022. You can view the Aisixiang website machine-translated into English via Google Translate. You can click through to articles if you like and those articles will also be translated. Be careful; machine translation is not always reliable.

Aisixiang also has a collection of articles on Taiwan by Chinese officials and scholars; via Google Translate here. On the left hand side of this page you will find an outline of the Taiwan issue from the PRC Mainland perspective.

I added formatting and broke up some very long sentences in this article to enhance readability.

The Wikipedia article on the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation, a concept that appears often in Chinese Communist Party General Secretary Xi Jinping’s speeches as it does here below, is a useful reference.

As I read through checking my translations I realized that the same word in Chinese means to unify and to re-unify: 統一 tǒngyī so I followed convention on Taiwan issue and used re-unify. Some would argue that Chiang Kai-shek led the Republic of China forces in retreat to Taiwan before the PRC was founded and then the Mao rebels/PRC – Chiang Kai-shek old regime/ROC became a frozen conflict as the result of the Korean War and the US Navy making a PRC takeover of Taiwan impossible over the short term. So one could argue unify rather than re-unify. But I decided not to run down that rabbit hole.

Liu Jieyi: Adhering to the Party’s overall strategy for resolving the Taiwan issue in the New Era


by Liu Jieyi, director of the Taiwan Work Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the Taiwan Affairs Office of the State Council.

    General Secretary Xi Jinping’s report to the 20th Party Congress stresses upholding the implementation of the Party’s overall strategy for resolving the Taiwan issue in the new era. This provides the fundamental guidelines and action guidelines for doing a good work on Taiwan in the new era. It is of great and far-reaching significance for the new march to advance the process of reunification with the motherland.

   1. The Party’s overall strategy for resolving the Taiwan issue in the new era is a valuable crystallization and fundamental guide for the Party’s work on Taiwan since the 18th National Congress, which has been guided by righteousness and innovation.

  Resolving the Taiwan issue and achieving the complete reunification of the motherland is a historical task to which the Party is firmly committed. It is the common aspiration of all China’s sons and daughters, and an inevitable requirement for the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. For a long time, our Party has struggled unremittingly and made great efforts to achieve this goal. Since the 18th Party Congress, socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new era. The Chinese nation has embarked on a great leap from standing up, to getting rich and becoming strong. China is now more capable, more confident and closer than ever to achieving the complete reunification of the motherland. At the same time, the pace of unprecedented changes in the world situation are accelerating. Since the United States is intensifying its efforts to “using Taiwan to control China”, the Taiwan issue has been placed in a new strategic environment. General Secretary Xi Jinping has integrated the big picture: the overall situation of the strategy for the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation and the unprecedented changes in the world over the past century, grasped the historical trends and changes of the times, enriched and developed the theory of national reunification and the policy towards Taiwan. He shaped the Party’s overall strategy for solving the Taiwan issue in the new era, guided the work on Taiwan to overcome difficulties and written a chapter on Taiwan in the ten years of great changes in the new era.

  We have made new breakthroughs in promoting cross-Strait political exchanges, achieving the first meeting between leaders across the Taiwan Strait since 1949 and direct dialogue and communication, setting a historic benchmark for the peaceful development of cross-Strait relations. The Government has made new efforts to deepen cross-Strait integration and development, share development opportunities with Taiwan compatriots on the mainland, implement equal treatment, and introduce a series of policy initiatives to benefit Taiwan compatriots and create an overlapping effect. This aimed at enhancing the well-being of compatriots on both sides of the Strait; effectively deal with changes in the situation in the Taiwan Strait and the risks and challenges, and resolutely counteract those pressing for “Taiwan independence”. The Government has also been working together to realize the ambition of the Chinese dream, to stimulate the sense of identity and pride of Taiwan compatriots in being participants and beneficiaries of national rejuvenation and in being upright Chinese, and to join them together with these majestic forces striving for national reunification.

  • The most distinctive feature of the 10 years of work on Taiwan in the new era is the firm grasp of the dominant initiative in cross-strait relations.
  • The most crucial factor is the historic achievements and changes in the cause of the Party and the state. The most important revelation is that the time, momentum and righteousness of reunification are always on the side of the motherland.
  • The most fundamental guarantee is the strong leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core and the Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era scientific guidance.

   2. A deep understanding of the rich connotation and significance of the Party’s overall strategy for resolving the Taiwan issue in the new era

  Since the 18th Party Congress, General Secretary Xi Jinping has made a series of important statements on Taiwan work, given a series of important instructions and instructions, and put forward a series of new concepts, ideas and strategies. The 19th Party Congress further established the basic strategy of adhering to “one country, two systems” and promoting the reunification of the motherland. General Secretary Xi Jinping, at the commemorative meeting on the 40th anniversary of the publication of the “Letter to Taiwan Compatriots“, systematically declared the major policy propositions for advancing the peaceful reunification of the motherland in the new era. The Fourth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee clearly adhered to and improved the system of “one country, two systems” and promoted the peaceful reunification of the motherland. The Sixth Plenary Session of the Nineteenth Central Committee of the CPC put forward for the first time the Party’s overall strategy for resolving the Taiwan issue in the new era.

  The Party’s overall strategy for resolving the Taiwan issue in the new era is rich in connotation, logical and systematic. It profoundly answers the fundamental guarantee, historical orientation, strategic thinking, general policy, political foundation, practical approach, fundamental impetus, inevitable requirements, external conditions, strategic support and other major theoretical and practical issues for advancing the reunification of the motherland in the new journey. It embodies General Secretary Xi Jinping’s strong mission, deep national sentiments, his making clear the standpoint of the people, broad historical vision, dialectical strategic thinking and strong spirit of struggle has pointed out the direction for resolving the Taiwan issue and achieving the complete reunification of the motherland in the new era. We must uphold it and implement it fully in the new era.

  First, we must uphold the centralized and unified leadership of the Party Central Committee in its work on Taiwan. This is the fundamental guarantee of unity. General Secretary Xi Jinping has pointed out that the overall leadership of the Party, especially the centralized and unified leadership of the Party, must be upheld and that the Party’s leadership must be implemented in all areas and aspects of the Party and the State’s undertakings. As the work on Taiwan is an important part of the Party and the State’s cause, it is necessary to implement the strengthening of the centralized and unified leadership of the Party into all aspects and processes of the work on Taiwan. Further clarify where the strengths, keys and fundamentals of good work with Taiwan lie. We need to grasp the relationship between the Party’s overall leadership and give full play of the enthusiasm of all parties. We must translate the advantages of the political system into the effectiveness of work on Taiwan, consolidate the national pattern of work on Taiwan as a whole, and create stronger synergies to advance the great cause of reunification.

  Secondly, we insist on promoting the reunification of the motherland in the process of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. This is the historical orientation of reunification. General Secretary Xi Jinping has pointed out that national rejuvenation and national reunification are a major trend, a major righteousness and a popular aspiration. National reunification is a historical necessity for the Chinese nation to move towards its great rejuvenation. The Taiwan issue, which arose out of national weakness and chaos, will certainly be resolved with national rejuvenation. Further clarify the important position of national reunification in the overall situation of national rejuvenation strategy. We must grasp the relationship between national reunification and national rejuvenation, grasp the historical momentum, master the historical initiative and inject more active spiritual strength into the great task of promoting reunification.

  Thirdly, we insist on resolving the Taiwan issue on the basis of the development and progress of the motherland. That is the strategic thinking behind reunification. General Secretary Xi Jinping has pointed out that, fundamentally, the key factor in determining the direction of cross-Strait relations is the development and progress of the motherland. We must maintain the momentum of our own development while adopting the right policies and measures to do a good job in Taiwan. Further clarify the necessary and sufficient conditions for resolving the Taiwan issue. We must grasp the relationship between developing hard and soft power, put the development of the country and the nation at the base of our own strength, run our own affairs, continue to enhance our influence, attractiveness and appeal to Taiwan, and lay a stronger foundation for advancing the great cause of reunification.

  Fourthly, we adhere to the basic policy of “peaceful reunification and one country, two systems”. This is the general policy of reunification. General Secretary Xi Jinping has pointed out that the national reunification we seek is not only a formal reunification, but more importantly, a spiritual unity between compatriots on both sides of the Taiwan Strait. “Peaceful reunification and one country, two systems” is the basic policy for resolving the Taiwan issue and the best way to achieve cross-Strait reunification, which is in the best interest of compatriots on both sides of the Strait and the Chinese nation. We are willing to create a wide space for peaceful reunification and to explore the “two systems” Taiwan proposal. We will further clarify the connotations and forms of high-quality reunification. We must grasp the relationship between “one country” and “two systems”, be firm in our institutional confidence, and continue to open up new horizons for “one country, two systems” in our practical exploration, so as to provide a more complete institutional guarantee for the reunification process. We will continue to open up new horizons for “one country, two systems” in our practical exploration, and provide more complete institutional safeguards for the reunification project.

  Fifthly, we should adhere to the one-China principle and the 1992 Consensus. This is the political basis for reunification. General Secretary Xi Jinping has pointed out that the one-China principle is the political foundation of cross-Straits relations. The 1992 Consensus, which embodies the one-China principle, is the key to ensuring the peaceful development of cross-Straits relations. On this basis, we are willing to engage in dialogue and communication with various parties, groups and individuals in Taiwan on cross-Strait political issues and the peaceful reunification of the motherland, and to promote democratic consultations on cross-Strait relations and the future of the nation among representative individuals elected by political parties and sectors on both sides of the Strait. Further clarify the basis and modalities for discussing and discussing reunification together. It is necessary to grasp the relationship between firm principles and flexible strategies, adhere to the one-China principle, conduct extensive dialogue and consultation, and accumulate a broader social consensus for advancing the great cause of reunification.

  Sixth, we insist on promoting the peaceful and integrated development of cross-Straits relations. This is the practical path to reunification. General Secretary Xi Jinping has pointed out that the peaceful development of cross-Straits relations is the right path to maintain peace across the Taiwan Straits, promote common development and benefit compatriots on both sides of the Straits, and it is also the bright path to peaceful reunification. We must deepen cross-strait integration and development, take the lead in sharing development opportunities with Taiwan compatriots, provide equal treatment, expand and deepen cross-strait exchanges and cooperation, grow the Chinese economy, jointly promote Chinese culture and build a cross-strait community of destiny. Further clarify the path to peaceful reunification. It is necessary to grasp the relationship between peaceful development, integrated development and peaceful reunification, enhance expectations and momentum for reunification, achieve a high degree of unity in the process and purpose of reunification, and provide more adequate conditions for advancing the great cause of reunification.

  Seventh, we must insist on uniting with our compatriots in Taiwan and winning the hearts and minds of the people of Taiwan. This is the fundamental motivation for reunification. General Secretary Xi Jinping has pointed out that we should uphold the concept of “one family across the Taiwan Strait“, implement the people-centered development ideology in our work with Taiwan, treat our compatriots in Taiwan equally, and serve our compatriots in Taiwan as we serve the people on the mainland. Compatriots on both sides of the Taiwan Strait should join hands and work together to fully realize the Chinese dream of great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. The great motherland is the strongly backs up all patriotic reunification forces. We must further clarify which forces we can rely upon on upholding and spiritual banner of reunification. We must grasp the relationship between consistency and diversity, attach importance to reconciliation in winning people’s hearts and minds, and persistently work with the people of Taiwan to gather together and promote even more awesome forces to advance the great cause of reunification.

  Eighth, we must insist on crushing the secessionist attempts of “Taiwan independence”. This is an inevitable requirement for accomplishing reunification. General Secretary Xi Jinping has pointed out that the secession of “Taiwan independence” is the greatest obstacle to the reunification of the motherland and a serious hidden danger to the rejuvenation of the nation. We will never allow anyone, any organization or any political party to split any piece of Chinese territory from China at any time and in any form. We have the firm will, full confidence and sufficient ability to foil any form of “Taiwan independence” secessionist attempt. We will further clarify our attitude and determination not to tolerate the secession of “Taiwan independence”. We must grasp the relationship between treating the symptoms and the root causes, resolutely combat the secessionist acts of “Taiwan independence”, clarify the ideological roots of “Taiwan independence” in society, and thoroughly remove the obstacles and hidden dangers for the promotion of the great cause of reunification.

  Ninth, we insist on opposing interference by external forces. This is an external condition for reunification. General Secretary Xi Jinping has pointed out that Taiwan is China’s Taiwan. The resolution of the Taiwan issue is a matter for the Chinese themselves and should be decided by the Chinese. The Taiwan issue is an internal affair of China, which concerns the core interests of China and the national sentiments of the Chinese people and does not allow any foreign interference. No one should underestimate the strong determination, firm will and powerful ability of the Chinese people to defend national sovereignty and territorial integrity. Further clarify the nature and prominent risks of the Taiwan issue. We must grasp the relationship between gaining international understanding and support and opposing foreign interference, resolutely oppose the practice of playing the “Taiwan card” and “using Taiwan to control China”, consolidate the international community’s adherence to the one-China principle, and create a more favorable external environment for promoting the reunification cause. This will create a more favorable external environment for the promotion of reunification.

  Tenth, we insist that we will never commit to renouncing the use of force. This is the strategic support for reunification. General Secretary Xi Jinping has pointed out that we will never undertake to renounce the use of force and retain the option of taking all necessary measures which would be aimed at the interference of external forces and a very small number of “Taiwan independence” separatists and their separatist activities. These forces would not be aimed at the compatriots in Taiwan at large. It was further made clear that reunification must be carried out with both hands, grasping the relationship between peaceful means and non-peaceful means. We must always making adequate preparations for both hands to ensure that both hands are strong, so as to provide a more solid means of advancing the great cause of reunification.

  The Party’s overall strategy for resolving the Taiwan issue in the new era is an important part of Xi Jinping’s Socialist Thought with Chinese Characteristics for the New Era. It inherits and develops our Party’s general policy toward Taiwan and gathers the Party’s wisdom. It crystallizes our Party’s century-long history of struggle for the reunification of the motherland. It is the epistemology and methodology for achieving reunification, and raising to a higher level our Party’s view of national reunification. It marks a our Party’s more mature and definitive theory of national reunification .

   III. Practical requirements for a profound grasp of the Party’s overall strategy for resolving the Taiwan issue in the new era

  The report of the twentieth Party Congress makes strategic plans for work on Taiwan in the coming period. We must implement the spirit of the 20th Party Congress and put into practice the Party’s overall strategy for resolving the Taiwan issue in the new era in all aspects and processes of our work with Taiwan.

  (1) Grasp the historical initiative and firmly advance the process of reunification with the motherland. General Secretary Xi Jinping emphasized the need to grasp the historical initiative and create a new historical greatness. The report of the 20th Party Congress grasps the irreversible historical trend of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, plans work on Taiwan based on the overall development of the Party and the State, and puts forward the goal of work on Taiwan of “firmly grasping the dominant power and initiative in cross-strait relations and unswervingly advancing the great cause of the reunification of the motherland”. The 20th Party Congress will strongly promote the modernization process of the motherland. We should give full play to the spirit of historical initiative and transform our growing comprehensive strength and significant institutional advantages into powerful momentum to advance the reunification process. The report upholds the principle of “peaceful reunification and one country, two systems” and emphasizes that “we will strive with the utmost sincerity and make the utmost efforts for the prospect of peaceful reunification, but we will never commit ourselves to renouncing the use of force and retain the option of taking all necessary measures”, with the aim of fundamentally safeguarding the prospects for the peaceful reunification of the motherland and advancing its development. Our aim is to fundamentally safeguard the prospects for peaceful reunification of the motherland and advance the process of peaceful reunification of the motherland. This reflects the Party’s attachment to national justice, the well-being of compatriots and peace across the Taiwan Strait, its profound grasp of the future and destiny of the Chinese nation and the overall development of the country, and demonstrates our strategic confidence and determination.

  (2) Promote the well-being of the people and deepening cross-Strait integration and development in various fields. General Secretary Xi Jinping has emphasized the need to enhance the well-being of compatriots on both sides of the Taiwan Strait and to realize the aspirations of compatriots on both sides of the Strait for a better life. The report of the 20th Party Congress proposes to “continue to promote cross-Strait economic and cultural exchanges and cooperation, deepen cross-Strait integration and development in various fields. The report also proposes to improve systems and policies to enhance the well-being of compatriots on both sides of the Taiwan Strait, promote the joint promotion of Chinese culture on both sides of the Strait, and foster spiritual ties between compatriots on both sides of the Strait”. It highlights the people-centered development ideology and the unchanging intention of working for the well-being of our compatriots. Economic and cultural exchanges and cooperation are the “two wheels” of cross-strait relations and an important channel for promoting common development across the Taiwan Strait and enhancing the strength of ties among compatriots. They tighten the ties of interests and sentiment of compatriots across the Taiwan Strait and forging a sense of community of common destiny. Integration and development in various fields across the Taiwan Strait is a fundamental project for peaceful reunification. We need to make greater strides in exploring new ways of cross-strait integration and development, to support Fujian in taking the lead in building a cross-strait integration and development demonstration zone. We need to support Taiwanese compatriots and enterprises in seizing the broad development space and development opportunities brought about by the 20th Party Congress to better integrate themselves into the new development pattern and participate in high-quality development. As Chinese citizens, Taiwan compatriots have the right to share in the well-being of people on the Mainland. We need to actively implement equal treatment for and protect the rights and interests of Taiwan compatriots in accordance with the law. We should continuously enhance their sense of access and identity. Chinese culture is the root and soul of compatriots on both sides of the Taiwan Strait and their most natural link. This is the deepest force and the most unbreakable bond in cross-strait relations. It is just this fundamental fact that determines the inevitable failure of “Taiwan independence” secession. We must work together to promote Chinese culture, enhance Chinese cultural identity and confidence, and build a common spiritual home.

  (3) Carry forward the spirit of struggle and resolutely crush the secessionist attempts of “Taiwan independence” and foreign interference. General Secretary Xi Jinping has stressed the need to strengthen both our will and our skills for this struggle. Reunification is a process of continuous struggle with the forces of secession and foreign interference until we achieve ultimate victory. For some time, Taiwan’s Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) authorities have persisted in their erroneous position of “Taiwan independence”, refused to recognize the one-China principle and the “1992 Consensus”. They have willingly become pawns of external forces in curbing China, and continuously carried out “independence” provocations. The United States is playing the “Taiwan card”, hollowing out the one-China principle, raising the level of exchanges between the United States and Taiwan, and increasing arms sales to Taiwan in an attempt to obstruct the process of China’s reunification and national rejuvenation. The report of the 20th Party Congress emphasizes the spirit of struggle, draws a bottom-line and a red line. It demonstrates our determination and confidence to fight and win. We must enhance our concerns, preparing ourselves for unexpected developments, adhere on bottom-line thinking, dare to struggle and be good at struggle. We must consolidate and expand the achievements of the anti-secession and anti-interference struggle, resolutely defeat “Taiwan independence” provocations and foreign interference, firmly defend national sovereignty and territorial integrity, and create a stable environment in the Taiwan Strait for the development of the Party and the State.

  (4) Promote unity and be prepared to strive towards our goal; join hands to create a great historical undertaking for the reunification of the motherland and the rejuvenation of the nation. General Secretary Xi Jinping has emphasized that unity and struggle are the way for the Chinese people to accomplish a great historical achievement. The report of the 20th Party Congress highlights the importance of unity and struggle. Taiwan compatriots are members of the Chinese nation and are an important force in developing cross-strait relations and promoting the reunification of the motherland. The island’s patriotic and unified forces are the very backbone of this struggle. We must unite with our compatriots in Taiwan, firmly support the patriotic reunification forces on the island, jointly grasp the general trend of history, and insist upon our nation’s righteous cause. We must firmly oppose Taiwan “independence” and promote reunification. Our compatriots on both sides of the Taiwan Strait are linked by blood and are one family. We should always respect, care for and work for the well-being of our compatriots in Taiwan. We should work long and hard, especially among young people, to enhance their knowledge and feelings about the Chinese nation and our country. We should deepen their understanding that reunification is beneficial, that “Taiwan independence” is a dead end, and that outsiders cannot be relied upon. We should guide them to consciously join the glorious cause of the reunification of the motherland and national rejuvenation. Cross-strait affairs are the family business of compatriots on both sides of the Taiwan Strait. They should of course be handled by the family through consultation. On the basis of the one-China principle and the 1992 Consensus, we are willing to promote extensive and in-depth consultations with Taiwan’s parties, sectors and people from all walks of life on cross-Strait relations and national reunification, so as to jointly promote the peaceful development of cross-Strait relations, advance the process of peaceful reunification of the motherland and create a better future for all Chinese people.


更新时间:2022-12-01 20:09:46

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2018 Foundations of the DARPA Model’s Effectiveness: Lessons for China’s Military S&T II

This second in a series of what might be called “love letters to DARPA” written by Chinese scholars looking for lessons that can be used to argue for reform in the Chinese science and technology system and in particular the PRC military S&T system. While many in the US would look with some skepticism at this idealized view of the US national ‘operating system’ that is the foundation upon which US S&T science and technology, it is aimed at providing as powerful an argument as possible for reform in China.

Comparisons are always difficult: intensive self-criticism (perhaps Mao would approve!) pushes societies to become better versions of themselves; if this self-criticism is often absent (intimidated into silence) or repressed maybe not so much. This happens now and again in China where the problem is not such much Big Brother as many Little Brothers lording their authority over people unchecked in their domains. General Secretary Xi has been cracking down on corruption these past ten years though fear of the boss vs. conscientiously observing the law are two different things. Twenty years ago a taxicab driver in Henan Province who had picked me up remarking “Yesterday I gave a ride to two PLA soldiers returned from Hong Kong. When I said to them ‘Living in Hong Kong must be great!’ They said, ‘No. Living in Hong Kong is like being in jail. There are all these laws that you have to obey!'” What impresses you about a place depends upon where you are from.

While such problems also arise in the US, the openness of the US system and professional standards largely keep them in check. Is easy to underestimate US strengths and overestimate China strengths, which then leads to exaggerated worries about China.

Since reform began in China in the late 1970s, the Chinese science and technology system has undergone reform. The National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Ministry of Science and Technology, the State Administration for Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense and some other PRC agencies have studied and have created scientific peer review systems in China to push funding towards the better applicants for funding.

Problems of plagiarism and fraud have been serious problems in China. The Chinese government regularly addressed this problem. I collected some reports about this in a posting a few years ago: Another Report on Corruption in Chinese Science and Education

Ideas about plagiarism and intellectual property were different have changed gradually since reform; earlier what is called ‘intellectual property’ was considered a product of society and so exclusive property rights to them. Communist theory looks askance at the idea of ‘private property’ — although one should keep in mind that China’s Communist Party does not claim to be a communist country — it calls itself a socialist country on the long road to communism that has a mixed economy in the meantime. See Stanford University Computer Science Department’s on Public Goods and Intellectual Property Rights in China.

China’s wealth is its people. With such a large population, China likely has more genius around (some may even be lying flat tang ping these days) than anywhere else except India — so the question becomes whether it can effectively educate and give them a good working environment. The article below is about the general U.S. environment for S&T research and development rather than about DARPA, although it takes atypical DARPA as an exemplar.

In 2007, then DARPA Director Dr. Tony Tether (2001-2009) had this to say about China.

I worry about the Chinese. The Chinese are putting on the order of 5
million kids a year into school, into college. Five million kids a year into college.
And most of them are doing engineering, science, and technology.
Even if you were to assume that the distribution of genius-level people is
independent, you know, a genius-level person being, like, 1 percent or less of the
of the population, you take 1 .4 billion people – or a billion people – it’s a big
number compared to us. Well, in fact, it’s four or five times bigger.
So, you have that many more genius-like people who are now, with the
economy in China getting better, who are making sure that they get into schools,
and they’re learning engineering and science. And these people are very
entrepreneurial. If you know a lot of Chinese people, you know they love making
a buck. Not so much for the money, but for the game, for the game of it all.
And so that’s a worry. That’s really a worry. And so we’re monitoring that
as carefully as we can. But all I can say is, as of today, I’m comfortable that
we’re well ahead.

Transcript of 2007-2009 Interview with then DARPA Dr. Tony Tether DARPA Director on US Department of Defense website.

Judging from the many Chinese names in scientific publications from US institutions, Chinese scholars and students coming to the US, many to stay for extended periods or permanently has been a great boon for the United States. Reducing the number of students and scientific exchanges with China, as some advocate these days, would harm both the United States and China.

Getting the environment right for Chinese S&T is crucial for realizing the potential of its people.


A superb book on the weaknesses of the Chinese academic evaluation system Criticism of the Academic Evaluation System 学术评价制度批判 by Professor Liu Ming 刘明 of the Zhejiang Administration Academy and Zhejiang University can be purchased online. William H. A. Johnson also discussed this issue and Liu Ming’s book in his own 2015 book  Innovation in China: The Tail of the Dragon.

Liu Ming argues that the lack of reliable qualitative evaluations pushes the universities and Chinese science to rely overmuch on quantitative indicators. The accent on quantitative indicators to the exclusion of qualitative indicators such as reputation and peer review of work quality not to mention professorial teaching has very negative effects on the quality of science, on academic promotions and the quality of higher education being received by the rising generation of students.

I see this as an issues that goes much deeper than academic corruption. If the peer evaluation system that China has been transplanting from the West cannot function well, the effectiveness of China’s funding of its scientists and universities would have to be less. The fundamental principle of peer review is to push decisions on funding specific research project down to the level of working scientists in a field who can make the best judgement on quality. Liu writes that while peer review works reasonably well on small projects in China, for medium and large sized projects it works very poorly because of the interference of administrators and government and Party officials.

I remember in the mid 1980s a Chinese scholar coming to me after three months in the US, saying “David, I think the USA is a communist country!”. He had been hearing about the U.S. social welfare system such as social security, unemployment insurance and welfare and thought it was much closer to communist ideals than what he had known in China. So where you stand depends on where you sit. Always mind-bending to keep in mind that that applies to me too.

Though I do wonder how arguments based on this article would resonate at Party headquarters given that the Party always insists upon two principles: the people’s democratic dictatorship and the absolute leadership of the Communist Party. When the Big Brother is not effectively constrained by law, can you expect all the Little Brother running around unchecked? The problem is often Little Brother up to some deviltry that Big Brother either doesn’t know about or can’t take immediate action until the time is right, and so, to preserve his authority, pretends not to know. Though Big Brother too gets excited when the two principles above are questioned.

There are those PRC political slogans. Are they compatible with an atmosphere of free thought and daring that the DARPA model discussed below stands for? China already has many fine S&T workers. Would they do even better in a different environment? Perhaps I am just handicapped by my capitalist class background that I wonder about such things.

  • The Four Consciousnesses” sige yishi 四個意識  enhance political integrity, develop a better understanding of the general picture, follow the core leadership of the Central Committee, and act consistently with CPC Central Committee policy.
  • “The Four Self-confidences” sige zixin  四個自信“confident in our chosen path, confident in our guiding theories, confident in our political system, and confident in our culture.”
  • The Two Safeguards” liangge weihu 兩個維護 “‘Safeguard the core position of the Xi Jinping-led Party Central Committee and at the core position of the whole party’ and ‘Safeguard the authority of the Party Central Committee and centralized and unified leadership’” 

Foundations of the DARPA Model’s Effectiveness

Military-Civil Fusion Blue Ocean Star Thinktank

军民融合 蓝海星智库

October 22, 2019

This paper examines the DARPA model and the foundations of its operation, and finds that the effective operation of the model is due to the innovation ecology of the entire U.S. society.

DARPA is recognized as the most innovative and dynamic agency in the world. For over sixty years DARPA spawned life-changing civilian and military combat technologies such as the Internet, gallium nitride, and stealth aircraft and continues to provide the United States with transformative and innovative ideas and technologies. This paper examines the foundations of the DARPA model and operation and finds that the model operates effectively thanks to the innovation ecology of the entire U.S. society.

Figure 1 Tacit Blue, the world’s first stealth aircraft equipped with a radar system, developed by DARPA

I. A Good Social Security System Makes Researchers Worry-free

A Comprehensive Social Security System

The United States is the first country in the world to implement a systematic social security system, as early as 1935 promulgated and implemented the “Social Security Act”. At present, the U.S. has established an excellent and comprehensive system of pension insurance, medical insurance and unemployment insurance. While many European countries are in financial crisis due to the heavy economic burden caused by the excessive level of social security, the U.S. social security system still maintains basic normal operation. The annual fiscal expenditure on social security and employment and health care in the United States is about 1.5 trillion dollars, accounting for 37% of the federal government’s expenditure. Comprehensive social security, a sound educational and medical system and more mature housing market make the American nationals rarely anxious and complain in daily life, work and study, and lay the foundation for pioneering innovation.

High Rate of Mobility
The economic and cultural differences between different regions in the U.S. are small, the mobility rate of the whole society is high, and the circulation channels between organizations such as enterprises, universities and government agencies are relatively smooth. Americans are less tied to where they live when looking for work. According to statistics, about 40 million people move each year in the United States, and an American will move about 14 times in his or her lifetime.

DARPA is a typical government department that makes extensive use of the nation’s best talent, with a short-term hiring system that changes program managers at a rate of about 25 percent per year. The majority of program managers come from corporations, some from government laboratories, universities and nonprofits, and a few from military personnel in all branches of the service. This turnover ensures that DARPA is constantly supplied with new ideas and concepts, avoiding the crystallization of thinking and bureaucracy that can result from long tenure, and leaving room for hiring talent in emerging technologies.

High Incomes
Most U.S. researchers enjoy high incomes and are optimistic and confident about the research they are currently doing. The National Science Foundation’s Science and Engineering Indicators 2018 report shows that half of scientists and engineers earned more than $84,000 (about RMB 576,000) in 2016, while the median salary of U.S. laborers was only $37,000 (about RMB 254,000). Government researchers do not earn as much as some high-tech companies, but they also exceed the social average, such as the Naval Research Laboratory, which researchers earn about $100,000 per capita per year.
With special authorization from the U.S. Congress, DARPA can offer competitive salaries to hire talented people from all walks of life as program managers. According to several U.S. job boards, DARPA’s open recruitment program manager salaries range from $136,000 to $168,000, which is on the upper end of the national scale. The higher income can ensure that DARPA researchers can live without worries and concentrate more on technical exploration.

II. The Culture of Science Nurtures the Spirit of Innovation

The spirit of pioneering and innovation
As a country of immigrants, the United States has a pioneering and innovative spirit, the core of which is respect for individual freedom, which determines the inclusiveness of American culture. The coexistence and intersection of various ideas in the United States has become an important condition for promoting innovation. In innovation, the U.S. advocates “individual heroism” and challenges authority, and Steve Jobs of Apple and Musk of SpaceX are typical of them.

Figure 2 SpaceX founder Elon Musk

DARPA is the quintessential example of pioneering innovation, supporting all kinds of ideas, even those that are too crazy to be accepted by the public. The Director of DARPA has greater independence in his work and can do whatever he wants to do. The Director deciding on the priorities and life and death of scientific projects. This is unusual in the U.S. government. DARPA program managers are known as “mad scientists”. They are given great decision-making authority without being bound by the peer review mechanism. If they can convince the director, they can avoid missed opportunities from failing to invest because their peers voted against a new technology because they thought it was too risky and disruptive.

An Atmosphere that Promotes Innovation

The U.S. has an environment and atmosphere that promotes innovation. The National Museum of History is inscribed with the phrase “Modern civilization began with technology“, and various science and technology festivals and open lab days attract the public, including children, to get in touch with technology and understand how it changes their lives. Innovation is inherently risky, and failure is inevitable. To American innovators, the most shameful thing is not to fail, but to be afraid to try. Each failure is seen as a successful trial and error, which not only makes the failures more and more experienced and closer to success, but also provides lessons for other innovators. This has a strong spillover effect. This tolerance of failure is a true recognition of the value that failure implies. Of course, failures that are the result of inadequate project management and ignoring the laws of nature are unacceptable.

DARPA supports “high-risk, high-reward” technology research, where “failure” is inevitable and generally acceptable, and therefore does not require that 100% of project targets be met at the time of acceptance. Former Director Tony Tether has said that more than 85% of DARPA‘s projects have not met their intended goals.

In the concept of mutual bumping and free competition, the U.S. national gradually formed a pragmatic ideology, that is, oriented to solving practical problems, encouraging the exploration of new ideas, innovative management mechanisms, and transforming ideas into realistic and usable productivity, while regulating the relations of production. Under the influence of this concept, the U.S. first started to establish venture capital to provide financing to technology companies, while the government provided a large number of incentives for startups.

This concept is also reflected in the DARPA technology transformation process, DARPA’s philosophy is: “Technological transformation does not have to be at the expense of innovation, but should be seen as a natural extension of innovation.” DARPA technology transformation process is very flexible, according to the specific characteristics of the project to take different transformation methods. In 2002, the Inspector General of the U.S. Department of Defense stated. “DARPA does not have a single conversion path or process that applies to all programs.” In addition, DARPA promptly terminates programs that are slow or show no promise of success and directs funds to programs with more promise of success.

Figure 3 Global Hawk UAV

III. Open research system Promotes Innovative Synergy

Open communication mechanism
The United States has the world’s largest and highest level of scientific research team, and 40% of the Nobel Prize winners in the 20th century came from the United States. The U.S. technical fields are finely divided, and there are many experts in each subdivision, so it is easy to organize a group of experts to discuss a specific field, and avoid the problem of “laymen judging insiders” during peer review.

The U.S. government attaches importance to building a platform for researchers to communicate with each other, and DARPA particularly encourages the exchange of experts from different research institutions with similar or complementary interests. In 2015, DARPA held a Future Technologies Forum on the theme of “What’s Waiting, What’s What? More than 1,200 innovators were invited to discuss technologies that have the potential to revolutionize human life and work and improve national security, and to facilitate exchanges among companies, universities, nonprofit organizations, and government agencies.

Figure 4 DARPA Future Technology Forum

Good Collaborative Innovation Mechanism
The U.S. recognizes that innovation itself is a collaborative process among all parties, especially in defense science and technology innovation, where technology requires the participation of multiple forces from germination to final transformation and application, including funding agencies, research institutions, military users, and other participating departments.

DARPA focuses on the involvement of a variety of agencies in the research process, including Congress, assurance service providers, the military services, and industry, etc. DARPA assesses that technology development and translation can be executed smoothly and effectively only when all of these sectors are involved and play their proper roles. For example, DARPA involves the military in the planning phase to assist in identifying potential military uses for the technology and to help draft RFPs.
In addition, DARPA organizes challenges that bring together defense contractors, innovative companies, inventors of all kinds, and university researchers and scholars, giving them the opportunity to showcase their “golden ideas” at the same starting line, ultimately promoting rapid technological advancement.
DARPA “Underground Challenge” to promote the exploration of unknown underground environment

Comprehensive Legal and Integrity System to Protect Science and Technology Innovation

Strict protection of intellectual property rights
The United States was the first country to include patent rights in its constitution. In the constitution formulated in 1787, it is clear that “To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries.“. This has largely protected the innovative spirit of researchers and encouraged scientists to make inventions. The U.S. passed the Bayh-Dole Act in 1980, which allowed universities and small businesses to retain intellectual property rights generated by government-funded projects, eliminating their concerns about participating in defense innovation and greatly encouraging more businesses to participate in defense science and technology innovation.

Under the provisions of the Bayh-Dole Act, the government still owns the intellectual property generated by large enterprises funded by the government, but Congress authorized DARPA to use the “other transaction” mechanism to organize military industry, large commercial enterprises, small businesses and universities to participate in defense science and technology innovation and produce more. The result will ultimately benefit the government, businesses, and the public.

For example, DARPA and Intel jointly funded the development of a silicon-germanium optoelectronic sensor, with the explicit provision that the intellectual property rights belong to Intel. Since then, Intel has organized the University of Virginia, memory technology manufacturer Numonyx, and other companies to develop high-performance photodetectors, effectively improving military communication capabilities and reducing foreign dependence.

Good integrity system
U.S. researchers pay attention to honor, credibility and reputation, and it is easy to relationships of trust among scientists. In the United States, once a person is found in scientific research misconduct, violation of the integrity of the provisions, regardless of its reputation, seniority, how much contribution they have made, participating in any research projects funded by the U.S. government becomes much more difficult. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services established its Office of Research Integrity to investigate and address “fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in the process of establishing, conducting, evaluating, or reporting scientific results” in government-funded research projects, and to publish online the names of violators, institutions, violations and penalty decisions. The extremely strong ethical self-discipline and strict system design create a good integrity system. It is under such a system that DARPA program managers and research teams trust each other, and project management becomes easy and simple.

Strict punishment for violations of law
The U.S. penalties for violations have a strong deterrent effect, cutting off the chain of government research interests and avoiding scientific fraud. Once fraud is discovered, it means the end of career for individuals and the sanctions under the law for enterprises. They can no longer undertake government projects and face big punishment or closure. The U.S. has adopted the Conflict of Interest Act, the Ethics in Government Act, the False Claims Act, and other laws to prevent, monitor, and punish government officials or research teams for violations.

DARPA employees are required to avoid conflicts of interest in their work and are subject to scrutiny of their personal and family income and unusual spending, and may be investigated if problems arise.
In 2011, the Los Angeles Times revealed that then-DARPA Director Duggan had an improper relationship with RedX, a company she had previously founded, on a $6 million contract. Although no problems were found in the selection, award or management of the contract, Duggan repeatedly mentioned RedX’s technology in speeches or conversations, in violation of a rule prohibiting DoD employees from using their position to endorse a business, which led to Duggan’s resignation in March 2012.

(Blue Starfish: Sun Xingcun Mu Yuping)


军民融合 蓝海星智库 2019-10-22



图1 DARPA研发的全球首架配备雷达系统的隐形飞行器——“沉默之蓝”号隐形飞机

图2 SpaceX创始人伊隆·马斯克

图3 “全球鹰”无人机

图4 DARPA未来技术论坛
美国是最早将专利权写入宪法的国家,在1787年制定的宪法中就明确:“为推 动科学和实用技艺的进步,对作家和发明家各自的著作和发明,在一定期限内保障其享有排他的专利权”。这在很大程度上保护了科研人员的创新精神,鼓励科学家进行发明创造。美国于1980年通过《拜杜法》,允许大学和小企业保留政府资助项目产生的知识产权,消除了它们参与国防创新的顾虑,极大地鼓舞了更多企业参与国防科技创新。
(蓝海星:孙兴村 穆玉苹)

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2018: DARPA Disruptive Technology: Lessons for China’s Military S&T I

The US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has admirers in China and many other countries worldwide for its R&D work on innovative technological work that has been transforming modern warfare. Here is how the DARPA website characterizes its work:

For sixty years, DARPA has held to a singular and enduring mission: to make pivotal investments in breakthrough technologies for national security.

The genesis of that mission and of DARPA itself dates to the launch of Sputnik in 1957, and a commitment by the United States that, from that time forward, it would be the initiator and not the victim of strategic technological surprises. Working with innovators inside and outside of government, DARPA has repeatedly delivered on that mission, transforming revolutionary concepts and even seeming impossibilities into practical capabilities. The ultimate results have included not only game-changing military capabilities such as precision weapons and stealth technology, but also such icons of modern civilian society such as the Internet, automated voice recognition and language translation, and Global Positioning System receivers small enough to embed in myriad consumer devices.

DARPA explicitly reaches for transformational change instead of incremental advances. But it does not perform its engineering alchemy in isolation. It works within an innovation ecosystem that includes academic, corporate and governmental partners, with a constant focus on the Nation’s military Services, which work with DARPA to create new strategic opportunities and novel tactical options. For decades, this vibrant, interlocking ecosystem of diverse collaborators has proven to be a nurturing environment for the intense creativity that DARPA is designed to cultivate.

DARPA comprises approximately 220 government employees in six technical offices, including nearly 100 program managers, who together oversee about 250 research and development programs.

DARPA goes to great lengths to identify, recruit and support excellent program managers—extraordinary individuals who are at the top of their fields and are hungry for the opportunity to push the limits of their disciplines. These leaders, who are at the very heart of DARPA’s history of success, come from academia, industry and government agencies for limited stints, generally three to five years. That deadline fuels the signature DARPA urgency to achieve success in less time than might be considered reasonable in a conventional setting.

From the note “About DARPA” on the DARPA website


I found online several Chinese articles about DARPA that I will translate here into English. Here is the first in the series. I’ll copy the Chinese text below.

Chinese As a Security Classification: Translations Draw Attention, Original Taken Offline

Several times over the years, when I have shared information about interesting articles on PRC websites, the article has been taken down. Twenty years ago I found discussions in a Chinese veterinary journal about antibodies to avian flu viruses in Chinese peasants at a time when the Chinese government claimed that that virus was not present in China. A year later I noticed that article had been replaced that it had been taken off the CNKI database for national security reasons. More recently when I translated on this blog and article about Chinese concerns about the military applications of the Starlink communications satellite system (these days the Ukrainian military finds it useful) and how countermeasures against that system would be difficult. After I translated the article from the PRC journal Modern Defense TechnologyThe Development Status of Starlink and Its Countermeasures” 星链计划发展现状与对抗思考 on my blog as PRC Defense: Starlink Countermeasures, that article was taken online. Fortunately I had saved it to Dropbox where the sinoliterate can read it.

Reading Footnotes and References is Important

The footnotes too are an interesting part of the article. From the titles of the Chinese articles mentioned one can imagine some research interests and directions in China. When I worked in the U.S. Embassy Beijing Environment, Science and Technology section twenty years ago, there was great excitement in the United States about a book written by two PLA writer-generals entitled Unrestricted Warfare 《超限戰爭》that discussed how China could use a variety of innovative emerging technology to defeat a more powerful enemy. I wrote a series of reports sent to Washington analyzing the book and related matters. An unclassified versions of those reports released at the time on the U.S. Embassy website are still available via the Internet Archive at PRC National Security and EST Issues .

Reading Unrestricted Warfare 《超限戰》 and paying close attention to the footnotes, I realized that this was about mirroring . Sixty percent of the references in the book were US Department of Defense publications about emerging military technologies and unconventional warfare. The Chinese writer-generals (the PLA had singer-general too at the time — retired PLA Major General Peng Liyuan, the wife of PRC Communist Party General Secretary Xi Jinping, was one of them. For years she was far more famous than her husband!) were mirroring US concerns and research about unrestricted warfare. A distorted mirror image coming back was frightening some in the USA. Not to say that just because you are paranoid that they aren’t out to get you. Capabilities and intentions are two different things, although militaries around the world have the responsibility to prepare for the worst. Reading footnotes is important!

On this blog I have shared several translation about reform in the PRC national defense industry sector and the applications of the statistical quality control revolution in improving the quality and speeding the development of PRC weapons system.

DARPA’s Disruptive Technology Innovation and Its Implications

Cao Xiaoyang1),Wei Yongjing1,Li Li1,Zhang Ke2,Miao Hongbo1,An Xiangchao1,Liu Anrong1
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As a model for conducting disruptive technology innovation, the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has been followed by an increasing number of countries, government departments, and large enterprises, which are competing to conduct disruptive technology innovation by referring to the DARPA model. However, few can match DARPA thus far. There is no consensus on how to build a brilliant DARPA-like organization. From the practical experience of various subjects imitating DARPA in the last decade or so, DARPA’s explicit organizational structure and operational mechanism are the basis but not the essence of DARPA’s success This paper analyzes the historical process of DARPA’s growth from the perspective of evolutionary theory, and discusses the reasons for DARPA’s success in terms of growth environment, competitive dynamics, interest pattern, and holding to its core values. The author believes that DARPA’s success is the result of long-term friction and struggle within the development environment, and firm faith in technological progress, originality, extremely low institutional chauvinism, its pattern of tearing down barriers between various ideas interests, and its forward-looking strategic vision are the pillars of DARPA’s success. Through the experience of DARPA, this paper argues that a special management approach-“in vitro” special zones-is needed to accelerate the development of China’s own disruptive technologies.

disruptive technologies ; disruptive technology innovation ; DARPA ; “in vitro” special zones

I. Introduction

Disruptive technologies have been described as revolutionary forces that “change the rules of the game” and “reshape the future” [1]. They are a revolutionary force that has a wide and profound impact on human society: it drives the evolution of human civilization, influences the rise and fall of world powers, determines the survival of an organization, and changes people’s production life. Before the modern era, although disruptive technologies have been born and have been changing the way of production and life of human beings and promoting the progress of human society, people have not yet formed the consciousness to actively identify and cultivate disruptive technologies, and disruptive technologies have gone through a long “natural development stage”.

As technology developed and the U.S. and Soviet Union competition intensified, the U.S. government took the lead in disruptive technology innovation, pushing disruptive technology into the “fast lane” of development. After World War II, the Soviet Union shocked the United States by conducting nuclear tests and successfully launching artificial satellites. The U.S. government reflected on its own military science and technology innovation system and began to realize the need to consciously and systematically cultivate high-risk, high-reward technologies to prevent a Soviet high tech attack. In this context, in 1958, the U.S. created the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), renamed the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in 1972, with the purpose of conducting “game-changing” research and development of high-risk, high-reward technologies, “avoiding technology surprise and pursuing technology surprise against adversaries. The DARPA model has been shown to foster a large number of disruptive technologies, such as Internet technology, global positioning technology, and stealth warplane technology, which have played an important role in maintaining the U.S. military’s technological leadership and national security [2,3].

The DARPA model has gradually matured and expanded its influence, gaining popularity in the U.S. government and among business enterprise. It has been emulated by major and powerful countries around the world. The U.S. government has established DARPA-like advanced research projects programs in many departments such as the Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Energy, and formed a corresponding unique program support system. In recent years, the development of information technology represented by the Internet has accelerated knowledge accumulation and technological innovation. Disruptive technologies have emerged that are getting more and more attention from enterprises and the public. Many enterprises are involved in the active development of disruptive technologies. With the combined effect of “state guidance, technology promotion, and market traction,” the U.S. has formed a disruptive technology innovation system that originates from the strategic needs of national defense, is rooted in the soil of national innovation, extends to the national economic system, and fully follows the laws and characteristics of disruptive technologies. This paper analyzes the historical process of the formation of DARPA’s disruptive technology innovation management model from the perspective of evolutionary theory, explores the reasons for DARPA’s success, and gains relevant insights.

II. Overview of DARPA

(I) Mission
DARPA is an executive agency of the U.S. Department of Defense whose mission is to be responsible for “game-changing” high-risk, high-reward technology research and development, “avoiding technology surprise and pursuing technology surprise against adversaries,” and maintaining U.S. leadership in the latest military technologies. The Directorate was established in 1958 and has a staff of more than 200 people, most of whom are top experts and scholars in various disciplines [3,4].

(II) Organizational Model and Operating Mechanism
DARPA is a typical flat project management organization, based on the project manager system, and adopts the two-level decision-making structure of “specialized field department – technical project manager”, which is highly flexible. In terms of personnel, DARPA uses four methods: permanent full-time, permanent part-time, full-time appointment, and part-time appointment, and the project manager is managed under the principle of “limited management” in which the project manager works with the project. In the project implementation, the project is managed by a “recruitment – visioning – project initiation – portfolio management – technology translation” approach, especially the technology innovation-oriented principle in the project decision, investment, promotion and exit process, and the adoption of policy innovations such as brainstorming sessions [3~6].

DARPA has seven technical program offices, about 100 program managers, and an annual budget of roughly $3 billion allocated to more than 200 research projects. less than 1% of national research and development (R&D) funding and less than 4% of the DoD research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&R) budget is allocated to DARPA. the organizational structure of DARPA is shown in Figure 1 [4].

Figure 1 Organizational Structure of DARPA via Google Lens. For Chinese language original see below.

Analysis of DARPA’s Experience with Disruptive Innovation

In the context of “Everybody loves DARPA”, Chinese and foreign consulting organizations, think tanks, academics and DARPA itself have started to explore the sources of innovation, project management, organizational model or transformation mechanism of DARPA to prove the feasibility of replicating DARPA. Some departments or companies have even hired former DARPA directors or program managers to prepare and manage the newly established agencies. These people include Jane Alexander, the first Deputy Director of the Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency (HSARPA) (formerly DARPA Deputy Director), and Regina Dugan, head of Google’s Advanced Technology and Programs (ATAP) (formerly DARPA Director). Few have been able to match DARPA’s achievements to date. HSARPA in particular, which has been in existence for over 10 years, has been heavily criticized. In general, there is no consensus on how to build another brilliant DARPA and no example of anyone ever having done so.

From the practical experience of various entities imitating DARPA in the last decade or so, the explicit organizational structure and operation mechanism of DARPA are the basis but not the essence of DARPA’s success. On the basis of reading considerable material, the authors here attempt to determine and explain the reasons for DARPA’s success from the perspective of environment and strategy.

(1) The harsh survival environment is the main driving force of DARPA’s innovation and change

The environment shapes organizations, and DARPA is no exception. Especially in the first ten years of DARPA’s existence, it faced serious survival challenges.

Infighting within the US Military

The 1950s were the most intense period of infighting among the three branches of the U.S. military, resulting in serious problems of duplication and fragmentation, and inefficient research and development. Then President Eisenhower abhorred the infighting among the three branches of the military and, taking advantage of the tremendous shock caused by the Soviet Union’s successful satellite launch, established DARPA with the intention, among other things, of breaking the competition between the interests of the various branches of the military. This sowed the seeds of conflict between DARPA and the three services. DARPA’s core interest was to ensure its survival in the competition with the three services, and the subsequent history shows that DARPA was nearly abolished as a result.

Establishment of NASA Drained DARPA Resources

When NASA was established in October 1958, the Department of Defense transferred DARPA’s military space mission, a core activity of the agency that accounted for nearly two-thirds of its funding, to NASA, and for the first time DARPA faced an existential challenge.

Deterioration of DARPA’s Environment

  • The relationship between the military and academia was increasingly strained by the Vietnam War, so that most university researchers were disillusioned with the Department of Defense and national security policy and refused to participate in defense research projects.
  • The economic environment, the salary gap between the U.S. federal government and industry has widened significantly, resulting in a serious brain drain from federal government agencies;
  • The high unemployment rate has also contributed to a decrease in the flow of talent from industry or universities, and DARPA has been unable to attract talent.
  • Shifts in DoD S&T management policy and senior-level changes have weakened DARPA’s status, and its programs were no longer of interest to the Secretary of Defense or involved in major national policy issues.

The combination of these factors made DARPA less of a “research powerhouse” in the United States.

During its first decade, DARPA faced the prospect of being abolished several times. Faced with these enormous pressures, the agency was prompted to make three major changes:

  • DARPA’s first leaders were asked to reflect on and insist on the uniqueness of DARPA. According to then-DARPA Director Lukasik, this was like embracing the “kiss of death” because uniqueness is hard to recognize. But it was this persistence that planted DARPA’s innovation gene, which led to a large number of “mad scientists” eager to change the world and spread their own way of doing things.
  • Do high-risk, challenging tasks that other military services are reluctant to undertake. After the loss of its main business, it began to engage in other military services are reluctant to touch the difficult, cross-services, and national security projects, and eventually established a business positioning and their own status.
  • Weakening its institutional chauvinism allowed DARPA to break down the barriers of its own interests, continuously improve the relationship with the three services, industry, and the scientific community, and improve management in due course.

This difficult process forged DARPA’s ability to break through the explicit and implicit barriers that impede the emergence of disruptive technology and innovations:

  • Barriers of special interests,
  • Barriers of academic discipline,
  • Barriers of schools of thought,
  • Barriers of outstanding talents, and
  • Barriers of success and failure.

(2) Not forgetting its original intention was for DARPA formula to avoid falling into the system ossification and maintain the innovation vitality [Translator’s note: “Not forgetting your original intention (bù wàng chūxīn  不忘初心 ) (ideals) when you joined in joining the Communist Party” is a popular Xi Jinping meme in China today. End note]

Under the combined effect of enormous competitive pressure from the three military forces and the persistence of scientists, DARPA has always kept its original intention and worked around the mission of “developing future weapons systems” and “maintaining U.S. technological leadership and preventing potential adversaries from unexpectedly overtaking it”. DARPA, in order to prevent the organization from falling into a system ossification and keeping innovation alive, did this three things:

First, DARPA’s unique positioning has prevented the system from ossifying by staying true to its original mission. On the one hand, DARPA has always adhered to the most challenging S&T phase of the defense budget 6.1 ~ 6.3 work, also known as the Department of Defense “science and technology program” work, project success or verification will be handed over to the military for further development and end use. This model of letting go of a mature program prevents DARPA from being trapped in a solid innovation path and keeps innovation alive. On the other hand, it maintains the organization’s unique niche and does not expand for profit. For example, in the 1960s and early 1970s, there were occasional suggestions to centralize DoD basic research under DARPA, which were strongly opposed by several directors. Although DARPA was nearly abolished early on because of its bias toward funding basic research complexes, they were clear that DARPA was not a natural science funding board for the Department of Defense.

Second, without losing sight of the original intent, DARPA has been effective in restraining organizational self-inflation and avoiding the cannibalization of innovation by complex organizations. However, the U.S. Department of Defense directive on DARPA does grant it the authority to do so, and DARPA does build and own some facilities as needed for its programs. The difference, however, is that DARPA’s laboratories or facilities are not retained for long periods of time, but are transferred out as the technology of the program is transformed. This may seem to be a counterintuitive move, but it inhibits the organization from getting bigger and prevents it from being swallowed up by too much self-interest and system consolidation on innovation.

Third, it kept DARPA strong in its conviction and vision to support the development of many major disruptive technologies. Disruptive technology innovation tows operational concepts and equipment that can severely impact existing habits of use or operational ordinances, and there is tremendous resistance in the military services, requiring DARPA to lead disruptive technology development and complete demonstrations to gain acceptance by the military. At the same time, due to immature technology and incomplete support, the development process will face serious challenges and numerous setbacks. For example, in the case of stealth aircraft, DARPA overcame the opposition of the U.S. Air Force and developed the “Tacit Blue” stealth demonstrator overcoming many obstacles along the way. It is because of DARPA’s firm belief and foresight that the U.S. military has taken the lead in stealth technology and gradually changed the air combat style.

(3) DARPA has a strategic vision that transcends military, industry, and scientific field that provides important support for innovations in disruptive technologies

The basic path of DARPA program development is problem – idea – talent – project (group). DARPA is uniquely positioned to think beyond the scope of any particular military branch, industry, scientific field, and even academic discipline to consider major requirements to serve national security strategy. This made it easier to create the vision and foresight to foster disruptive technologies and to promote the development of new ideas and concepts needed for disruptive technology innovation. In the late 1950s, the consensus of the U.S. military was that its command and control systems could not meet the urgent need for rapid decision-making in an increasingly complex and rapidly changing military environment. In 1961 President Kennedy called for the Army to improve its command and control systems. To this end, DARPA established the Information Processing Technology Office (IPTO) and invited Professor J.C.R. Licklider of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to serve as its first director. Although it was a pressing military need and a presidential mandate, DARPA did not get bogged down in the immediate needs and specific problems of the military services, but based on Licklider’s idea of “human-machine symbiosis,” believing that human-machine interaction is the essence of command and control problems, and has been conducting long-term, sustained research on the subject. Since then, IPTO has followed Licklider’s ideas and gradually opened up many new areas of computer science and information processing technology, producing such cross-generation disruptive technologies as ArpaNet, which has had a profound impact.

The importance of the problem has been emphasized by several DARPA directors. For example, in a 2006 interview, Robert Sproull argued that the lack of big problems has limited other agencies from following the DARPA model [7]. The great thing about DARPA is that it has always been able to knock down barriers of ideas at the right time — breaking down those barriers that prevent them from converging and creating the ability to identify good ideas. This is even more important than the ability to come up with good ideas.

(4) High mobility is the source of innovation vitality

DARPA maintains an average annual turnover rate of about 25 percent, with the Director’s position experiencing greater turnover, and the actual average tenure of the Director to date has been about 30 months. Ideas come from talent, and this high mobility, first, constantly infuses fresh blood, bringing new ideas and new collisions to become a source of innovation. Secondly, high mobility breaks the natural enemy of innovation – inertia and inertia of thinking. DARPA believes that inertia and inertia of human thinking is the natural enemy of innovation, thus no one can continuously innovate, and it is through the rotation of personnel that new ideas can be continuously brought. Lastly, high mobility somehow prevents bureaucracy from growing. To avoid bureaucracy and to keep the structure lean, DARPA generally does not hire researchers for more than six years.

(5) Faith in Technological Solutions is the Spiritual Pillar Supporting DARPA Innovation

First, DARPA is a place to pursue innovative dreams, not for earning high salaries. What “mad scientists” expect from their short stint at DARPA is the disruptive success of turning ideas into reality. They seek a sense of accomplishment that can influence history in some way. The amount of reward is not a direct criterion of their “endless imagination and creativity. This attitude has attracted many talented people to join DARPA regardless of salary differences or pay cuts. This to some extent keeps some profit-oriented people on the outside.

Second, a faith in technology founded on allowing failure. This stimulates the enthusiasm and innovation of DARPA researchers. When discussing the innovation culture of DARPA’s disruptive technologies, the attitude of “allowing failure” comes to mind [8]. It is true that DARPA’s failure rate in investment is “no less” than its historical success, but this cannot be simply attributed to a “tolerance for failure”. DARPA’s tolerance of failure is based on a strategic vision that keeps up with the times. DARPA’s is a creative ability that is not overly focused on success or failure or on transient, mediocre results. This will stimulate researchers’ enthusiasm and desire for innovation, and create a good culture of innovation.

Third, the innovative spirit of “trust” based on technical beliefs plays a crucial role in the “orderly conduct” of team innovation research. Compared with traditional research institutions, DARPA gives project managers and researchers greater autonomy. When a researcher has a bold idea for a project, he or she can share it equally with colleagues or the project manager; and the project manager can effectively communicate the mature concepts developed during the “brainstorming phase” to the DARPA Director and solicit his or her support. Under the influence of DARPA’s innovative spirit of “trust”, project investigators are more willing to become the driving force behind DARPA’s “alliance of interest”.


DARPA’s growth history is worth remembering. Historically, DARPA was a very small and insignificant organization with many problems. It faced severe challenges to its survival and hovered on the “edge of life and death” for a long time. For example, after the loss of its core business [to NASA] it had little to live on. The three main military services had been in competition for a long while to find a business model. With low salaries it was hard to recruit talented people (the average age of DARPA program managers in the 1960s and 1970s is about 30 years old), and even the position of DARPA Director was long vacant. He was kicked out of the Pentagon by the Department of Defense and turned into an “exile in Siberia” That is not what a shining star is supposed to look like. But what seems “counterintuitive” is the truth; it is the “counterintuitive” that makes for good disruptive technology innovation. The following are important insights from the DARPA story.

(1) The Greatest Obstacle to Disruptive Technological innovation is the Organization Itself

As a revolutionary force that can zero in on traditional industries’ investment, industry, technology, talent, and rules, disruptive technology is not simply a technology itself, but contains two major conflicts: management and technology. On the one hand, a new transitional technology or disruptive technology often does not fit in with the existing supporting technology system, industry system, or even business base and business model. Thus there is a huge conflict with the existing technology system in its growth process; on the other hand, the existing management system is hindering or even rejecting the development of disruptive technology.

  • First, the existing value network stifles the germination of emerging disruptive technologies. New disruptive technologies will reconfigure existing models and patterns, and face serious conflicts in resources, processes, and values within the organization [9], making it almost impossible to gain space to grow.
  • Second, conflicts of interest make it impossible to internally thicken the soil for disruptive technology innovation. The barriers of ideas, interests, departments, and groups that are formed by the solidification of interests within the organization do not provide the soil for the acceptance of emerging disruptive technologies within the organization.
  • Third, institutional rigidity wipes out the vitality of disruptive technology innovation. The ossification of the organizational structure and the rigidity of the operation mode form a serious path dependency, which makes stimulating the innovative vitality of disruptive technologies within the organization difficult.

Due to two major conflicts between technology and management, it is difficult for disruptive technologies to be born and nurtured within traditional organizations. In the face of disruptive technological change, the better the original technology once was and the better it was managed, the faster the company fails. Industry giants that dominate in talent, technology, and capital are often the losers of disruptive change. For example, Kodak “invented the digital camera, but was subverted by the digital camera”.

The story of DARPA also confirms this judgment. As the U.S. military-industrial complex was already facing the problems of ossification, special interests and rigid innovation when DARPA was founded. This made it difficult to cultivate “rule-changing” disruptive technologies. The story of DARPA tells us that the greatest resistance to disruptive technology innovation is within the organization itself. A profound self-revolution [Note: Another current Communist Party meme is to make a self-revolution to improve oneself. In January 2022 Chinese Communist Party General Secretary Xi Jinping called on communist party members to “always maintain a spirit of self-revolution” zìwǒ gémìng 自我革命 End note.] is needed to successfully carry out disruptive technology innovation.

(2) Accelerating the Development of Disruptive Technologies Requires a Unique Management Approach – the “In Vitro” Zone

From DARPA’s successful experience, an organization needs a unique management model – an “extra-corporeal” zone (DARPA is a U.S. Department of Defense “extracorporeal” zone) – to successfully carry out disruptive technology innovation. It needed to create a special zone that is not imprisoned by the organization’s existing value network. In the face of disruptive innovation, countries and industry giants alike are choosing to set up new management structures outside their existing systems, such as DARPA, GoogleX, and the popular XLab.

  • Mission : The mission of innovation is to mobilize the resources of the whole community and to build innovation on the overall ecology.
  • Business orientation: transcend all businesses and departments, and do not fall into specific set orientations. We only do the “budding” part and then transfer the projects to other departments after they are validated, so as not hobble our innovation chain.
  • Institutional mechanism: set up a special “institution” that does not operate according to the existing value network (resources, processes, values). The organization should be small, the management should be flat, and the projects should be flexible.
  • Implementation guarantee: “cut off your own ass”, suppress institutional chauvinism, do not take part in specific business direction and departments, cultivate the big picture and long-distance vision. “Cut off your hands and feet”, means not to be a large entity, to maintain flexibility and avoid falling into institutional ossification. “Push down partition barriers”, push down all kinds of barriers that hinder the convergence of ideas and talents, including barriers of ideas, barriers of special interests, barriers of departments, barriers of business and barriers of group factions.


The historical materials cited in this paper are mainly from the DARPA story compiled by Professor Huang Simin of Tsinghua University and the consulting report “DARPA’s Road to Disruptive Technology Innovation” written by Professor Huang Simin, and the guidance and help from Professor Huang Simin in writing this paper, I would like to express my sincere thanks!

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颠覆性技术 ; 颠覆性技术创新 ; DARPA ; “体外”特区
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颠覆性技术被称为“改变游戏规则”“重塑未来格局”的革命性力量 [1],对人类社会有广泛且深刻的影响:推动人类文明的演进发展、影响世界强国的更替兴衰、决定一个组织的生死存亡、改变人们的生产生活。近代社会以前,虽然颠覆性技术不断诞生,并一直改变人类生产和生活方式,推动着人类社会的进步,但人们还没有形成主动识别、培育颠覆性技术的意识,颠覆性技术经历了漫长的“自然发展阶段”。
随着技术发展和美苏竞争,促使美国政府率先介入颠覆性技术创新,把颠覆性技术推进了发展的“快车道”。第二次世界大战后,苏联相继进行了核试验并成功发射人造卫星,震惊美国。美国政府反思军事科技创新体系,开始意识到需要有意识、系统性地培育高风险高回报的技术,以防止苏联的技术突袭。在此背景下,1958 年美国创建了先进研究计划局(ARPA),1972 年更名为美国国防高级研究计划局(DARPA)。DARPA 的宗旨就是开展“改变游戏规则”的高风险、高回报技术研发,“避免技术突袭并谋求对对手的技术突袭”。事实表明,通过 DARPA 模式培育了大量颠覆性技术,例如互联网技术、全球定位技术、隐身战机技术等,对保持美国军事技术领先优势,维护国家安全发挥了重要作用 [2,3]。
DARPA 模式逐步成熟,影响不断扩大,在美国政府、企业获得推广,并被世界大国、强国争相效仿。美国政府在国土安全、能源部等众多领域成立类 DARPA 的先进研究项目局,并形成相应独特的计划支持体系。近年来以互联网为代表的信息技术发展,使知识积累和技术创新加速,颠覆性技术层出不穷,颠覆性技术受到越来越多的企业、公众的重视。众多企业参与到主动培育颠覆性技术的行列。在“国家引导、技术推动、市场牵引”的共同作用和长期磨合下,美国形成了发端于国防战略需求,扎根于国家创新土壤,延展到国民经济体系,充分遵循颠覆性技术的规律特点的颠覆性技术创新体系,而 DARPA 正是这一体系的核心与精髓。本文从演化论的角度,分析 DARPA 颠覆性技术创新管理模式形成的历史过程,探讨了 DARPA 成功的原因,获得了相关启示。

二、DARPA 概况

DARPA 是美国国防部属下的一个行政机构,其使命是负责“改变游戏规则”的高风险、高回报技术研发,“避免技术突袭并谋求对对手的技术突袭”,保持美国在最新军事技术方面的领先地位。该局成立于 1958 年,现有工作人员 200 余人,其中多为各学科一流的专家、学者 [3,4]。

DARPA 是典型的扁平化项目管理组织,以项目经理人制度为重要基础,采用“专业领域部门 –技术项目经理人”的两级决策为核心的组织结构,具有高度的灵活性。在人事方面,DARPA 采用常任专职、常任兼职、聘任专职和聘任兼职等 4 种方式,并以项目经理与项目同进退的“有限管理”原则开展项目经理人的管理。在项目实施中,采用“招聘 – 制定愿景 – 启动项目 – 组合管理 – 技术转化”的方式开展项目管理,尤其是其在项目决策、投资、推进和退出流程中秉承的技术创新导向原则,采取头脑风暴会议等政策创新 [3~6]。
DARPA 设有 7 个技术项目办公室,100 名左右项目经理人,每年大概有 30 亿美元的预算分配给 200 多个研究项目。DARPA 的经费只占国家研究及开发(R&D)资金的不到 1%,以及国防部研究、开发、试验及评估(RDT&R)预算的不到 4%。DARPA 的组织结构如图 1 所示 [4]。

图 1 DARPA 的组织结构

三、DARPA 开展颠覆性创新的经验分析
在“Everybody loves DARPA”的背景下,中外咨询机构、智库、学术界以及 DARPA 自身也开始探索 DARPA 的创新源泉、项目管理、组织模式或转化机制等问题,求证复制 DARPA 的可行性。一些部门或企业甚至聘用 DARPA 原局长或项目经理负责筹建和管理新成立的机构,如国土安全高级研究计划局(HSARPA)的首任副局长 Jane Alexander(原 DARPA 副局长),以及 Google 的先进科技与计划部(ATAP)的负责人 Regina Dugan(原 DARPA局长),但是至今为止鲜有能与 DARPA 相匹配的成就,特别是建立已有 10 余年的 HSARPA 就饱受诟病。总体来讲,对于如何才能再建一个辉煌的DARPA 还没有共识,也无例可循。
从最近十几年各类主体模仿 DARPA 的实践经验来看,DARPA 显性化的组织结构和运行机制是DARPA 成功的基础,但不是精髓。在阅读大量资料的基础上,笔者尝试从环境、战略的视角解读DARPA 成功的原因。

(一)恶劣的生存环境是 DARPA 创新求变的主要驱动力
环境塑造组织,DARPA 也不例外。特别是在 DARPA 创办的最初十几年里,面临严重的生存挑战。
一是面临三军激烈的生存竞争。20 世纪 50 年代,是美国三军内斗最激烈的时期,导致美军重复建设、不成体系等问题十分严重,研发效率低下。时任美国总统艾森豪威尔对三军内斗深恶痛绝,并借苏联成功发射卫星给美国上下造成的巨大震撼,成立了 DARPA,用意之一就是破解各军种间的利益之争。这为 DARPA 和三军之间的冲突埋下了种子。在与三军的竞争中确保自身的生存也成为DARPA 的核心利益,后续历史也表明,DARPA 险些因此而被撤销。
二是成立初期失去安身立命的业务。1958 年10 月美国航空航天局(NASA)成立,国防部随即把 DARPA 的军用航天任务(该局的一项核心工作,占经费近 2/3)划给 NASA。DARPA 首次面对生存挑战。
三是生存环境恶化。首先是受越战影响,军方与学术界的关系也日益紧张,以致多数高校科研人员对国防部和国家安全政策的幻想渐渐破灭而拒绝参加国防科研项目。其次是在经济环境方面,美国联邦政府与工业界薪资差距显著扩大,联邦政府机构人才外流严重;加之高失业率也促使业界或高校人才流动减少,DARPA 吸引不到人才。再次是国防部科技管理政策转向和高层变动,使 DARPA 地位不断弱化,其项目不再为国防部长所关注、也不再介入主要国家政策问题。这些因素交织到一起,使得 DARPA 不再是美国的“科研高地”。
DARPA 成立最初的十几年经历了多次生存危机,数次面临被撤销的险地。面对巨大环境压力,促使该局进行三大转变:
一是,促使最初领导者思考和坚守 DARPA 的独特性。时任 DARPA 局长卢卡西克认为,这就像拥抱“死亡之吻”,因为独特性很难被认可。但正是这样的坚持种下 DARPA 的创新基因,才引起一大批想改变世界、实现自我的“科学狂人”的价值认同,并欣欣向往之。
三是,弱化了本位主义,使 DARPA 打破自身的利益屏障,不断改善与三军、工业界、科学界之间的关系,适时改进管理。正是这个艰难过程,造就了 DARPA 打破各种束缚颠覆性技术创新要素汇聚的显性和隐性之墙的能力,包括利益之墙、学科之墙、学派之墙、选才之墙、成败之墙。

(二) 不忘初心,是 DARPA 避免陷入体系固化,保持创新活力的良药
在三军巨大竞争压力和科学家坚持的共同作用下,DARPA 始终不忘初心,围绕“开发未来武器系统”“保持美国的技术领先地位,防止潜在对手意想不到的超越”的使命定位开展工作,避免组织陷入体系固化,永葆创新活力。
一是,不忘初心,使 DARPA 坚守独特的事业定位,有效防止体系固化。一方面 DARPA 始终坚持最具挑战性的 S&T 阶段国防预算中 6.1~6.3 项的工作,也被统称为国防部“科学与技术计划”工作,项目成功或验证后即移交给军方进行进一步研发和最终使用。这种成熟一个放手一个的工作模式,避免 DARPA 陷入创新路径固化,保持创新活力。另一方面能坚守组织的独特定位,不唯利扩张。例如,在 20 世纪 60 年代到 70 年代初期,不时有声音建议将国防部的基础研究集中起来,划归 DARPA 统一管理,遭到几任局长的强烈反对。虽然早期因其偏向资助基础研究的情结,导致 DARPA 差点被撤销,但是他们清楚 DARPA 不是国防部的自然科学基金委员会。
二 是, 不 忘 初 心, 使 DARPA 有 效 抑 制 组织的自我膨胀,避免复杂组织对创新的吞噬。DARPA 没有实验室或科研设施。但是,美国国防部关于 DARPA 的指令是授予了其相关权限,DARPA 也的确根据项目需要建造和拥有过一些相应设施。但是不同的是,DARPA 的实验室或设施不会长期保留,而是随着项目的技术转化而转移出去。看是有悖常理的举措,却抑制了组织做大,防止组织因过多的自身利益和体系固化对创新活力的吞噬。
三是,不忘初心,使 DARPA 坚定信念,保持远见卓识,支撑众多重大颠覆性技术发展。颠覆性技术创新牵引的作战概念和装备,会严重冲击现有使用习惯或作战条令,在军种阻力巨大,需要DARPA 引领颠覆性技术研发并完成演示才能得到军方的接受。同时由于技术不成熟,配套不完备,研发过程会面临严峻挑战和众多挫折。例如在隐身飞机方面,DARPA 顶住了美国空军的反对意见,克服众多困难,研发了“海弗兰”隐身验证机。正是由于坚定信念和远见卓识,才使美军率先拥有了隐身技术,并逐渐改变了空中作战样式。

DARPA 项目发展的基本路径是问题 – 思想 –人才 – 项目(群)。问题是 DARPA 颠覆性技术创新的重要支撑。DARPA 的独特定位使其能超越军种、行业、领域,甚至学科学派,在国家安全战略大格局下思考重大需求问题,更易催生颠覆性技术的视野和远见,推动颠覆性技术创新所需新思想、新理念的开拓。在 20 世纪 50 年代末,美国军方的共识是,其指挥与控制系统不能满足日益复杂和快速多变的军事环境下快速决策的紧迫需求,1961 年肯尼迪总统要求军队需要改善指挥与控制系统,在该国防安全重大问题提出以后,国防部指派 DARPA 负责此项目。为此 DARPA 成立了信息处理技术办公室(IPTO),并邀请麻省理工学院约瑟夫 · 利克莱德(J.C.R. Licklider)教授出任首任主任。虽然是军方的迫切需要和总统钦定的问题,但是 DARPA没有陷入军种的眼前需求和具体问题,而是基于利克莱德提出“人机共生”的思想,认为人机交互是指挥与控制问题本质,并就此开展长期、持续的研究工作。此后,IPTO 遵循着利克莱德的思想逐渐开辟出计算机科学与信息处理技术方面的很多新领域,培育出 ArpaNet 等跨时代性的颠覆性技术,产生了深远的影响。
DARPA 多位局长就强调过问题的重要性。例如,罗伯特 · 斯普罗尔(Robert Sproull)在 2006 年的一次访谈中就认为,缺乏大问题限制了其他机构效仿 DARPA 模式 [7]。同时,从问题转化为解决问题的思想是颠覆性技术创新的关键。DARPA 的伟大之处正是它总能够在恰当的时机推倒一堵堵阻碍思想汇聚之墙,打破禁锢思想的藩篱,造就了其识别好思想的能力,这点甚至比具备想出好思想的能力更重要。

DARPA 保持平均每年大约 25% 的人员流动率,其中局长岗位流动更大,至今局长的实际平均任期大约为 30 个月左右。思想来自于人才,这种高流动性,首先,不断流入新鲜血液,带来新思想、新碰撞成为创新的源泉。其次,高流动率打破创新的天敌 —— 思维惯性和惰性。DARPA 认为人的思维惯性和惰性是创新的天敌,因而无人可以持续创新,通过人员的轮换才能不断带来新思想。最后,高流动性从某种程度上避免了官僚主义滋生。为避免官僚主义、保持结构精简,DARPA 对研究人员的聘用期一般不会超过 6 年。

(五)技术信仰是 DARPA 创新的精神支撑
一是基于技术信仰的价值认同,是 DARPA 的核心凝聚力。DARPA 是一个追求创新梦想的平台,而不是谋取高薪的地方。对于“疯狂的科学家们”在 DARPA 的短暂工作所期望获得的是将想法变为实际的颠覆性成功,是能在某种程度上影响历史的成就感,奖励的多少并不能成为他们进行“无穷想象与创造”的直接评判。正是基于这种技术信仰,DARPA 还是吸引了大量优秀人才不计薪酬差异或降薪加入,在某种程度上将一些以利益为目的的人士挡在了门外。
二是在技术信仰的基础上允许失败,激发起DARPA 研究人员的创新热情。在论及 DARPA 的颠覆性技术的创新文化上,都会想到其“允许失败”的创新态度 [8]。的确 DARPA 在投资上的失误率与它在历史上所缔造的辉煌相比,是“毫不逊色”的,但不能简单对此归结为“允许失败”。DARPA对失败的宽容是建立在紧随时代的战略眼光与超乎寻常的创造能力基础上,是不过分聚焦成败,关注短暂的、平庸的结果。这样更能激发研究人员的创新热情和挑战欲,营造良好的创新文化氛围。
三是在技术信仰基础上“强调信任”的创新精神对于团队创新研究的“有序开展”起到了至关重要的作用。相较于传统研究机构,DARPA 授予了项目经理与项目研究人员较大的自主权利。当研究人员对某一项目产生一个大胆的想法时,他可以将这种想法平等地与同事或者项目经理交流;而项目经理也能够将“大脑风暴阶段”所形成的成熟的概念有效地传达给 DARPA 局长,并争取他的支持。在 DARPA“强调信任”的创新精神的影响下,项目研究人员更自主地愿意成为 DARPA 这个“利益同盟”的推动者。

DARPA 的 成 长 历 程 太 值 得 回 味, 历 史 上DARPA 是非常不起眼的“小机构”,存在诸多问题,面临严峻的生存挑战,长期徘徊在“生死边缘”。比如,失去核心业务不得不去啃“硬骨头”;和三军有严重竞争很长时间找不到业务定位;待遇不好,招不到优秀人才(20 世纪六七十年代DARPA 的项目经理平均年龄在 30 岁左右),甚至局长的位置都长期空缺;还被国防部赶出五角大楼,变成了远赴西伯利亚的“流放者”,这和当前闪耀明星的形象格格不入。但是看似“有悖常理”才是事实真相;正是“有悖常理”才能做好颠覆性技术创新。从 DARPA 的故事可以得到以下重要启示。

作为能使传统行业“投资、产业、技术、人才、规则”归零的革命性力量,颠覆性技术不是单纯的技术本身,而蕴含了管理和技术两大冲突。一方面,作为新生变轨技术,颠覆性技术往往与现有的配套技术体系、产业体系,甚至商业基础、商业模式不适应,在它成长过程中和现有技术体系存在巨大冲突;另一方面,现有的管理体系是阻碍甚至排斥颠覆性技术发展。一是现有价值网络扼杀新兴颠覆性技术的萌芽。新颠覆性技术会重构现有模式和格局,在组织内面临资源、流程、价值观的严重冲突 [9],几乎不可能获得成长空间。二是利益冲突使内部无法厚植颠覆性技术创新的土壤。组织内部利益固化形成的思想之墙、利益之墙、部门之墙、团派之墙,使组织内部没有接纳新兴颠覆性技术的土壤。三是机构僵化抹杀颠覆性技术创新活力,组织机构的固化,运行模式的僵化,形成严重的路径依赖,在组织内很难激发颠覆性技术的创新活力。
DARPA 的故事也印证了这一判断,DARPA 在成立时美国军工复合体已经面临利益固化、创新僵化的问题,难以培育“改变规则”的颠覆性技术,为了应对苏联的技术突袭,美国在军工复合体之外成立了 DARPA。而 DARPA 成功的重要原因,就是在极端环境下实施了自我革命,压制了本位主义、破除了各种阻碍、防止组织的僵化,克服了传统组织的一些固有缺点,保持创新的活力。DARPA 的故事告诉我们,颠覆性技术创新最大的阻力是组织自己,要成功开展颠覆性技术创新需要深刻的自我革命。

从 DARPA 的成功经验来看,一个组织成功开展颠覆性技术创新需要独特的管理模式——“体外”特区(DARPA 是国防部的“体外”特区),即需要建立一个不受组织现有价值网络禁锢的特区。现实确实如此,当前面对颠覆性创新,无论国家、行业巨头都选择在现有体系之外设置新的管理架构,如 DARPA、GoogleX 以及当下流行的XLab。从 DARPA 的经验来看,“体外”特区有以下特点。

本文引用的史料主要来自清华大学黄四民教授整理的 DARPA 故事和黄四民教授执笔的咨询报告《DARPA 的颠覆性技术创新之路》,在文章撰写中也得到了黄四民教授的指导与帮助,在此表示衷心的感谢!
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Behind PRC Vaccine Import Reluctance: Bioweapon Anxiety?

One of the most striking aspects of the global vaccine response to COVID (once on stops to wonder at it) is how compartmented it is.

  • The US-Europe response that has successfully produced several mRNA vaccines that are effective at reducing infections but also and more importantly, if infected greatly reducing the severity of the disease compared with most people who are unvaccinated. Those vaccines are being used in most of the world.
  • There is the Russian Federation vaccine that also produced its own vaccine and does not use foreign vaccines. The Russian vaccines are apparently less effective than the US-Europe produced vaccines, that are also used in some countries outside of Russia.
  • There is the Chinese effort. China does not use foreign vaccines but has produced several vaccines that while providing important protection to its population are significantly less effective than the US-Europe vaccines. According to a May 2022 Xinhua press reports, a Chinese mRNA vaccine expected to be more effective will be available towards the end of 2022.

Why Do Vaccine Blocs Resemble Military Blocs?

The vaccine bloc picture resembles George Orwell’s novel 1984 in which three megabloc constantly battled one another for world supremacy. Is our world so dark, or if that is an exaggeration, is it that dark in the darkest nightmare of the national security thinker of the US, Russia and China. Not being like the old time radio hero “The Shadow” who always asked “Who knows what evil lurks in the hearts of men? The Shadow knows!” I can only speculate.

Every country (perhaps — there are 180+ of them so I can’t be sure about Andorra) requires a long series of safety and efficacy trials before a new drug is approved. Even so, three years into the epidemic, that doesn’t seem to be the explanation.

Chinese Communist Party General Secretary Xi Jinping has great pride in his Party and in China as he works to realize the Chinese renaissance and national greatness that will bring them up to nor just today’s G20 level but to the G2 level or maybe even someday to the G1 level. Yet even worries for saving the face of the Party and country may not be enough cause to reject help that could help save many lives as China tries to figure out the safest way of emerging from its current strategy of extremely onerous lockdowns on apartment blocs and entire cities for weeks on end with considerable human suffering.

Could Biotechnology Worries About Weaponized Vaccines — A Gene Drive Pearl Harbor Attack — Make China Reluctant to Import Foreign Vaccines?

Tong Zhao, a visiting scholar at Princeton‘s Program on Science & Global Security; and Senior fellow@CarnegieBeijing sent a tweet about this:

I was doubtful so I did an online search. After the doing the translations and reflections reflected below, I decided that Tong Zhao is right about this. China has paranoid politics and indeed the US also has a well-documented “paranoid style in American politics“.

I came up with the Baidu online encyclopedia article that I have translated below. Judging by the dates of the references at the end of the Baidu article, the encyclopedia article was written in mid 2022. I also translated the online articles mentioned in the footnotes. Those articles are also online and translated below. I gather from these articles which appeared in reputable publication such as Science and Technology Daily, Guangming Ribao and the public media account of the People’s Liberation Army that there is indeed considerable concern about a new generation of biological weapons that might even target the ethnicity of an enemy country. Three of the articles mention President Putin’s 2018 accusation that the US is collecting and surveying Russian genes perhaps to develop gene weapons against Russia. So perhaps Russian information (or disinformation?) plays a part here. I found an article about a Russian disinformation campaign about weaponized vaccines: DISINFO: THE PFIZER VACCINE COULD BE A BIOLOGICAL WEAPON.

All this seems bizarre to me. Wouldn’t China know that the vaccines are not biased against Chinese by asking many ethnic Chinese living in the US are not getting killed off by the vaccines? Even if this technology were possible and practical, wouldn’t gene weapons backfire against the US since the US military is most ethnically diverse on this particular planet? In the end, what matters sometimes is not what is true but what people are willing to believe. As John Milton wrote in Paradise Lost (putting words in the mouth of Satan) “The mind is its own place and, in itself can make a heaven of hell or a hell of heaven. If enough influential people in China believe that an ethnically-biased vaccine bioweapon is possible than that will weigh heavily in any decision on whether to use a foreign vaccine or not, no matter what the facts of the matter are.

What I found doesn’t prove anything. It is a kind of plausibility argument, which in turn would revolve around the question is what is the efficacy gap between Chinese and the mRNA vaccines used in many other countries? If that gap is very large, then one might look for reasons other than nationalism, national face or a preference for autonomous solutions, such as the exaggerated fears (seems to me) in Chinese sources that I found. How much are national policies influenced by irrational or exaggerated fears? I see this in some of the China discussions in the U.S. media — some of it greatly exaggerates China’s capacity and prospects. China has lots of problems too. We often see other countries and cultures through distorted mirrors.

Growing Chinese concerns about genetically-engineered weapons are reflected in the Chinese language are reflected in the Chinese language Wikipedia article on the subject, here via Google Translate. Whether these views about ethnically-biased bioweapons are plausible or not is not my point; if people believe these things they have consequences. As relations deteriorate and the Chinese Communist Party feels embattled and this feeling is communicated through state media it may deploy even more the technique of using national feeling to built support. That might make some implausible ideas more believable.

The tightening of regulations on the management of human genetic resources is related to the long-rumored research and development of genetic weapons in the world . In theory, it is possible to develop a virus that can strengthen its lethality against a specific ethnic group. For example, the SARS virus conspiracy theory has a total of 8,437 cases of infection worldwide and 8,437 cases in China. 7,764 cases, accounting for as high as 92%, and among Westerners, almost no one was infected with SARS. Among the infected countries in Southeast Asia, Singapore, where the Chinese are the majority, has the majority of infections. Therefore, SARS may be a genetic weapon developed by a certain country specifically for the Chinese . More than ten years later, there are still arguments that the probability of this being a natural condition is close to zero. In essence, conspiracy theories of man-made genetic weapons are spreading. However, in theory, it is very unlikely that the virus can target a certain group of people by itself. [3] Although it has been in the stage of international rumors for a long time, Russian President Vladimir Putin publicly announced for the first time at the meeting of the Russian Human Rights Commission on October 30, 2017 that someone is systematically collecting biological data of Russians with the intention of making genetic weapons, making this rumor the first time It is openly tabled by the world’s major powers [4] . This incident was linked to WuXi AppTec’s listing in the US and its relationship with US pharmaceutical companies [5] , leading to the spread of rumors that it made genetic weapons for foreign countries. [3] [6]

Wikipedia article 遺傳工程武器 [Genetically Engineered Weapons]

Worries About Vaccines as Potential Biological Weapons Are Not Unique to China

Arkansas GOP governor who is holding town halls to urge vaccinations said people he meets have called the shot a ‘bioweapon’ and talked about ‘mind control’

Just Because You are Paranoid Doesn’t Mean that Bioweapons Aren’t a Threat

Could biotech weapons be as big a threat as the PLA and some Chinese officials seem to believe? I looked around a bit on that score too. Concern about emerging technologies such as gene drives to transport new genes into living organisms and CRISPR a tool for making alterations in the genetic code of organisms are widespread. The UN Bioweapons Convention lacks effective inspection and compliance mechanisms.

Selected Translations from PRC domestic media

Baidu encyclopedia article: 基因武器 Gene Weapons

New Concept Weapons

Genetic weapons are new biological warfare agents developed using genetic engineering technology, also known as third-generation biological warfare agents. [6] Genetic weapons will be another direction of development of modern new concept weapons.

Genetic weapons, which use advanced genetic engineering, a new technology, similar to the engineering design approach, according to people’s needs through genetic recombination, in some disease-causing bacteria or viruses to access the genes that can fight ordinary vaccines or drugs, or in some microorganisms that would not cause disease to access disease-causing genes in the body to create biological weapons, especially the development of synthetic biology, can achieve artificial design and synthesis of nature does not exist The development of synthetic biology, in particular, allows the artificial design and synthesis of organisms or viruses that do not exist in nature. [1] It can alter the genetic material of non-pathogenic microorganisms to produce pathogenic bacteria with significant drug resistance, and exploit the differences in biochemical characteristics of human races to make such pathogenic bacteria pathogenic only to people with specific genetic characteristics, so as to selectively destroy the enemy’s living force.


  • Introduction
  • Classification
  • Characteristics
  • Use
  • Other related
  • Influencing the Future of Warfare
  • How to face
  • Power
  • Future
  • Imitation Virus
  • Attack on agricultural systems
  • Biomodulators
  • Synthetic viruses


Genetic engineering in the military field is a weapon of genocide. Because any form of a person reflects his genes, killing with genetic weapons can be used to achieve genocide. For example, with genetic weapons one can kill only people with reddish-brown hair, or only people who are short or tall, with blue or black eyes. It has been revealed that some Western countries are preparing to create “race-mutating viruses” to kill people by applying targeted chemical or biological effects to human cells, tissues, organs, and body systems with group genetic characteristics, causing errors in the genetic code.

The rapid development of molecular genetics from the 1970s to the 1980s made it possible to develop genetic weapons. Genetic weapons are built on the basis of recombination of deoxyribonucleic acid, the carrier of genetic information. With the help of genetic engineering methods, gene isolation and recombination can be realized to form compound deoxyribonucleic acid, and on this basis, gene transfer can be realized with the help of microorganisms to ensure the acquisition of highly toxic toxins that can poison people, animals and plants, and to make biological weapons that can change biological weapons with genetic organs. [4]

Introduction of genetic material of obvious toxicity into bacterial viruses or human viruses allows obtaining bacterial weapons capable of killing a large number of people in a short period of time. Scientists expect that by 2005-2010, genetic engineering will yield even greater results in the field of bacterial biology, leading to the uncovering of mechanisms of toxin action and the production of drugs that can be used as weapons. ④

The study of innate and genetic differences between people and their subtle biochemical structures suggests that the possibility of developing so-called racial weapons exists. Scientists believe that in the not too distant future such weapons may be used to kill certain ethnic groups that are disliked by other ethnic groups. Differences in blood, skin color, and genetic structure will be the basis for such selection.

Research in the field of racial weapons is aimed at discovering the weakest points in the genes of certain ethnic groups and developing specialized vectors that can be used effectively. According to estimates of the famous American medical scientist R. Hammerschlag, the use of racial weapons with different expiration dates could kill 25-30% of the population of the attacked country. Note that in a nuclear war this amount of population loss is considered an “unacceptable loss”, which means that the country is defeated.

Genetic Weapons

Microbial genetic weapons are a common family in the biological weapons arsenal, including: the use of microbial genetic modification to produce new biological warfare agents, modification to construct known biological warfare agents, the use of genetic recombination methods to prepare new viral warfare agents; the transfer of genes that are naturally pathogenic to create new warfare agents that are more pathogenic; and the transfer of drug resistance genes to create new warfare agents that are more drug resistant.

Toxin genetic weapons natural toxins are produced by natural organisms, and their toxicity can be enhanced through biotechnology, and can also be made into more toxic hybrid genetic weapons not found in nature is the most tempting new member of the current arsenal of genetic weapons, and one of the most powerful. No successes have been reported, but the threat is real and imminent. Ethnic genetic weapons, also known as “ethnobombs,” are genetic weapons that target a specific ethnic or racial group. It is a new type of super-guided weapon that works only on specific genes and specific parts of a particular race, and is therefore completely harmless to other races.

Genetic modification uses genetic technology to process food to make enhanced or weakened genes to induce specific or multiple diseases and reduce the combat effectiveness of the opponent; it also develops genetic modification drugs to weaken the combat effectiveness of the opponent through drug induction or other control means, as well as to enhance the combat ability of our own soldiers and to produce future “super soldiers”.


  1. Extremely lethal, extremely low cost
  2. Easy to use, flexible tactics
  3. Strong ability to distinguish between the enemy and us, only attacking and infecting specific groups of people
  4. Means of application and killing process is highly concealed, with a strong deterrent effect  
  5. A longer period of influence on the people in the area of use


Genetic weapons can be used in a variety of simple ways. Bacteria, bacterial insects and microorganisms with disease-causing genes that have been genetically engineered and released can be put into major rivers, cities or transportation routes in other countries by hand, aircraft, missiles or artillery, allowing the virus to spread and multiply naturally, causing people and animals to suffer from an untreatable disease in a short period of time and causing them to lose their combat power quietly on the invisible battlefield. Because this weapon is not easy to detect and difficult to prevent and cure, some scientists are far more worried about it than some nuclear physicists were about the atomic bomb back then.

Concern about genetic weapons In studies of human genome diversity, it has been found that genetic differences do exist between human races. Such differences are likely to be exploited by racists and terrorists. They can use genetic engineering techniques to design and develop genetic weapons against a particular race based on the characteristics of genomic diversity of different races, thus posing a potential and great threat to the security of a particular race or country.

In terms of strategy, genetic weapons will bring about a significant change in the way of combat. The user only needs to put genetically engineered germs into another country before the war, or use aircraft or missiles to put microorganisms with disease-causing genes into other countries’ transportation routes or cities, allowing the virus to spread and multiply naturally, causing the enemy’s people and animals to suffer from an untreatable disease in a short period of time, thus losing their ability to fight. In addition, genetic weapons can recombine genes at will as needed, and genes that damage human intelligence can be inserted into some organisms. When people of a particular ethnic group are infected with this germ with genes that impair intelligence, they lose their normal intelligence.

Tactically, genetic weapons, since they are not easily detectable, would leave opponents defenseless. Because of the modified viruses and bacteria genes, only the manufacturer knows its genetic “code”, others are difficult to decipher and control. At the same time, the killing process of genetic weapons is carried out in secret, people generally can not be found in advance and take effective protective measures. Once the damage is felt, it is too late, before the attack by the genetic virus, it is difficult to treat. In addition, genetic weapons have a strong psychological deterrent effect due to their low cost, long duration, simplicity of use, variety of means of delivery, and no destruction of enemy infrastructure or weaponry.

Today, the United States, Russia and Israel all have programs to develop genetic weapons. Other countries probably are as well. The United States has already developed some genetic weapons with operational value. They have inserted a gene from a bacterium that causes the dreaded Rift fever in Africa and the Middle East into common brewing bacteria thereby enabling the brewing bacteria to spread Rift fever. In addition, the United States has completed the genetic splicing of E. coli, which is resistant to tetracycline, and Staphylococcus aureus, which is resistant to penicillin, and then introduced the spliced molecules into E. coli to produce a new E. coli with resistance to the two bactericides. Russia has used genetic engineering methods to study a new toxin, a variant of anthrax, which resists all know antibiotics and for which there is no antidote. Israel is developing a genetic weapon that can only kill Arabs and is not harmful to Jews. There was also a rumor that the Soviet Union combined cobra venom with the flu virus to cause patients to develop flu and snake venom symptoms at the same time. In addition to this, the Soviet Union has also developed a toxin that can kill 5 billion people at 20 mg.

Related Information:

Impact on future warfare

Possible effects of particle genetic weapons on future warfare

Compared with other modern weapons, genetic weapons have the advantages of low cost, easy manufacture, ease of use, and high lethality, in addition to the characteristics of not being easily defended and difficult to treat after being victimized. Genetic weapons can be delivered by hand, ordinary artillery, warships, airplanes, balloons or missiles, and can be dropped on the opponent’s front lines, rear lines, rivers, lakes, cities and transportation points to spread the disease rapidly. A “genetic weapon” of super hemorrhagic fever bacterium could be dropped into the opponent’s water system, disabling most of the people who use that water system. That would be dozens of times more lethal than atomic bombs. The introduction of genetic weapons will change warfare dramatically. Consequences:

  • The pattern of warfare will change. The opposing sides may use genetic weapons before the war, causing the destruction of the opponent’s personnel and living environment, resulting in the loss of a people or a country’s fighting ability, economic decline, and conquest without bloodshed.
  • The institutional structure of the military establishment will change. Combat forces will be reduced, while health service support forces may have to be increased.
  • Strategic weapons and tactical weapons will be integrated. The future battlefield becomes an invisible battlefield, making the battlefield situation difficult to grasp and control.
  • Bringing new topics for military defense and military medical research.

Confronting the Challenge of Particle Genetic Weapons

Although some people are engaged in the research of genetic weapons, others are actively studying the protection against them. In 1997, U.S. Secretary of Defense Cohen ordered that all U.S. active duty and reserve military personnel must be vaccinated against biological warfare agents if ordered to do so starting that year, and that all vaccinations be completed by 2003. in April 1998, U.S. President Clinton hosted a meeting to discuss the relevance of genetic engineering and biotechnology development to the military. In January 2000, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) adjusted its nuclear, chemical, and biological protection strategy, proposing the establishment of a joint weapons of mass destruction (WMD) military service program, improving the joint warfare capabilities of weapons systems, enhancing non-traditional warfare capabilities, raising awareness of non-traditional warfare styles, and adjusting the protective equipment The U.S. will invest $4.6 billion in chemical biological warfare from 1999 to 2003.

According to a July 1997 foreign news report, the United Kingdom organized a group of military experts, geneticists, biologists and lawyers to study the possibility of racial genetic weapons and countermeasures.

In order to protect the best interests of all mankind, maintain and promote world peace and development, and effectively prevent the potential threat of genetic weapons, we should take the following countermeasures.

  1. We should actively urge the international community to reach a global ethical convention and agreement on restricting the use of genetic technology and banning the development of genetic weapons in accordance with the spirit of the International Declaration on the Human Genome and the Rights of Man approved by the United Nations General Assembly in 1998.
  2. Take action as soon as possible to seriously study the genetic code of our nation, identify specific and susceptible genes as early as possible, and use bioengineering technology to develop effective biological agents and vaccines in order to improve and strengthen the genetic resistance of our nation.
  3. Actively apply high and new technologies to develop new types of detection and protection equipment to achieve effective identification and protection.
  4. Conduct special studies on the possible warfare methods, ways and means of genetic warfare implemented by enemy forces, and formulate early action plans. Only in this way will the Chinese nation not be constrained in the possible future struggle between genetic deterrence and counter-deterrence. [3]


The killing power of genetic weapons is enormous. [2] Explosives made with biotechnology can be highly explosive and three to six times more powerful than conventional explosives. Weapon components made from biological explosives can increase the tactical and technical performance of weapons by an order of magnitude. According to some estimates, the killing effectiveness of a genetic weapons arsenal built for $50 million far exceeds that of a nuclear weapons arsenal built for $5 billion. [5] One country has used the biocatalytic effect of deoxyribonucleic acid in cells to isolate the DNA of a virus and then combine it with the DNA of another virus, splicing it into a highly toxic “thermotoxin” genetic warfare agent. One ten thousandth of a milligram suffices to poison 100 cats; 20 grams would suffice to kill 5.5 billion people. In April 1979, an explosion at a Soviet biological weapons site spilled a large amount of Bacillus anthracis aerosol. This caused an anthrax epidemic that killed over one thousand people and lasted 10 years. According to some calculations made by the U.S. military, if a Scud missile with an anthrax warhead landed in Washington, D.C., it could kill 100,000 people. If the Ebola, AIDS and O-157 viruses are made into genetic weapons, these “biological atomic bombs would be enough to destroy the human race. Scientists call genetic weapons “apocalyptic weapons”. They are not exaggerating.

The Future

Imitation virus

  • A virus that can be imitated by engineering techniques, such as one modeled on the 1918 “Spanish” flu virus that killed 40 million people.
  • A weapon designed to destroy a race of people. Such a weapon would work in much the same way as the gene therapy approach being developed by researchers, which is to identify victims by their genetic makeup and then release a virus to destroy them.

Attacking agricultural systems

The British Medical Association study concluded that humans should be more careful about possible biochemical attacks on agricultural systems by terrorists. This is because technically speaking, terrorists can carry out such attacks relatively easily while potentially causing serious damage to instrument production.


  • Some scientists also refer to biomodulators as “brain bombs”. Biomodulators are agents that attack the human immune and nervous systems, such as the fentanyl used by Russian authorities to end the Moscow theater hostage crisis.
  • Genetically engineered anthrax. Researchers have been able to alter anthrax genes, and this research raises new questions about whether the commonly used vaccines are effective in preventing the new bacteria.

Synthetic viruses

Synthetic poliovirus

Several scientific studies have reported that the replication means used to create synthetic poliovirus could potentially be used to synthetically create viruses like Ebola.


1. ∧ The US is harvesting biological information from Russians to research biological weapons against Russia? [cited 2022-06-10 20:07:24]

2. ∧ The real life version of “biohazard”: how genetic weapons will affect future warfare [cited 2022-06-13 18:39:55]

3. ∧ Genetic war, a new shadow over humanity [cited 2022-06-13 18:40:38]

4. ∧ The real-life version of “biohazard”: how genetic weapons will affect future warfare [cited 2022-06-14 10:25:58]

5. ∧ The US is collecting biological information of Russians to research biological weapons against Russia? [cited 2022-06-14 10:28:12]

6. ∧ Modern life technology and future warfare [cited 2022-06-17 18:37:31]

I found some of the references online.

Reference #1

2017 Science and Technology Daily: Is the United States Collecting Biological Information on Russians to Research Biological weapons against Russia?


November, 3, 2017

Science and Technology Daily

Science and Technology Daily reporter Zhang Qiang

Science and technology is often a double-edged sword. Cutting-edge biotechnology, it can enhance human well-being, but also forge weapons that threaten human security. On November 2, 2017 media reports, Russian President Vladimir Putin confirmed that someone is purposefully collecting biological information of Russians. The news went viral very quickly. Russian media then reported that in the summer of 2017, the U.S. Air Force announced a tender for the procurement of 12 “normal human RNA” samples and 27 “normal fresh frozen human synovial” samples, all of which should be collected in Russia. Some Russian experts suspect that this is related to the U.S. program to develop a genetic weapon against Russians.

In this regard, Associate Professor Shi Haiming 国防科技大学军事专家石海明副教授, a military expert at the National University of Defense Technology, expressed his concern to Science and Technology Daily. He pointed out that “the United States may use the collected samples for scientific research tests of genetic weapons, which will undoubtedly cause public opinion and the relevant countries to be alerted. Although it is quite difficult to develop genetic weapons that distinguish between attacks on specific groups of people in terms of the current level of science and technology, we should know that biological information warfare is by no means less powerful than the physical information warfare that is widely known today.”

Genetic weapons is the use of genetic engineering technology, according to people’s needs, in some disease-causing bacteria or viruses, access to genes that can fight ordinary vaccines or drugs, to produce a significant resistance to drug-causing bacteria; or in some otherwise non-disease-causing microorganisms access to disease-causing genes, so as to create new biological agents.

“In a word, DNA recombination technology is used to alter bacteria or viruses so that the non-pathogenic becomes pathogenic, making diseases that can be prevented and saved with vaccines or drugs, difficult to prevent and treat. Putting this biological warfare agent into the delivery device constitutes a genetic weapon.” Shi Haiming explained.

In foreign countries, some people call genetic weapons “doomsday weapons” and “bio-atomic bombs,” which is a clear indication of their power. Some media estimate that a genetic weapons arsenal built with $50 million would be more lethal than a nuclear weapons arsenal built with $5 billion. So, how do genetic weapons launch attacks?

“Genetic weapons can target plants and animals and humans themselves, respectively.” Shi Haiming describes the creation of plant viruses, such as those used primarily in plant warfare, that cause the death of major crops or green plants. There is no more typical plant warfare agent than the infamous defoliant. Genetic technology can also be used to create animal viruses that infect and kill large areas, thus causing devastating famines.

“When used on humans, the methods are even more varied. Such as creating ‘ethnobombs,’ which are agents that target a specific population.” He noted that the completion of the sequencing of the human genome has made it possible to analyze genetic differences between human races and ethnicities. This makes it theoretically possible to design a virus that targets a specific race or ethnicity. Releasing such genetic warfare agents onto the battlefield could kill and injure enemy soldiers in large numbers without any damage to our own side. Viruses that pose a great threat to human health, such as HIV, could also be transformed into easily transmissible viruses, creating “hybrid viruses.

“Genetic weapons are therefore difficult to detect, difficult to prevent, difficult to isolate, and extremely low cost, and if used in warfare, the consequences would be devastating. Tactically, genetic weapons can be quickly delivered to the battlefield and kill or injure large numbers of enemy personnel, and can quickly turn the tide of battle. Strategically, genetic weapons, like nuclear weapons, can cause great damage to the human mind. Therefore, it has an obvious strategic deterrent effect.” Shi Haiming said.

So, how should we guard against a possible genetic weapons attack?

Shi Haiming pointed out, “First of all, relevant scientific research institutions can focus on relevant basic science and key technology research and development. We should study the genetic code of our nation, identify the specific and susceptible genes as early as possible, and use biopharmaceutical engineering technology to develop effective biological agents and vaccines to improve and enhance the genetic resistance of our nation. At the same time, we will develop new types of detection and protection equipment to achieve effective identification and protection. Special research should also be conducted to develop early operational plans for possible future biological information warfare methods, approaches and means of warfare.”

“In view of the great harm that genetic weapons may produce, we must give high attention to biotechnology and its military applications. After all, once the ‘Pandora’ magic box is opened, it will be difficult to close and will surely bring threats to human peace.” Shi Haiming particularly emphasized.

(Science and Technology Daily, Beijing, Nov. 2)

Reference #2

Reference #2

A Real  “Chemical-Biological Crisis”: How Genetic Weapons will Affect Future Warfare

Original 2017-11-10 08:54 – China Military

Source: Chinese military network synthesis Author: Cao Shiyang Editor: Yang Hong


Article written November 10, 2017  中国军号

来源:中国军网综合 作者:曹诗洋 责任编辑:杨红’

Published on China Military

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Certification: People’s Liberation Army  News Communication Center official account

According to the Xinhua News Agency, on October 30, Russian President Vladimir Putin personally confirmed that someone was purposefully collecting biological sample information from Russians. The statement was immediately spread rapidly. Russian media then reported that the U.S. Air Force had targeted Russians in a tender for the procurement of biological samples. Some Russian experts warned that biological samples from the Russian population could be used to create bacteriological weapons in the future and that such collection activities should be monitored. The U.S. Air Force Education and Training Command clarified to Russian media Oct. 31 that the 59th Medical Wing’s Advanced Molecular Monitoring Center, the largest medical unit in the U.S. Air Force, does collect biological samples from Russians, but not for the purpose of creating bacteriological and biological weapons.

Genetic weapons are a new generation of biological weapons developed through gene editing technology that modifies the genetic code of disease-causing microorganisms and can attack the enemy at the genetic level. In simple terms, gene editing technology is equivalent to a pair of genetic “scissors” that can “splice” a gene fragment from one organism to another to change its physiological characteristics according to subjective wishes. It is in this way that genetic weapons modify genes to acquire new disease-causing microorganisms, thereby disabling the other side’s vaccine pool. U.S. intelligence agencies have thus classified gene editing technology as a potential weapon of mass destruction.

Stay tuned for a report in today’s PLA Daily –

How Genetic Weapons Could Impact Future Warfare

Cao Shiyang

A “Bio-Atomic Bomb” with Great Killing Power

Embraer, Raccoon City, T-Virus …… are familiar names to game fans that build a virtual world torn apart by runaway biological weapons: in secret scientific laboratories, hundreds of genetics and bioengineering experts involved in research are infected with viruses that turn them into bloodthirsty “zombies”. “, people once bitten or scratched by them will be infected and immediately become the same kind.

In fact, from the German influenza bacteriological weapons during World War I, to Japan’s Unit 731 during World War II, to the Soviet Union’s unprecedented scale of biological weapons arsenal during the Cold War, every history of biological weapons is inevitably flooded with blood and chilling. Since entering the 21st century, gene editing technology has flourished, the human genome map has been successfully completed, and biological weapons research has entered the era of genetic weapons, a realistic version of the “biochemical crisis” may be kicked off.

From the 1970s to the 1980s, the rapid development of molecular genetics made it possible to develop genetic weapons. Genetic weapons are based on the recombination of DNA, the carrier of genetic information, with the help of genetic engineering methods to achieve gene isolation and recombination, the formation of complex DNA, and on this basis, with the help of microorganisms to achieve gene transfer, made of biological weapons can change the genetic material.

Since genetic weapons are new viruses and bacteria “cut out”, the genetic code is known only to the designer, and it is difficult for the other party to decipher and develop new vaccines to fight against them in time. Even if the vaccine pool is updated, there is still a constant flow of new genetic weapons “ready to go”. The speed of vaccine development must not be able to catch up with the speed of “poisoning”, and such an explicit and implicit “competition” is obviously extremely unfavorable to the defending side.

Especially with the rapid development of genomics, the complete gene sequences of more and more disease-causing microorganisms have been discovered, and these microorganisms may be the originators of the “biochemical crisis”. As long as we find a breakthrough in the genetic code, it is easy to transform them into “bio-atomic bombs” with great lethality.

Achieving Military Objectives Without Deploying A Single Soldier

Like traditional biological weapons, genetic weapons are small, inexpensive, and do not destroy non-living matter. The user does not need to mobilize a large number of people, but can achieve military objectives by dropping the genetic weapons into the enemy area by manual, aircraft, missile and other means of delivery. Obviously, genetic weapons have many advantages that are incomparable to traditional biological weapons.

First, genetic weapons are more infectious and lethal. For example, by transplanting gene fragments with high reproductive capacity, the reproductive spread of deadly germs can be increased several times; by transplanting gene fragments with high disease causing capacity, the lethality rate can be increased to about 100%. Second, genetic weapons are highly concealable. For different military purposes, environments and attack targets, users can artificially design the incubation period of genetic weapons. In other words, one can make a genetic weapon into a “time bomb” with a “countdown” of up to 10 years. This is the main difference between genetic weapons and traditional biological and chemical weapons.

Once genetic weapons are put into use, the future of warfare will change dramatically.

–The pattern of warfare will change. The opposing sides may use genetic weapons before the war to destroy the opponent’s personnel and living environment, resulting in the loss of a people or a country’s fighting ability and conquest without bloodshed.

–The institutional structure of the military will change. The number of combat troops will be reduced, while the number of health service support troops will increase significantly.

–Strategic and tactical weapons will merge into one. The future battlefield will become invisible, making the battlefield situation difficult to grasp and control, bringing new topics and challenges to military defense and military medical research.

Genetic weapons will be a strategic deterrent

Since 2014, CRISPR gene editing technology has brought about a revolution in science. the CRISPR system, simply put, is an adaptive immune system that bacteria can use to immovably excise viral genes from their own chromosomes, a unique immunity for bacteria. In the mammalian genome, the CRISPR system has been developed as an efficient and simple gene editing technology, acting like a universal genetic “scissors” that can turn on or silence certain genes at the same time, enabling “batch” editing of genes.

The development of this technology has enabled the development of genetic weapons that are more precise, faster and more deterrent to target populations. U.S. intelligence agencies have classified CRISPR gene editing technology as a potential weapon of mass destruction.

However, CRISPR technology itself is currently limited to the laboratory, with a high failure rate, not to mention the development of weapons of mass destruction. Modern warfare has evolved toward multidimensionality, and with the continuous improvement of information technology, warfare is to a greater extent a confrontation of matter, energy, equipment, and data and information. Whether genetic weapons, which are used as a means of chronic killing of humans and animals, can be used in actual warfare, and how costly they are to use, are still open to debate.

In addition, the “slaughter” of genetic weapons, regardless of civilian or military status, poses serious political and moral risks, with incalculable consequences. Moreover, if it is not handled properly or if we are unlucky, if it leaks during transportation and hurts our own people, it is like “lifting a stone and hitting our own feet”.

In the long run, genetic weapons are more of a strategic deterrent. In the real world, mankind’s exploration of the secrets of life is only the tip of the iceberg, and genetic engineering is not God’s hand of creation, so the reckless abuse of genetic weapons will surely bring unpredictable disasters to all mankind.

(Photo courtesy of the author)

Reference #3

Genetic war: Humanity Faces a Grim Prospect

Original 2018-11-08 01:02 – China Military

Published on China Military

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Certification: People’s Liberation Army  News Communication Center official account

A few days ago, the news of the leakage of Chinese genetic data gave people a false alarm. In response to the Shenzhen Stock Exchange’s inquiry about whether there is cooperation with foreign institutions or individuals in the “140,000 Chinese genetic data” project, Huada Genetics said that there is no foreign cooperation institutioni involved in this project, the original data of the project are stored in the Shenzhen National Gene Bank, and the analysis work of the project is completed by the Chinese research team in the territory, and there is no genetic resource data There is no genetic resources data leaving the country.

So, why is the leak of genetic data a cause for concern? The reason is simple: a sufficient number of human genetic samples could allow some countries to develop special “genetic weapons”, especially “ethnogenetic weapons”, or become a new shadow over the world’s head, so that people have to prevent. Previously, Russian President Vladimir Putin confirmed that there is a purposeful collection of biological samples of Russians. In response, Russian experts warned that biological samples of the Russian population may be used in the future to create bacteriological weapons and that such collection activities should be monitored.

A so-called genetic weapon is a bacterium or virus that is altered with DNA recombination technology so that the non-pathogenic becomes pathogenic, making diseases that can be prevented and saved with vaccines or drugs, difficult to prevent and treat. By putting this biological warfare agent into a specific device, a genetic weapon can be developed. Ethnogenetic weapons are biological warfare agents that use genetic differences in human races to kill or partially incapacitate some of the people they target, while sparing those who are not targeted. Some studies have shown that 99.7% to 99.9% of human DNA is identical, and it is these differences, which account for a very small percentage, that distinguish the races. Thus, each ethnic and human race has a unique genetic profile, and on a theoretical level, it is possible to develop genetic weapons based on this profile that kill the intended racial targets and thus selectively attack targets with specific racial genes.

Currently, the sequencing of the human genome has made it possible to analyze the genetic differences between human races and ethnic groups, and in particular, the development of gene editing technology has made it possible to “splice” a gene fragment from one organism to another to alter its physiological characteristics according to subjective wishes. In this way, it is theoretically possible to design a virus that targets a particular race or ethnicity. By releasing such genetic warfare agents onto the battlefield, it would be possible to kill and injure a large number of enemy soldiers without any damage to our own side. Thus, it has become theoretically possible to create genetic weapons that target specific genetic groups or ethnic groups.

Compared with traditional biological and chemical weapons, genetic weapons are more concealable, deceptive, easy to spread and harmful in the long run, and they are difficult to prevent, difficult to isolate and inexpensive. Since genetic weapons can only kill a specific group of people, toxicity cannot be detected by conventional means, and there is no drug that can repair the damaged genes. At the same time, because genetic weapons are new viruses and bacteria “cut out”, the genetic code is known only to the designer, and it is difficult for the attacked party to decipher and develop a new vaccine in time to fight against them. In addition, genetic weapons are easy to launch, you can use insects as a carrier to attack. For example, using cloned mosquitoes to bite a crowd and release a genetic weapon against a specific group of people can reach the set target of the attack. Currently, the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency has begun experiments in plant chromosome editing using insects to spread gene-modifying viruses. Thus, tactically, genetic weapons can be quickly delivered to the battlefield and kill large numbers of enemy personnel, thereby turning the tide of battle. And strategically, genetic weapons, like nuclear weapons, can cause great damage to the human mind and have a significant strategic deterrent effect. Military experts estimate that a genetic weapons arsenal built for $50 million would be far more effective than a nuclear weapons arsenal built at a cost of hundreds of billions of dollars. Therefore, some people call genetic weapons “doomsday weapons” and “bio-atomic bombs”, which is sufficient to illustrate their enormous power.

In all matters, if you are prepared, you are prepared, but if you are not, you are not. We should take measures as early as possible to keep our genes secret and prevent them from being used by the enemy. At the same time, we should also study the genetic code and adopt appropriate technologies to improve our genetic resistance to ensure that we will not be constrained in the future struggle against genetic deterrence and counter-deterrence.

Reference #4: same as #2

Reference #5 same as #1

Reference #6

Modern Life Science and Technology and Future warfare

March 22, 2020 光明网 (a Guangming Ribao website)

《光明日报》( 2020年03月22日07版)(This article published in Guangming Ribao on March 22, 2020 on page 7)

Lecture on Military Science and Technology

Author: Kang Yaowu (Associate Professor, School of Military Management, National Defense University); Kang Kaihua (Cadet, School of Military Basic Education, Armed Police Engineering University)

Modern life science and technology refers to a vast disciplinary system constituted on the basis of observation and experiment of life phenomena with life as the research object. Entering the 21st century, as one of the fastest growing and most influential disciplines in natural science, modern life science and technology is being applied in the military field at an unimaginable speed, which will give birth to new combat concepts and combat styles and profoundly influence the direction of new military changes in the world.

Researchers from the Institute of Military Medicine of the Academy of Military Sciences check the results of experiments. Photo by Liu Zhengyun / Bright picture

  1. Advanced science and technology is always the first to be applied to the military

With the continuous and rapid development of modern life science and technology, new technologies and new achievements represented by biological science and brain science are being applied in the military field, with a wider and wider scope and deeper penetration, giving rise to new combat styles and combat concepts.

The development of modern life science and technology provides unlimited space for the development of biological warfare agents. Biological weapons is a collective term for materials, materials, apparatus, etc. that cause disease or death to humans, animals and plants by using bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae, biological tissues, toxins, etc. as warfare agents, the core of which is biological warfare agents.

Biological warfare agents can be divided into three generations:

  • The first generation is the use of natural epidemic-derived pathogens;
  • The second generation is the use of artificial technology to cultivate pathogens; the third generation is the use of artificial technology to synthesize pathogens.
  • The third generation of biological warfare agents manufactured by using synthetic biology and genetic engineering have stronger toxicity, resistance, and infectivity, especially the application of gene editing technology, which makes biological warfare agents specific, or racial and precise.

There are currently two main ways in which biological weapons are used, one is biological warfare and the other is bioterrorist attacks. The application of biological weapons to warfare is known as biological warfare. Once biological warfare occurs, it is bound to change the outcome of the war and bring great disaster to humanity. Although the Convention on the Prohibition of Biological Weapons was signed internationally in the 1970s, the threat of biological warfare has never been eliminated. For some relatively weak countries, the use of biological weapons has become their possible choice in asymmetric military confrontation. With the continuous development of biological science and technology, the technology and varieties of biological warfare agents have been improved and gradually developed in the direction of diversification and miniaturization.

Research on brain science started late, but has developed rapidly under the strong support of modern life science technology and the whole natural science theory and technology system.

Brain science has broad prospects for military applications, from the current development trend, there are two main aspects:

  • The first is brain control. Through non-invasive brain-brain interface or the implementation of special spectrum signal stimulation of specific parts of the brain, to achieve the purpose of interference and control of brain thinking activities.
  • The second is control by the brain: through non-invasive brain-machine interface, the brain can achieve direct control of biological targets or physical targets.

In August 2013, scientists at the University of Washington conducted the first non-invasive brain-brain interface experiment between humans, in which researchers sent brain signals through the Internet and successfully controlled the hand movements of their peers on the other side of the campus. The researchers successfully controlled the hand movements of a peer on the other side of campus by sending brain signals over the Internet. We shall need to be wary of the the military threats associated with such technologies. They may give rise to new types of brain-machine weapons and equipment in the future, and new styles of warfare such as “cognitive warfare” and “brain warfare.

Capability-enhancing technologies will be more widely used. Human augmentation technologies will enable ordinary people and military personnel to work more efficiently and in environments that were previously inaccessible. These include mechanical exoskeletons, retinal implants, hearing enhancement devices, and even neurological drugs to enhance intelligence.

There are four types of human enhancement devices:

  • First, physical enhancement devices can make humans faster and stronger. Technologies such as exoskeletons will greatly enhance human capabilities, and the U.S. military has been trying to improve the physical function of soldiers through technology, including enhanced exoskeletal strength to enhance the weight-bearing capacity of individuals.
  • Second, brain enhancement devices to achieve intentional control. Brain-machine interface includes two directions from brain to machine, from machine to brain, the vast majority of the current brain-machine interface system is a one-way brain to machine, which is also known as the idea of control. There is also a part from the machine to the brain, used to achieve the control or induction of animal behavior, that is, animal robots.
  • Third, memory-enhancing drugs make humans smarter. Neurological drugs can improve human memory and thinking speed and enhance brain function.
  • Fourth, audio-visual enhancement devices allow humans to become “clairvoyant” and “smooth-hearted”. Through retinal implant technology, humans can not only restore their vision, but can even obtain night vision through surgery.

File photo

  1. Modern life science and technology will have a disruptive impact on future warfare

The application of modern life science and technology in the military field is still on the rise, with immeasurable room for development, and the impact on future warfare could be disruptive.

Biological weapons may become a war deterrent and a check and balance factor. Nuclear weapons have become the core force of strategic deterrence competing among countries in the world today due to their powerful lethality, and become the strategic support of a great power. The development of biological warfare agents supported by modern life science and technology is unprecedentedly rapid; it can produce active biological bombs that humans cannot prevent and control, break through the human body’s immune system, and like weapons of mass destruction, can produce a huge killing effect on human beings in a short period of time; it can also have precision, targeted attacks to destroy a race, or a specific group of people, or a specific person; its potential tremendous war effectiveness can bring extreme panic to human beings. Its high technological content, low cost, and high threat can become a deterrent and check-and-balance force between countries like nuclear weapons, thus influencing the strategic decisions of countries and changing the shape of war.

Each new military revolution is marked by the expansion of new uncharted territories of warfare. The multi-dimensionalization of battlefield space is a characteristic of modern warfare. This has developed from the land, sea and air and now extends to space, electromagnetic space and cyberspace, i.e., from natural space to virtual space. The in-depth application of modern life science and technology in the field of warfare will make the war space from macro into micro. The emergence of a new warfare space is bound to give rise to new combat theories, combat styles, combatants and combat equipment.

Like other areas of science and technology, the progress and development of modern life science and technology will have a profound impact on the mechanism of winning the war. From the battlefield destruction effect, the traditional battlefield destruction effect to combat casualties and destruction of weapons and equipment as a standard comprehensive judgment, while biochemical warfare aims directly at humans. The combat effectiveness of such biotechnological weapons on the battlefield depends upon damage to the bodies of personnel, their cognitive functions, control and psychological behavior. It can be said that the war has moved from the deprivation of life to the ability and control of behavior, from hard kill to soft kill, soft damage, the focus of battlefield confrontation has undergone a fundamental change. From the combat equipment system, the application of modern life science and bringing rapidly advancing technology to the battlefield, where it become integrated into combat tactics. This affects the battlefield in that combat equipment is changing from the tangible to invisible change. From the combat means, the application of modern life science and technology in the battlefield has is hard to detect, so its effectiveness on the battlefield can be difficult to determine. This means that in combat it is sometimes difficult to determine whether it is a natural or human factor, which may mislead the command judgment and affect or alter the strategic decision.

3. Focus on building a military life science and technology development system

In the new era, the construction of military life science and technology development system, strengthen the development of military life science and technology, to build a military that can fight and wins has necessary requirements:

The first requirement is to improve the military life science and technology macro management mechanism by:

  • First, promote the construction of institutions. To this round of national defense and military reform and support local fight against the novel coronavirus pneumonia as an opportunity to build and improve the military health organization and management system, the formation of the entire military up and down the organization and management framework, to provide strong organizational security for the development of military life science and technology.
  • Second, improve the top-level design. Closely track the international military life science and technology development trend, from the strategic heights of national security, military strategic security, scientific planning and development of both offensive and defensive military life science and technology development strategy.
  • Third, strengthen the construction of security forces. Establish a long-term and stable investment mechanism and focus on key research directions related to military.

The second requirement is to build a military life science and technology development support platform by:

  • Constructing a military life science and technology research and development platform, building a strong military life science and technology research and clinical institutions, and vigorously develop key disciplines related to military medicine and combat to provide basic support for military life science and technology development.
  • Creating a military life science and technology information service platform, integrated pathogenesis, pathology, immunology, epidemiology, social psychology, laboratory tests, clinical treatment and other life science information resources, to provide information support for military life science and technology research and decision-making.
  • Improving military life science and technology personnel training platform, the establishment of military medical universities, research institutes, medical institutions as the support, a combination of academic education and service education, the hierarchy of distinct, consistent training, covering the entire military training system, to provide manpower support for the development of military life science and technology.

The third requirement is to accelerate the research and development of disruptive military life science and technology by:

  • Focusing closely on brain science, bioscience and other key life science fields, focusing on the advantages of resources to focus on research and development of a number of disruptive military life science key technologies.
  • In biological sciences, we should increase research and development efforts, form a number of key technologies and equipment, and create a strong biosecurity defense system for our military.
  • We should make full use of 3D bioprinting technology, genome editing technology, neuroimaging technology, protein research technology, single-molecule single-cell technology and other new technological means to promote the comprehensive development of basic and applied research in military medicine.

The fourth requirement is to build a military-civilian integration of life science and technology research and development system.

Maximize the integrated utilization of military and local life science and technology development resources.

  • Stress building up emergency response integration and realize the effective connection between national defense mobilization mechanism and national emergency response mechanism.
  • We should accelerate the convergence of military and national emergency management work, and integrate military health emergency work into a standardized, institutionalized and legalized track.

Guangming Daily ( 22 March 2020, page 07)

Chinese text of articles translated:































  1. ∧ 美国正在采集俄罗斯人的生物信息,要研究针对俄罗斯的生物武器?[引用日期2022-06-10 20:07:24]
  2. ∧ 现实版“生化危机”:基因武器将如何影响未来战争[引用日期2022-06-13 18:39:55]
  3. ∧ 基因战争,笼罩人类的新阴影[引用日期2022-06-13 18:40:38]
  4. ∧ 现实版“生化危机”:基因武器将如何影响未来战争[引用日期2022-06-14 10:25:58]
  5. ∧ 美国正在采集俄罗斯人的生物信息,要研究针对俄罗斯的生物武器?[引用日期2022-06-14 10:28:12]
  6. ∧ 现代生命科技与未来战争[引用日期2022-06-17 18:37:31]


原创2017-11-03 09:56·科技日报

科技日报记者 张 强














原创2017-11-10 08:54·中国军号

来源:中国军网综合 作者:曹诗洋 责任编辑:杨红



























原创2018-11-08 01:02·中国军号








2020-03-22 03:01·光明网






















《光明日报》( 2020年03月22日07版)

Posted in COVID and Wuhan Diary Diary, Military 军事, National Security 安全, Science, Technology and Academic 科技学术 | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

2020: Tsinghua U Public Emergency Response Plan

With the outbreak of student protests across China about Covid lockdowns and other grievances, many Chinese universities must be dusting off their emergency plans. The 2020 Tsinghua University plan translated below is one such plan. Some of these plans address emergencies that college deans the world over must worry about. Other address how to calm down and disperse unruly student protesters which threaten social stability. I marked some of the more interesting passages in italics. In a social stability emergency, the Tsinghua University Communist Party Committee takes the lead.

The document refers to the two offices 兩辦 I expect that would mean the office of the Tsinghua University Communist Party Committee and the Office of the President of the University but I didn’t find any reference on it online so I left it as the two offices.

Note: I earlier obtained and translated the 2014 emergency plan. Then I wondered if there is a later version. I found the latest online version — the 2020 version on the Tsinghua University website. Looking it over section-by-section, I found it be identical to the 2014 version down to the telephone number of the Tsinghua University emergency management office — 62782015.

The only difference is the date July 7. If one were to think of the traditional lunar calendar rather than solar calendar traditionally used by foreign forces, one might think of the seventh day of the seventh lunar month, when Herd Boy and Weaver girl make their annual romantic rendezvous. States the Baidu Online Encyclopedia, if pressed by Google Translate states “July 7th is the seventh sister’s birthday in the traditional sense. Because the worship activities are held on the evening of July 7th, it is named “Qixi”. July 7th is a traditional Chinese festival with a long history. It is a traditional custom of Qixi Festival to pay homage to the Seventh Sister, pray for blessings, make wishes, beg for skillful arts, sit and watch the Altair Vega, pray for marriage, and store water for Qixi Festival.” So one might ponder that if a sino-kremlinological depth of analysis is required in the new era as China becoming increasingly opaque. Party worries about Chinese demographic trends come to mind. Perhaps matchmaking services at Tsinghua University will soon be included in the Tsinghua emergency response plan.

Tsinghua University Emergency Response Plan for Public Emergencies


July 7, 2020

Table of Contents

1. General Provisions ………………………………………………………………………………….. 1

1.1 Purpose of Preparation ………………………………………………………………………….. 1

1.2 Guiding Ideas ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 1

1.3 Basic principles …………………………………………………………………………………….. 1

1.4 Scope of application ………………………………………………………………………………. 2

1.5 Delineation of the level of public emergencies …………………………………………… 4

2. Emergency organization and command system and responsibilities  ………………. 5

2.1 School Emergency Response Leadership Team ………………………………………….. 5

2.2 School emergency leadership team office and main responsibilities ……………… 6

2.3 Composition and main responsibilities of each emergency response working group ………………………………….. 7

3. Prevention and early warning mechanism …………………………………………………….. 12

3.1 Information processing mechanism ……………………………………………………………. 12

3.2 Other working mechanisms ………………………………………………………………………. 14

4. Emergency plan activation response …………………………………………………………… 15

4.1 Emergency Response for Particularly Significant Events (Level I) and Major Events (Level II) ……. 15

4.2 Emergency Response for Larger Events (Level III) ……………………………………… 15

4.3 General Incident (Level IV) Emergency Response ……………………………………….. 15

5. End of emergency response …………………………………………………………………………. 16

6. Post-disposal …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16

6.1 Aftercare ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 16

6.2 Investigation and Summary ………………………………………………………………………. 17

7. Emergency Security ……………………………………………………………………………………. 17

7.1 Information Assurance ……………………………………………………………………….. 17

7.2 Material Security ……………………………………………………………………….. 17

7.3 Financial Assurance ……………………………………………………………………….. 17

7.4 Personnel Security ……………………………………………………………………….. 18

8 Supervision and Management …………………………………………………………………………. 18

8.1 Publicity and Education ……………………………………………………………………….. 18

8.2 Training Exercises ……………………………………………………………………….. 18

8.3 Responsibility Rewards and Punishment ……………………………………………………………………….. 19

8.4 Preplanned Management ……………………………………………………………………….. 19

Tsinghua University Emergency Response Plan for Public Emergencies

1. General Provisions

1.1 Purpose of Preparation

In order to effectively prevent, timely control and properly deal with all kinds of public emergencies in the university, improve the ability of rapid response and emergency treatment, establish a sound emergency mechanism, ensure the safety of life and property of teachers, students and staff, ensure the normal order of education, teaching and life in the university, and maintain the stability of the university and society, this plan is formulated.

1.2 Guiding Ideology

Guided by the theory of Deng Xiaoping, the important thought of “Three Represents” and the scientific outlook on development, deeply implementing the spirit of the series of important speeches of General Secretary Xi Jinping and the spirit of the Third and Fourth Plenary Sessions of the 18th CPC Central Committee, starting from the realistic needs of building a world-class university, taking the Ministry of Education’s “Emergency Plan for Public Emergencies in the Education System” and Beijing’s “General Emergency Plan for Public Emergencies in Beijing” as the guiding principles. Based on the Ministry of Education’s “Emergency Plan for Public Emergencies in Education System”, Beijing Municipal “Overall Emergency Plan for Public Emergencies” and other laws and regulations and relevant policies, the university will build an emergency response system with “centralized leadership, unified command, complete structure, comprehensive functions, responsive and efficient operation”, and improve the university’s ability to respond to public emergencies.

1.3 Basic Principles

(1) People-oriented. To protect the fundamental interests of students, teachers and staff, to protect the lives and property of students, teachers and staff, is the starting point and anchor point of the school’s emergency work. Fully relying on the masses, actively preventing and minimizing the harm of public emergencies to students, teachers and staff, is an important responsibility of the school party organizations at all levels and all units.

(2) Unified command, rapid response. The school set up a leading group in charge of emergency disposal of public emergencies, establish and improve the rapid response mechanism for the disposal of public emergencies, to ensure that the discovery, reporting, command, disposal and other aspects of the close connection, to achieve rapid response, correct response, decisive disposal, and strive to solve the problem in the bud.

(3) Prevention-oriented, group prevention and control. Implement the work of public emergency management in the daily management of the school, strengthen the basic work, improve network construction, enhance the analysis of early warning, do a good job of planning exercises, improve the awareness of prevention, prevention and emergency disposal of the organic combination, and strive to achieve early detection, early reporting, early control, early resolution. After the occurrence of public emergencies, the person in charge of the relevant departments should immediately go to the front line to grasp the situation and control the situation. The formation of all relevant units of the school system linkage, group prevention and control of the disposal pattern.

(4) Distinguish the nature, disposal according to law. In the process of dealing with public emergencies, in accordance with the “move them with emotion,win their understanding by reasoning with them, you can disperse them but not let them gather, go along to calm things down but don’t let them get excited, you can divide them but not let them unite” [要按照“动之以情、晓之以理,可散不可聚,可顺不可激,可分不可结”的工作原则] principle of work, resolve conflicts in a timely fashion, prevent the situation from spreading. Strictly distinguish and correctly handle the two types of contradictions of different natures, strictly manage matters according to law, and effectively safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of teachers and students.

(5) Strengthen protective measures. Strengthen the security measures systematically, organizationally and materially in a comprehensive manner. In terms of leading institutions, financial guarantee, information guarantee and force deployment, strengthen hardware and software construction, enhance emergency response capability and improve work efficiency.

1.4 Scope of application

This plan is applicable to guide the prevention and emergency response to various types of public emergencies related to the school. The public emergencies referred to in this plan include the following seven categories.

(1) Security of Society Emergencies

Including: various illegal rallies, marches, demonstrations, petitions, collective strikes, class strikes, petitions, mass disturbances and other mass events involving teachers and students on and off campus, various illegal missionary activities, political activities, various terrorist attacks against teachers and students, unnatural deaths and disappearances of teachers and students, and other events that may affect campus and social stability.

(2) Public Health Emergencies

Including: sudden outbreak of mass food poisoning, infectious disease epidemics, mass unexplained diseases in schools; mass cardiac reactions or adverse reactions caused by vaccination or preventive medication; acute poisoning of school personnel caused by environmental pollution inside and outside the school; public health emergencies occurring in schools or in the school area that may cause health hazards to school teachers and students; occurring in schools, as determined by Other public health emergencies identified by the health administration.

(3) Accident and disaster type emergencies

Including: fire, building collapse, crowding and trampling and other major safety accidents in school buildings and premises, major traffic safety accidents on campus, drowning accidents on campus water and ice, public safety accidents in large group activities, logistical water supply, electricity, gas, heat, oil and other accidents that cause significant impact and loss, major environmental pollution and ecological damage accidents, other emergencies and disasters that affect the safety and stability of the school.

(4) Network and information security emergencies

Including: the use of campus network or campus information system to send harmful information, reactionary, pornographic, superstitious and other propaganda activities; theft, forgery of confidential information at all levels of education administration, schools, which may cause serious consequences; all kinds of damage, attacks on the campus network and campus information system, resulting in the paralysis of the campus information system application platform, the campus network can not be normal, effective operation of the event; unforeseen reasons (2) Events that cause the campus network and campus information system to fail to operate normally and effectively.

(5) Natural disaster emergencies

Including: floods, mudslides, landslides, ground subsidence and other natural disasters, geological disasters, urban meteorological disasters such as high winds, dust storms, ice and snow, heavy rainfall, lightning, etc., destructive earthquakes and various secondary disasters induced by earthquakes that may or have occurred to the school building facilities and personal safety of teachers and students.

(6)  Examination security and class emergencies

Including: the unified national examination and the unified examination organized by the school, in the design management and examination paper printing, delivery, storage and other aspects of the leak, as well as in the implementation of the examination, marking the organization and management of the process of irregularities or interruption of the work of the event.

(7) Other public emergencies that affect the security and stability of the university

1.5 Classification of public emergencies

School public emergencies are generally classified from high to low according to the urgency of the event, the scale of the formation, the manner and intensity of the behavior, the possible harm and impact, and the trend of possible spread and development: especially significant events (level I), major events (level II), larger events (level III), and general events (level IV).

Particularly significant events (Level I): meet the criteria of the Ministry of Education’s Emergency Response Plan for Public Emergencies in Education System, the Beijing Overall Emergency Response Plan for Public Emergencies and relevant special emergency response plans for particularly significant events (Level I), which require unified organization, command and coordination by the Ministry of Education, the municipal government, and the dispatch of all forces and resources outside the school for emergency response.

Major event (Level II): A major event (Level II) that meets the criteria of the Ministry of Education’s Emergency Plan for Public Emergencies in the Education System, the Beijing Overall Emergency Plan for Public Emergencies and relevant special emergency plans, and requires the unified organization of the Ministry of Education, the municipal party committee and the municipal government, and the dispatch of forces and resources from multiple departments and relevant units outside the university for joint disposal.

Larger events (Ⅲ level): the larger events (Ⅲ level) that meet the criteria of the Ministry of Education’s Emergency Plan for Public Emergencies in Education System, the Beijing Overall Emergency Plan for Public Emergencies and relevant special emergency plans, and require the Ministry of Education, the municipal party committee and the municipal government to dispatch the forces and resources of individual departments and units outside the school to deal with the emergency public events.

General events (Level Ⅳ): The general events (Level Ⅳ) that meet the standards of the Ministry of Education’s Emergency Plan for Public Emergencies in the Education System, the Beijing General Emergency Plan for Public Emergencies and relevant special emergency plans, and require only the power and resources of the Ministry of Education, the municipal party committee and the municipal government to dispatch individual departments and units outside the school or can be dealt with by the school.

2. Emergency organization and command system and responsibilities

2.1 School emergency public events emergency response leadership team

Group leader: the Secretary of the school Communist Party Committee

Deputy leader: the school leader in charge of related work

Members: the two offices, the Organization Department, the Propaganda Department, the Discipline Inspection Office, the Defense Department, the Student Department, the Graduate Work Department, the United Front Work Department, the Youth League Committee, the General Affairs Office, the Street, the Graduate School, the Office of Academic Affairs, the International Office, the Office of Education and Training, the Research Institute, the Retirement Office, the Personnel Office, the Finance Office, the University Hospital, the Laboratory Office, the Housing Office, the Infrastructure Office, the Labor Union, the Information Office, the Information Technology Center, the affiliated schools and other units in charge.

The main responsibilities of the school emergency leadership team: under the unified leadership of the Ministry of Education, the municipal party committee, the municipal government and the municipal education working committee, the school is fully responsible for the disposal of all types of public emergencies emergency response actions, the issuance of emergency disposal work tasks; in the prediction of public emergencies will occur and have occurred, the emergency response plan is activated and the organization and command of the response to emergencies; in the process of dealing with public emergencies coordinate with relevant departments and units outside the school; when the emergency is beyond the school’s disposal capacity, report to the Ministry of Education, the Municipal Education Commission and relevant departments in accordance with the procedures and request instructions and support; decide the criteria and content of information to be reported to the Ministry of Education, the Municipal Education Commission and relevant departments, as well as request instructions and support from higher authorities; decide the caliber, time and manner of publishing and publicizing information related to the incident; etc. Deploy and summarize the school’s annual emergency public event response work.

2.2 School emergency leading group office and main responsibilities

School emergency response leading group office is located in the two offices, the director of the party Communist Party Committee Office is the director, the director of the school office, the director of the General Affairs Office, the Security Office director, the Student Affairs Office director, and the head of Research and Development Department deputy director. Daily work is shared by the two offices, the General Affairs Office, the Security Office, the Office of Students, the Research Offoce.

The main responsibilities of the school emergency leadership team office: to perform the duty of emergency response, information aggregation, comprehensive coordination functions, play a role in the operation of the hub. Collect and analyze the corresponding data and work in a timely manner, and propose guidelines and specific measures for handling various types of public emergencies to the school emergency leadership group; summarize the experience and lessons learned in dealing with public emergencies in a timely manner in conjunction with the emergency disposal working group; supervise and check the implementation of the emergency handling of public emergencies in each unit of the school; propose the responsibility of the responsible person according to the nature of the public emergencies. According to the nature of public emergencies, the responsibility of the responsible person should be investigated and reported to the school emergency leadership group.

2.3 Composition and main responsibilities of the emergency response working group

According to the categories of public emergencies, the school emergency leadership group set up the corresponding emergency response working group. When a public emergency is predicted to occur or has occurred, on the basis of the structure of the emergency response working group, according to the severity of the emergency and the departments and units involved, the emergency site command consisting of the main school leader or the school leader in charge and the person in charge of the relevant departments and units will be established.

Each emergency disposal working group (emergency site command) and relevant units should coordinate the disposal or take the lead in coordinating the disposal of related public emergencies under the unified command of the emergency leadership group and the responsible school leaders according to their work responsibilities. Each disposal working group (emergency scene command) should dynamically adjust the event level according to the development trend of the event, constantly adjust the emergency measures and programs, increase the emergency disposal efforts, and improve the relevance and timeliness of the emergency disposal work.

(1) Security of society level emergency disposal working group

The leader of the group is in charge of the school leadership, the deputy head of the Minister of Student Affairs, the Minister of Research and Development, the Minister of Security. Members of the working group consists of the two offices, the Department of Students, the Department of Research, the Department of Defense, the Propaganda Department, the United Front Work Department, the Youth League Committee, the Graduate School, the Office of Academic Affairs, the Office of Personnel, the Office of Finance, the Office of Retirement, the International Office, the Office of Education and Training, the Information Technology Center, the University Hospital and other units in charge of the party committee (Party General Branch) of each faculty. Other relevant units cooperate with it. The office of the working group is located in the Office of Students, and the daily work is undertaken by the Department of Students and the Department of Research and Development.

When security of society emergencies are predicted to occur or have occurred, based on the structure of the emergency response working group, according to the severity of the emergency and the departments and units involved, an emergency site command consisting of the main school leaders or leaders in charge of the school, the heads of relevant departments and units will be established.

The main responsibilities of the working group (emergency site command) are: unified decision-making, organization and command of the school response to emergencies involving security of society; research to determine the nature, type and level of the event, determine the link with other types of specific events emergency disposal plan, and issue emergency disposal tasks; timely to the scene of the incident to command and supervise the relevant units to carry out the disposal of the incident; research just how much information is to be released to the public and at what time, reported to the school emergency work leadership group and organized the implementation; with the school emergency leadership group office summary evaluation of emergency disposal work.

(2) Public health emergencies emergency management working group

The team leader is in charge of the school leadership, the deputy leader is the director of the school hospital, the director of the General Affairs Office, the director of the street office. Members of the working group consist of the two offices, the General Affairs Office, the University Hospital, the street, the Department of Security, the Department of Students, the Research and Development Department, the Propaganda Department, the United Front Work Department, the Youth League Committee, the Trade Union, the Retirement Office, the International Office and other units in charge. Other relevant units cooperate with each other. The office of the working group is set up in the university hospital, and the daily work is undertaken by the university hospital, the General Affairs Office and the streets.

When public health emergencies are predicted to occur and have occurred, on the basis of the structure of the emergency response working group, according to the severity of the emergencies and the departments and units involved, an emergency site command consisting of the main school leaders or leaders in charge of the school, and the heads of relevant departments and units will be established.

The main responsibilities of the working group (emergency site command) are: under the guidance of the government health administration, responsible for the emergency disposal of public health emergencies in schools; improve the information monitoring and reporting network of public health emergencies, timely collection of information related to public health emergencies in schools, and report the situation to the relevant departments as required, propose relevant countermeasures and measures, and study matters such as requests for instructions and assistance; popularize Health and epidemic prevention, food hygiene and related safety knowledge; guide, organize and coordinate all units as well as teachers and students to respond to and deal with public health emergencies in an emergency; supervise the implementation of the prevention and control mechanism of public emergencies in all units of the school; study the caliber and release time and manner of public announcement and public information related to the incident; summarize and evaluate the emergency disposal work together with the office of the school emergency leadership team.

(3) Accident and disaster type emergency response working group

The team leader is in charge of the school leadership, the deputy leader is the director of the General Affairs Office, the Minister of Defense. Members of the working group consists of the two offices, the General Affairs Office, the street, the Department of Defense, the Department of Students, the Research Department, the Propaganda Department, the United Front Work Department, the Youth League Committee, the Graduate School, the Office of Academic Affairs, the University Hospital, the Finance Department, the Laboratory Department, the Retirement Department, the Housing Department, the Infrastructure Department, the International Department and other units in charge. Other relevant units are responsible for cooperation. The office of the working group is located in the General Affairs Office, and the daily work is undertaken by the General Affairs Office.

When an accident or disaster is predicted to occur or has occurred, according to the severity of the emergency and the departments and units involved, an emergency site command consisting of the main school leader or the school leader in charge and the heads of relevant departments and units will be established.

The main responsibilities of the working group (emergency site command) are: unified decision making, organization and command of the response actions of the accident and disaster type emergencies involving the school. Guide the school units to establish a sound accident safety prevention and early warning mechanism; inspect and guide the accident and disaster prevention and disposal work, and enter the scene to coordinate disposal and control the development if necessary; propose relevant countermeasures and measures according to the accident and disaster situation, and decide whether to suspend classes in a certain range, whether to carry out personnel evacuation and other emergency treatment methods; actively cooperate with the relevant government departments for emergency disposal work; and Research on matters such as reporting information to higher levels and relevant government departments, requesting instructions and assistance; research on the caliber and release time and manner of publicizing and disclosing information related to the incident; summarize and evaluate the emergency disposal work with the university emergency leadership team office.

(4) Network and Information Security Emergency Response Working Group

Team leader by the deputy secretary of the party committee in charge of propaganda, deputy leader by the deputy secretary of the party committee in charge of student work, the director of the party office, the minister of publicity. The working group is composed of the heads of the two offices, the Information Office, the Propaganda Department, the Student Department, the Research and Development Department, the Security Department, the Information Technology Center, the Library and other departments. Other relevant units cooperate with it. The office of the working group is located in the Information Office, and the daily work is undertaken by the Information Office and the Information Technology Center.

The main responsibilities of the emergency disposal working group: to lead the school network information management and network publicity and education work, to make decisions on major issues; responsible for the emergency disposal of the school network and information security emergencies. Emergency disposal includes: 24-hour monitoring of harmful information on the campus network through technical means; timely disposal of major harmful information spreading on the campus network, or the campus network system suffering from large-scale hacker attacks and computer virus proliferation events; timely reporting, disposal and stopping when the campus network is under serious attack from within or outside the country, in the event of extremely serious and uncontrollable large-scale security events, to ensure the campus network The normal and stable operation of the campus network; coordinate with relevant departments to carry out emergency response work; study the caliber and release time and manner of external announcement and public information related to the incident; summarize and evaluate the emergency response work in conjunction with the Office of the Emergency Response Leadership Team.

(5) Natural disaster emergency response team

The head of the group is the leader in charge of the school, the deputy head of the President’s Office, the Director of the General Affairs Office, the Minister of Defense. Members of the working group consists of the two offices, the General Affairs Office, the street, the Department of Defense, the Minister of Student Affairs, the Research and Development Department, the Propaganda Department, the United Front Work Department, the Youth League Committee, the Graduate School, the Office of Academic Affairs, the University Hospital, the Finance Department, the Laboratory Department, the Retirement Department, the Housing Department, the Infrastructure Department, the International Department and other units in charge. Other relevant units cooperate with each other. The office of the working group is located in the General Affairs Office, and its daily work is undertaken by the General Affairs Office.

When natural disaster emergencies are predicted to occur or have occurred, based on the structure of the emergency response working group and the severity of the emergencies and the departments and units involved, an emergency site command consisting of the main school leader or the school leader in charge, and the heads of relevant departments and units will be established.

The main responsibilities of the working group (emergency site command) are: unified decision-making, organization and command of the response to natural disaster emergencies involving the school. Guide the school units to establish and improve the prevention and early warning mechanism of natural disasters; inspect and guide the prevention and disposal of natural disasters, enter the scene when necessary to coordinate the disposal and control the development of the situation; propose relevant countermeasures and measures according to the situation of natural disasters, decide whether to suspend classes in a certain range, whether to evacuate personnel and other emergency treatment methods; actively cooperate with the relevant government departments for emergency disposal work. Research on matters such as reporting information, requesting instructions and assistance to higher levels and relevant government departments; research on the caliber and release time and manner of publicizing and disclosing information related to the incident; summarize and evaluate the emergency disposal work with the school emergency leadership team office.

(6) Working group for emergency management of examination security emergencies

The leader of the group is in charge of the university, the deputy leader is the director of the Office of Academic Affairs, the executive vice president of the Graduate School, the minister of the Department of Defense, and the members of the working group are the two offices, the Office of Academic Affairs, the Graduate School, the Department of Defense, the Department of Students, the Department of Research and Development, the Discipline and Supervision Commission, the Department of Education and Training, the secondary school and other units in charge. Other relevant units cooperate with it. The office of the working group is located in the Academic Affairs Office, and the daily work is undertaken by the Academic Affairs Office and the Graduate School.

When an emergency event of examination security is predicted to occur or has occurred, based on the structure of the working group for emergency management and the seriousness of the emergency event and the departments and units involved, an emergency site command consisting of the main school leaders or leaders in charge of the school, and the heads of relevant departments and units will be established.

The main responsibilities of the working group (emergency site command) are: to coordinate the handling of public emergencies arising from the national examinations and the school examinations, such as the design and confidentiality of examinations; to activate the corresponding plans and take corresponding measures; to study the caliber and time and way of releasing information related to the incident; and to summarize and evaluate the emergency handling work together with the office of the school emergency leadership team.

3 Prevention and early warning mechanism

3.1 Information processing mechanism

Establish a smooth information transmission channel and strict information reporting mechanism, and improve the rapid emergency information system.

(1) Information reporting principles

Promptly: The first unit and individual who finds out that a public emergency has occurred or receives relevant information should report to the office of the school emergency leading group within the first time (telephone: 62782015), without delay. The school emergency leadership team office should report to the main leadership and competent leadership of the school immediately after the incident, and depending on the specific circumstances of the incident, immediately report to the Ministry of Education, the Municipal Education Commission and relevant departments, no later than 3 hours. Each emergency management working group (emergency site command) should be immediately in place to take appropriate disposal measures and keep the communication open. If necessary, advance notice can be given to the school radio, television, network and other media to prepare for broadcast, as far as possible to evacuate, rescue personnel.

Accuracy: Understand the basic situation of the cause and nature of public emergencies as comprehensively as possible, and report in the form of information in a timely manner. The content of the information should be objective and informative, not subjective, no concealment, omission or misrepresentation.

Confidentiality: In the case of public emergencies, in accordance with the requirements of confidentiality, to ensure that the entire process of handling information on the incident does not appear to be a breach of confidentiality, leakage. Telephone, fax, computer networks and other means of information transmission must have strict confidentiality measures.

Continued reporting: After the event situation has changed, the event should be renewed in a timely manner about the changes in the situation.

(2) Information reporting mechanism

Emergency telephone reporting system. After receiving the report on the situation of public emergencies, the school emergency leadership team office will report the information to the school’s main leaders and leaders in charge according to the information reporting procedures, and at the same time, the information will be notified to the corresponding emergency disposal working group and units. The instructions or directions made by the school leaders are conveyed to the relevant units in a timely manner.

Emergency document reporting system. After the execution of the telephone report of public emergencies, the school emergency leadership team office should immediately report in writing formally to the emergency leadership team leader, deputy leader, office director and deputy director, notify the relevant emergency disposal working groups and units, and work in accordance with the corresponding plans and leadership requirements. Major event information, the school emergency leadership team office according to the school leadership, in the form of information special report to the Ministry of Education, the Municipal Education Work Committee, and depending on the situation and nature of the event, report to the relevant departments.

(3) The Main Topics of Emergency Information Bulletins

The basic situation of the incident, including the time, location, scale, personnel involved, the extent of damage and casualties.

  • Analysis of the cause of the incident, judgment of the nature and assessment of the degree of impact.
  • The measures taken by the university and relevant units.
  • The reaction of the public and the media, both on and off campus
  • The state of development of the incident, the process and results of disposal.
  • Other matters that need to be reported.

3.2 Other working mechanisms

(1) Under the unified deployment of the university emergency response leadership team, all units should support and cooperate with each other. Work measures should be refined, personnel should be implemented, responsibilities should be clarified, and all work and requirements should be put into practice.

(2) Strengthen the daily management of the emergency response mechanism, and continuously apply and improve the emergency disposal plan in practice. Strengthen personnel training, carry out regular exercise activities, improve the theoretical quality and practical skills of the team, and continuously improve the command ability and practical ability to respond to public emergencies.

(3) Respond well to various types of public emergencies in terms of human, material and financial reserves, to ensure the prevention of public emergencies, on-site control of emergency facilities, equipment and the necessary funding.

(4) Do a good job of information dissemination to the public. Strictly follow the regulations of the Ministry of Education, the Municipal Education Commission and relevant departments. To distinguish different situations and grasp the initiative of information release and public opinion. Information release should be comprehensive, objective, accurate and timely. The press release of various types of public emergencies in schools is the unified responsibility of the Propaganda Department.

4 Emergency plan to start the response

4.1 Particularly significant events (level I) and major events (level II) emergency response

After the occurrence of particularly significant events (level Ⅰ) and major events (level Ⅱ), the school emergency leadership team immediately starts the corresponding plan, and the relevant disposal working group immediately mobilizes all resources and forces for emergency disposal work. The main leader of the school acts as the overall commander of the emergency disposal work on site, and the members of the emergency leadership team and the relevant disposal work group members organize the work at the scene of the emergency and until the end of the emergency response. The emergency disposal situation should be reported to the Ministry of Education, the Municipal Education Commission and relevant departments at any time.

4.2 Larger events (Ⅲ level) emergency response

After the occurrence of a larger event (level Ⅲ), the school emergency leadership team immediately start the corresponding plan, the relevant disposal working group immediately set up an emergency site command, unified mobilization of resources and forces for emergency disposal work. School leaders in charge of the scene of the emergency disposal work as the commander-in-chief, members of the emergency site command in the emergency site organization work and until the end of the emergency response. The emergency disposal situation should be reported to the main leadership of the school and the higher authorities at any time. If the situation of public emergencies changes, depending on the nature and development trend of the event, the emergency response level should be adjusted in a timely manner.

4.3 General events (Ⅳ level) emergency response

After the occurrence of general events (Ⅳ level), the school emergency leadership team should immediately start the corresponding plan. The relevant disposal working group immediately set up an emergency site command, unified mobilization of resources and forces for emergency disposal work. Members of the emergency site command should be organized at the scene of the emergency until the end of the emergency response. The emergency disposal situation should be reported to the school leadership and higher authorities at any time. If the situation of public emergencies changes, depending on the nature and development trend of the event, the emergency response level should be adjusted in a timely manner.

5 Mechanism for Determining the Termination of the Emergency

The emergency management work has basically completed, secondary, derivative and event hazards are basically eliminated, the emergency disposal work is over.

After the end of the emergency disposal of public emergencies, the emergency leadership team will summarize the emergency disposal work summary reported to the higher authorities, after agreeing to the end of the emergency disposal work. General public emergencies by the school emergency leadership team to declare the end of the emergency. Larger, major and especially major public emergencies are declared by the higher authority to end the emergency.

After the end of the disposal of public emergencies, the situation will be promptly notified to the relevant departments and units involved in emergency disposal. If necessary, release the news of the end of emergency through the school media or release the news of the end of emergency to the society through the news media.

6 Post-incident management

6.1 Post-incident work

Under the unified leadership of the Ministry of Education and the Municipal Education Commission, the school and relevant functional departments are responsible for the implementation of the post-emergency disposal of public events.

Relevant departments of the school shall organize forces to fully carry out the approved work of damage of public emergencies, collect, clean up and handle pollutants in a timely manner, make assessment of the incident situation, compensation for personnel, compensation for requisitioned materials, reconstruction capacity, available resources, etc., organize social assistance, develop compensation standards and post-event recovery plans, and implement them promptly.

6.2 Investigation and summary

The school emergency leadership team set up a public emergency cause investigation team, organized experts to investigate and analyze the causes and development trend of the accident, predict the consequences of the accident, and report to the higher authorities.

The school emergency leadership team office summarizes the school’s experience and lessons learned in dealing with public emergencies, evaluates the emergency disposal work, develops corrective measures, and pursues responsibilities.

7 Emergency security

7.1 Information security

Each functional department of the school, each faculty (institute) should establish and implement the operating mechanism of information reporting, emergency disposal and other aspects of public emergencies, keep the communication methods convenient and fast to ensure the safety and smooth flow of information reporting channels. Where the level of public emergencies reached the delineation, should be reported to the unit’s main leadership to deal with in a timely manner, while reporting to the competent departments and school leaders in charge. Report relevant information to higher departments to the school emergency leadership team.

7.2 Material security

General Affairs Office, the street committee, the laboratory department, the school hospital, the Ministry of Defense and other relevant units should establish a reserve of materials for the disposal of public emergencies, to ensure the integrity and availability of materials and equipment to deal with various situations.

7.3 Financial guarantee

Emergency funds are uniformly included in the university’s financial budget. The general situation by each unit, the budget funds of each department, special circumstances by the Finance Office separately, to ensure that the emergency disposal of public emergencies required funds.

7.4 Personnel Security

All departments and units should set up emergency teams for public emergencies in accordance with the requirements of the school, and once the plan is launched, immediately put into disposal work. The school emergency team is mainly composed of student thought and education managers, safety and security personnel, medical and nursing personnel, logistics personnel and student backbone. The emergency team should be adjusted in accordance with the specific circumstances and requirements of public emergencies in a timely manner, involving students in the emergency team in principle, once a year to ensure the integrity and stability of the emergency team.

8 Supervision and management

8.1 Publicity and Education

Relevant units should make full use of the school radio, TV, campus network and other organizations to carry out the propaganda of emergency laws and regulations and emergency knowledge such as prevention, risk avoidance, self-help and self-care. Actively do a good job of safety education in the classroom, and strive to enhance the awareness of teachers, students and staff to learn and master the basic knowledge and skills of emergency response, in order to meet the needs of public emergency disposal.

8.2 Training Exercises

(1) The school organizes training for command staff of each unit dealing with public emergencies. The Security Office, General Affairs Office, Street, Student Department, Research and Development Department, Publicity Department, Graduate School, Academic Affairs Office, University Hospital, and Information Technology Center undertake the training of emergency teams. The prevention of public emergencies, emergency command, and comprehensive coordination are taken as important contents to increase the knowledge and ability of emergency teams to deal with public emergencies.

(2) The school organizes mock drills for the command system of emergency response to public emergencies as appropriate. The General Affairs Office, the Department of Security, the street, and the school hospital regularly organize professional emergency response team drills; the Department of Students, the Department of Research and Development, and each faculty (institute) organize relevant drills for students in accordance with the requirements of higher authorities and the school. Emergency drills include three stages: preparation, implementation and summary. Through emergency drills, train emergency teams, implement a job responsibility system, familiarize with the command mechanism, decision-making, coordination and disposal procedures of emergency work, identify resource needs, evaluate emergency status, test the feasibility of the plan and improve the emergency plan.

8.3 Responsibility rewards and punishments

(1) emergency response to public emergencies to implement the leadership responsibility system and accountability system. Late reporting, false reporting, concealment and omission of important situations of public emergencies or emergency response work in other dereliction of duty, dereliction of duty, according to law to the person responsible for administrative sanctions; constitutes a crime, according to law to investigate criminal responsibility.

(2) in the emergency response to public emergencies in the work of advanced groups and individuals who have made outstanding contributions, to give recognition and awards.

8.4 Pre-planned management

The emergency plan for public emergencies in the university is divided into the overall emergency plan for public emergencies in Tsinghua University and various special emergency plans. The special emergency plans include “Emergency Plan for security of society“, “Emergency Plan for Public Health”, “Emergency Plan for Accident and Disaster“, “Emergency Plan for Network and Information Security“, “Emergency Plan for Natural Disasters” and “Emergency Plan for Examination Security“. The Emergency Plan of Tsinghua University

The overall emergency plan for public emergencies of Tsinghua University is formulated and revised by the Emergency Leading Group of Tsinghua University, and the special emergency plans are formulated and revised by the corresponding emergency response working groups and submitted to the Emergency Leadership Group for approval.

This plan shall be interpreted and organized by the emergency leading group of the university.

This plan shall be implemented from the date of release.



目 录

  1. 总则………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
    1.1 编制目的…………………………………………………………………………. 1
    1.2 指导思想…………………………………………………………………………. 1
    1.3 基本原则…………………………………………………………………………. 1
    1.4 适用范围…………………………………………………………………………. 2
    1.5 突发公共事件的级别划定………………………………………………………… 4
  2. 应急组织指挥体系及职责……………………………………………………….…….. 5
    2.1 学校突发公共事件应急处置工作领导小组………………………………………… 5
    2.2 学校应急领导小组办公室及主要职责…………………………………….……… 6
    2.3 各应急处置工作组组成及主要职责………………………………………………..7
  3. 预防与预警机制……………………………………………………………..……. 12
    3.1 信息处理机制………………………………………………………………… 12
    3.2 其他工作机制………………………………………………………………… 14
  4. 应急预案启动响应………………………………………………………………… 15
    4.1 特别重大事件(Ⅰ级)和重大事件(Ⅱ级)应急响应……………………………. 15
    4.2 较大事件(Ⅲ级)应急响应……………………………………….……….… 15
    4.3 一般事件(Ⅳ级)应急响应……………………………………………….… 15
  5. 应急结束…………………………………………………………………………. 16
  6. 后期处置…………………………………………………………………………. 16
    6.1 善后处置工作………………………………………………………………… 16
    6.2 调查和总结……………………………………………………………………. 17
  7. 应急保障…………………………………………………………………….……. 17
    7.1 信息保障………………………………………………………………………. 17
    7.2 物资保障………………………………………………………………………. 17
    7.3 资金保障………………………………………………………………………. 17
    7.4 人员保障………………………………………………………………………. 18
  8. 监督管理…………………………………………………………………………… 18
    8.1 宣传教育……………………………………………………………………… 18
    8.2 培训演练……………………………………………………………………… 18
    8.3 责任奖惩……………………………………………………………………… 19
    8.4 预案管理……………………………………………………………………… 19


  1. 总则
    1.1 编制目的
    1.2 指导思想
    1.3 基本原则
    1.4 适用范围
    1.5 突发公共事件的级别划定
  2. 应急组织指挥体系及职责
    2.1 学校突发公共事件应急处置工作领导小组
    组 长:校党委书记
    成 员:两办、组织部、宣传部、纪委办、保卫部、学生部、研究生工作部、统战部、团委、总务办、街道、研究生院、教务处、国际处、教培处、科研院、离退休处、人事处、财务处、校医院、实验室处、房管处、基建处、工会、信息办、信息化技术中心、附属学校等单位主要负责人。
    2.2 学校应急领导小组办公室及主要职责
    2.3 各应急处置工作组组成及主要职责
    3 预防与预警机制
    3.1 信息处理机制
    l 事件发生的基本情况,包括时间、地点、规模、涉及人员、破坏程度以及人员伤亡情况;
    l 事件发生起因分析、性质判断和影响程度评估;
    l 学校和相关单位已采取的措施;
    l 校内外公众及媒体等各方面的反应;
    l 事态发展状态、处置过程和结果;
    l 需要报送的其他事项。
    3.2 其他工作机制
    4 应急预案启动响应
    4.1 特别重大事件(Ⅰ级)和重大事件(Ⅱ级)应急响应
    4.2 较大事件(Ⅲ级)应急响应
    4.3 一般事件(Ⅳ级)应急响应
    5 应急结束机制
    6 后期处置
    6.1 善后处置工作
    6.2 调查和总结
    7 应急保障
    7.1 信息保障
    7.2 物资保障
    7.3 资金保障
    7.4 人员保障
    8 监督管理
    8.1 宣传教育
    8.2 培训演练
    8.3 责任奖惩
    8.4 预案管理
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2022: Peking U Students on “Epidemic Prevention and Control” (Draft) and Tsinghua U Alumni Statement

Via Taisu Zhang on Twitter. Translations followed by Chinese language text.

Declaration of some students of Peking University on the prevention and control of the epidemic (draft for comment)

Recently, the implementation of the dynamic zero policy has revealed more and more problems, and even caused many horrible tragedies. As the cradle of democracy and science in China, Peking University has been with the future and destiny of the Chinese nation for more than 100 years. I hope that in view of the current situation, and with the expectation of the future, we, 40-odd students of Peking University, have decided to make our voices heard after discussion, given that it is impossible to hold a university-wide meeting on the relevant topic:

Looking back at the early days of the epidemic, we should acknowledge that the policies implemented by the Party and the government saved the lives of millions of people and preserved the health of millions of people, and that countless grassroots workers devoted their efforts and even sacrificed their lives to these policies, which should be commemorated forever. However, even if the policy itself is correct, if it is not understood and supported by the people, it will be difficult to sustain. Why is the prevention and control policy becoming more and more unpopular? Why do the following situations continue to occur despite the central government’s repeated orders: patients or mothers are denied timely medical treatment because they cannot provide their nucleic acid results, residents and students are forcibly transferred and quarantined without their knowledge, and doors are blocked so that people have nowhere to go or even lose their lives in the event of an accident ……

We believe that the reason for the recurrence of these situations is that without mandatory orders linking epidemic preparedness to the appointment and removal of officials, it is difficult to enforce them seriously. However, once administrative means are used to implement the policy, those who actually implement it will inevitably focus on fulfilling the requirements of their superiors and disregard the actual demands of the people. They will keep raising the bar at every level to ensure that they have a perfect record. Moreover, the authorities have abused their power to control public opinion by blocking and deleting comments on policy. This makes it impossible for the public to express their dissatisfaction with and to criticize specific implementations, or even to call for help in time when they face difficulties. The protests and demonstrations everywhere today are also the inevitable result of such a situation.

Therefore, we hereby call for:

  1. To avoid the abuse of public power, all regional quarantine blockades should be stopped to ensure that all people in communities, villages, units and schools can enter and leave freely;
  2. Abolish technical means to monitor the whereabouts of citizens, such as pass codes and “jiankang bao” cell phone tracking app. Stop considering the spread of the epidemic as the responsibility of certain individuals or institutions. Devote resources to long-term work such as vaccine, drug development and hospital construction;
  3. Implement voluntary nucleic acid testing and voluntary quarantine for undiagnosed and asymptomatic individuals;
  4. Liberalize restrictions on the expression of public opinion and allow suggestions and criticism of specific implementation problems in different regions;
  5. Make truthful disclosures of infection data, including the number of infected people, the death rate, long sequelae rate, to eliminate epidemic panic during the transition.

We hope to stop the mandatory nucleic acid requirement for asymptomatic people with no record of entering or leaving the school, and to cancel the authorization of the Youth Research Center to monitor various public opinion platforms.

One might ask, “Is the above call for a complete standing down? Isn’t that the same as letting the virus run wild? Our answer is that, from a public health perspective, it is impossible to stop the spread of the virus in the country in a short period of time. The most urgent task now is to find a temporary way of coexistence that minimizes the danger of the epidemic while ensuring basic social order and basic economic and livelihood needs. When this has reached a critical point, and there is still no adequate explanation or response, then everyone should do their best to make their voices heard.

And this is our statement.

A statement by some alumni of Tsinghua University

To Our Alma Mater Tsinghua University:

We took note of the assembly of mourning of the students at the Purple Garden Cafeteria of Tsinghua University on the afternoon of November 27, 2022. We salute the students who were there to express their views. We believe that the students stood up for themselves as Chinese people.

We noticed that the students were holding white paper and the slogans were specific. As the students explained, this question was raised by Tsinghua University on October 16, 2022 to “ensure the safety and health of the university’s teaching and research, and to prevent all kinds of safety hazards, it is forbidden to print unapproved matter in the print store on campus.” Students expressed their opposition to this decision by holding up sheets of blank paper. We believe that the students’ objections are fully justified. Healthy public discussion requires free expression, and it is inappropriate for a school to view it as a “safety hazard to its students. Holding a blank sheet of paper without a point of view can lead to attacks and misinterpretation of positions, so students are advised to protect themselves.

We noticed that the teacher in charge of student work was also present. We are aware of the risks that students face in expressing their views. Therefore in the name of the alumni, we hope that teachers will make a clear written commitment on behalf of the university that will not make any accusations against students who participated in this rally. We also and that they will not penalize in subsequent teaching and research work for this and that they will protect the students who participated in the rally from any unreasonable treatment by any unit or institution outside the university, and from any so-called external forces. The students should be protected from any unreasonable treatment by any unit or institution outside the university, and from any accusation that they are working for so-called foreign forces.

We note that the daily lives of students and faculty have been affected by the strict closure measures. As alumni, we do not have the authority to decide for the students and faculty whether or not the administration should be improved, nor do we have the authority to decide for the students and faculty how the administration should be changed. As alumni, we can only hope that the school can make the relevant decisions in a democratic manner, based on the “Notice on Further Optimizing the Prevention and Control Measures of the New Pneumonia Epidemic” issued by the State Council on November 11, 2022, and stop adding covid codes, stop arbitarily changing the rules overnight. We will not allow any “arbitrary made-up” regulations, no more tests and control measures that exceed the requirements of the Notice, and no more intimidating, simple and violent work methods that endanger the psychological health of students.

We note that the work and lives of the school’s logistics and security workers have been affected by the strict lockdown measures. The workers are not directly employed by the school, so the school has a strong legal basis for not being responsible for the placement, compensation, and benefits of the workers. However, we do not believe that this is the kind of social responsibility that is expected of a world-class university. Under sequestration, the rights of workers are less protected than those of staffed faculty and cared-for students. We believe that Tsinghua University should initiate a survey of workers’ living conditions or allow faculty and students to conduct their own surveys and allocate a certain amount of resources to housing workers. To prevent students and faculty from having contact with workers is against the fine tradition of the Chinese Communist Party and is highly inappropriate.

We believe that the students’ spontaneous walk to the entrance of the Ziyouyuan cafeteria today is out of their deep concern for their compatriots and their concern for the

We believe they went there out of a deep concern for our compatriots and a sense of responsibility for our school, society and country. We believe that loving our school and country is not the same as defending our school and country at all times. Contrary to “my school/country is always right,” true love of country and school is expressed as “on the contrary, since I truly love my country and love my school, that is expressed by “I share the happiness of my compatriots, and I share the pain of my compatriots therefore “I want my school/my country to do the right thing. If my school/country are going down the wrong road, then our of a genuine feeling of responsibility, I will want people to abandon their “lying flat” attitude and stand up. It is just because people have that sense of responsibility that the the people can fight for a better life.

We believe that although such a sense of responsibility may conflict with the short-term convenience of the administrators, as long as the administrators do not forget their original intention of serving the people and do not regard the people who truly love the university and the country as their enemy. This conflict can be decently resolved by the administrators’ improving their own standards and democratic demeanor. As alumni, we believe that our alma mater Tsinghua University will make the right choice at this critical moment.




近日来,动态清零政策在执行过程中,暴露出越来越多的问题,甚至造成了许多骇 人听闻的悲剧。而民众自发的抗议与呼声,又一再被压制,得不到充分的回应,所 有良知尚存的中华儿女,面对此情此景,已再无置若罔闻的可能,北京大学作为中 国民主与科学的摇篮,在百余年的历史中,素来与中华民族的前途及命运同在。希 望针对目前的形势,带着对未来的期待,在无法召开相关主题的全校学生会议的条 件下,我们四十余名北大同学经讨论后决定,先发出自己的声音:

回望疫情初期,应该承认,党和政府执行的政策,一度挽救了数以百万计人民的生 命,维护了千万人民的健康,无数基层工作者为之付出了巨大的心血,甚至牺牲了 生命,这是我们要永远纪念的。然而,即便政策本身是正确的,如果得不到人民的 理解与支持,它也是难以持续推行的。防控政策为什么会越来越不得人心?为什么 口 中央三令五申之后,下列情形仍不断出现:患者或产妇因为不能提供核酸结果因而 得不到及时医救、居民与学生在不知情的状况下被强制转运与隔离、封门堵路使得 (回 意外发生时人们无处逃生甚至失去生命……

我们认为,上述种种情况不断重演的原因在于,如果不采取强制性的命令,将防疫 情况与官员的任免挂钩,就难以有人去认真执行。然而,一旦使用行政手段来推 行实际执行者不免会只顾完成上级要求,不顾人民实际诉求,层层加码,以保万 无一失,许许多多荒诞的闹剧与悲剧,就是因此而发生的,随着病毒对生命与健康 OM 的威胁在下降,政策的负面影响愈发突出,甚至超过了疫情本身对社会的伤害。同 时有关部门滥用舆论管控权力,只堵不疏,一删了之,使得群众无法表达对具体 执行的不满与批评,甚至在面对困境时无法及时呼救。今日各地此起彼伏的抗议与 示威,也是在此情形下必然会发生的结果。



2、取消通行码、健康宝等监控公民个人行踪的技术手段,不再将疫情的扩散视作 某些个人或机构的责任,并将资源投入到疫苗、药品研发和医院建设等长效性工作 中;




慌的情绪;倡导非重症患者自行居家隔离、服药治疗; 落实到校园之内,我们希望,全面停用差别对待学生与教职工的出入校审批制家 停止对无症状,无出入校记录人员的强制性核酸要求;取消青年研究中心监控各種 内舆论平台的权力。

或许有人会问,以上的呼声,是否等于完全销平?是否等于放任病毒肆虐?我们的 答复是,从公共卫生的角度,在短时间内于国内彻底阻断病毒的传播,本就是无法 完成的任务。现在的当务之急,是探索一条在保证基本社会秩序、保证基本的经济 与民生需求的基础上,尽量降低疫情危害性的暂时共存之路。而不是不惜一切代价 去追求一个不可实现的目标——毕竟这个代价本身,也是由人民在承受,当这样的 |承受已达到一个临界点,却依然得不到充分的解释与回应时,那么所有人都应该尽 力发出自己的声音。



我们注意到了2022年11月27日下午华大学紫园食堂门解同学们的哀痛会 们向现场属于表达自己观点的同学们表示敬意。我们相信,再学们是出于身为中国人 任慈而站出来的。

我们注意到,现场的同学们手持白纸,而丰具体的口号。经在校同学解释,這問 为清华大学留于2022年10月16日以“确保学校教学科研安全健定、杜各类安全隐 作出瓶定,禁止校内打印店印刷未经被验的內容,而再学们以手白纸的方式表达对这 叔定的反对。我们认为,同学们的反对是完全合理的。健康的公共讨论必须以自由的表 为前提,而学校将自己的学生视为“安全隐患”,也是不适当的。手持白纸没有观点可能 祝人攻击既曲解立场,因此建议学弟学妹保护好自己

我们注意到,负责学生工作的老师也在现场。我们深知同学们表达观点所面临的 险,因此我们以校友的名义,希望学工老师可以代表学校作出明确的书面承诺,对于参 这一集会的同学不追究任何责任,在后续的教学研究工作中也不可以此为由制造障碍, 要保护参与集会的同学免受校外一切单位或机关的不合理对待,免受所谓填外勢力非 的指责。

我们注意到,在严格的封控措施之下,学校师生的日常生活受到了影响。作为 友,我们无权誉在校师生决定是否应该改进管理方式,也无权替在校师生决定该如何改 管理方式。作为校友,我们仅仅希望,学校能够以民主的方式作出相关决策,以国务 2022年11月11日发布的《关于进一步优化新冠肺炎疫情防控措施 科学精准做好防控工作 的通知》为准,杜绝加码,杜绝“拍脑门“朝令夕改”式的规定,杜绝超过《通知》要求的大 测和封控措施,杜绝包含恐吓意味的、简单粗暴的、危害同学心理健康的工作方式。

我们注意到,在严格的封控措施之下,学校内后勤与安保工人的工作和生活受到了 影响。工人们并不直接受雇于学校,因此学校有充足的法理依据不必对工人们的安置、椒 偿和福利问题负责。但我们认为,这不是一所世界一流大学所应有的社会责任感。在封持 措施之下,工人们的权利比起拥/有编制的教师和受到照顾的学生更难以得到保障。我们认 为,清华大学应当发起对工人生活情况的调查,或者允许师生自发调查,并分配一定的 源用以安置工人。阻止师生与工人接触,违背了中国共产党的优良传统,是极不适当的。


学校、对社会、对国家的责任感。我们相信,爱校爱国不等于时时刻刻维护学校和国家的 一切做法。与“我的学校/国家做得一定对”相反,真正的爱国爱校,表现为“我要乐同胞之所 乐、痛同胞之所痛,以及“我要让我的学校/国家做正确的事。如果学校/国家走在不正确 的道路上,那么只有真正的责任感才会驱使人们放弃”躺平”而站起来。正是因为有这种责 任感,人民才会为更好的生活去奋斗。

我们相信,这样的责任感可能会与管理者短期的方便相冲突,但只要管理者不忘为 人民服务的初心,不将真正爱校爱国的群众视为敌人,这种冲突就一定可以通过管理者提 升自身水平,发扬民主风度而获得体面的解决。作为校友,我们相信母校清华大学在这一 关键时刻一定会作出正确的选择。 此致

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