PRC Marxist Scholar on the Sinicization of Marxism and the Confucization of Sun Yatsen’s Three People’s Principles

Hybrid vigor or hybrid weakness? Xiamen University Marxism Institute Professor Pang Hu compares the sinicization of Marxism from the West via Russia through continual adjustment through practice in its new Chinese environment with the vitiation of once vigorous western brought in by Sun Yat-sen which were then weakened by their re-interpretation according to China’s traditional thought aka Confucianism.

I think of Confucianism as a poorly defined grab bag of traditional Chinese thought. My Chengdu writer friend Yin Shuping told me that every dynasty starts (as usurpers of the previous dynasty) out hating Confucius but a generation or two celebrate Confucius since by then they see themselves as the avatars of Eternal China. Every dynasty invents its own iteration of Confucius to suit its predilication, Yin added. The PRC seems have done the same thing: the Communist Party started out denouncing Confucius. During the Cultural Revolution there was a big campaign to criticize Confucius and his next-generation-on partner in thought crimes Mencius (with Lin Biao thrown in for good measure). See for example (via Google Translate) “The entire process of the Red Guards destroying the former residence of Confucius in Qufu during the Cultural Revolution“.

Mao Zedong and Confucius: A Troubled Relationship

Feng Tianle, then a PhD candidate at Taiwan’s National Chengchi University, in his article “Mao’s Changing Evaluations of Confucius Changed” discussed changing views of Confucius during the revolution and after 1949:

Throughout his life, Mao Zedong’s evaluation of Confucius changed from time to time. In a long and complicated process, Mao ran the whole gamut from reverence to acceptance with reservations to total rejection. In his early years, Mao was deeply educated in traditional Chinese culture, well-versed in the Confucian classics, regarded Confucius as a saint, worshipped him, and wished to become a sage just like Confucius in order to move people’s hearts. The New Culture Movement had an unprecedented impact on traditional culture. Hu Shih, Chen Duxiu, Li Dazhao and other new intellectuals brought many Western ideas to China. This made Mao more sceptical about Confucius.

China was in great peril, so, Mao, like many others, tried to discover a say to say China and its people. He had to re-evaluate traditional Chinese culture represented by Confucianism. On the one hand, he inherited and developed Confucius’ spirit of seeking truth from facts and educational ideas because, in his view, these cultural heritages contained useful values. On the other hand, after joining the Communist Party and the revolution, he had to draw a clear line between himself and the Kuomintang based on the concept of “whatever the enemy opposes, we must support; whatever the enemy supports, we must oppose.” and so Mao Zedong criticized the moral theories of Confucius.

After the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, in order to maintain his image and power as a revolutionary leader, Mao needed to use the philosophy of struggle to eradicate opposition and hostile forces. At the same time, he also needed to use the philosophy of struggle to deliberately create enemies of the people in oder to divert the people’s discontent caused by the mistakes in governance (e.g., the Great Leap Forward).

Prior to the Cultural Revolution, Mao’s evaluation of Confucius was mixed, sometimes even contradictory, but in general more positive than negative. “During the Cultural Revolution, total rejected of Confucius was mainly due to political necessity. However, it would be too simple to say that Mao’s evaluation of Confucius changed completely out of political necessity. Mao was also a romantic who wanted China to be free from traditional culture and to dream of a China in which “all 600 million Chinese would all be as great as the founding emperors Yao and Shun”. In his view, the traditional cultural norms represented by Confucius blocked China’s modernization, and that only by breaking the shackles of traditional norms could China escape from its poverty and backwardness. “During the Cultural Revolution, the Red Guards “Smashed the Four Olds” and “established the Four New Things”, was no doubt where he ended up by taking this to extremes. Mao Zedong benefited from traditional culture, but he caused indelible damage to it, which is not only his personal tragedy, but also the tragedy of the whole Chinese nation.

冯天乐:毛泽东对孔子评价的转变及其原因 , 原载政大史粹; 22 2012.06[民101.06]; 页53-79 posted on Aisixiang website November 2016

Pang Hu’s Article Published by Top Chinese Communist Party Center for Studying Sinicization of Marxism and Xi Jinping Thought

Pang Hu’s article was published in Marxism and Reality [马克思主义●与现实] in 2015. Marxism and Reality is an official publication of the China Communist Party Central Committee’s Institute of Party History and Documentation of the Central Committee, the most important center for the Chinese Communist Party research on Marxism. According to the Institute’s website

“The Central Institute of Party History and Literature is mainly responsible for researching the basic theory of Marxism, Marxism Chineseization and its main representatives, studying Xi Jinping’s Socialist Thought with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, researching the history of the Communist Party of China, editing and compiling important documents of classic Marxist writers, important documents of the Party and the state, and writings of major leaders, and collecting and organizing important Party history documents and materials.”

Feedback From The 13th Central Inspection Group Visit to the Central Institute of Party History and Literature

Marxism Insitutes Promoted and Called on to Guide Ideological Correctness in Academia

The Chinese Communist Party Central Committee on September 21, 2021 issued a circular calling for more Marxism Insitutes throughout China and stating that the institutes shall guide ideological correctness across the curriculum. See the translation of the circular in PRC Central Committee On Strengthening the Guiding Role of Chinese Marxism Across All Disciplines .

After the Cultural Revolution subsided and the Party reflected on its near-death experience, there was a Confucian revival to some extent in Mainland China in communication with the Chinese diaspora in Taiwan, Hong Kong, the United States and elsewhere. See the Wikipedia article New Confucianism.

Yu Dan’s book What I Learned from the Analects

Yu Dan’s book and her Chinese Central Television Series about Confucius and his philosophy were popular during the 2010’s although she has inevitably been criticized for being too superficial and too popular. An example you could read in this machine translation of a critical review of Yu Dan’s book found on the Baidu online encyclopedia. Confucius became an emblem for China’s campaign to acquire more “soft power”: many institutes named for Confucius for the study of Chinese culture were implanted in universities worldwide. (Some of these institutes have been criticized for undue political influence. I took Chinese literature courses in Chinese taught by a PRC PhD all at the expense of Chinese taxpayers. The teachers were good and open with us even on some gray and dark area topics. Just my experience and I don’t think I am really a running dog!)

Many books and articles about the Confucian revival in the PRC you can find online.

Michael Shuman, author of Confucius and the World He Created wrote in a 2015 article “Why a Confucian revival and the Internet could have unexpected consequences for China

What Beijing is attempting to create today is not a Confucian state but something more like “authoritarianism with Chinese characteristics.” Though Xi Jinping has been advocating that schools teach the Chinese classics, we’re still far from a true revival of Confucian education on a wide scale. Unless the Confucian campaign goes beyond mere slogans and exhortations, it’s hard to imagine Confucius becoming a pillar of a new, Communist-led empire.

Beijing’s Communists are also facing a vastly changed world than their predecessors. During the dynastic period, Chinese civilization had no real challenges from the outside. Invaders like the Mongols were absorbed into Confucian culture. Now Chinese are exposed to all sorts of influences from the Internet, foreign movies and TV programs, and overseas travel and education. That has changed their expectations about government and their ideas on how society should function. Confucius has (and should have) a place as part of this global culture, but that doesn’t mean Beijing’s leaders can impose their own version of a Confucian orthodoxy and shut out unwanted ideas from the rest of the world.

In fact, Confucius could end up mixing with those foreign ideals and generating political tumult. By reintroducing Confucius, the party is encouraging ordinary Chinese to revisit Confucius’s teachings on their own. Confucian schools have opened and book clubs have formed. The Confucius they discover in those pages may not be the Confucius of Xi Jinping, but the Confucius of high moral principles who stood up to the rulers of his day. China’s citizens may compare their leaders today against Confucius’s lofty standards, and find them wanting.

Why a Confucian revival and the Internet could have unexpected consequences for China

Shuman’s may have been prescient or his friends in Beijing had given him a call. Compare Shuman’s 2015 article views with the final paragraph in Pang Hu’s 2015 article:

Marx, in his review of Hegel’s view that “historical events and persons can be said to have appeared twice”, pointed out that “he forgot to add this: the first time it appears as a tragedy, the second time as a comedy.”  Imitation and repetition, in any form, will become a laughing stock of history. The history of the successes and failures of the Communist Party and the Kuomintang has taught us a simple but profound truth: the power of ideology can be weak or it can be infinite.  The key is to see whether one has found a realistic path forward based on practice. Any attempt to create a Chinese miracle by Confucianizing Marxism is certainly just another baseless fantasy.

Pang Hu in “The Confucianization of Sun Yat-sen’s Three People’s Principles Ideology and the Sinicization of Marxism — A Reflection Based on a Comparison of Their Intellectual Histories and Their Respective Paths Towards Realization” below.

Pang, writing in an official PRC Marxism journal, does seem worried about the Confucian onslaught. Perhaps Confucius is more of a threat to PRC ideological security than we know.

We Learn and Re-interpret the New According to What We Know

In graduate school at Penn, I read several ancient Chinese medical texts such as the “Yellow Emperor’s Inner Canon of Medicine” together, as is customary, with commentaries written by Chinese experts of many dynasties. I was always amazed at how radically different the commentataries could be from one dynasty to another. The arrival of Buddhism in China changed understanding of the by then old texts, the Neo-Confucianism of the Song led to a different interpretation. By the late 19th century Chinese physicians were trying to interpret the ancient texts in the light of the new medical knowledge arriving from the West looking for a physical substratum for the phenomena discussed in the ancient texts. A difference in context. A top Chinese scholar was asked to give his opinion on which of two differing opinions on the interpretation of an ancient text was correct. He studied the text overnight and reported back the next day, “I have found five different ways to interpret this ancient text and they are all correct!” We lose a lot when we lose the context of the times. Another time is another country. Perhaps that is what General Secretary Xi is reminding us when he talks about his revision of Deng Xiaoping theory for the new era. New eras keep on coming.

New wine in old bottles. On one of my trips back to the US, a United Airlines flight attendant told me that during Beijing stops he lived near a man who kept great numbers of old beer bottles in his yard. Yes, he kept filling up the old beer bottles with new beer and then selling them. The spirit of entpreneurship lives.

I though of this when I read in Pang Hu’s article about the sinicization of Marxism and the Confucianization of Sun Yat-sen’s Three People’s Principles. When something new comes along, we try to fit it into the old framework. Sometimes it doesn’t fit but we make it fit anyways. Or perhaps we do need to change but put new wine into old bottles and pretend that we didn’t do that. Chinese government and the Communist Party, like all governments and political parties, changes it positions more than it likes to admit. What they stop saying rather than what they say can be more significant.

I just read about Leon Festinger‘s work on how people react to discrediting of beliefs when there is social pressure to maintain them. Perhaps relevant. A difficult situation might be made even more so when social pressure is doubled by political pressure.

Hard work for some think tank scholars twisting and trimming the old ideologies to fit specifications. The social sciences academices at the central, provincial and local levels, along with the Party schools, in addition to doing conventional academic work, also do some ideological work for the Party. They might launch ideological trial balloons that might be blown up bigger or deflated according to current necessities. When I worked at the U.S. Consulate in Chengdu, I had lunch with a professor who was retiring from the Sichuan Academy of Social Sciences. The retiried professor confessed to me that he really wasn’t a scholar. My real job, he told me, was “to monitor the idedology of the other academics there.”


The Confucianization of Sun Yat-sen’s Three People’s Principles Ideology and the Sinicization of Marxism — A Reflection Based on a Comparison of Their Intellectual Histories and Their Respective Paths Towards Realization

by Pang Hu

[Abstract] As the two most influential mainstream ideologies in modern China, the Three People’s Principles and Marxism have objectively similar channels of introduction and
As the two most influential ideologies in modern China, the Three People’s Principles and Marxism have objectively similar channels of introduction and the same background of derivation, and together contributed to the exaltation of “Chinese” consciousness.  There is however a substantial difference between Confucianism and the realistic interpretation of the “Chinese” state of affairs, and consequently between “knowledge” and “action,” between political party and nation, between transforming the masses and popularization, and between the old order and New China.  The Confucianization of  The Three People’s Principles reveals obvious ethical overtones, narrow perspective, elitist bias and do-nothing passivity. Thus in the end the KMT could not escape defeat. 

In contrast, Marxism’s Chineseization was based on revolutionary practice, focused on the national cause, and was deeply rooted in the people. Sinicized Marxism found a realistic path of development in the continuous promotion of China’s transformation. In the new era, it will only be by transcending the entanglements of Confucianism and adhering to the objective nature of realistic practice that we will be able to continue to make new leaps forward in the theory and practice of Sinicization of Marxism.

[Chinese text at]  DOI:10.15894/j.cnki.cn11-3040/a.2015.02.029 and https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/41450528.pdf
View metadata, citation and similar papers at core.ac.uk brought to you by CORE
provided by Xiamen University Institutional Repository

[KEYWORDS] Confucianization of the Three People’s Principles, Sinicization of Marxism, Marxism and the path of realization

In recent years, the concept of “Confucianization” has been getting much more attention and thinking about how we think about and put into practice “sinicization” has become a widely discussed topic.  and the cognition and practice of “Chinese-ization” have been on the rise. Which perspectives should be drawn on to interpret “China”? What is the relationship between “Confucianization” and “Sinicization”? The historical comparison of the Confucianization of the Three People’s Principles ideology and the sinicization of Marxism will hopefully reveal the first clues.

I. The Radicalization of “Chinese” Consciousness under External Influences

The invasion of China by the western powers in the In modern times made clear to knowledgeable Chinese the contrast between Chinese and Western strength, the great advantages of western culture.  This brought a determination to learn from the West. Amidst the clamor of that era, the ideologies of the Three People’s Principles [sanminzhuyi] and of Marxism entered China.  Sun Yat-sen believed that the main reason for the strength of Europe and America was the guidance of  “three great principles”:
“The evolution of Europe and the United States is guided by three great principles: nationalism, civil rights, and people’s livelihood. These three doctrines have enabled the Western countries to “make people wise, materially rich and more than a thousand years of progress in a century.”

Therefore, the Chinese people should learn from them and learn how to apply them, “so that the most appropriate methods of governance can be adapted to our people”.   ① In 1905, the Tongmenghui was founded and the Three Principles of the People were adopted as the guiding ideology of the Tongmenghui. Thus the Three People’s Principles first came to Chinese people’s attention as the guiding ideology of the Tongmenghui. At this time, Marxist doctrines were also coming into China in a piecemeal fashion but it was either treated as an incidental component of bourgeois doctrine, or as “an ideology not suitable for China” 2 and did not receive widespread attention from the Chinese people.

* This paper is the result of the Innovation Project of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, “A General History of the Sinicization of Marxism”, and the project of Xiamen University, “Theoretical and Practical Research on China’s Development Path”.

[Footnotes to page 198]

(1) Sun Yat-sen: “Inaugural Address”, in Minbao, October 20, 1905.
② Deng Shi: “On Socialism”, in Zheng Yi Tongbao, No. 2, February 27, 1903.

——-

The outbreak of World War I had a big impact on Chinese thinking. First, the victory of the October Revolution in Russia transformed Marxism from the original “doctrine of the future” into a realistic model embodying true ideals for national salvation and also led directly to the birth of a Marxist political party — the Communist Party of China. Secondly, a new intellectual faction arose in Europe and the United States to downplay the “West” and promote the “East ” also speedily arrived in China.  The tragedy of the First World War and its aftermath destroyed the self-confidence of Westerners, who began to “lose faith in the power of reason to solve the problems of human society, in the principle of freedom of the individual, and in  parliamentary democracy.”(1)  There came a tendency to see “Western culture as merely materialistic with many spiritual defects.  This view that the first world war revealed the bankruptcy of western civilization became widespread along with the view that eastern culture was more sound.” (2)

This trend of thinking was reflected in the writings of students who returned to China or in the notes on classes given by Westerners who visited China to give lectures.  All these things made a deep impression on Chinese society.  In Hu Shih’s 1926  article “Our Attitude Toward Modern Western Culture,” [我们对于西洋近代文明的态度 ]    he wrote: “…we hear from time to time that Western scholars worship the spiritual culture of the East. This kind of argument, which reflects only a temporary morbid psychology, has encouraged the tendency of the eastern peoples to exaggerate their greatness.  This has fanned the arrogance of the traditional forces in the East.” (3)

Confronted by these changes, the two camps of The Three People’s Principles (Sanminzhuyi) and Marxism reacted in complex ways that were both similar and different. The similarities are mainly manifested in the fact that both political parties, the Communist Party and the Kuomintang became more concerned with Marxism, and socialism in general, and the Communists became the main force propagating Marxism.  Meanwhile, Sun Yat-sen and other Kuomintang members also regarded socialism as a “good friend” of the Three People’s Principles.  They created the first period of KMT-Communist Party cooperation during the revolutionary era.

At the same time, the two major parties has also achieved a clearer understanding of the shortcomings of Western civilization, and both expressed expressed their principled position of opposing blind Westernization and stressing the importance to China’s specific national conditions:
“If we were to blindly follow the West, this would be very harmful to the national economy and to the livelihood of our country’s people. …… If we do not make domestic adjustment to worldwide trends according to the specific situation of our own society then conditions in our country will deteriorate and the nation will be imperiled.” (4) If we want to do our part in the present world, of course, then we must limit our scope to what applies to ‘China’.

However, if we go back to the substance, we will find that there is still a fundamental difference between how the two sides, the KMT and the Communist Party, viewed the changes mentioned above.  In their approach to Marxism, the Communists believed that Marxism belonged to neither Eastern nor a Western civilization but was in fact a “third civilization,” i.e., a “Russian civilization that “fuses the characteristics of both European and Asian civilization” and represents a new trend in world development.  It is a “universal truth” shared by all mankind, and can certainly be applied to China. Nationalists like Sun Yat-sen interpreted Marxism in terms of traditional Chinese culture and came to the conclusion that Marxism could be applied to China. They concluded that “there is nothing new in Marxism. Marxism has nothing new to offer, as the Chinese classical texts stated over two thousand years ago.” This assertion, on the one hand, illustrates that the Kuomintang did not understand what New Democracy was and on the other reflected their complex feeling about the completely new phenomenon of Marxism, a phenomenon to which they were unable to adjust yet were obliged to confront.

They could only turn to the old culture to find a rational basis, showing their clear traditional orientation. This orientation was even more pronounced in their understanding of “Chinese” national conditions.

“After World War I, although the awareness of “China” in both the Communist Party and the Chinese Party had been greatly enhanced, what exactly were they to understand by”China “? What are the manifestations of “China”?  What are the symbols of “China”? They had not achieved consensus on these questions. In Sun’s view, only traditional culture could be the basis for China’s development because only traditional culture could “keep up” with foreign culture in today’s China. Therefore “we must maintain the independence of our nation, promote our own culture, absorb the cultures of the world and expand them, so as to be on a par with other nations”.

At this time, he even reinterpreted the Three People’s Principles which had originally imported from Europe and America as coming from three major sources,  namely:
“Some of these principles are ideas inherent in our own national culture while others followed from the doctrines and deeds of Europe and developed by us” (8), and giving traditional Chinese cultural sources pride of place.  The Three People’s Principles of our generation first originated from Mencius and then from the theories of Cheng Yichuan.  The traditionalist  tendency had already become clear.  If, in Sun Yat-sen’s case, tradition was only seen as one of the sources of the Three People’s Principles, then, under Chiang Kai-shek, the Three People’s Principles became the embodiment of Confucian tradition. Chiang Kai-shek declared: “The Three People’s Principles are the crystallization of China’s inherent moral culture” and that Chinese moral “had handed down from Yao, Shun, Yu, Tang, Wen, Wu, and Zhou to Confucius, but then that line of descent was severed. The Leader [zongli normally translated as premier, referring to Sun Yat-sen as the founder and leader of the Tongmenghui, a political party precursor to the KMT] inherited this moral tradition.  (10)   Dai Jitao [Translator’s note: journalist and CKS’ personal secretary] also promoted that idea stating that “the Leader’s system of thought did not come from the West, but was an inheritance from China’s own culture” and that

[Footnotes for page 199]


[Marvin] Perry, a US writer.  History of Western Civilization, translated by Hu Wanli and others, The Commercial Press, 1993, p. 370.
(1993), p. 370.
② “Reflections on Rabindranath Tagore’s Visit to China”, in The Declaration, April 14, 1924.
③ Ge Maochun and Li Xingzhi, eds.
The Chinese philosophical thought of Hu Shih, edited by Ge Maochun and Li Xingzhi, 1981, p. 306.
④ Sun Yat-sen: Selected Works of Sun Yat-sen, People’s Publishing House, 1981, p. 764.
⑤ The Early Manuscripts of Mao Zedong Editorial Group of the Central Literature Research Office of the Communist Party of China and the Hunan Provincial Committee of the Communist Party of China The Early Manuscripts of Mao Zedong, Hunan Publishing House, 1990, p. 474.
⑥ Li Dazhao: The Collected Works of Li Dazhao, People’s Publishing House, 1984, p. 575.
⑦ Wu Xiangxiang: Biography of Mr. Sun Yixian, Far Eastern Book Company, 1984, p. 1509.
⑧ Sun Yat-sen: The Complete Works of Sun Yat-sen, vol. 7, China Books, 1985, p. 60.
⑨ Dr. Sun Yat-sen: The Complete Works of Dr. Sun Yat-sen, vol. 9, China Books, 1986, p. 532.
(10)  Liu Chuan, Gao Jun et al.  Selected Writings on the History of Chinese Political Thought”, Volume 1, Sichuan Renmin Chubanshe, 1983 p. 592
(11) Liu Chuan, Dai Jitao: “Outline of the Founding of the Republic of China From the Manuscripts of  Sun Yat-sen”, in The Chronicle of the History of the Republic of China by Liu Chuan, Gao Jun et al.  Selected Writings on the History of Chinese Political Thought”, Volume 1, Sichuan Renmin Chubanshe, 1983 p. 592
(12)  The editorial committee of the “Chronicle of the History of the Republic of China”: “Chronicle of the History of the Republic of China (Preliminary Draft) (1924) January to June, 1983 edition, p. 790.

“The basic ideas of the Teacher originated entirely from the Chinese orthodoxy of the Middle Way. The Teacher is the greatest sage transmitting China’s traditional moral culture since Confucius.” (1) In the Confucian rituals held in various places, statement like “the relationship between the doctrine of Confucius and the thought of the Leader can be seen as the former illuminating the latter”  were often to be heard. In this way, Sun Yat-sen became the successor of Confucianism, and the Three Principles of Democracy were interpreted according to Confucianism. The Three Principles of Confucianism were also interpreted by Confucianism and lost their original meaning. From a historical perspective, similar statements were made by the Communists, for example, in 1916, Chen Duxiu argued that “Confucianism calls for the equal distribution of property and the restriction of land ownership. This is a precedent for socialism. (2)  On the eve of the war, Chen Boda, the founder of the New Enlightenment Movement, also called on the cultural community to be “the inheritors of Chinese culture and the traditions of Eastern culture. (3), and so forth. However, these statements did not become the mainstream of thought and they soon revised their statements. They did not attract much attention and did not affect their practice, so they can only be regarded as individual misinterpretations in the process of understanding “Sinicization”. 

The principal early representatives of the Communist Party all personally participated in the May Fourth Movement.  Some were leading figures of the movement, so it would have been difficult for them to adopt a worshipful attitude towards Confucius. According to Chen Duxiu, Marx himself attached great importance to the study of practical matters. As a follower of Marxism, he should also “study learning in the spirit of Marx’s practical research” and “study his own work in the spirit of Marx’s practical research”.  If they study only his doctrine, then the spirit of Marx’s practical research is completely lost, and they are no more than Marxist scholars. ④

The theory of “national conditions” was more explicitly put forward by Li Dazhao, who argued that “national conditions must be about conditions in our own country,” and that “to seek to understand our national conditions from outsiders is something that would end with great regrets.” The state of the nation cannot be confined to history, and “I think that the national conditions of the present are more important than those of the past” (5); national conditions are not fixed and unchanging. The national situation is not fixed, but “depends on the situation of each place and time, and we should seek the one that is suitable for it.

The slogan of “A Practical Movement That Applies Theory to Actual Conditions” [“本着主义作实际的运动”] was also proposed. By combining Marxism with the realities of the country, Marxism finally transcended the entanglements of Confucianism and embarked on the journey of true sinicization.

II.  The Divergent Paths of the Confucianization of The Three People’s Principles and the Sinicization of Marxism

Differences in their understandings of “China” inevitably brought differences at the operational level.
Specifically, the divergent paths of the two are mainly manifested in the following
aspects:

1. “Knowing” and “doing”


Initially, foreign doctrines were introduced into China as a kind of truth that could be employed to serve national salvation. The problem of convergence of ways of going back and forth between “knowledge” and “action” was inevitable. As early as the Spring and Autumn Period, Confucianism put forward the idea that “it is not difficult to know, but difficult to do” (Shang Shu, chapter “Lunming Zhong) 《尚书·说命中》  The simple concept that action is more important than knowledge  was proposed. During the Song and Ming dynasties, thinking around the concepts of knowledge and action put an exaggerated stress one’s temperament and good conscience: Wang Yangming, setting out from the position of mind-only thinking that “there is nothing outside the mind and there is no reason outside the mind,” proposed the concept of “knowledge and action proposed that “where the knowledge is true and solid then this is action” and “where a thought becomes active, this is action.” (Chuanlu, xia)《传习录·下》

Chiang Kai-shek claimed to have “benefited from Wang Yangming’s philosophy of ‘the unity of knowledge and action’ (7) and regarded moral and spiritual cultivation as the logical starting point for realizing the Three People’s Principles. In his view, “the Three People’s Principles emerged from the traditional values of benevolence, righteousness, and morality.  (8) “This is the path of revolution, the path of benevolence and the path of kindness. Therefore, in order to realize the Three Principles of the People, we must “restore our own traditional ethics and to develop them further. Most important of all is to promote our people’s traditional virtues of stress on propriety and love of righteousness, honesty, and sense of shame.  These are the manifestation of the four social bonds and the eight virtues. “(9)


The New Life Movement, which was launched in the 1930s, was also clearly positioned by Chiang Kai-shek as “a movement to restore national virtues in order to bring about national rejuvenation.  Its main purpose was to change people’s minds and restore the moral dogma that had been the foundation of China since ancient times: the four social bonds of propriety, righteousness and sense of shame.  In action these are manifested by loyalty, filial piety, benevolence and love.” (10) In this way, the Three People’s Principles were given a clear ethical coloring.  Putting this doctrine into practice depended mainly on inner saintly efforts to cultivate personal virtue characterized by “I must examine my conscience three times a day”.

[Footnotes to page 200]

① Dai Jitao: The Philosophical Foundations of Sun Wunism, Minzhi Shuppan 1927, p. 65
② Chen Duxiu: “New Youth”, in New Youth, vol. 2, no. 1, September 1, 1916.
September 1, 1916.
③ Chen Boda: On the Cultural Front: A Sequel to The Quest for Truth, Life Books, 1939, p. 90.
1939, p. 90.
④ Chen Duxiu: “The Two Great Spirits of Marx”, in Guang Dong Qun Bao, May 23, 1922.
Li Dazhao
⑤ Li Dazhao: The Collected Works of Li Dazhao, vol. 1, p. 113.
⑥ Li Dazhao: The Collected Works of Li Dazhao, second volume, People’s Publishing House, 1984, pp. 376, 35.
⑦ The Complete Works of the Former President Chiang Kai-shek, edited by Zhang Qiyun, China Culture University Press, 1984, p. 1535.
⑧ The Former President Chiang Kai-shek’s Thoughts and Speeches, vol. 10, (Taipei) Central Cultural Heritage Supply Company, 1984, p. 449.
⑨ The Complete Works of the Former President Chiang Kai-shek, edited by Zhang Qi Yun, pp. 4169, 161.
(10)  Chiang Kai-shek, “The Fourth Anniversary of the New Life Movement,” in Revolutionary Literature, 68th series (I), p. 62.

On this topic, Liu Shaoqi [Note in “How to Be a Good Communist”. 1939] pointed out that it was impossible for an abstract good heart to change reality.  He wrote, “Communists have the historically unprecedented ‘critical task’ of transforming the world.  Therefore personal cultivation is necessary, but it must be “training and cultivation in the revolutionary struggle”.   [“共产党员是要担负历史上空前未有的改造世界的“大任”的,所以更必须注意在革命斗争中的锻炼和修养.”] In the revolutionary struggle of the masses, in all kinds of situations, amidst hardships and difficulties, we must train ourselves, sum up what we have learned, work harder at cultivating ourselves, improve our thinking,  and not to lose our ability to recognize novel elements in our situation.“(1) After the theoretical attempts of the May Fourth Movement, Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao also regained their materialist position and put forward the idea that “only objective material causes can affect the transformation of society, explain history, and determine our outlook on the world.”(2) and “we do not seek the cause of it in the power of minds and hearts, but in the power of material things” (3).  [Trl note see ref 

On this basis, in 1937, Mao Zedong proposed in his essay “On Practice” that “All genuine knowledge originates in direct experience.”(4),   [ sic — from “On New Democracy”:]  “Only the revolutionary practice of tens of millions of people can be the measure for testing the truth ” (5) and [from the last paragraph of “On Practice”: ]  In the dialectical materialist view “Practice, knowledge, again practice, and again knowledge. This form repeats itself in endless cycles…” (6), concludes that knowing and practice constitute “a concrete and historical unity” [Translator’s Note: full quote from last sentence of third to last paragraph of “On Practice” “Our conclusion is the concrete, historical unity of the subjective and the objective, of theory and practice, of knowing and doing, and we are opposed to all erroneous ideologies, whether “Left” or Right, which depart from concrete history.“]  .

This is both an innovative answer to the long-standing debate between knowledge and practice in Confucianism, as well as a scientific answer to  Marxism’s road to sinicization. The Chinese Communists, through the trials and tribulations of long-term struggle found the revolutionary road of encircling the city, constantly testing and promoting the new developments of Marxism.

2. The Concerns of a Political Party Concern and its Vision for the Nation

In modern times, along with the rise of party politics, political parties have become an important factor in Chinese society.  The relationship between ideology and political party has also played a key role in the sinicization process.  In the case of the Three People’s Principles itself, it was “one ideology” but it was in fact a system of three “ideologies”.  Although it pandered to many of the ideologies of the era, it led to a situation in political circles in which people couldn’t decide which ideology was the correct one. The inevitable result of that were multiple ideological tendencies within the party.  This increased the risk of pluralism and division within the Nationalist party. Initially, the KMT’s ideological “grand unification” of the KMT relied mainly on Sun’s personal authority.  Nearly all statements and directives came from Sun alone. This went so far that during the decade prior to 1923 no KMT party congresses were held.  The Party’s doctrine was basically interpreted by Sun Yat-sen alone.

After Sun’s death, in response to the ideological crisis, Chiang Kai-shek and others brought up Confucius in an attempt to use the status of the Confucianism orthodoxy of ancient China to exclude dissenters and to establish its exclusive authority over the KMT and the Three People’s Principles ideology. The re-establishment of Confucianism and the high-profile activities of Confucian rituals and scripture readings have actually elevated Confucianism to the level of a political faith which invariably exacerbated the confusion of doctrinal beliefs. The ensuing confusion caused some KMT Party members to abandon the Three People’s Principles to seek other paths. (7)  The result was that forming new political parties became a popular trend during the Republic of China era.   At the founding of the Kuomintang Sun Yat-sen had already pointed out that “most Chinese people do not understand the true meaning of the word party, [they] …… thought that once they joined a political party, they must protect their own party, attack other parties, and disregard the the country’s overall situation” and went on to say that “The chief purpose of a political party is to create happiness for the country and promote the well-being of the people.” (8) The KMT, which had already come to power, was still confined to a narrow view owing to the party’s own selfishness.  This made it difficult to realize the paradigm shift of the Three People’s Principles from being merely the program of a political party to imposing a model for the transformation of China.

Compared to the KMT, the Communist Party of China, which had been in the opposition during the revolutionary period, manifested a more ambitious vision. The Communists attached great importance to both the class struggle and the national contradictions in modern China. The Communists stressed both importance of ideology to the integration and unity of the Communist Party, believing that the Party was founded on ideological unity and so through rectification campaigns, training courses at Communist Party schools and other methods strengthened the education education to make members proper communists and strengthen the faith of Communist Party members in Communism.  At the same time, communists, taking a big picture view of what was important for the state and the nation, adopted a relatively tolerant attitude toward different political parties and their ideologies:  “When social classes exist in a society, there are as many ideologies as there are classes.” Under those conditions, we can’t put a stop to it;  we should adopt “competition” as the way to establish our authority.

Given differences in the beliefs of the political parties, the communists “made a distinction between propaganda for the communist ideological system and social system and the implementation of the action program for implementing New Democracy.” (9)  The Communist ideals were made into specific action programs and goals for each stage of struggle according to the different themes of each period, reflecting to the greatest extent the common aspirations of all progressive groups.
For example, during the Revolutionary period, the idea of “overthrowing the warlords” was deeply rooted in people’s minds, and even the “Three Great Policies”[Sun Yat-sen’s policies of alliance with the Soviet Union, alliance with the Communist Party and helping the peasants.]   of the Kuomintang were widely accepted.  Therefore the Communists spoke in favor of these things and even supported the “Three Great Principles”  of the KMT. This led Hu Hanmin to lament that “The most popular sayings circulating these days are familiar:  most of them were coined by the Communists”. “社会上耳熟口顺恬不为怪者———多半为共产党所制造” During the War of Resistance, views such as “Stop the Civil War, let’s all join together to fight the foreigners”  tingzhi neizhan, yizhi duiwai  停止内战,一致对外  embodied the historical mission of national salvation and became an important basis for maintaining the cooperation between the Communist Party and the State. (10)

During the war of national liberation, the ideas of “Down with Chiang Kai-shek, liberate all of China” reflected the theme of the times of democratic nation-building. The democratic parties eventually answered the appeal under the call of the Communist Party of China’s “May Day” slogan and embarked on the political path of multi-party cooperation. Thus It can be seen that the CCP had a national vision even before it came to power.  Through its adaptation of Marxism to the needs of a governing party and the needs of the state, the Communist Party found rich resources for the sinicization of Marxism. 

[Footnotes for Page 201]

①  Selected Works of Liu Shaoqi (volume 1), p. 101.
② Ren Jianshu, ed. Li Dazhao: The Collected Works of Li Dazhao, vol. 2, p. 554, Shanghai People’s Publishing House, 1993
③ Li Dazhao: The Collected Works of Li Dazhao, vol. 2, p. 362.
④ Selected Works of Mao Zedong, vol. 1, p. 288.
⑤ Selected Works of Mao Zedong, vol. 2, p. 663.
⑥ Selected Works of Mao Zedong, vol. 1, p. 296
⑦ Deng Yanda: The Collected Works of Deng Yanda (People’s Publishing House, 1981), p. 115.
⑧ Qin Xiaoyi, editor-in-chief: The Complete Works of the Founding Fathers, vol. 2, Modern China Press, 1989. p. 334.
⑨ Selected Works of Mao Zedong, vol. 2, pp. 687, 706.
(10) Liu Chuan, Jiang Yongjing, The Chronology of Mr. Hu Hanmin, Historical Committee of the Central Committee of the Chinese Kuomintang, 1978, p. 395.

3. Only by Transforming the Masses and Popularizing Ideology for the Masses Can the Hearts of the Masses be Won and and Finally Become  a Real Force for Change. 

As early as in the early days of the Kuomintang, Sun Yat-sen proposed that every Party member had the responsibility to “convert” the people and “use this doctrine to unify the minds and hearts of the entire country. Once this Party has done that, we naturally will be able to unify the country.” 1  But Sun Yat-sen did nothing to stop the civil war and unite with the outside world, which embodied the historical mission of national salvation. Under Chiang Kai-shek,  the Three People’s Principles were interpreted in Confucian terms. The result was that the Confucian traditional ideas about social hierarchy were spread far and wide: that is these differences  in the social hierarchy are based on people’s level of their knowledge. Dai Jitao divided the people into “people with foresight”, “people who understood after the fact”, and “people who were unaware”. He believed that the majority of Chinese people belonged to the third category of the “unaware”.  These people whose “six senses are dulled and are ignorant” so that at present  all that can be done is for the “people who have understood and gained revolutionary enlightenment to make revolution on behalf of the majority who are unable to do so.”  What this meant specifically was that  those in the capitalist class who have become conscious will make revolution for the benefit of the working class and for the landowners to make revolution in the interests of the peasant class … those who do not make revolution are simply ignorant. If they had been enlightened, they would have found the charity to fight on behalf of the suffering  peasants and workers”. (2)

Chiang Kai-shek also believed: “Our revolutionary doctrine, revolutionary strategy are all difficult things. Our farsighted  Leader has explained it to us in great detail.” and “there is no need to have any doubts.” (3) In this way, the educated elites became the masters of Chinese society, and the ordinary people became blind followers incapable of initiative. In fact however, in the eyes of the people, these upper-class people were not considered to be “foresighted”.  They lacked the knowledge to lead the masses and their actions contradicted the theories they were espousing.”  (4) They had already lost the capability and the qualifications to convert the masses to their theories.

In this regard, the Communists clearly pointed out that “The awakening of the Chinese workers and peasants must come  through class struggle.  They must decide to fight now to improve their own lives and not wait for Dai Jitao to induce the capitalist landlords to become benevolent. ⑤ In order to awaken the masses, the CCP vigorously promoted the popularization of Marxism using popular forms and expressions that the people enjoyed and would easily understand.  They created popularized versions of the Marxist-Leninist classic works. They published many works of popularization such as Ai Siqi’s Popular Philosophy, Hu Jiao’s The New Philosophy’s View of Life, Liu Liu’s Street Talks, Chen Weishi’s Popular Lectures on Dialectics. 

Even more important, the CCP, while doing ideological popularization work, also conducted important experiments on how to bring Communist Party members themselves closer to the masses. Going back perhaps to the founding of the Chinese Communist Party itself, the Communists, as representatives of the working class, had already made significant efforts to bring themselves closer to the masses. The Communists, as representatives of the working class, realized that “We are all intellectuals and are distant from the working class, so we should first strengthen our ties with them” and “we must rid intellectuals of their desire to become scholars and enter the intellectual world, urge them to join the revolutionary movement of the proletariat, so that they can become members of the working class.” (6)

During the War of Resistance, confronted by a difficult rural environment, the CCP realized that the peasants as the most reliable allies of the proletariat and included them as dynamic forces for revolution, believing that “Comparing unreformed intellectuals with the workers and peasants, we feel that the cleanest people are the workers and peasants.  Even though their hands are black and their feet have cow shit on them, they are still cleaner than the bourgeoisie and petty bourgeoisie intellectuals” (7).   Party cadres and intellectuals were called upon to go deep into the countryside, to learn from the peasants, and even become peasants themselves. This approach, though often seen as a good one, is not only a good one, but is the best one. This approach is often seen as populism. However, it was because Mao Zedong realized that the sinicization of Marxism could not be achieved simply by relying only on the intellectuals’ bookish theories and debates.  If so, it would not be possible to solve China’s real problems.  Thus he chose the alliance of the workers and peasants as the way forward.  This alliance eventually became a rich source of power for the revolutionary cause and national construction.  It is in just this sense that the source of the CPC’s victory lay in its complete integration with the people.

4. The Old Order and New China

The ultimate end of a consciousness and an ideology is  necessarily the destruction or maintenance of a political order. Soon after Chiang Kai-shek took office, the Kuomintang replaced the North China warlord government [Beiyang zhengfu] and achieved the formal unification of China. By this time, Chiang Kai-shek had already begun to consolidate his own rule and gradually put himself at the forefront.  This fostered in him an ever-clearer tendency to be satisfied with actual rule of only a portion of the country and to seek to maintain the status quo. 

[Footnotes for page 202]

① Sun Yat-sen: The Complete Works of Sun Yat-sen, China Bookstore, 1985, p. 284.
② The Department of Party History of the Communist Party of China and the Department of History of Modern Chinese Political Thought, Renmin University of China, ed:
Selected Materials on Dai Jitaoism, People’s University of China Press, 1983, pp. 35-36.
pp. 35-36.
③ Qin Xiaoyi, ed.,  Collection of the Thoughts and Sayings of Former President Chiang Kai-shek, Volume 20 (Taipei), The Central Cultural Relics Supply House, 1984, p. 369.
④ He Yuesheng: “On the Reasons for the Failure of the Reform Movement”, in Independent Review, 1936, No. 9.
⑤  Before the Sixth Congress of the Chinese Communist Party, edited by the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, People’s Publishing House, 1980, p. 344.
⑥ “The Report of the Communist Organization in Beijing”, in Selected Documents of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, vol. 1, 1989, pp. 13-15.
⑦ Selected Works of Mao Zedong, vol. 3, p. 851.

In 1929, Chiang Kai-shek in his essay “Revolutionary and Not Revolutionary” 《革命与不革命》  clearly stated “What we seek is political stability and economic and social order under Kuomintang rule. Within a certain period, we will eliminate all the  theories and methods of the Communist Party.  Chinese society will have been stabilized, and the Party’s foundation will have been firmly established. Once that has been accomplished, we will move on to put into practice the “The Three People’s Principles” to fully complete the national revolution.” (1)  In that case, Confucianism, which had always been known for maintaining ritual and order, became a natural tool for the Chiang Kai-shek clique to maintain stability. In response to the accusations of backsliding, Chiang Kai-shek also argued that “there is nothing in the world that does not come from the past.  Therefore, fundamentally speaking, there is no such thing as old or new. The older things are, the more new they are” (2) and  “After World War I, Germany and Italy quickly jumped to the top of the list of powerful countries, while China slowed and could not accomplish its national renaissance…. The most fundamental reason for this lies in the question of whether or not the general public knows the rites. …… In Germany and Italy, all of the general public respected the social order”. (3)

In this way, the Three Principles of the People which were fundamentally revolutionary, but now constrained by the rites and  order, were frustrated by the barriers erected by China’s old social order and so lost they drive to carry China forward.  Hou Weilu pointed out: “The transformation into a legal order and the vulgarization of traditional thought will result in ‘heresies” arising to rebel against orthodox thought.” ④ The infatuation of Chiang Kai-shek’s government’s obsession with the old order strengthened the determination of the Communists to revolt. Mao Zedong believed that Confucian ritual was a product of feudal society and that it was”something that has already entered the museum of history. We must not refuse to inherit and learn from the ancients and foreigners or even from the feudal class and the bourgeoisie. But inheritance and borrowing must not become a substitute for one’s own creative thought. Nothing can replace that. After the defeat of the Revolution, the Communists attached great importance to the construction of the base areas and experimented in various fields, such as politics, economy, and culture.  “Here there is democratic politics, here the people live and work in peace and contentment, here the army and the people are always enthusiastic in developing production, here there are labor heroes. Here people come together with other people, the government employees come together with the people, and the army comes together with the people.  They all live with each other like a family. Here in just a few years, the desolation and poverty of the past under the rule of the warlord bureaucrats and party agents were swept away. Everyone was adequately clothed and had enough to eat.” (7) 

The successful construction of the base areas actually represented the future direction of China’s development and became the foundation for all the undertakings of the new China. On this basis, Mao Zedong pointed out that since the founding of the Communist Party, Chinese society had advanced considerably. He said, “We often treat many of the immediate progresses as a matter of routine. In fact, compared with the past, it has been a great transformation.  This became a constituent part of China’s overall national condition, “China is moving forward, not backward and it is the revolutionary base that leads China forward.” (8)

III.  Doubts About the Confucianization of Marxism

Calls for the Confucianization of the Three People’s Principles ended hastily with the defeat of the Nationalist government on the mainland. However, it seems that the lessons of history always have to be repeated many times before people at large can be finally awakened. In recent years, another wave of Confucianization, with the target this time being Marxism, has  emerged in China. This has been actively promoted through publications, schools, websites and conferences.  It has had a considerable impact. This trend holds that China has always followed the path of Westernization — “using the techniques of the barbarians to strengthen China” and that New Democracy, just like the Three People’s Principles, are not the body of Chinese culture but are instead actually the body of Western culture that was transferred to China through Russia. As for its “use”, that is naturally also the ‘use’ of Western culture so that both its ‘body’ and the ‘use’ are Western.

The reform and opening up policy that came later still followed this path that diverged from Chinese culture. “The so-called ‘reform’ is to learn from the West and carry out reform, and the so-called ‘opening up’ is to open up to the West. The result has been that  China’s traditional “rites and order” were bankrupt and traditional Chinese learning is in severe decline”. (9)  The only solution can be to restore Confucianism orthodoxy, to make Confucianism the “center of cultural power,” and to make China into a “Confucian state” in order to “solve the century-old ‘legitimacy crisis’ of Chinese political regimes. The Chinese renaissance is the renaissance of Chinese culture.  At the core of the Chinese renaissance is reviving Confucianism. The fastest way to revive Confucianism is to establish Confucianism as the state religion”.

Compared with the Confucianization of the Three People’s Principles, Confucianization in the new era has some differences in its manifestation and its direction but in terms of its substance, the two have the same path and are in essence identical. 


First of all, looking at its origin, this is basically a copy of a pre-existing trend overseas and lacks and lacks real roots. The “Confucianization” trend in the new era, like the Confucianization of the Three People’s Principles, was not primarily domestically inspired, but arose directly from trends that were causing excitement abroad. After the founding of New China, a series of ideological campaigns to break with the old thinking and establish the new thinking had largely limited the influence of Confucianism in the domestic political arena. Some prominent cultural figures who have been enthusiastic about the revival of Confucianism have also expressed their support for the New China that had arisen in the new era.

[Footnotes for page 203]

① Qin Xiaoyi, ed., The Complete Works of the Former President Chiang Kai-shek, edited by Zhang Qi Yun, p. 884.
② Chiang Kai-shek, “The Essentials of the New Life Movement,” in Revolutionary Literature, 68th series, (Taipei) Central Cultural Heritage Supply, 1984. p. 25.
③ Hou Wailu: A General History of Chinese Thought, vol. 2, People’s Publishing House, 1957, p. 160.
④ Selected Works of Mao Zedong, vol. 2, p. 686.
⑤ Selected Works of Mao Zedong, vol. 3, p. 860.
⑥ Chen Boda and others: “Review of The Fate of China”, reprinted by Xinhua Bookstore, North China, 1949, pp. 24, 61.
⑦ Selected Works of Mao Zedong, vol. 3, pp. 31, 877.
⑧ Jiang Qing, “The Utopian Practice of Contemporary Great Confucianism,” in Southern People Weekly, July 21, 2005.
⑨ Jiang Qing: “The Concept of Rebuilding Confucianism in China”, 蒋庆《关于重建中国儒教的构想》also found at http://www.xinfajia.net/1585.html

(10) Kang Xiaoguang: “Benevolent Governance: Legitimacy Theory of the Authoritarian State”, in Strategy and Management, No. 2, 2004.

In this situation, the revival of Confucianism has been mostly the obsession of foreign scholars and a few Chinese who have emigrated overseas. Setting out from some situations in some foreign countries or overseas, they put forth ideas rooted in those foreign circumstances. They formed a tendency of thought which eventually made its way back to China. This is what Jiang Qing calls the four stages, i.e., “take up traditions and transmit them to posterity”, “clearly explain orthodox positions”,  “spread the tradition to repay the inheritance you have received” and”return home to take up one’s former position”. (1)  Du Weiming, a long-time expatriate living in the United States, has also publicly declared: “The viability of Confucianism in the 21st century depends largely on whether it can pass through New York, Paris, and Tokyo and finally return to China.” ②  

This kind of Confucianism, which has been transferred back to China, is inevitably and clearly marked by Western Learning. From this perspective, while the trend towards Confucianization in China is superifically a return to the “Chinese” element and an increase in cultural self-confidence, in its very bones it has been clearly westernized. Some domestic scholars tend to regard foreign views as a form of return to features of “Chinese” and a mark of cultural self-confidence. Some domestic Chinese scholars tend to view foreign views as an ideological authority; whenever outsiders advocate Westernism, they too promote westernization in China.  When foreigners switch to advocating Confucianism, these domestic scholars  follow suit and become Confucianized. Even on the question of how to address China’s own traditional culture  they let foreigners lead them by the nose.  Their thinking is determined by trends overseas to the point where they can’t talk about China without throwing in a comparative perspective using examples from foreign countries.  “This is a paradoxical and extremely ironic phenomenon.  As early as 1930, Mao Zedong said that “The victory of the Chinese revolutionary struggle depends on the Chinese comrades understanding China.” (3) This warning is still very relevant for us today.

Secondly, when one considers the thought embodying this intellectual trend, we can see that it misinterprets Chinese reality, lacks an objective, big picture dialectical perspective. Generally speaking, when foreign ideas first arrive in a new land, they necessarily meet psychological resistance from traditional national culture. When this happens, the people spreading the new ideology will usually adopt the strategy of putting “new wine in old bottles” so that it will take on national characteristics in order to reduce resistance to its spread.  An example is the way Chinese intellectuals early on used the ancient idea of commonwealth to interpret the doctrine of scientific socialism. 

However, as the process of dissemination progressed, the sinicization of foreign doctrines necessarily reached the practical level and became a mechanism promoting doctrinal development mainly through the combination of theory and practice.  Then old traditions can only prove their guiding value by being  integrated into reality through practice. Only in this way can a sinicized ideology become genuinely influential.  Otherwise, it is merely glorifying the tradition.  Divorced from the rational process of practice, it is merely an artificial Americanization of tradition, these people are “trying hard to pull together some nice new terms and impose them, regardless of whether they fit.  They see themselves as adding glory and value to Chinese culture but never realize that what they are doing is ruining it.” (4)  

No ideology in fact is omnipotent.  No ideology can transcend history to solve all the real problems of social development. Ever since the mid 19th century, time and again cold facts have proved that the revival of Confucianism cannot save China.  Marxism, however, has shown China the right path to prosperity, strength and democracy in a long breaking-in period of theory and practice. It continues to enrich and optimize the Chinese nation. The Chinese nation has enriched and optimized what nationhood means for everyone in the People’s Republic of China. In this sense, Marxism today is no longer a foreign ideology.  Marxism in China has long left behind the “tool of national salvation” instrumental sense it bore during the first years of its introduction into China. Chinese Marxism has become a reality that integrates means and goals and has thus become the clearest distinguishing characteristic of today’s China.  It cannot be denied that China as a developing country still faces many kinds of real problems. Academics can go on and on giving us their views, their words and their policies but only if these things are rooted in practice and are focused on the future can they lead to new leaps forward in knowledge and practice.

Marx, in his review of Hegel’s view that “historical events and persons can be said to have appeared twice”, pointed out that “he forgot to add this: the first time it appears as a tragedy, the second time as a comedy.”  Imitation and repetition, in any form, will become a laughing stock of history. The history of the successes and failures of the Communist Party and the Kuomintang has taught us a simple but profound truth: the power of ideology can be weak or it can be infinite.  The key is to see whether one has found a realistic path forward based on practice. Any attempt to create a Chinese miracle by Confucianizing Marxism is certainly just another baseless fantasy.

(Author’s work unit: Marxism Institute, Xiamen University)
(Editor responsible: Li Mu)

[Footnotes for Page 204]

① Jiang Qing: “The Relevance of Reviving Confucianism in Mainland China and the Problems it Faces”, in Goose Lake, No. 8, 1989.
② Du Weiming: The Collected Works of Du Weiming, Wuhan Publishing House, 2002, p. 563.
③ Selected Works of Mao Zedong, vol. 1, p. 115.
④ Yang Mingzhai: Review of the Central Cultural Outlook, Commercial Press, 1924, p. 153.
⑤ The Selected Works of Marx and Engels, 2nd edition, vol. 1, p. 584

Chinese text in PDF 三民主义儒学化与马克思主义中国化
———基于思想史的比较及其实现路径的反思

at https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/41450528.pdf







Posted in History 历史, Ideology 思想, Politics 政治 | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

PRC Central Committee On Strengthening the Guiding Role of Chinese Marxism Across All Disciplines

Forging Souls or Building Character?

General Secretary Xi Jinping seems to harken back to Lenin and his ideas about forging a new type of person, the New Soviet Person [человек chelovek means person in Russian] . Xi often refers to the Nikolai Ostrovsky’s 1930s classic of Soviet literature How Steel was Tempered. See for example the words in the second paragraph of the Central Committee circular

“Opinions” pointed out that Marxism is the fundamental guiding ideology of our Party and state. The Marxist Institute is the main forum for the study, research and propaganda of Marxism. Ideological and political theory courses are the main way that the Marxist Institute promotes adherence to Xi Jinping socialist thought with Chinese characteristics in the new era in order to forge souls and educate people… It is essential for cultivating the new person of this era who will assume the great responsibility of national rejuvenation … We must guide young students to firmly establish in themselves a shared regard for the lofty ideals of communism and for socialism with Chinese characteristics, and train generations of socialist builders and successors.

Strengthening Marxism Across the Curriculum

After the protests throughout China in May – June 1989, the Chinese Communist Party sought to prevent a repetition by strengthening discipline and re-inforcing ideological control. The fall of 1989 entering university fresheman got some military training before starting classes. In 1998, a university reform strengthen Party control. Party committees or at least branches of larger party committees were established in many commerical enterprises, even (or perhaps especially) in law offices that had taken up cases to protect the rights of people protesting some Party and government policies. Perhaps it was in the last few years of General Secretary Jiang Zemin that the pace of tightening picked up, continuing under General Secretary Hu Jintao, and then greatly accelerating under General Secretary Xi Jinping. All the while many crackdowns won popular support since they apparently aimed at official corruption. In this passage in the second-to-last paragraph can be seen a determination to strengthen ideological right-thinking even further.

To firmly establish the principle of educating the whole-person throughout the entire curriculum and giving them an and all-round education, establish a collaborative education mechanism. This means that ideology and political theories are incorporated into the entire curriculum goes on in sync with the ideological and political courses. Every day we should integrate ideology and political thinking into our work and into the ideological and political courses themselves so that their arises a powerful resonance between the two.

Still the Party Worries

Where is this coming from? One might think that China is already fairly tightly controlled. Still, the Party worries about its hold on university students and upon society. Hong Kong’s South China Morning Post in a September 9, 2021 article entitled “China’s top universities told to stop slacking off on Communist Party ideology” reported:

Communist Party inspectors have told education officials and elite universities in China to step up ideological education and enforce party discipline on campus. The orders were delivered in “feedback sessions” on Thursday following a wave of inspections of some of the country’s top schools by personnel sent by the party’s Central Committee.
The meetings included senior officials from the Ministry of Education and top managers from 31 universities directly under the committee’s supervision, the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, the party’s top anti-graft agency, said on Sunday.
The inspectors found a number of “common and deep-seated problems”, particularly in politics and ideology, the CCDI said. “Some schools have slackened in their ideological work in the new era, [causing] hidden risks of varying degree,” it said. “Strict enforcement of the party’s control is lagging … and problems such as corruption in scientific research and infrastructure [investment] persist.” According to the state media reports, 15 teams of inspectors were assigned from May to check on party units at the ministry and the universities.

Concluding with a Warning to Slackers!

In order to promote the construction of a good and strong Marxist institute, the development of the Marxist Institute shall be included as an important element in the assessment of party building work in the unit, the assessment of the quality of schooling there will be an important item in the comprehensive assessment and evaluation of the unit leadership team, the main leaders and leaders in charge of the unit.

Conformity and Patriotic Education

Many countries inclucate their headline values into their pupils. Frances Fitzgerald wrote a series in the New Yorker and then in her 1979 book America Revised about propaganda in US high school textbooks. See the review “Why Don’t We Tell Children the Truth About America“.

We continually see these controversies in the United States as we consider and reconsider our views on the Civil War, even though it is 150 years in the rear view mirror, Recontruction, the ‘lost cause’ theory of southern history and the treatment of minority people in textbooks in society at large. The big difference is the power behind the standard stories that political leaders, some corporate leaders or some segment of society would like to impose on everyone. They just aren’t strong enough to pull it off over the long term. Always possible to go too far, but that it what debate does, things should find their own level.

Could it be that what Mao Zedong stressed, the vital importance of criticism and self-criticism is carried out more effectively in the USA than in Mao’s own homeland? (Probably that thought simply reflects my own failure to eradicate capitalist class thinking in myself! Some of my first Chinese textbooks were edited during the Cultural Revolution. They were filled with slogans, Mao’s poems and Mao’s essays with inspiring stories on people like the Canadian physician Norman Behune aka Bai Qiu’en 白求恩 and Lei Feng. Still, one must guard against a tendency to backslide.)

The Chinese Communist Party, with its formidable organization, internal cohesion and robut system of censorship (see Download He Qinglian’s Book on Media Control in China ) and repression, does seem much more capable of imposing its interpreation upon history and contemporary society than does any other state existing at present. The collapse of the Soviet Union still haunts the Chinese Communist Party.

Ideological security is a top national security issues in China. See for example 2020: PRC Scholar Yin Jiwu: Comparing US and PRC Concepts of National Security National security sensitivities on the part of the Chinese Communist Party and the PRC government make it much more allergic to foreign criticism or questioning of its core values than are many other countries. One aspect of this is that some Chinese agree with some Western criticisms of the Communist Party, accentuating the Party’s fear about subversion and its tendency to use anti-foreigner resentment to paint domestic critics, in the vivid Mao-era term, as just “running dogs” of foreigners.


The General Office of the CPC Central Committee issued the “Opinions on Strengthening the Construction of Marxist Institutes in the New Era”

September 21, 2021 18:50 | Source: Xinhua News Agency

  BEIJING, Sept. 21 (Xinhua) — Recently, the General Office of the CPC Central Committee issued the “Opinions on Strengthening the Construction of Marxist Institutes in the New Era” (hereinafter referred to as “Opinions”), and issued a notice requiring all regions and departments to seriously implement in conjunction with the actual.

  ”Opinions” pointed out that Marxism is the fundamental guiding ideology of our Party and state. The Marxist Institute is the main forum for the study, research and propaganda of Marxism. Ideological and political theory courses are the main way that the Marxist Institute promotes adherence to Xi Jinping socialist thought with Chinese characteristics in the new era in order to forge souls and educate people. Strengthening the construction of Marxist institutes is an important initiative to deepen the research and construction of Marxist theory. It is essential for cultivating the new person of this era who will assume the great responsibility of national rejuvenation, for building philosophical and social sciences with Chinese characteristics guided by Marxism and building a socialist ideology with strong cohesion and leadership. This will further enrich and develop contemporary Chinese Marxism and 21st century Marxism. Stressing the socialist foundation of Chinese universities is essential. We must guide young students to firmly establish in themselves a shared regard for the lofty ideals of communism and for socialism with Chinese characteristics, and train generations of socialist builders and successors.

  ”Opinions” pointed out that since the 18th Party Congress, all relevant departments and units in all regions have been carrying out what has been asked of them by the Party Central Committee. The promotion of the development of Marxist Institutes has made great progress in all it aspects raising this work to a whole new level. At the same time, compared with what is needed in the new era, there is still a shortfall in the number of Marxist institutes that can provide the education and teaching, research and propaganda, team building, to developing cadres of talented people and work in other area. Work in the discipline of developing Marxist theory badly needs strengthening. Confronted by these urgent needs, we must adapt to the new situation and new tasks, based on the overall situation of the Party and the national cause, to strengthen the construction of the Marxist institutes as a fundamental and strategic project that will promote the achievement of high-quality development.

  ”Opinions” clearly calls to develop further Marxist institutes for the new era, to adhere to Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important thinking of the “Three Represents”, the scientific outlook on development, Xi Jinping Thought on socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era as our guide, fully implement the Party’s education policy, adhere to hold fast to the policy of building education on the basis of socialism. We must carry out the fundamental task of educating people with moral values, to make teaching and research on the latest achievements of the sinicization of Marxism a top priority. We must further clarify the responsibilities and missions of educators, promote internal development, strengthen policy guarantees, build a strong position for Marxist theory education, research and propaganda, and training, and to provide solid theoretical support for talented people. In this way, we willl provide solid theoretical support and talent training support for the comprehensive construction of a modern socialist country and the realization of the Chinese dream. The main goal is to provide solid academic support and build an excellent and numerous cadre of teachers for the comprehensive construction of a modern socialist country and the realization of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

    ”Opinions” pointed out that we need to promote the authentic development of Marxist institutes. Strengthen the development of the discipline of Marxist theory, see to it that the discipline has the correct ideological orientation, give full play to the leading role of Marxist theory discipline in the unit. Vigorously promote the ideological and political theory course reform and innovation, in political guidance, doctrinal interpretation and value shaping efforts to enhance the effectiveness of teaching. Strengthen the construction of curriculum and teaching materials system, fully integrate the Party’s theoretical innovations into each course, and effectively enhance the political, contemporary, scientific and readable nature of teaching materials. Based on the vivid practice of socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era, find the way to make a point, focus on essential points and on the relationship between the points that are made. Strengthen the research and propaganda on Marxist theory. Make efforts to build a high-quality teacher team with firm faith, solid theoretical skills, in sufficient numbers and in an optimal environment. Enhance their sense of mission, professional identity and sense of achievement. Improve the quality of professional training, and constantly train successors to ensure the future of the discipline of Marxist theory.

  The “Opinions” pointed out that the policy support mechanism for the construction of Marxist colleges should be strengthened. The effectiveness of nurturing people as the standard, improve the discipline of Marxist theory, in line with ideological and political theory course requirements in a way that is conducive to creating a system for assessment and evaluation of the professional development of teachers. With the goal of cultivating teachers who are truly studious, who truly understand, who truly believe and truly apply Marxism, improve the training system, increase support and improve the incentive mechanism to reward teachers for improving themselves. To firmly establish the principle of educating the whole-person throughout the entire curriculum and giving them an and all-round education, establish a collaborative education mechanism. This means that ideology and political theories are incorporated into the entire curriculum goes on in sync with the ideological and political courses. Every day we should integrate ideology and political thinking into our work and into the ideological and political courses themselves so that their arises a powerful resonance between the two. Strengthen the development of the Marxist theory academic camp, foster it and build a strong foundation for its development, and build a support platform for it. Build Marxist institute centers of excellence throughout the country, improve the quality of Marxist institutes, strengthen the influence of model Marxist institutes, and improve their management so that they will Marxist institutes throughout the country will take the lead, encouraging Marxist institutes to spur one another on to greater progress so that they will all improve and create a situation in which the Marxist institutes are improving across the board.

 ”Opinions” stressed that the party should effectively strengthen the leadership of the development of Marxist institutes. Party committees at all levels should make developing Marxist institutes a high priority, strengthen leadership and overall planning. Propaganda, education and other departments should provide strong policy guidance, organizational and financial support for the construction of Marxist institutes. Units where a Marxist institutes is located should strengthen the construction of the Marxist Institutes as a key institute, Marxist theory as a key discipline, and the ideological and political theory course as a key course, and ensure that it gets priority. To strictly supervise the assessment, in the combination of inspection inspection carried out in the ideological work responsibility system special inspection, increase the inspection of the construction of the Marxist institutes. In order to promote the construction of a good and strong Marxist institute, the development of the Marxist Institute shall be included as an important element in the assessment of party building work in the unit. The assessment of the quality of schooling there will be an important item in the comprehensive assessment and evaluation of the unit leadership team, the main leaders and leaders in charge of the unit.

(Editor: Hao Jiangzhen, Yue Hongbin)

Chinese text:

中共中央办公厅印发《关于加强新时代马克思主义学院建设的意见》

2021年09月21日18:50 | 来源:新华社

  新华社北京9月21日电 近日,中共中央办公厅印发了《关于加强新时代马克思主义学院建设的意见》(以下简称《意见》),并发出通知,要求各地区各部门结合实际认真贯彻落实。

  《意见》指出,马克思主义是我们立党立国的根本指导思想,马克思主义学院是学习研究宣传马克思主义的主阵地,思想政治理论课是马克思主义学院坚持用习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想铸魂育人的主渠道。加强马克思主义学院建设,是深化马克思主义理论研究和建设的重要举措,是培养担当民族复兴大任时代新人的内在要求,对于构建以马克思主义为指导的中国特色哲学社会科学,建设具有强大凝聚力和引领力的社会主义意识形态,进一步丰富和发展当代中国马克思主义、21世纪马克思主义,对于彰显中国大学社会主义底色,引导青年学生牢固树立共产主义远大理想和中国特色社会主义共同理想,培养一代又一代社会主义建设者和接班人,具有重要意义。

  《意见》指出,党的十八大以来,各地区各有关部门和单位贯彻落实党中央要求,推动马克思主义学院建设取得长足进展,各方面工作迈上新台阶。同时,与新时代新要求相比,马克思主义学院在教育教学、研究宣传、队伍建设、人才培养等方面还存在差距,马克思主义理论学科建设亟待加强。必须适应新形势新任务的迫切需要,立足党和国家事业全局,把加强马克思主义学院建设作为基础性、战略性工程,推动实现高质量发展。

  《意见》明确,加强新时代马克思主义学院建设,要坚持以马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观、习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,全面贯彻党的教育方针,坚持社会主义办学方向,落实立德树人根本任务,把马克思主义中国化最新成果的教学和研究作为重中之重,进一步明确职责使命,推动内涵式发展,强化政策保障,着力打造马克思主义理论教育教学、研究宣传和人才培养的坚强阵地,为全面建设社会主义现代化国家、实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦提供坚实学理支撑和人才支持。要坚持正确方向、坚持铸魂育人、坚持守正创新、坚持系统谋划,积极探索马克思主义理论教育教学规律、学科发展规律和人才培养规律,更好服务党和国家工作大局。

  《意见》指出,要扎实推动马克思主义学院内涵式发展。加强马克思主义理论学科建设,把准学科定位方向,充分发挥马克思主义理论学科引领作用。大力推进思想政治理论课改革创新,在政治引导、学理阐释和价值塑造上下功夫,提升教学实效。强化课程体系和教材体系建设,将党的理论创新成果全面贯穿、有机融入各门课程,切实提升教材的政治性、时代性、科学性、可读性。立足新时代中国特色社会主义鲜活实践,找准切入点、聚焦点、结合点,加强马克思主义理论研究宣传。着力打造一支信仰坚定、理论功底扎实、数量充足、结构优化的高素质教师队伍,切实增强使命感、认同感、获得感。提高专业人才培养质量,源源不断培养马克思主义理论后备人才。

  《意见》指出,要强化马克思主义学院建设政策支撑机制。以育人成效为标准,完善体现马克思主义理论学科特点、符合思想政治理论课教学内在要求、有利于教师职业发展的考核评价体系。以培养真学真懂真信真用马克思主义的教师为目标,完善培训体系,加大支持力度,健全教师成长激励机制。牢固树立全员、全程、全方位育人理念,建立协同育人机制,实现课程思政与思政课程同向同行、日常思政工作与思政课程同频共振。加强马克思主义理论学术阵地建设,培育和夯实发展平台,构建平台支持体系。建强建优全国重点马克思主义学院,提升发展质量,强化示范辐射,加强建设管理,以全国重点马克思主义学院为牵引,推动形成各类马克思主义学院相互促进、共同发展、一体推进的局面。

  《意见》强调,要切实加强党对马克思主义学院建设的领导。各级党委要把马克思主义学院建设工作摆在重要位置,加强领导和统筹规划。宣传、教育等部门要为马克思主义学院建设提供有力政策指导、组织保障和经费支持。马克思主义学院所在单位要将马克思主义学院作为重点学院、马克思主义理论学科作为重点学科、思想政治理论课作为重点课程加强建设,给予优先保障。要严格督导考核,在结合巡视巡察开展的意识形态工作责任制专项检查中,加大对马克思主义学院建设情况的检查力度。把马克思主义学院建设列为所在单位党的建设工作考核、办学质量评估的重要内容,作为所在单位领导班子、主要领导和分管领导综合考核评价的重要参考,推动建好建强马克思主义学院。

(责编:郝江震、岳弘彬)

Posted in Ideology 思想, Politics 政治, Science, Technology and Academic 科技学术 | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

PRC Education Reform: Does Xi Thought Now Require Less Xi Thought in Class?

Chinese teachers local eduational authorities and classroom teachers are working out how to implement the Communist Party and central government policy of reducing excessive burden on students (see for example Private Out, State Further “In” as Chinese Education Focuses on the Family) as well as developing a morality and rule by law curriculum inspired by Xi Jinping Thought.

Will Xi Thought require a bit less class time on Xi Thought?  Could be. 

Below are DeepL machine translations of articles I picked up from the Internet on the response of local government and the central government on curriculum and the “reducing testing and homework overburden” policy along with an article I came across that cites Mao in support of the new policy. Perhaps partly inspired by concerns about burned out young people and the “lying flat” movement.

Looks like a good thing to me! This reminds me of when I worked at the U.S. Consulate General in Chengdu ten years ago I met students and teachers from a foreign curriculum school in the Dujiangyan District.  I asked them how that is possible since according to PRC law, PRC citizens in China must follow the PRC national curriculum. I was told that the students get the Chinese national curriculum in the morning and then a western english-language curriculum in the afternoon.  And lots of homework.  A bit too much I thought! Not to claim that I am a forerunner of Xi Thought though.

From a local government:


Notice on the convening of secondary school morality and the rule of law subject teaching and research work conference

关于召开中学道德与法治学科教研工作会议的通知http://www.hfly.net/DocHtml/285/21/09/00261157.html
Date:2021-09-02 Author:Teaching and Research Office Source:Luyang Education and Sports Information Network


Bureau of the junior high schools, Shouchun Middle School, Xinhua Experimental Middle School.

We are scheduled to hold a teaching and research meeting on September 9 (next Thursday) from 9:30 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. at the Forest City Campus of Hefei 45 Middle School, to exchange ideas on how to improve teaching quality in the context of “double reduction”, implement the “Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics in the New Era” teaching work, and further To summarize the work of teaching and research in the last semester and plan the teaching and research activities in this semester. Specific activities are arranged as follows.

    I. Time.

    September 9, 2021 9:30-11:30 am

    II. Location.

    45 Forest City Campus, second floor conference room

    III. Content

1. The new changes of the 9th grade textbook and the opinion of grasping the textbook in the context of “double reduction” 45th Middle School Bai Fujun

2. How to optimize homework design in the context of “double reductions” Luyang Middle School Kang Jie

3. “Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics in the New Era” Teaching Plan 45th Middle School Forest City Campus Dai Baozhen

4. School teaching and research group preparation group work plan exchange 42 middle school 45 middle school Oak Bay campus

5. Next semester teaching and research work arrangement Lu Meng

IV. Participants.

Please participate in each school morality and the rule of law subject teaching and research team leader, eight or nine grade preparation team leader.

                                                                                                                         Luyang District Education and Sports Bureau Teaching and Research Office

                                                                                                                                      2021.9.2

From People’s Daily, reposted on the PRC Central Government website

Promote the “double reduction” policy to the full implementation

推动“双减”政策全面落地 http://www.gov.cn/xinwen/2021-08/31/content_5634281.htm

This fall semester is the first semester of the full implementation of the “double reduction” (meaning to reduce the burden of homework and off-campus training burden of students in compulsory education) deployment requirements of primary and secondary schools. The majority of the country’s primary and secondary schools and kindergartens will start school normally on September 1, in addition to individual places that are on hold.

“We should make great efforts to strengthen and improve in-school education, improve the quality of school education service system, and effectively achieve that teachers should teach as much as possible, students learn enough to learn well.” On August 30, the Ministry of Education press conference, the Ministry of Education Department of Basic Education Director Lv Yugang stressed.

Significantly reduce the number of exams

The reporter learned at the conference, in order to implement the education evaluation reform and “double reduction” requirements, the Ministry of Education issued a “notice on strengthening the management of compulsory education school examinations” (hereinafter referred to as “notice”).

“At present, some areas and compulsory education schools have a large number of exams, difficult, poor quality, improper use of results and other outstanding issues, contrary to the quality of education orientation, resulting in excessive burden on students, excessive pressure to take exams, damage to the physical and mental health of students, must be corrected.” Lv Yugang talked about the examination at the compulsory education level mainly plays a diagnosis of the learning and teaching situation, improve and strengthen teaching, evaluate the quality of teaching and other functions, except for junior high school graduates to raise the examination (academic level examination), other examinations do not have a screening and selection function.

According to the notice, it is clear that the number of exams has been significantly reduced. The first and second grades of elementary school do not conduct paper-and-pencil exams, compulsory education other grades by the school to organize a final examination once a semester, junior high school grades from the actual different disciplines, can be appropriate to arrange a midterm examination. All places shall not organize regional or inter-school exams for primary grades and junior high school non-graduation grades; schools and classes shall not organize weekly exams, monthly exams, unit exams and other kinds of exams, nor shall they organize exams in various disguises such as tests, quizzes, time-limited exercises, school research, etc. It is reported that the requirement to significantly reduce the number of exams first in the central and provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) to determine the “double reduction” pilot areas to carry out.

The notice also proposes that the reasonable use of test results, school mid-term and final exams to implement grade evaluation, generally divided into four to five levels. The results of the examination is not ranked, not published, in an appropriate manner to inform students and parents. The results of the exams should not be used to adjust the class placement, seating and “labeling” of students; the results of the midterm and final exams in each semester of junior high school and the results of the mock exams in the second semester of junior high school should not be linked to further education.

Do not set up key classes by any other name

“The implementation of the ‘double reduction’ task undertaken by the school, must strengthen the management of education and teaching, strict implementation of education and teaching work discipline.” Lv Yugang said.

The Ministry of Education requires that the new school term begins, compulsory education schools should strictly implement the provisions of balanced classing, shall not set up key classes in any name, and effectively achieve a balanced allocation of teachers. The strict implementation of the teaching plan, do not arbitrarily increase or decrease class time, change the difficulty, adjust the progress, do not use the after-school service time to speak of new lessons. Strictly enforce the regulations on homework management, strictly prohibit assigning or disguising homework to parents, strictly prohibit asking parents to check and correct homework, eliminate repetitive and punitive homework, and do not ask students to correct their own homework. Strictly implement the examination management regulations, shall not be illegal to organize examinations, etc.

In addition, Lv Yugang introduced the fall semester, all schools around the world will also effectively reduce the excessive burden of homework, promote comprehensive coverage of after-school services, improve the overall quality of classroom teaching, strengthen home-school communication and publicity guidance, etc.

The responsibility to supervise

The “double reduction” supervision is an important step to promote the “double reduction” policies to be effective. Hu Yanpin, a first-class inspector of the Education Supervision Bureau of the Ministry of Education, introduced that “double reduction” supervision is listed as the “No. 1 project” of education supervision work in 2021, to place “double reduction” supervision in the The “double reduction” supervision should be placed in the top priority position and systematically deployed.

The Office of the Education Supervision Committee of the State Council and the Bureau of Education Supervision of the Ministry of Education require local supervisory departments to incorporate the implementation and effectiveness of the “double reduction” policy into the evaluation of the government’s performance of supervisory duties to further compact the government’s responsibility; set up a special reporting platform to notify typical cases of non-compliance and strengthen social supervision; organize open inspections and unannounced visits by state supervisors and responsible school supervisors to carry out regular supervision. Carry out regular supervision; interview, inform the problematic areas and units, strict accountability in accordance with the rules.

Hu Yanpin introduced the State Council Education Supervisory Committee Office to establish a “double reduction” special supervision semi-monthly notification system, starting in September every two weeks to inform the provinces of the “double reduction” work implementation progress. In addition, will also open the “exposure desk”, the implementation of the work, can be implemented and not implemented, or by repeatedly informing the typical problems that are still not in place, directly in the relevant media and network exposure, and start the accountability process in accordance with the rules.

“In the next phase, we will cascade down the responsibility of supervision, increase supervision, notification, interviews and accountability, and promote the ‘double reduction’ policy to the full implementation.” Hu Yanpin said. (Reporter Wu Yue)

 Responsibile Editor: Yang He



https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/142683134

Rereading “Mao Zedong on the Revolution in Education

重读《毛泽东论教育革命》

Thoughts on Education

Introduction: Confucius came from a decadent slave-owning noble family, and did not attend any high school or university, and started his career as a funeral director, about a drummer. Some students answered all twenty questions, memorized from the books, and answered correctly according to the teacher’s lecture, but without creativity, they could only give fifty or sixty points.

Rereading “Mao Zedong on the Educational Revolution,” which was published by the People’s Publishing House in December 1967, although it is a quotation from the Cultural Revolution, it still has a strong sense of the times for today’s education! The realm of great men is that you can’t do and think that far ahead; teachers who are interested in education might as well “learn from the past”, which is also a prelude to a series of school teaching reforms during the Cultural Revolution.

“I have long said that our education policy should enable the educated to develop in moral, intellectual and physical education, and to become educated workers with socialist consciousness. Now there are many courses that kill people and put primary and secondary school students and college students in a state of tension every day.

The curriculum could be cut in half. It is not good for students to read books all day long, they can participate in some productive and necessary social work. Nowadays, the exams are used to deal with the enemy by making surprise attacks and giving strange and off-topic questions to the students. This is a way to test the eight-legged essay, I do not agree with, to completely change. I advocate that the questions are open to the public, so that students can study and read the books to do. For example, twenty questions, students can answer ten questions, good answers, some of them are very good, there is an originality, you can play a hundred percent; twenty questions are answered, also correct, but mediocre, no originality, give fifty or sixty points.

The exam can be crossed, just do not understand themselves, ask others understand. Understand the gains, why do we need to memorize it? People do, I copy once or better. You can try points. The old teaching system destroys human talent, destroying the youth, I do not agree.

Confucius came from a decadent slave-owning aristocracy, and did not go to any high school or university, and began his career as a funeral director, about a drummer. When people died, he went to blow and play. He could play the lute, shoot arrows, set up cars, and also knew something about the masses. At first, he worked as a small official, managing grain and grass, and managing cattle and sheep. Later he became a big official in the state of Lu, and the masses were heard. He later ran a private school and opposed students to engage in labor.

In the Ming Dynasty, Li Shizhen went to the mountains to collect medicine by himself for a long time before he wrote the “Compendium of Materia Medica”. Earlier, Zu Chongzhi, who invented something, also did not go to any high school or university. Franklin of the United States was an apprentice in a printing office and bought newspapers. He was the great inventor of electricity. Watt in England was a worker and a great inventor of the steam engine.

Gorky’s learning was entirely self-taught, and it is said that he attended only two years of elementary school. Nowadays, one is too many classes, one is too many books, too much pressure. Some courses do not necessarily have to be tested. Such as secondary school to learn a little logic, grammar, do not test, know what is grammar, what is logic can be, really understand, to work slowly to experience. The course speaks too much, is tedious philosophy. Boring philosophy is always going to perish. Such as scripture, make so many commentaries, now useless. I think this approach, whether it is Chinese or other countries’, is going to its own opposite and will perish. It is not necessary to read a lot of books.

Marxist books should be read, read to digest. Read too many and you won’t be able to digest them.  You might even go the opposite way, become nerdy, become dogmatic, and revisionist. Nowadays, there are too many courses in schools, which put too much pressure on students. The lectures are not very good. The examination method takes students as the enemy and holds surprise attacks. These three items are not conducive to the lively and active development of young people in moral, intellectual and physical aspects. The whole education system is like that, openly called to fight for that five points, there are so some people to see through the score, bold initiative to learn. The first thing you need to do is to take a look at the set, and learn actively.

It is said that there is a student in a university, usually do not take notes, the test scored three and a half to four points, but the thesis in the class the highest level. In school is all excellent, work is not necessarily all excellent. In Chinese history, all those who won the first prize did not have any real talent, but some people who did not even get a scholarship had some real talent. Don’t take the marks seriously, focus on developing the ability to analyze and solve problems, don’t just run behind the instructor with no initiative of your own.

Oppose the injection method, even the bourgeois educators in the May Fourth period has long been proposed, why do not we oppose? Just don’t treat students as objects of strikes. Your teaching is to infuse, every day in class, there is so much to say? The instructor should issue the lecture notes to you. What are you afraid of? Students should be allowed to study the lecture notes themselves. What about keeping the lecture notes a secret from the students? The students should be allowed to copy it only when they get to the lecture hall, which ties them to death. College students, especially the senior ones, mainly study the problems by themselves, so why talk so much? The problem of educational reform is mainly a problem of the faculty. The instructor is so capable that nothing can be done without the lecture notes. Why don’t we send you the lecture notes and study the problems with you? When senior students ask questions, the faculty can answer 50% of them, and the rest say they don’t know, and discuss with the students, which is good. Don’t put on a show to scare people. Students are overburdened, it affects their health, and it’s useless to learn.

It is recommended that one third of the total number of all activities be cut. Please invite representatives of school teachers and students, discuss a few times, and decide to implement it. Please use your discretion on how to do it. I have doubts about the current education system. From elementary school to university, there are 16 or 17 years in total, and for more than 20 years, we can’t see rice, beans, wheat, millet and cereals, how workers do their jobs, how farmers farm, how commodities are exchanged, and how our bodies are damaged. I once told my children: “Go to the countryside and tell the poor peasants that my father said that after decades of reading, the more you read, the more stupid you become. Ask your uncles, uncles, sisters and brothers to be teachers and come to you to learn.” In fact, children before they start school. 1 year old to 7 years old, exposed to many things. 2 years old learn to talk, 3 years old wah wah wah quarrel with people, and a little older to take small tools to dig the earth, imitating adult labor. This is observing the world. Children have learned some concepts. Dogs, is a big concept. Black dogs and yellow dogs are smaller concepts. The yellow dog in his house is the concrete.

Man, the concept has shed many things, shed the difference between men and women, adults and children, Chinese and foreigners, …… only the characteristics that distinguish them from other animals. Who has seen “people”? Only Zhang San and Li Si can be seen. The concept of “house” is not visible to anyone, only the specific house, the house in Tianjin, the courtyard in Beijing.

University education should be transformed, and not so much time should be spent on school. The liberal arts should not be transformed. Can philosophers come out without transformation? Can we produce literary scholars? Can you produce historians? Nowadays, philosophers can’t do philosophy, literary scholars can’t write novels, historians can’t do history, and they have to engage in emperors and generals. To transform the liberal arts universities, students should go down to engage in industry, agriculture and commerce. As for engineering, science, the situation is different, they have internship factories, laboratories, in the internship factory to do work, in the laboratory to do experiments, but also to contact with social reality.”

Chairman Mao said, “The top scholars of all generations have not been very outstanding. Li Bai and Du Fu were not scholars or Hanlin, Han Yu and Liu Zongyuan were only second-class scholars, and Wang Shifu, Guan Hanqing, Luo Guanzhong, Pu Songling and Cao Xueqin were not all scholars and Hanlin. Pu Songling is a promoted showman, to be a higher class, not yet a lifer. It is when the scholar, Hanlin are not successful. The Ming dynasty did well only Ming Taizu, Ming Chengzu two emperors, one can not read and write, one is not much literacy. Later to Jiajing, intellectuals in power, but no, the country was not managed well. Li Houzhu died after more culture. Reading more books does not make an emperor great. Liu Xiu is a great scholar, and Liu Bang is a big straw man.” (Speech at the Symposium on Education Work held in the Great Hall of the People on February 13, 1964)

Chairman Mao also said, “The present approach to examinations is a way to deal with the enemy, not with the people. I do not approve of the practice of surprise attacks, biased questions, odd questions, or the method of examining eight essays, which needs to be completely reformed. I advocate openly issuing examination questions, announced to the students, so that students can read the book themselves, their own research, read the book to make. For example, if you give twenty questions on “Dream of the Red Chamber”, some students can give one hundred percent for their outstanding and creative answers to half of the questions. In addition, some students answer all twenty questions, is memorized from the book, according to the teacher’s instructions, but no creativity, can only give fifty or sixty points.

Posted on 2020-05-21

关于召开中学道德与法治学科教研工作会议的通知

发布日期:2021-09-02   作者:教研室   来源:庐阳教育体育信息网   阅读:199次   字体:[] [] []

局属各初中学校、寿春中学、新华实验中学:

兹定于9月9日(下周四)上午9:30-11:30在合肥市45中森林城校区召开本学期中学道德与法治教研工作会议,交流“双减”背景下如何提高教学质量,落实《习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想学生读本》教学工作,进一步总结上学期教研工作并规划本学期教研活动。具体活动安排如下:

    一、时间:

    2021年9月9日上午 9:30-11:30

    二、地点:

    45中森林城校区二楼会议室

    三、内容:

1.九年级教材新变化梳理及“双减”背景下教材把握意见    45中   白复军

2.“双减”背景下如何优化作业设计    庐阳中学  康洁

3.《习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想学生读本》教学计划   45中森林城校区   戴宝珍

4.学校教研组备课组工作计划交流   42中   45中橡树湾校区

5.下学期教研工作布置      陆蒙

四、参会人员:

请各校道德与法治学科教研组长、八九年级备课组长参会。

                                                                                                                         庐阳区教体局教研室

                                                                                                                                      2021.9.2

http://www.gov.cn/xinwen/2021-08/31/content_5634281.htm

推动“双减”政策全面落地

2021-08-31 07:55 来源: 人民日报【字体:大 中 小】打印   

秋季学期中小学将降低学生考试压力,强化教育教学管理
推动“双减”政策全面落地

今年秋季学期是中小学全面落实“双减”(指减轻义务教育阶段学生作业负担和校外培训负担)有关部署要求的第一个学期。目前,除个别地方暂缓开学外,全国绝大部分地区中小学、幼儿园将于9月1日正常开学。

“要下大力气做强做优校内教育,健全学校教育质量服务体系,切实做到教师应教尽教、学生学足学好。”8月30日,教育部新闻发布会上,教育部基础教育司司长吕玉刚强调。

大幅压减考试次数

记者在发布会上了解到,为落实教育评价改革和“双减”要求,教育部印发了《关于加强义务教育学校考试管理的通知》(以下简称《通知》)。

“目前,部分地区和义务教育学校存在考试次数偏多、难度较大、质量不高、结果使用不当等突出问题,违背素质教育导向,造成学生负担过重、应考压力过大,损害了学生身心健康,必须予以纠正。”吕玉刚谈道,义务教育阶段的考试主要发挥诊断学情教情、改进加强教学、评价教学质量等方面功能,除初中毕业生升高中考试(学业水平考试)外,其他考试不具有甄别选拔功能。

据介绍,《通知》明确,大幅压减考试次数。小学一二年级不进行纸笔考试,义务教育其他年级由学校每学期组织一次期末考试,初中年级从不同学科的实际出发,可适当安排一次期中考试。各地不得面向小学各年级和初中非毕业年级组织区域性或跨校际的考试;学校和班级不得组织周考、月考、单元考试等其他各类考试,也不得以测试、测验、限时练习、学情调研等各种名义变相组织考试等。据悉,大幅压减考试次数的要求先在中央和各省(区、市)确定的“双减”试点地区开展。

《通知》还提出,合理运用考试结果,学校期中期末考试实行等级评价,一般分4至5个等级。考试结果不排名、不公布,以适当方式告知学生和家长。不得按考试结果给学生调整分班、排座位、“贴标签”;初中各学期期中期末考试成绩和初三下学期模拟考试成绩不得与升学挂钩等。

不得以任何名义设置重点班

“落实学校承担的‘双减’工作任务,必须强化教育教学管理,严格落实教育教学工作纪律。”吕玉刚说。

教育部要求,新学期开学后,义务教育学校要严格执行均衡编班的规定,不得以任何名义设置重点班,切实做到均衡配置师资。严格执行教学计划,不得随意增减课时、改变难度、调整进度,不得利用课后服务时间讲新课。严格执行作业管理规定,严禁给家长布置或变相布置作业,严禁要求家长检查、批改作业,杜绝重复性、惩罚性作业,不得要求学生自批自改作业。严格执行考试管理规定,不得违规组织考试等。

此外,吕玉刚介绍,秋季学期,各地各校还将切实减轻过重作业负担,推进课后服务全面覆盖,全面提高课堂教学质量,加强家校沟通和宣传引导等。

层层压实督导责任

加强“双减”督导,是推动“双减”各项政策落地见效的重要举措。教育部教育督导局一级巡视员胡延品介绍,“双减”督导被列为2021年教育督导工作的“一号工程”,要将“双减”督导摆在重中之重位置,系统部署。

国务院教育督导委员会办公室、教育部教育督导局要求各地督导部门将“双减”政策落实及成效纳入政府履职督导评价,进一步压实政府责任;设立专门举报平台,通报典型违规案例,强化社会监督;组织国家督学、学校责任督学明察暗访,开展常态化督导;约谈、通报问题多发地区和单位,严格依规问责。

胡延品介绍,国务院教育督导委员会办公室建立“双减”专项督导半月通报制度,9月起每两周对各省“双减”工作落实进度进行通报。此外,还将开设“曝光台”,对该落实、能落实而不落实的工作,或经多次通报仍整改不到位的典型问题,直接在有关媒体和网络上曝光,并依规启动问责程序。

“下一阶段,我们将层层压实督导责任,加大督办、通报、约谈和问责力度,推动‘双减’政策全面落地。”胡延品说。(记者 吴月)【我要纠错】 责任编辑:杨鹤

重读《毛泽东论教育革命》

教育撷思

教育撷思​分享学习写作生活中关于教育的所阅所思所想14 人赞同了该文章

导读: 孔夫子出身没落奴隶主贵族,也没有上过什么中学、大学,开始的职业是替人办丧事,大约是个吹鼓手。有些学生二十道题都答了,是照书本上背下来的,按老师讲的答对了,但没有创造性的,只能给五十分或六十分。

重读《毛泽东论教育革命》,这是人民出版社1967年12月出版,虽然是文化革命时的语录,但是对今天的教育仍然有着强烈的时代感!伟人的境界就是你做不到的,也想不了那么远的事儿;有心于教育的师者,不妨好好的从中“温故知新”,这也是文革期间一系列学校教学改革的前奏。

“我早就说过,我们的教育方针,应该使受教育者在德育、智育、体育几方面都得到发展,成为有社会主义觉悟的有文化的劳动者。现在课程多,害死人,使中小学生、大学生天天处于紧张状态。

课程可以砍掉一半。学生成天看书,并不好,可以参加一些生产劳动和必要的社会劳动。现在的考试,用对付敌人的办法,搞突然袭击,出一些怪题、偏题,整学生。这是一种考八股文的办法,我不赞成,要完全改变。我主张题目公开,由学生研究、看书去做。例如,出二十个题,学生能答出十题,答得好,其中有的答得很好,有创见,可以打一百分;二十题都答了,也对,但是平平淡淡,没有创见的,给五十分、六十分。

考试可以交头接耳,无非自己不懂,问了别人懂了。懂了就有收获,为什么要死记硬背呢?人家做了,我抄一遍也好。可以试试点。旧教学制度摧残人材,摧残青年,我很不赞成。

孔夫子出身没落奴隶主贵族,也没有上过什么中学、大学,开始的职业是替人办丧事,大约是个吹鼓手。人家死了人,他去吹吹打打。他会弹琴、射箭、架车子,也了解一些群众情况。开头作过小官,管理粮草和管理牛羊畜牧。后来他在鲁国当了大官,群众的事就听到了。他后来办私塾,反对学生从事劳动。

明朝李时珍长期自己上山采药,才写了《本草纲目》。更早些的,有所发明的祖冲之,也没有上过什么中学、大学。美国的佛兰克林是印刷所学徒,也买过报。他是电的大发明家。英国的瓦特是工人,是蒸汽机的大发明家。

高尔基的学问完全是自学的,据说他只上过两年小学。现在一是课多,一是书多,压得太重。有些课程不一定要考。如中学学一点逻辑、语法,不要考,知道什么是语法,什么是逻辑就可以了,真正理解,要到工作中去慢慢体会。课程讲的太多,是烦琐哲学。烦琐哲学总是要灭亡的。如经学,搞那么多注解,现在没有用了。我看这种方法,无论中国的也好,其他国家的也好,都要走向自己的反面,都要灭亡的。书不一定读得很多。

马克思主义的书要读,读了要消化。读多了,又不能消化,可能走向反面,成为书呆子,成为教条主义者、修正主义者。现在学校课程太多,对学生压力太大。讲授又不甚得法。考试方法以学生为敌人,举行突然袭击。这三项都是不利于培养青年们在德、智、体诸方面生动活泼地主动地得到发展。整个教育制度就是那样,公开号召去争取那个五分,就有那么一些人把分数看透了,大胆主动地去学。把那一套看透了,学习也主动了。

据说某大学有个学生,平时不记笔记,考试时得三分半到四分,可是毕业论文在班里水平最高。在学校是全优,工作上不一定就是全优。中国历史上凡是中状元的,都没有真才实学,反倒是有些连举人都没有考取的人有点真才实学。不要把分数看重了,要把精力集中在培养分析问题和解决问题的能力上,不要只是跟在教员的后面跑,自己没有主动性。

反对注入式教学法,连资产阶级教育家在五四时期就早已提出来了,我们为什么不反?只要不把学生当成打击对象就好了。你们的教学就是灌,天天上课,有那么多可讲的?教员应该把讲稿印发给你们。怕什么?应该让学生自己去研究讲稿。讲稿还对学生保密?到了讲堂才让学生抄,把学生束缚死了。大学生,尤其是高年级,主要是自己研究问题,讲那么多干什么?教改的问题,主要是教员问题。教员就那么点本事,离开讲稿什么也不行。为什么不把讲稿发给你们,与你们一起研究问题?高年级学生提出的问题,教员能答百分之五十,其它的说不知道,和学生一起商量,这就是不错了。不要装着样子去吓唬人。学生负担太重,影响健康,学了也无用。

建议从一切活动总量中,砍掉三分之一。请邀学校师生代表,讨论几次,决定实行。如何请酌。现在这种教育制度,我很怀疑。从小学到大学,一共十六、七年,20多年看不见稻、菽、麦、黍、稷,看不见工人怎样做工,看不见农民怎样种田,看不见商品是怎么交换的,身体也搞坏了,真是害死人。我曾给我的孩子说:“你下乡去跟贫下中农说,就说我爸爸说的,读了几十年书,越读越蠢。请叔叔伯伯、姐妹兄弟做老师,向你们来学习。”其实,入学前的小孩。1岁到7岁,接触事物很多。2岁学说话,3岁哇啦哇啦跟人吵架,再大一点就拿小工具挖土,模仿大人劳动。这就是观察世界。小孩子已经学会了一些概念。狗,是个大概念。黑狗、黄狗是小些的概念。他家里的那条黄狗,就是具体的。

人,这个概念已经舍掉了许多东西,舍掉了男人、女人的区别,大人、小孩的区别,中国人与外国人的区别,……只剩下了区别于其它动物的特点。谁见过“人”?只能见到张三、李四。“房子”的概念谁也看不见,只看到具体的房子,天津的洋房,北京的四合院。

大学教育应当改造,上学的时间不要那么多。文科不改造不得了。不改造能出哲学家吗?能出文学家吗?能出历史学家吗?现在的哲学家搞不了哲学,文学家写不了小说,历史学家搞不了历史,要搞就是帝王将相。要改造文科大学,要学生下去搞工业、农业、商业。至于工科、理科,情况不同,他们有实习工厂,有实验室,在实习工厂做工,在实验室做实验,但也要接触社会实际。”

毛主席说:“历代状元都没有很出色的。李白、杜甫不是进士,也不是翰林,韩愈、柳宗元只是二等进士,王实甫、关汉卿、罗贯中、蒲松龄、曹雪芹也不都是进士和翰林。蒲松龄是一个提升的秀才,要高一等,还不是举人。就是当了进士、翰林都是不成功的。明朝搞得好的只有明太祖、明成祖两个皇帝,一个不识字,一个则识字不多。以后到嘉靖,知识分子当政,反而不成了,国家就管不好。李后主文化多了亡了国。书读多了,就做不好皇帝刘秀是大学士,而刘邦是个大草包。”(1964年2月13日在人民大会堂召开教育工作座谈会上的讲话)

毛主席还说:“现在的考试办法是对付敌人的办法,而不是对人民的办法。实行突然袭击,出偏题,出古怪题,还是考八股文章的办法,我不赞成,要彻底改革。我主张公开出考题,向同学公布,让同学自己看书,自己研究,看书去作。例如对《红楼梦》出二十道题,有的学生作出一半,但其中有几个题目答得很出色,有创造性,可以给一百分。 另外有些学生二十道题都答了,是照书本上背下来的,按老师讲的答对了,但没有创造性的,只能给五十分或六十分。发布于 2020-05-21

Posted in Ideology 思想, Science, Technology and Academic 科技学术, Society 社会 | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Free Imprisoned Chinese Journalist Zhang Zhan

Exiled Chinese writer Liao Yiwu, author of The Corpse Walker and Bullets and Opium: Real-Life Stories of China After the Tiananmen Square Massacre, wrote this call for solidarity with imprisoned Chinese journalist Zhang Zhan. Zhang Zhan was arrested and imprisoned in a reform through labor prison after approaching the Wuhan Institute of Virology which some suspect may have been the break-out point of the COVID-19 pandemic. Chinese text follows the translation.


God is dead!!!  

    dedicated to Zhang Zhan an independent journalist detained for investigating the “Wuhan virus”

No matter what I write it does no good.

This planet sees every single day an endless string of tragedies.

Recently at Kabul Airport in Afghanistan, people desperately climbed onto planes to escape. After take-off, one fell from the plane’s landing gear. 

My God, that man’s yearning for freedom was so very great, greater than life itself, that he smashed himself into a mess of flesh and bone!

Next, an Islamic State suicide bombing at the airport killed in an instant 184 innocents along with thirteen American soldiers. But the damned Taliban, who controlled airport access, claimed this had nothing to do with them.

So many tragedies! So many tragedies! So many that people can’t see an individual tragedy, seemingly shrunken down to ant-size by comparison.  

That thinking ant is Zhang Zhan.

On January 23, 2020, the eve of the Spring Festival military lock down  of Wuhan, central China’s largest city, because of the uncontrolled outbreak of the “Wuhan virus”, Zhang, without authorization,  entered the place where that contagion, as dangerous as the Chernobyl nuclear leak, had originated. She was one of the four citizen journalists who did so.

The first three citizen journalists were Chen Qiushi, Fang Bin, and Li Zehwa. Each was made to mysteriously vanish. It was rumored that  those three were “placed under residential surveillance at a designated place of residence according to the law”. But  Chinese law as in fact broken — China’s Criminal Procedure Law requires that the detainee’s family be notified within 24 hours.  This was not done. 

Zhang Zhan, the fourth, was detained on criminal charges. She was the most determined of them all. 

Zhang Zhan first caught my attention when she went alone, without protective equipment, to investigate the alleged break-out point of the “Wuhan virus”  – the P4 laboratory at the Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. She couldn’t get in so she circled around the perimeter wall of the P4 laboratory, explaining as she went along that she was not sure but this building may have been the source of  the “Wuhan virus”.  She was arrested soon thereafter.

In her own mind, she had done nothing wrong. She believed that searching for the truth is every citizen’s responsibility and duty.  Only by knowing the truth and unmasking lies can we come to a scientific understanding of the virus outbreak,  review our past mistakes, and prevent the further spread of the virus around the world. Without realizing it, she became, like the 2010 Nobel Peace Prize winner Liu Xiaobo who claimed to have “no enemies”,  the most dangerous enemy of the communist dictatorship.  No matter what your political stance, as long as you care about the truth and actually pursue it, you are the most dangerous enemy of the communist dictatorship.

That is why Zhang Zhan was arrested.  She paid a high price amidst the human catastrophe caused by the “Wuhan virus”.  Refusing to confess to any crime, she was abused and tortured during the seven-and-a-half months between her arrest and her trial. Her prolonged hunger strike left her unable to stand.  She was sentenced sitting in a wheelchair  with her hands tied behind her back. Her mouth was gagged, just as dozens of major Chinese cities in China had been gagged. Yet she persisted  —  her eloquent facial expressions and body movements testified that she would never give in. 

The court sentenced Zhang Zhan to four years of imprisonment.  According to PRC law, she has the right to appeal her sentence.  Zhang Zhan however sees her trial as a fraud from start to finish like something out of Franz Kafka’s novel-parable  The Trial.  Therefore, she went on a hunger strike. Two months later  she was sent to a reform through labor (laogai) prison enterprise in Shanghai where she continued her hunger strike. She became emaciated and her life hangs by a thread.  Many human rights organizations both inside and outside China have spoken out on her case. They fear that she will die in prison.  

Threatening this cold-blooded regime with death can have no effect!  Zhang Zhan herself doesn’t care if her hunger strike works. What she does care about is that she does not bow her head in submission.  Now that all thoughts and actions expressing “civil disobedience” are considered criminal, she can only self-mutilate, hunger strike, and even die to express one’s natural human desire to pursue truth. 

Nature — that is what people called it in ancient China. Westerners today call it “human nature”.

Zhang Zhan’s bravery and persistence arose from basic human nature.  Are you,  out of cowardice or fear, turning a blind eye and a deaf ear to the “human nature” of Zhang Zhan?  If so, then consider this: you were born a human being.  Are you no better than a dog that wails and struggles to the end?

Italy’s most famous journalist, Oriana Fallaci, ends her monumental work A Man with these words: “For me the most beautiful monument to human dignity is still the one I saw on a hill in the Peloponnesus. It was not a statue, it was not a flag, but three letters that in Greek signify No: OXI. What is the point of suffering and dying? Why? For this is the only way to survive as a man or as a woman  — as a human being and not as a sheep. ”

Please stand with Zhang Zhan, this very gentle woman. She is the kind of person that Fallaci wrote about: the kind of person willing to pay with her life for her insistence that the truth about “the disaster caused by the Wuhan virus” is no less than important than the truth about the Chernobyl nuclear leak. As a poet and writer in exile for ten years, I want all my Western readers to understand that if the pursuit of truth and science is abandoned in favor of the commercial interests of globalization, then we have in our day made come true the words of the German philosopher Nietzsche : “God is dead! ”

“We have killed him!”

God is dead!!!

 by Liao Yiwu, August 29 – September 3, 2021

Translated by David Cowhig

Nietzsche on ‘God is Dead’:  full quote

God is dead. God remains dead. And we have killed him. How shall we comfort ourselves, the murderers of all murderers? What was holiest and mightiest of all that the world has yet owned has bled to death under our knives: who will wipe this blood off us? What water is there for us to clean ourselves? What festivals of atonement, what sacred games shall we have to invent? Is not the greatness of this deed too great for us? Must we ourselves not become gods simply to appear worthy of it?

Nietzsche, The Gay Science, Section 125, tr. Walter Kaufmann[1] via Wikipedia

  

Zhang Zhan is innocent. Free her. Ai Xiaoming December 27, 2020″

Chinese text:

上帝死了!!!

              ———爲調查“武漢病毒”的自媒體記者張展而作

我知道無論寫什麼,都沒有什麼用。

因為這個地球,好像,每天,都在發生慘劇。

最近傳出眾多視頻:在阿富汗首都的喀布爾機場,許多當地老百姓瘋狂逃離,瘋狂攀爬已經滑動的美國飛機,稍後有一個吊住飛機起落架的人,從半空摔了下來。

天哪,這個摔成肉餅的人對自由的渴望,超出了活著本身。

緊接著,同一個人潮洶湧的喀布爾機場發生“伊斯蘭國”製造的自殺性爆炸,184名無辜生命瞬間消失,13名美國士兵也消失了。可是,控制了所有機場通道的塔利班,也就是與策划911恐怖襲擊的本.拉登結盟的那個塔利班宣佈,與自己無關。

如此多的悲劇!如此多的悲劇!!

因為如此多的悲劇,人類很容易忘記一隻螞蟻的悲劇。

這一隻有思想的螞蟻叫張展。

她是2020年1月23日,也就是傳統的春節前夕,在中國中部最大的城市武漢,因為“武漢病毒”的失控氾濫,而軍管封鎖之後,擅自闖入這個相當於“切爾諾貝利核泄漏”的,烈性傳染病毒發源地的,四個自媒體公民記者之一。

前三個公民記者是方斌、陳秋實、李澤華,先後被“依法指定監視居住”之後,就神秘失蹤了,張展是第四個,也是最決絕的一個公民記者。

張展最早引起我注意的,是孤身一人,在沒有任何防護裝備的情況下,前往傳說中的武漢病毒起點——中國科學院武漢病毒研究所P4實驗室調查,因為無法進入,就頂著烈日,繞著P4實驗室的圍墻兜了一大圈兒,她邊走邊解說,她也不敢肯定,只是說:“武漢病毒”的源頭也許就在那一片,一個方方的、一個圓圓的建筑裡。結果,不久,她被捕了。

順便提醒一下,在她之前,李澤華也因為在同一地點,想做同一件事,而被國家安全局抓捕。

張展不認為自己錯了,她認為瞭解真相,是每一個公民的責任和義務。只有瞭解真相,澄清謊言,才能科學地認識病毒,檢討失誤,防止“武漢病毒”進一步擴散到全世界。她在自己也不明白的狀況下,就成爲又一個2010年諾貝爾和平獎獲得者劉曉波——自己宣稱“沒有敵人”,卻是共產獨裁社會最危險的敵人——不管你有沒有政治立場,只要你對真相感興趣,并一意孤行地追究,就是共產獨裁社會最危險的敵人。

所以她被秘密抓捕,在這場“武漢病毒”所導致的人類劫難中,她付出的代價是最大的:從被捕到審判,她經歷了七個半月,由於拒不認罪,她被虐待,被酷刑。因長期絕食反抗,她已無法站立,就坐著輪椅,雙手反綁著接受宣判。像中國幾十個大城市被封鎖一樣,她的嘴巴也被封鎖,但是她依舊通過面部表情和肢體動作,表達永不屈服。

她被當庭判刑四年。法律規定可以上訴,但她認為這場審判鬧劇猶如佛朗茨.卡夫卡的寓言小說《審判》,是徹頭徹尾的騙局。於是她絕食抗議。兩個多月後,她被轉送到上海的勞改監獄服刑,絕食仍在繼續,她外形枯槁,命懸一線,國內外人權團體紛紛呼籲,并擔憂她有一天將死於獄中。

對於這個冷血政權,誰“以死相脅”都沒有用!但是對於張展自己,有沒有用並不重要,低不低頭才最重要。當所有表達“公民不服從”的思想和行動都被視為犯罪的時候,她只有自虐,絕食,絕命,以表達一個人對真相的追求是出自天性。

天性,這是中國古人的叫法,西方人叫“人性”。

張展的勇敢和堅持,是出自最起碼的人性,如果你因為懦弱或恐懼,對這樣的“人性”視而不見,充耳不聞,那就請想一想,生而為人,你是不是還不如一條面對劊子手而發出哀鳴的、垂死掙扎的狗?

意大利最著名的女記者法拉奇在她的不朽名作《人》的結尾,這樣寫道:“我認為人類尊嚴最美好的紀念碑是伯羅奔尼薩斯半島上的那個東西。它不是一座偶像,也不是一面旗幟,而是三個希臘字母:OXI。意思是‘不’。

“為什麼還要忍受痛苦,為什麼要鬥爭,為什麼要冒著從山上被狂風刮到海底、與魚蝦為伍的風險呢?因為這是作為一個男人,一個女人,總之是作為一個人,而不是作為一隻綿羊,而生存的唯一方式。”

請聲援張展,請聲援這個法拉奇筆下的,因為堅持“武漢病毒所造成的災難”不亞於“切爾諾貝利核泄漏”的真相,而願意付出生命代價的,極其柔弱的女人。作為流亡了十年的詩人和作家,我希望我的所有西方讀者明白,如果放棄了對真相和科學的追求,只注重全球化的商業利益,那麽德國哲學家尼采的預言或警告就是現狀:“上帝死了!”

“我們殺死了祂!”

上帝死了!!!

                                                                         廖亦武

2021年8月29日-9月3日

尼采的完整闡述

上帝死了。上帝的確死了。我們已經殺死了他。我們如何安慰自己,所有謀殺者中的謀殺者? 世界上最神聖、最強大的東西在我們的刀下流血致死:誰來擦掉我們身上的血? 什麼樣的水可以洗清我們自己? 我們還要發明什麼樣的贖罪節,什麼樣的神聖遊戲?這件事情對我們來說是不是過於偉大了? 我們不應該為了看上去配得上它,而自己成為神嗎?

Ist möglicherweise ein Bild von 1 Person

Posted in Famous Chinese Political Court Cases 中国政治名案, Media 媒体 | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

China’s Lessons for the Arab World: A Jordanian’s Book is Translated into Chinese

A recent book by a Jordanian author has been translated from Arabic into Chinese. Translating the title is a bit tricky. I would understand it about perceiving one’s civilization as being backward in some respects compared with contemporary states that are richer and more powerful and trying to figure out how to catch up. A question that many Arabs and Chinese have long been discussing. Japan faced the same problem after the US gunboats appeared, the old order fell in 1868 and the aggressive modernization of Japan during the Meiji Restoration. Understooding, ‘catching up’ as a common concern of many civilizations after their often messy or bloody encounters with the superior technology and sophisticated organization of ‘The West’. Makes me think of “The Great Nations of Europe” by the famed historian Randy Newman.

This too has been a preoccupation of many Chinese since the late Qing Dynasty when it became obvious that ‘catching up’ with the West could be thought of, to borrow one of former Chinese Communist Party Secretary Jiang Zemin’s phrases, “a big systems engineering problem.”

Two reviews below of translations from Arabic into Chinese of Samir Ahmad’s books on lessons the Arab world can draw from China’s experience along with reflecting on the more recent historical experience of the Arab World’s encounter with the West over the past two centuries.

Seek knowledge, even if it is in China is a popular Islamic proverb attributed to the Prophet Muhammad.

Reading Samir Ahmad’s Theory of Catching Up as a Civilization
2021-09-07


On August 15, 2021, a series of dazzling changes took place in Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan: on this day, the Taliban entered Kabul, Taliban representatives were discussing the “peaceful transfer of power” with the Afghan government, President Ghani The “exodus” to another country …… and on the other side, and the Taliban into Kabul at the same time, the U.S. military from the Afghan government forces to take over the security of Kabul airport to perform a major air evacuation. 16 morning, hundreds of Afghans rushed to the airport runway, surrounded the aircraft. They even “hung” onto the U.S. transport aircraft, expecting the U.S. transport aircraft to take them away ……

This scene reminds many people of the “Saigon moment” 46 years ago. When I saw this scene, the first thing that came to my mind was: in Afghanistan, the “model” approach to social transformation has once again gone bankrupt.

The so-called “modeling” is a term used by Samir Ahmad, the former director of the Amman

Cultural Bureau of the capital of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, chairman of the Cultural Affairs Committee of the Organization of Arab Cities, recipient of the Chinese Book Award for Special Contribution, and a renowned scholar, in his book “Catching Up on Civilization – The Future of the Arabs”. The Rise of China and the Future of the Arabs,” a concept used to describe the causes of the dilemma in the Arab-Islamic world.

According to the preface to the Chinese edition of “Catching Up on Civilization” written by Samir Ahmed, the Arabic edition of the book “”Catching Up on Civilization” was published in 2009 and was reprinted twice in 2012 and 2013. The fact that the same book was printed three times in four years shows how much it is valued among Arab readers.

The Chinese version of his new book 东方的复兴——“阿拉伯之春”的失败与中国崛起的前景 “The Revival of the East – The Failure of the Arab Spring and the Prospects for China’s Rise” has been translated by the translation team of the Arab Institute of Beijing Foreign Studies University and will be officially published by Beijing Normal University Press.

The book is another of Samir’s masterpieces, following his 2008 book “Catching Up on Civiliation”, which takes a “civilizational look” at the crisis in the Arab world and provides an in-depth analysis of the future of Sino-Arab relations.

Like Catching Up on Civilization, the original Arabic edition of The Revival of the East, published in Jordan in August 2018, has received widespread attention from Arab readers, has been reprinted three times in the past year, and has been included in the Jordanian Ministry of Culture’s National Reading Program.

The content of these two books has a strong continuity, since “”Catching Up on Civilization” is the author’s reflection on the plight of the Arab world before the dramatic changes in the Middle East in 2011 and his outlook on foreign relations, while “Revival in the East” is an interpretation and reflection on the evolution of the situation in the Arab world after the dramatic changes in the Middle East in 2011, as well as his observation and understanding of the development of Sino-Afghan relations in the new situation.

In my opinion, although Afghanistan is not part of the Arab world, it is part of the Islamic world with the Arab world and has similarities in many aspects. Therefore, these two books can serve as a perspective on Afghanistan from within the Islamic world and provide us with useful references.

The “Modeling” and “Non-Modeling” of the Middle East

Let’s start with “”Catching Up on Civilization”. At the heart of this book are two key words: “modeling” and “non-modeling.

Samir defines “schematization” by contrasting it with “non-schematization. The word “non-modal” is very important throughout the book, and it is a central concept throughout the book. Understanding this word is the main point of the book.

According to Samir’s explanation in the book, “China’s development model is actually ‘non-patterned,’ i.e., it does not use a fixed, sanctified model to measure various initiatives and plans in the development process.” (“Catching Up on Civilization – The Rise of China and the Future of the Arabs, Chinese Edition P. 68, Beijing Normal University Press, 1st edition, September 2014, same below) If we use the Chinese term, it means the basic principles of non-adherence to dogma, specific analysis of specific problems, independence and seeking truth from facts.

According to Samir’s view expressed in this book, the modern history of the Arab world should be counted from 1798, the landmark event of which was Napoleon’s expedition to Egypt that took place in that year. Although various European expeditions and invasions to the Middle East had occurred many times before, Napoleon’s expedition to Egypt had a special significance in Samir’s view.

image.png

Napoleon and Generals in Egypt, by Jean Leon Gerome

Because Napoleon’s expeditionary forces did not appear in Egypt as “conquerors” but as “liberators” who freed the Egyptian people from the rule of the Mamluk dynasty. Therefore, “Napoleon’s soldiers and counsellors did not treat the Egyptians harshly and cruelly either.” (P.13) Thus, the Arabs did not see the Napoleonic expeditionary forces as enemies; rather, the direct and close observation of the French who came to Egypt made the Arabs realize that Europe had changed significantly, that Europe had risen, and that the Arabs had fallen behind.

This concern of the Arabs for Europe soon materialized in action. In 1805 A.D., shortly after France withdrew from Egypt, the Muhammad Ali dynasty was founded in Egypt. Committed to implementing social reforms and reforming state institutions through learning from European countries, Muhammad Ali began sending foreign students to European countries, especially France, in 1809 in order to train relevant professionals. This move produced a community of thinkers and educators for Egypt, and thus the history of modern Arab thought began.

Among the thinkers who emerged at the beginning of the 19th century, Samir most highly regarded Rifa’a Rafi’a Taqtawi as “the most important enlightened thinker of the Arab revival”. This man was a religious scholar at the Al-Azhar Mosque, which was of great importance in the Islamic world, and in 1826 he became the imam of the Egyptian mission to France.

During his five-year stay in Paris from 1826 to 1831, he made a comprehensive observation of France in all fields of science, technology, thought, and society, and compared them with the teachings of Islam, and concluded that the French Enlightenment, represented by Rousseau, and the French social and political institutions established under his guidance, were the main reasons for the revival of France. These factors were not at all contrary to Islam and could be applied to the Egyptians, as well as to all Muslims who wanted to recreate their glory.

Upon his return to his country in 1831, Tahtawi compiled what he had seen and thought in Paris into a book: A Paris Profile, which was published in 1834. Muhammad Ali praised the book and directed that its original Arabic text and Turkish translation be issued to schools and administrative institutions at all levels. The book soon gained fame and became one of the most influential books in the cause of the Arab revival.

According to Samir, two points in particular are worthy of attention concerning the thought of Tahtawi.

First, Tahtawi’s ideas arose in the early 19th century, before the massive colonization of the Arab world by European states had begun, and before the Arabs saw Europe as a dangerous object that they had to guard against, but rather as a mere object of observation and learning. In other words, Tahtawi’s thought reflects the original face of modern Arab revival thought.

Second, the importance that Taqtawi attached to the ideas of the French Enlightenment was not because he believed that these ideas were a priori (as opposed to Islamic doctrine) correct in themselves, but rather that they could help Muslims pursue their own interests and achieve social progress. The only prerequisite he set for the use of French thought was that it should not be contrary to the Shari’a. On this basis, he argued that “truth does not matter where it comes from. As long as it is beneficial to Muslims and to the revival and progress of Arab societies, it should be taken and used. In Samir’s view, this approach of “not being superior, not being bookish, but only being practical” is “non-modular”.

This led Samir to conclude that before the European colonial invasion that changed the image of Europe in the Arab world, the “original” Arab revival movement was “non-modular,” that is, free from ideological constraints and adapting the experience of others to fit the Arab context and culture. This means that it is not bound by ideology, but takes the experience of others and adapts it to the Arab context and culture – especially the moral code – and then uses it for its own purposes, with national revival as the highest goal. According to Samir, this is the only correct path for the revival of the Arab and Islamic world.

Can the Arab world revive and regain its glory if it follows the “non-modular” path advocated by Taqtawi? Samir’s answer to this question is that we will never know the answer.

From the mid-19th century onward, “European states, starting from the edge of the Ottoman Empire, gradually encroached upon the Arab states, eventually turning the entire Arab world into a European colony. ” (P.9) According to Samir, this reality led to a fundamental change in the problems facing the Arabs: “For the Arabs, the most pressing issue was no longer how to achieve revival, but how to resist European invasion and colonial expansion.” (P.13) 


A Second Review

https://www.seetao.com/details/52255.html

Editorial
Revival in the East: The Failure of the Arab Spring and the Prospects for China’s Rise

Jiandao [Seeing the Way] December 17, 2020


The two books focus on the history of China’s revival and the reasons for the long Arab decline, which limited the recovery of Arab state power due to its ideology and development model

On December 15, 2020, the Chinese version of the book “The Revival of the East – The Failure of the Arab Spring and the Prospects of China’s Rise” (later referred to as “The Revival of the East”) was published. This book written by Samir Khayr Ahmed, a renowned Jordanian scholar, chairman of the Cultural Affairs Committee of the Arab Cities Organization and recipient of the Chinese Book Award for Special Contribution. The Chinese version of the book “The Revival of the East – The Failure of the Arab Spring and the Prospects of China’s Rise” (later referred to as “The Revival of the East”) was translated by the translation team of the Arab Institute of Beijing Foreign Studies University and will be officially published and distributed by Beijing Normal University Press for domestic readers. In the context of the current changes in the Middle East and the growing importance of Sino-Arab relations, it is necessary and useful to understand and study the positions and views of Arab scholars through this book.      

A Historical Analysis of the Crisis of Arab Civilization

The Arab nation has created a glorious civilization throughout history and made indelible contributions to the progress of human society. The constant colonization, invasion, occupation, intervention, and contention by the West interrupted the reforms and innovations carried out by the learned men represented by Muhammad Ali and Taqtawi. Instead of blaming God, Samir believes that the main reason why the Arab nation has not been able to overcome the crisis and solve the “hundred-year Middle East problem” is that it has not built a development model that fits its own characteristics. “The colonizers exploited the Arabs and tried to influence them with their culture and ideology. But this is not the fundamental reason why the Arab nation has not been able to revive itself; it is the choice of the Arabs themselves that has dominated the course of their history.

Many Arabs, desperate to get out of their predicament as soon as possible, tend to want to do everything in one go and to solve all their problems in one “package” in order to achieve their national renaissance. In this mindset, what was once historically pursued as “positive borrowing” is increasingly being transformed into “blind imitation. More seriously, “imitation” – imitation of the past or imitation of the West – has gradually become a way of thinking that has formed the national psyche and character of the contemporary Arab nation, and has become a distinctive feature of the development process of each Arab country today. For the Arabs, there is no difference between slavishly imitating the West and admiring the past. What this comes down to is worship of “the other” to the exclusion of groping towards one’s own path ahead and finding mehtods that suit one self.

Samir agrees with President Xi Jinping when he stated in his speech at the headquarters of the League of Arab States on January 21, 2016, that “The key to the choice of path is to accord with national situations. The development path of a country can only be determined by its people, on the basis of its own historical inheritance, cultural traditions and the level of economic and social development.”

Modernization is not a single-choice question. The diversity of historical conditions determines the diversity of development paths chosen by countries. The Arab proverb says: ‘You know where it itches only by your own nails.’ [Note: perhaps

‘ God help him who has no nails to scratch himself with.’
Said of the weak person who has no helper. H.

P. 88 Arabic Proverbs and Proverbial Phrases
Author(s): James Richard Jewett

End note]

In the exploration of development paths, there is no way out of copying, imitation is easy to get lost, and only practice makes true knowledge. The development path of a country can only be decided by the people of that country, based on their own historical heritage, cultural traditions, and level of economic and social development.” The secret of China’s success lies in finding a development path that is in line with its own characteristics. Meanwhile the greatest crisis facing Arab civilization is how to get rid of dependence in development and “blind imitation”, how to actively learn from the advanced achievements of human civilization and its own outstanding cultural heritage, and how to find a solution to the “hundred-year question” on the basis of frankly facing its own problems and objective analysis. To find the “Arab model” is a matter of solving that “hundred-year question”.



A profound reflection on the Arab Spring

Since 2011, the turmoil in the Arab world has continued to intensify, and the Arab “spring” that the Arab people had hoped for has not come, but the Arab “winter” has lingered. “The Arab Spring has not solved the existing problems of the Arab World.  It has become the catalyst for the simultaneous eruption of its pre-existing problems. Samir made a profound critique of the problems behind the Arab Spring and believed that the governments and ruling parties of Arab countries should reflect deeply on their own development philosophy and choice of path. In his conversations with Samir, he repeatedly emphasized that the reason why the Chinese Communist Party has won the heartfelt support of the Chinese people is that the Chinese Communist Party, as the ruling party, has always “never forgotten its original intention and kept its mission in mind” and always set the people’s aspiration for a better life as its goal, and has set effective principles, programs and agendas.

The rulers of many Arab countries, on the other hand, have devoted themselves to building their own authoritarianism and have only served the interests of their own families, tribes, sects, and parties, reducing “improving the welfare of all people” to a slogan. Samir differs from many Arab scholars who analyze dramatic changes in the Arab countries from the perspective of military seizure of power, strongman politics, hereditary power, and the lack of the rule of law. Samir believes that these are only the symptoms. Cultural factors are at the root of the problem. The rulers of the Arab countries have not been able to transform or integrate tradition and modernity. They get exhausted from incessant confrontations with internal and external pressures. They have been unable to integrate society and so must constantly resort to tribalism or religious factionalism to protect the position are ruler and the legitimacy of their regimes.

During recent decades the gap between the Arab nation and the rest of the world has widened. The Arab nation has become increasingly backward and marginalized in the modernization process which is necessarily based on national independence, freedom, justice, solidarity, and progress. According to Samir, the outbreak of the Arab Spring was the inevitable result of the absence of a common agenda based on shared beliefs and common interests in many Arab countries.

An enthusiastic vision of Sino-Arab relations

In 2007, when Samir and his Arab friends were invited to China for the first time and strolled through the streets of Beijing, Shanghai and Shenzhen, he could not help but ponder how China and the Arab world faced the same crises more than a hundred years ago, but why there was such a wide gap more than a hundred years later. In the foreword to “Catching Up on Civilization,” Samir writes, “The reader may find this book to be very enthusiastic about China. The book “The Revival of the East” once again shows the author’s enthusiasm for China and further explains the prospects of Sino-Arab relations in the eyes of Arab scholars. And this time, in The Renaissance of the East, Samir clearly enriches and deepens his knowledge and understanding, and takes a higher strategic perspective on the development of Sino-Arab relations.

In his view, this means not only greater trade, investment, and human mobility between China and the Arab countries, but also better access to China’s increasingly sophisticated production capacity and technological achievements. In addition, Samir advocated that Arab countries should strengthen their strategic partnership with China in a comprehensive manner, and believed that the so-called “strategic” relationship should not only focus on the material and technical aspects, but also strengthen the high level of mutual appreciation of civilization from the ideological and civilizational perspectives.

Samir repeatedly stressed that “fundamentally, I am against all material and spiritual dependencies, but learning from China’s successful experience is of great benefit to the Arab countries. He believes that one of the important factors in the great achievements of New China in the past 70 years since its establishment, especially in the past 40 years of reform and opening up, is that China has always pursued “active learning,” “creative learning” and “timely adjustment. “timely adjustment” and “practice as the only criterion to test the truth”. He summarizes sixteen Chinese experiences that can be used by Arab countries arguing that there is a more important, more fundamental principle beyond these sixteen. That is the “non-modularity [or non-model model]”, i.e. “China, while adhering to certain basic principles, avoids going into some kind of ideological confinement that does not correspond to the actual situation. One could even say that the process of China’s development and rejuvenation is itself a process of dealing with various trends of thought and avoiding their adverse effects in order to achieve its core goals. China has transcended the stereotypical model of one or more ideologies to achieve integration and innovation.”

According to Samir, the so-called learning from China should focus on the “art” of Chinese development, but more importantly, it should learn from the “way” of China’s success, and the question of “way” is an urgent one for Arabs to address. The question of “the way” is what the Arabs need to solve urgently.

Finally, the author of the book expresses his confidence that the two civilizations will move forward together, because the Arabs have never been more concerned about China, and the “Belt and Road” initiative shows that China is ready for “China’s dream – shared by the world”.

——从萨米尔·艾哈迈德的“文明追随论”说起 

2021-09-07 08:24

【文/ 观察者网专栏作者 镭射】2021年8月15日,一系列让人感觉眼花缭乱的变故在阿富汗首都喀布尔接连发生:就在这一天,塔利班进入喀布尔,塔利班代表在与阿富汗政府商讨“和平移交权力”,总统加尼“出走”他国……而在另一边,与塔利班进入喀布尔同时,美军从阿富汗政府军那里接管喀布尔机场安全事务,以执行空中大撤离。16日早晨,数百名阿富汗人冲向机场跑道,围向飞机,甚至“挂在”美军运输机上,期望美军运输机能把他们带走……

这一幕,让很多人想起了46年前的“西贡时刻”。而当我看到这一幕的时候,首先想到的是:在阿富汗这个地方,“模式化”的社会改造方式,再一次破产了。

所谓“模式化”,是约旦哈希姆王国首都安曼市文化局前局长、阿拉伯城市组织文化事务委员会主席、中华图书特殊贡献奖获得者、著名学者萨米尔·艾哈迈德在其著作《文明的追随——中国的崛起与阿拉伯人的未来》中提出的一个用来描述阿拉伯—伊斯兰世界所处困境成因的概念。

据萨米尔·艾哈迈德撰写的《文明的追随》中文版序言中说,《文明的追随》一书的阿拉伯文版于2009年出版,并于2012年和2013年两次再版。同一本书在四年时间里连印三版,可见此书在阿拉伯读者中的受重视程度。

而他的新作《东方的复兴——“阿拉伯之春”的失败与中国崛起的前景》一书的中文版,也已由北京外国语大学阿拉伯学院翻译团队完成翻译,并将由北京师范大学出版社正式出版发行。

该书是萨米尔继2008年出版《文明的追随》后,又一部对阿拉伯世界所遭遇的危机进行“文明的审视”,并对中阿关系的前景进行深入分析的力作。

同《文明的追随》一样,《东方的复兴》阿文原版于2018年8月在约旦出版后,便得到阿拉伯读者的广泛关注,一年多来三次再版,并被约旦文化部纳入“全民阅读计划”。

这两部书的内容具有很强的延续性,《文明的追随》是作者对2011年中东剧变之前阿拉伯世界所处困境的思考和对外关系的展望,而《东方的复兴》则是对2011年中东剧变以后阿拉伯世界局势演变的解读和反思,以及对新形势下中阿关系发展的观察和理解。

我认为,阿富汗虽然不属于阿拉伯世界,但它和阿拉伯世界同属于伊斯兰世界,在很多方面都有相似之处,因此这两本书,可以作为一个从伊斯兰世界内部观察阿富汗的视角,为我们提供有益的借鉴。

中东的“模式化”与“非模式化”

先谈《文明的追随》。这本书的核心内容,就是两个关键词:“模式化”和“非模式化”。

萨米尔对“模式化”的定义,是通过与“非模式化”的对比进行的。“非模式化”这个词在全书中所占地位非常重要,它是整本书的一大核心概念。理解了这个词,就明白了整本书的主要内容。

根据萨米尔在书中的解释:“中国的发展模式实际上就是‘非模式化’,即在发展过程中,不会用一种固定的、神圣化的模式来衡量各种举措、计划。”(《文明的追随——中国的崛起与阿拉伯人的未来》中文版P.68,北京师范大学出版社2014年9月第1版,下同)如果用中国人的话说,就是不拘泥于教条,具体问题具体分析,独立自主,实事求是的基本原则。

按照萨米尔在本书中所表达的看法,阿拉伯世界的近代史应从1798年开始算起,其标志性事件是这一年发生的拿破仑远征埃及。虽然此前欧洲人对中东地区的各种远征和入侵发生过很多次,但在萨米尔看来,拿破仑对埃及的远征有特殊意义。

拿破仑与将军们在埃及,作者Jean Leon Gerome

因为拿破仑的远征军不是以“征服者”,而是以将埃及人民从马木留克王朝的统治下解放出来的“解放者”的身份出现在埃及的。因此,“拿破仑手下的士兵和参谋们也没有严酷、残忍地对待埃及人。”(P.13)因此,阿拉伯人没有将拿破仑远征军视作敌人;相反,通过对来到埃及的法国人的直接贴近观察,使得阿拉伯人意识到,欧洲已经发生了重大变化,欧洲已经崛起,而阿拉伯人已经落后了。

阿拉伯人对欧洲的这种关注很快就落实在了行动上。公元1805年,就在法国撤出埃及后不久,穆罕默德·阿里王朝在埃及成立。穆罕默德·阿里致力于通过对欧洲国家的学习,来实施社会改革和国家机构改革,为了培养相关的专业人才,从1809年开始向欧洲国家,特别是法国派遣留学生。此举为埃及培养了一个思想家和教育家群体,阿拉伯近代思想史由此发端。

在这批19世纪初产生的思想家中,萨米尔最推崇里发阿·拉斐阿·塔哈塔维,将其称为“阿拉伯复兴事业最重要的启蒙思想家”。此人是在伊斯兰世界有重要地位的爱资哈尔清真寺的一名宗教学者,1826年出任埃及赴法国留学生团的伊玛目。

从1826年到1831年,塔哈塔维在巴黎居住了5年,在此期间,他对法国的科技、思想、社会等各个领域进行了全面观察,并将其与伊斯兰教的教义进行了对比,最后得出结论:以卢梭所代表的法国启蒙思想,和在其指导下建立的法国的社会体制和政治体制,是法国实现复兴的主要原因,这些因素与伊斯兰教完全不相违背,可以适用于埃及人,以及想要重塑辉煌的全体穆斯林。

1831年回国后,塔哈塔维将自己在巴黎的所见所想整理成了一本书:《巴黎精华》,于1834年出版。穆罕默德·阿里对此书大加赞赏,并指示将其阿拉伯文原本和土耳其文译本印发到各级学校和行政机构。这本书很快名声大噪,成为阿拉伯复兴事业中影响力最大的一本书。

萨米尔认为,有关塔哈塔维的思想,有两点特别值得重视:

第一,塔哈塔维的思想产生在19世纪初,当时欧洲国家对阿拉伯世界的大规模殖民进程尚未开始,阿拉伯人尚未将欧洲视为必须防范的危险对象,而是将其单纯视为观察和学习的对象。也就是说,塔哈塔维的思想,反映的是近代阿拉伯复兴思想的本来面目。

第二,塔哈塔维对法国启蒙思想的重视,并不是因为他认为这些思想本身具有先验的(相对于伊斯兰教义的)正确性,而是这些思想可以帮助穆斯林追求自身利益,实现社会进步。塔哈塔维为借鉴法国思想成果设定的唯一前提条件是“不得违背伊斯兰教法”,在此基础上,他主张“真理不问出处”,只要是对穆斯林有益,对阿拉伯社会的复兴和进步有益,就应该拿过来为己所用。在萨米尔看来,这种“不唯上,不唯书,只唯实”的做法,就是“非模式化”。

由此,萨米尔得出结论:在欧洲殖民入侵导致阿拉伯世界对欧洲的印象被改变之前,“本原”的阿拉伯复兴运动就是“非模式化”的,即不受意识形态束缚,将他人的经验拿来改造,使之符合阿拉伯的国情和文化——特别是道德准则——之后为己所用,以民族复兴为最高目标。萨米尔认为,这才是阿拉伯和伊斯兰世界复兴的唯一正确的道路。

如果按照塔哈塔维所主张的“非模式化”的道路走下去,阿拉伯世界是否能够获得复兴,重现辉煌?对于这个问题,萨米尔的回答是:我们永远不会知道答案了。

因为从19世纪中期起,“欧洲国家从奥斯曼帝国的边缘开始,逐步蚕食阿拉伯国家,最终将整个阿拉伯世界都变成了欧洲的殖民地。“(P.9)萨米尔认为,这一现实导致阿拉伯人面临的问题发生了根本性的变化:“对阿拉伯人来说,最紧要的问题已经不是如何实现复兴,而是如何抵抗欧洲人的入侵和殖民扩张。”(P.13) 返回搜狐,查看更多声明:该文观点仅代表作者本人,搜狐号系信息发布平台,搜狐仅提供信息存储空间服务。


社评

东方的复兴:阿拉伯之春的失败与中国崛起的前景见道网 2020年12月17日

  • 两本书中主要谈到了关于中国复兴史与阿拉伯长期衰落的原因,由于其思想和发展模式限制了阿拉伯国力的复苏

阅读这篇文章预计需要 7 分钟分享这篇文章 微博 微信 qq空间 Facebook Tweet

2020年12月15日,约旦著名学者、阿拉伯城市组织文化事务委员会主席、中华图书特殊贡献奖获得者萨米尔·赫伊尔·艾哈迈德撰写的《东方的复兴——“阿拉伯之春”的失败与中国崛起的前景》(后文简称《东方的复兴》)一书中文版,由北京外国语大学阿拉伯学院翻译团队完成翻译,并将由北京师范大学出版社正式出版发行,与国内读者见面。在中东经历当下变局以及中阿关系重要性日益凸显的背景下,通过该书了解、研究阿拉伯学者的立场和观点是必要和有益的。      

针对阿拉伯文明危机的历史分析

阿拉伯民族在历史上创造了辉煌的文明,为人类社会的进步做出了不可磨灭的贡献。西方国家不断的殖民、入侵、占领、干预、争夺打断了以穆罕默德·阿里和塔赫塔维为代表的有识之士所进行的改革与创新。萨米尔没有一味怨天尤人,而是认为阿拉伯民族始终未能克服危机、破解“百年中东之问”的主要原因在于自身没有构建起符合自身特点的发展模式。“殖民者对阿拉伯人进行剥削,并试图以其文化和意识形态对阿拉伯人施加影响。但这并不是导致阿拉伯民族无法实现复兴的根本原因,阿拉伯人自身的选择才是主导整个民族历史进程的主要因素。

很多阿拉伯人迫切希望尽快摆脱困境,因而倾向于毕其功于一役,或者以一种模式“一揽子”地解决所有问题进而实现民族复兴。在这种心态下,历史上曾经追求的“积极的借鉴”日益转变为“盲目的模仿”。更为严重的是,“模仿”——模仿过去或模仿西方,逐步成为一种思维方式,构成当代阿拉伯民族的民族心理与民族性格,也成为如今各个阿拉伯国家在其发展过程中呈现出的显著特点,对于阿拉伯人而言,崇尚西方与崇尚过去并无差别,其本质均是崇拜他者,而非探索适合自身的道路与方法。

萨米尔十分认同习近平主席2016年1月21日在阿拉伯国家联盟总部发表演讲时所指出的,“道路选择,关键要符合国情。现代化不是单选题。历史条件的多样性,决定了各国选择发展道路的多样性。阿拉伯谚语讲:‘自己的指甲才知道哪里痒。’在发展道路的探索上,照搬没有出路,模仿容易迷失,实践才出真知。一个国家的发展道路,只能由这个国家的人民,依据自己的历史传承、文化传统、经济社会发展水平来决定。”中国成功的秘诀在于找到了符合自身特点的发展道路,而阿拉伯文明面对的最大危机是如何摆脱依附式发展和“盲目的模仿”,如何在积极借鉴人类文明先进成果和本民族优秀文化遗产的基础上,在坦诚面对自身问题并客观分析的基础上,找到破解“百年之问”的“阿拉伯模式”。

对“阿拉伯之春”的深刻反思

2011年以来,阿拉伯世界的动荡持续加剧,阿拉伯人民所希冀的阿拉伯之“春”没有到来,阿拉伯之“冬”却挥之不去。“阿拉伯之春”没有解决既有问题,却成为既有问题的总爆发。萨米尔对“阿拉伯之春”背后反映出的问题进行了深刻的批判,认为阿拉伯国家的政府、执政党应当对自身的发展理念、道路选择进行深刻反思。在与萨米尔的交谈中,他多次强调,中国共产党之所以赢得了中国人民的衷心拥护,是因为中国共产党作为执政党始终“不忘初心、牢记使命”,始终把人民对美好生活的向往作为自己奋斗的目标,并且确定了行之有效的原则、方案、议程。而很多阿拉伯国家的统治者则致力于构建自己的威权主义,只为自己的家族、部落、教派、党派谋取利益,“改善全体人民的福祉”沦为一句口号。与很多阿拉伯学者从军人夺权、强人政治、权力世袭、法制缺失等角度来分析阿拉伯剧变不同,萨米尔认为那只是问题的表象,文化因素则是问题的根本,很多阿拉伯国家有着现代国家的外形,内核却仍然是阿拉伯文化中的部落主义、宗派主义,统治者没能实现传统与现代的转型或融合,疲于应付内外压力,无力进行社会整合,只能通过强化部落主义、宗派主义来保障执政地位和政权合法性。

正是在这几十年中阿拉伯民族与世界其他民族的差距不断扩大,阿拉伯世界在基于独立、自由、正义、团结、进步的现代化进程中日益落后和边缘化。萨米尔认为,“阿拉伯之春”爆发是很多阿拉伯国家缺失基于共同信念和共同利益的共同议程的必然结果。

对中阿关系的热情展望

2007年,当萨米尔与他的阿拉伯朋友们首次应邀来华访问,漫步于北京、上海、深圳的街头时,他不禁陷入沉思,百余年前的中国与阿拉伯世界面对同样的危机,为何百余年后却产生了如此之大的差距。在《文明的追随》一书的前言中,萨米尔曾写道“读者可能会发现本书对中国怀有极大的热情。《东方的复兴》一书再次展现出作者对中国怀有的热情,并进一步阐释了阿拉伯学者眼中中阿关系的前景。而此次在《东方的复兴》中,萨米尔明显丰富、深化了自己的认知和理解,从更高的战略视角来看待中阿关系的发展。

萨米尔高度评价习近平主席提出中阿共建“一带一路”的倡议,在他看来这不仅意味着中阿之间更大规模的贸易、投资、人员流动,更意味着阿拉伯国家可以更好地吸收、利用中国日益成熟的生产能力和科技成果。此外,萨米尔主张阿拉伯国家全面加强与中国的战略伙伴关系,并认为所谓“战略”关系,不仅要关注物质和技术层面,更要从思想和文明的高度来加强高水平的文明互鉴。萨米尔反复强调“根本而言,我反对一切物质上和精神上的依附关系,但学习中国的成功经验对阿拉伯国家而言却大有裨益”。他认为,新中国成立70年来,特别是改革开放40多年来之所以能取得举世瞩目的巨大成就,其中的重要的因素是中国始终追求“积极的借鉴”“创造性的学习”“适时的调整”“以实践作为检验真理的唯一标准”。他总结了16条可资阿拉伯国家借鉴的中国经验,并且认为在这16条之上还有更要重要一个原则,那就真是“非模式化”,即“中国在坚持某些基本原则的同时,避免走向某种不符合实际情况的意识形态的禁锢之中,甚至可以说,中国的发展与复兴进程本身就是一个应对各种思潮,规避其不良影响以实现核心目标的过程。中国超越了某种或某几种意识形态的刻板模式,实现了融合与创新。”萨米尔认为,所谓向中国学习,既要关注中国发展之“术”,但更重要的是借鉴中国成功之“道”,而“道”的问题是阿拉伯人目前迫切需要解决的。

最后,该书作者表达了对中阿两大文明携手前行的信心,因为阿拉伯人从没有像现在这样关注中国,而“一带一路”倡议的提出也表明中国已经为“中国梦想·世界分享”做好了准备。(转载请注明见道网 http://www.seetao.com )见道网机械栏目编辑/邢文涛 

Posted in Foreign Relations 外交, History 历史 | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Chinese Workers on Their Lives: Self-Representation in “New Workers’ Literature”

A discussion of the new workers’ literature movement in China exemplified by the journal New Workers’ Literature edited by Fan Yusu. Fan’s autobiographical account “I am Fan Yusu” (translated this blog) got wide attention when it was published in 2017.

Here I have smoothed out a DeepL machine translation though it remains rough in spots.

See also the Economist August 14, 2021 story “Production-line Poets

Self-Representation in “New Workers’ Literature”

Source:Chuàngzuò píng tán [Criticism of Literary Creations]《创作评谭》

by Xu Gang 2021年03月30日

The concept of “new workers” can be roughly traced back to Lü Tu’s book China’s New Workers: Lost and Rising. The book intentionally avoided the term “migrant workers”, which was popular at that time but highly discriminatory, but could not simply replace them with the working class of the socialist era, so they had to be named “new workers” or “new workers group. New Workers” or “New Workers’ Group”. Therefore, the so-called “new workers’ literature” is not a completely new thing. Whether it is the “migrant workers’ literature” that emerged at the beginning of the new century or the spectacular “new workers’ literature” of today, the issue of endorsement or self-representation of “writing from the bottom” has always been a topic of concern in the academic world. The issue of the representation or self-representation of “underclass writing” has always been a topic of concern to the academic community. In this regard, Marx’s words in his article “The Eighteenth Brumaire
of Louis Bonaparte
” : “They cannot speak with their own voice, their stories must be written by others.”

This has long been a problem that must be faced when discussing this topic. Indeed, when we look back at the “underclass writing” boom of over ten years ago, we can easily find that the buzz at that time was more of a trend within “pure literature” and was not a real “voice” for the “underclass”. The “bottom of society” does not really have a “voice”. Although we are glad to read Wang Anyi‘s “Planting Red Water Chestnuts Above and Lotus Roots Below“, Liu Zhenyun‘s “My Name is Liu Yuejin” and Jia Pingwa‘s “Gladness” and we now find that the “migrant workers” have finally become the main characters of the long-lost stories. Still, we have to admit immediately that such literary “endorsement” is actually far from the real voice of the underclass. However, we have to admit immediately that such literary “endorsement” is actually far from the real bottom. It is worth pointing out that there was no lack of adequate theoretical discussions on the “underclass”, ranging from Gramsci in Italy to Chatterjee in India. But the contradiction between life experience and literary talent eventually led “underclass writing” to a kind of wishful thinking fantasy. People apparently prefer to believe in the self-representation of the “underclass” and are suspicious of all forms of “endorsement”, so that for a long time the identity of the author becomes an important reference for writing. In this sense, among those who have the talent to write, we always expect more from those who have special experiences.

For this reason, many writers have aroused widespread interest in “pure literature”. For example, Liaoning writer Gui Jin, a crane operator [Note: See article on Gui Jin via Google Translate] who writes novels, once attracted the attention of researchers of “underclass writing. This is because, given his identity and the content of his writing, his works should contain common material for underclass narratives. In fact, Gui Jin’s novels often revolve around daily life at a steel mill. The humble protagonists are mostly workers and their sons and younger brothers. This the main framework of workers’ literature with which we are all familiar. Yet this is not always the case; as Gui Jin says, he does not speak for the workers. He only embodies the hardships of life and the difficulties of making a living from the perspective of individual survival. Some researchers would like to see the young writers as expressing the historical consciousness of these sons and brothers of the working class through their histories. This is too heavy a burden for these young writers to bear. They in fact avoid telling tales of frequent deaths in industrial accidents as material in telling the stories of the pains and of the various harms the underclass has suffered.

In other words, although the novel is addresses a hard social reality, the author intends to transcend the monotonous social dimension of the underclass novel and instead pursue its broader and more profound spiritual connotations. As Gui Jin says, he wants to find freedom of heart and mind in the poetry of words. Thus, he is not grounded in solving the problem of reality, but addressese the problem of the soul. He strives to integrate the dimension of the self within the framework of a grand narrative. As a result, he can sometimes have an illusory and ethereal “literary accent”. This makes understanding the novel more complicated. Thus, despite his status as a crane operator, Gui Jin’s is clearly inadquate as an example of “writing from the bottom”. Similarly, the three “post-80s” writers who have recently gained popularity, the “Three Swordsmen of Tiexi”, the northeastern “backwaters”, also suffer from almost the same misundertanding on the part of their readers. Similar to people’s expectations of Gui Jin, researchers have always tried to link the three writers’ creations to such grand terms and historical backgrounds as the restructuring of state-owned enterprises, the “decline” of the Northeast China rustbelt, and the historical consciousness of the sons of the working class, not realizing that for these young writers, all that is too heavy a burden for them to bear. They themselves flee from those labels and interpretations.

Occasionally, there are individuals in the field of “pure literature” who, with their particular writing experience, bring a sense of freshness. But soon, this “novelty” will gradually disappear as the author’s experience is exhausted. What can be discussed here is the creation of Zhou Zixiang, a young writer from Shaanxi Province. The first thing of interest is, of course, the author’s experience. She has worked in several factories in Singapore and Hong Kong, and once wrote novels secretly in the workshop of an electronics factory as a female worker. These are stories about her wanderings in foreign countries and the hardships of labor, so of course she can be regarded as a practitioner of “workers’ literature”.

Zhou Zixiang

Experiences like hers are not common among the younger generation of writers. It is just this experience that has forged her valuable uniqueness. It is undeniable that Zhou Zixiang’s representative novels, such as “Wang Ran Ji”, “The End of the World Kitchen King”, and “Slow Boat to Hong Kong“, all show her personal experience to a greater or lesser extent. This special experience has become a symbolic capital in a sense, especially in such an era when the author’s experience and literary education are highly homogenized and the breakthrough of “pure literature” has become extremely difficult. In this sense, although Zhou Zixiang’s writing is a bit coarse and clichéd, it still shows an indelible uniqueness.

This uniqueness here lies in the author’s very careful observation of the underclass, and even a feeling of being right there with them, natural and genuine, without deliberately exalting them. Generally speaking, there are two different ways to imagine the underclass: on the one hand, it emphasizes the vitality of the people and idealizes the morality of the civil world. On the one hand, it emphasizes the vitality of the people, and idealizes the morality of the world of the common people. As the saying goes, “The righteous are always the ones who butcher dogs, and the negative characters are the bookish types”. The other imagination is based on the perspective of national critique, that is, the opposing perspectives of the so-called elite intellectuals and the vulgar. The vulgar are the objects of sympathy and criticism of the elite intellectuals, as the saying goes, “mourning their misfortune along with anger at their servility”, which emphasizes the vulgar and abject character of the common people.

Zhou Zixiang’s novel actually effectively fuses the two. In The Sky’s End Kitchen King 野水:周子湘《天涯厨王》 [Note: see article on this book via Google Translate], there are positive and optimistic characters like Li Xiuniang, who is a very infectious and bright personality, and there are also ungrateful people like Duan Yimeng, who embodies the degradation of the lower class. More importantly, when discussing the degradation of the underclass, Zhou Zixiang is able to analyze the society from the social reality. We notice that almost all the tragedies of the “underclass” in the novel come from the characters’ obsession – they all want to be decent people. In “The Slow Boat to Hong Kong”, Jasmine, who is not satisfied with her job as a waitress in a restaurant, wants to put on a professional dress and become a secretary, and is willing to sell her body to achieve this goal. This unrealistic self-positioning leads to a tragic personal fate. In “Wang Ran”, Achang is not satisfied with opening a small supermarket, but wants to learn from successful people and attend classes at the Chamber of Commerce, and even fantasizes about becoming a member of the district-level Chinese People’s Consulatative Congress. And Li Mengyao and her sister cheat Achang out of his money, but only for the pursuit of pleasure and a trip to Bali. In the past, we have often seen this kind of bridge, that behind the “evil” there are often good motives such as stealing money to pay for their parents’ medical treatment. In Zhou Zixiang’s case, she ruthlessly shatters this illusion, reflecting an extremely cold side.

As we can see above, Zhou’s novels certainly reflect an exciting uniqueness, but as the author’s life changes, the power of this distinctiveness slowly begins to dissipate. Yes, “pure literature” will always be confronted with many such writers, and the specificity of their identities often fades away as they exhaust in their writings the sum of their experiences. It is no wonder that the special experience will gradually become known, and the excitement about their writing will fade. This is probably a kind of institutionalized “culling” power inherent in “pure literature”. In this way, the issue of self-representation of the so-called “new workers’ literature” becomes more urgent. People have been expecting the real “new workers” to tell the stories of the underclass without having to speak for themselves. However, this can only be achieved through the intervention of the media and the opportunity of certain events. It is obvious here that poetry, a simple and intuitive form, is often more effective than fiction, which is a more complex art form.

Therefore, it is important to talk about the significance of “My Verses” here. Qin Xiaoyu‘s “My Psalms” project includes a series of activities such as book publishing, film creation, workers’

Qin Xiaoyu

poetry meetings, and workers’ poetry awards. All of these activities are highly dependent on the packaging and operation of information media, which inevitably reduces them to the landscape of the consumer era in a certain sense. However, even so, there is still a certain pure and beautiful desire left here, that is, as Qin Xiaoyu said, he hopes to pass on the touching and enlightening poetry of workers to more people, “bringing the poetry of the bottom from the margins to the spotlight” [1]. The six authors included in Qin Xiaoyu’s “My Poems” series have since become familiar to the audience: Laojing, a coal miner working deep in the earth; Chen Nianxi, an alleyway blaster; Tiebone, a construction worker; Wu Xia, a female garment factory worker; Jike Ayu, a Yi duck-filling worker; and the deceased After 90″ workers Xu Lizhi. They are all extremely ordinary workers and excellent poets at the same time. Writing in simple Chinese, they write about their labor and express their sorrow and joy in different ways, reintroducing the long-absent “workers’ poetry” in contemporary literature.

Throughout the works in “My Verses”, it is clear that they contain thoughts on the fate of the “new workers”, and numerous wandering poems are filled with the hardships of living, the imprisonment of the mind, loneliness, bewilderment, and the entanglement of life and death. The depth of their experience, the thickness of their emotions, and the power of their directness to the hearts of people will eventually make those silent workers gradually get rid of their “anonymity” and become “individuals with souls”. Let’s take a look at Chen Nianxi’s song “Fracture”: “My head hurts like a fracture when I wake up in the morning / It’s an extra gift from the big machine / It’s not the fault of steel / It’s because my nerves are old and fragile / I don’t dare to look at my life / It’s hard and black / It has the sharp corners of a wind pick / When a stone touches it, it bleeds / I spend my middle age at a depth of 5,000 meters / I fracture the rock layer again and again / By doing so, I put my life back together / My tiny relatives are far away My tiny relatives are far away at the foot of Shang Shan / They are sick and covered with dust / How much of my middle age I cut down / How much of their old age I can prolong / I have three tons of explosives in my body / They are the fuse part / Just last night / I blew up like a rock.” It can be seen that the author tries to pursue equality and dignity by means of poetry, thus giving birth to a new sense of subjectivity and political consciousness. This is undoubtedly conducive to breaking the monopoly of the cultural elite on literature and linking the “voice” of the underclass with social justice and historical truth.

In this regard, Chen Nianxi‘s identity and his creative works are already shocking enough. However, it is the deceased “post-90s” worker Xu Lizhi who inscribes the “new workers’ poetry” on the scene of contemporary literary history in a more melancholic way. After the Foxconn “11 consecutive suicide jumps” shocked people in both China and abroad, this young factory poet used his leap to “eventize” the self-representation of “new workers” again. Compared to the poetry writers who have relied on extreme personalized experiences or even death to gain the attention of the media age, more new workers have actually achieved self-representation in a relatively moderate way.

For example, nonfiction literature, which has been in full swing in recent years, has played a crucial role in the emergence of women workers from the “working girls” to Fan Yusu and other groups. As early as 2011, in order to gain a deeper understanding of the life of factory girls in Dongguan, poet Ding Yan worked in several factories, and after more than 200 days of living and interviewing, she recorded the day-to-day mechanical labor of ordinary female workers who went from the countryside to the city, the flourishing and destruction of their youth, love and dreams, and the questioning of the tender souls on the assembly line about the modern industrial flood. These real and profound factory lives are the source of the non-fiction work Factory Girls by the American writer Leslie Chang. However, Chinese are more familiar with is “The Story of a Working Girl” by Zheng Xiaoqiong, a “working poet”. The uniqueness of “The Story of Women Workers” is that it is both a large group poem about women workers and a historical record after investigation and interview, which can be said to be a perfect combination of poetry and non-fiction writing. In Zheng Xiaoqiong’s poems, the names of the workers are solemnly used as the titles of the poems, which means that every nameless female worker actually has her own name and individual fate and dignity, which makes the voices of those who were originally silent become concrete and vivid.

The democratization of literature that nonfiction strives to promote gives all ordinary people the opportunity to present themselves to the public through words, and in 2017, the WeChat public article “I am Fan Yusu” made people remember Fan Yusu, a female domestic worker. As an extremely ordinary member of the tens of thousands of migrant workers drifting and working in Beijing, Fan Yusu only has a junior high school diploma, but this does not prevent her from expressing herself in a unique way. “My life is like a book that cannot bear to read. Fate has given me a very clumsy binding indeed.” This is the opening line of “I am Fan Yusu”. Although her words are not lacking in rhetorical power, and even the phrases with a flash of light are particularly gripping, her words still contain more of a calmness and gentleness, and she just plainly records her story along the way for more than ten years, conquering countless readers with its true power.

The fact that “I am Fan Yusu” has become an internet “hit” and even caused many debates in the literary circle is obviously inseparable from the fact that the media and events have once again pushed the “new worker group” to the forefront of public attention. For most people, the richness of social life embodied in the uniqueness of personal experience is a great attraction. On the other hand, just as Fan Yusu said, “I have conveyed love and dignity to every weak person I met. They are just like me”. What really moves people here is not only the suffering itself, but also the process and traces of human beings’ struggle with suffering, and the broad and deep love that emerges from the transcendence and understanding of suffering, which is what fascinates middle-class audiences immensely.

Thus, the social visibility of the “new workers’ group” brought by Fan Yusu makes us rethink the unresolved issue of self-representation. After Fan Yusu, the “New Workers’ Literature” magazine of the “Picun Literary Group” has also enabled more and more laborers to discover for themselves their own literature.

Xingonren Wenxue [New Workers’ Literature] Editor Fan Yusu author of “I Am Fan Yusu” on the cover.

After Fan Yusu, the “New Workers’ Literature” magazine of the “Picun Literary Group” has enabled more and more workers to find their own literary expression. Although the form of their expression is still a bit rudimentary and crude, it does not seem to prevent the writers from expressing their sincere feelings. In any case, this kind of difficult self-expression is worth waiting for.

Endnote

[1] Qin Xiaoyu, “Taking Poetry as Evidence,” Frittering Zhi – Preface, Tai Bai Wen Yi Press, 2019, p. 2.

媒介与事件:“新工人文学”的自我表述问题

来源:《创作评谭》 | 徐刚  2021年03月30日08:24关键词:新工人文学

“新工人”的概念大致可以追溯到吕途的那本《中国新工人:迷失与崛起》。该书有意避开了当时颇为流行却极具歧视成分的“农民工”说法,但又不能简单地用社会主义时代的工人阶级予以替代,于是只好将他们命名为“新工人”或“新工人群体”。因此所谓的“新工人文学”,它指称的对象,并不是截然新鲜的事物。无论是新世纪初应运而生的“农民工文学”,还是今天蔚为壮观的“新工人文学”,“底层写作”的代言抑或自我表述问题,一直都是广受学界关注的话题。就此来说,马克思在《路易·波拿巴的雾月十八日》中说的那句话,“他们无法表述自己,他们必须被别人表述”,早已成为讨论这一话题时必须面对的问题。

确实是这样,当我们回顾十多年前的“底层写作”热潮时不难发现,彼时的热闹更多只是“纯文学”内部的一次自我调整,而并没有导向“底层”的真正“发声”。尽管在我们欣喜地读到诸如王安忆的《上种红菱下种藕》、刘震云的《我叫刘跃进》以及贾平凹的《高兴》时,赫然发现“农民工”群体终于成了久违的故事主人公,但我们不得不马上承认,这种文人式的“代言”其实离真实的底层相去甚远。值得指出的是,关于“底层”,当时并不缺乏较为充分的理论探讨,从意大利的葛兰西到印度的查特吉,各色理论不一而足。但生活经验与文学才能之间的矛盾,终究使得“底层写作”逐渐走向一种一厢情愿式的幻想。人们显然更愿意相信“底层”的自我表述,而对一切形式的“代言”都抱有怀疑,以至于很长一段时间里,作者的身份成为写作的重要参照。也是在这个意义上,在拥有写作才能的人群之中,我们总会对那些特殊经验的拥有者抱有更多期待。

正基于此,许多作家都曾引起“纯文学”的广泛兴趣。比如辽宁作家鬼金,一位写小说的吊车司机,一度引起“底层写作”研究者的关注。这是因为从其身份以及写作的内容来看,他的作品理应包含底层叙述的常见素材。事实上,鬼金的小说时常围绕轧钢厂这个空间展开叙事,卑微艰难的主人公也多是工人及其子弟,这是我们极为熟悉的工人文学的主要框架。然而又不全是如此,正如鬼金所说,他不为工人代言。他只是从个体生存的角度,体现生活的艰辛、生计的艰难,却不以频繁的死亡来讲述苦难,渲染底层所遭受的伤害。也就是说,小说尽管顺理成章地导向一种坚硬的社会现实,但作者有意要超越底层小说单调的社会层面,转而追求一种更为宽广、更加深邃的精神内涵。就像鬼金所说的,要在文字的诗意里寻找心灵和思想的自由。因此,他不是立足于解决现实问题,而是解决灵魂的问题。他努力在一种大叙事的框架之中融入自我的层面,时时显示出一种虚幻缥缈的“文艺腔”来,小说的意蕴也更为复杂。因此,尽管鬼金身为吊车司机,“底层写作”的代表性显然并不充分。同样,最近风头正健的三位“80后”作家,有着“铁西三剑客”之江湖名号的东北“后浪”,也承受着几乎同样的阅读错位。与人们对鬼金的期待相似,研究者也总是试图将这三位作家的创作与国企改制、东北“沦陷”、工人阶级子弟的历史意识这样宏大的词汇及历史背景联系在一起,殊不知这些年轻作者其实是难堪重负的,甚至他们本人也在纷纷逃避这些标签化的阐释。

偶尔,“纯文学”领域确实有个别的另类,以其特殊的写作经验,带给人们眼前一亮的感觉。但是很快,这种“新奇性”也将随着作者经验的耗尽而逐渐消弭。这里可以讨论的是陕西青年作家周子湘的创作。首先让人感兴趣的当然是作者的经历。她辗转新加坡、中国香港等地打工,曾经作为女工在电子厂车间里偷偷写小说。这里有异乡的漂泊,有劳动的艰辛,由此也当然可以将她视为“打工文学”的实践者。这样的经历在年轻一代作家中并不多见,而正是这种经历,铸就了她可贵的独特性。不可否认,周子湘具有代表性的几篇小说,比如《惘然记》《天涯厨王》《慢船去香港》等,都能或多或少看到她的个人经历。这种特殊的经历,成了某种意义上的符号资本,尤其是在这样一个作者经历和文学教养都高度同质化,“纯文学”的突围变得异常艰难的时代。从这个意义上看,周子湘的写作虽然有些粗粝,略显老套,但依然显现出不可磨灭的独特性。

这种独特性在于作者对于底层人群有着非常仔细的观察,甚至有一种如在眼前的感觉,自然真切,并没有刻意拔高他们。一般看来,想象底层有两种截然不同的方式:一方面是强调民间的活力,将民间世界道德理想化。正所谓“仗义每从屠狗辈,负心最是读书人”,这是一种将底层浪漫化的想象方式,并且一度非常流行。而另一种想象则是基于国民性批判的角度,即所谓的精英知识分子和庸众的对立视角。庸众是精英知识分子同情和批判的对象,正所谓“哀其不幸,怒其不争”,这意在强调民间的藏污纳垢性。周子湘的小说其实对二者做了一种有效的融合。《天涯厨王》里既有李绣娘这种积极乐观、极具人格感染力、特别明亮的人物,也有段寄梦这样体现底层堕落的忘恩负义之徒。更重要的是,在讨论底层的堕落时,周子湘能从社会现实入手来剖析社会。我们注意到,小说里“底层”的所有悲剧几乎都来自人物的执念——他们都要去做一个体面人。《慢船去香港》里不满足于餐厅服务员工作的茉莉,想穿上职业套裙做一名秘书,不惜为此出卖肉体。这种不切实际的自我定位,造成了个人的悲剧命运。《惘然记》里的阿昌不满足于开小超市,偏要去学成功人士到商会听课,甚至幻想成为区政协委员,最后他像骆驼祥子一样被城市掏空,成为一个没有灵魂的人。而李梦瑶和她的姐姐骗取阿昌的钱财,却只为追求享乐、去巴厘岛旅游。过去我们经常看到这样的桥段,底层的“作恶”背后往往都是善良的动机,比如骗钱其实是为了给父母治病。而在周子湘这里,她无情地打破了这种幻想,体现出极为冷峻的一面。

如上所见,周子湘的小说固然体现出令人振奋的独特性,然而随着作者生活环境的改变,这种异质的力量也开始慢慢消弭。是的,“纯文学”总是会面对众多这样的写作者,其身份的特殊性往往因其生活经验的耗尽而逐渐消失。这也难怪,再特殊的经验也会逐渐为人所知,写作所内含的兴奋点也会日渐稀薄。这大概便是“纯文学”内在的一种体制化的“收编”力量吧。这样看来,所谓“新工人文学”的自我表述问题便显得更加紧迫。人们其实一直都在期待,真正的“新工人”能够无须代言,自己讲述底层的故事。然而这一切只有等到媒介力量的介入,通过某些事件的契机,才能获得实现的可能。这里显而易见的是,相对于艺术形式更加复杂的小说作品,诗歌这种简洁而直观的形式,往往能够获得更强的传播效力。

因此这里不得不谈到的是“我的诗篇”的意义。秦晓宇的“我的诗篇”计划,包括图书出版、电影创作、工人诗会、工人诗歌奖评选等一系列活动。这些活动无一不是高度依赖信息媒介的包装和运作而展开的,这便不可避免地使之沦为某种意义上的消费时代景观。然而即便如此,这里依然残存着某种单纯而美好的愿望,那就是如秦晓宇所言的,他希望将工人诗歌带给人的感动和启示传递给更多的人,“把这份底层的诗意从边缘地带带到聚光灯下”[1]。被秦晓宇列入“我的诗篇”系列的六位作者,此后也被观众所熟悉,他们分别是在大地深处工作的煤矿工人老井、巷道爆破工陈年喜、建筑工人铁骨、服装厂女工邬霞、彝族充鸭绒工吉克阿优,以及已经去世的“90后”工人许立志。他们都是极为普通的劳动者,同时又是优秀的诗人。他们用简朴的汉语写作,以不同的方式书写劳动,抒发悲欢,重新将当代文学中缺席已久的“工人诗歌”发扬光大。

纵观“我的诗篇”里的诸多作品,显然包含着对于“新工人”群体命运处境的思索,无数漂泊的诗,写满了生计的困顿,心灵的囚厄、孤独、茫然,以及生与死的纠缠。其经验的深度、情感的厚度以及直指人心的力量,终将使得那些默默无闻的劳动者,逐渐摆脱“匿名”的状态,成为“有灵魂的个体”。且看陈年喜的这首《炸裂志》:“早晨起来头像炸裂一样疼/这是大机器的额外馈赠/不是钢铁的错/是神经老了 脆弱不堪/我不大敢看自己的生活/它坚硬玄黑/有风镐的锐角/石头碰一碰 就会流血/我在五千米深处打发中年/我把岩层一次次炸裂/借此 把一生重新组合/我微小的亲人远在商山脚下/他们有病 身上落满灰尘/我的中年裁下多少/他们的晚年就能延长多少/我身体里有炸药三吨/他们是引信部分/就在昨夜/我岩石一样炸裂一地。”看得出来,作者试图以诗歌的方式追求平等与尊严,从而生发出一种新的主体意识和政治意识。这无疑有利于打破文化精英对于文学的垄断,将底层的“发声”与社会正义、历史真相紧密联系在一起。

在此,陈年喜的身份连同他的创作,已然足够令人震撼。然而,将“新工人诗歌”以更加悲情化的方式铭刻在当代文学历史现场的,是已经去世的“90后”工人许立志。在震惊中外的富士康“11连跳”之后,这位年轻的工厂诗人用他的纵身一跃,重新将“新工人”的自我表述“事件化”。相较于诗歌写作者凭借个人化的极端经验甚至死亡,才换取了媒介时代人们的注意,更多的新工人群体其实是通过相对温和的方式实现自我表述的。比如近年来如火如荼的非虚构文学,便对从“打工女孩”到范雨素等女工群体的历史浮现,起到了至关重要的作用。早在2011年,为了深入了解东莞工厂女孩的生活,诗人丁燕先后在多家工厂打工,历经200多天的生活和采访,记录下了从乡村奔赴城市的普通女工们日复一日的机械劳动,她们的青春、爱情与梦想的萌生与破灭,以及流水线上柔弱灵魂对于现代工业洪流的追问。这些真实而深刻的工厂生活便是那部非虚构作品《工厂女孩》的来源。打工女孩的寻梦历程,亦被美籍作家张彤禾在《打工女孩》中记录过,但人们更加熟知的显然是“打工诗人”郑小琼的那部《女工记》。《女工记》的独特之处在于,这既是一部关于女工们的大型组诗,也是调查和采访之后的历史实录,可谓是诗歌与非虚构写作的完美结合。在郑小琼这里,工友的名字被郑重其事地当作了诗歌的标题,这意味着每一个无名的女工,其实都有自己的名字,都有个体的命运与尊严,这便让那些原本默默无闻者的声音变得具体而生动。

非虚构所竭力推进的文学民主化,让所有的普通人都有机会通过文字将自己展示在公众面前。2017年,微信公众号推出的文章《我是范雨素》,便让人们记住了家政女工范雨素。作为在北京漂泊打拼的数以万计的外来打工者中极为普通的一员,范雨素只有初中文凭,但这并不妨碍她以独特的方式来表达自己。“我的命运是一本不忍卒读的书,命运把我装订得极为拙劣。”这是《我是范雨素》的开场白。尽管她的文字并不乏修辞的力量,甚至灵光一现的语句还特别能抓人,但她的文字更多还是蕴藏着一种平静和温和,她只是朴素地记录自己十几年一路走来的故事,以其真实的力量征服无数的阅读者。《我是范雨素》能够成为网络“爆款”,乃至引起文学圈的诸多争论,显然与媒介和事件再次将“新工人群体”推向大众注意力的前台密不可分。对于多数人来说,个人经验的独特性所体现的社会生活的丰富性,具有十足的吸引力。而另一方面,也正如范雨素所说的,“我碰到每一个和我一样的弱者,就向他们传递爱和尊严”。这里真正打动人的除了苦难本身,还有人类与苦难搏斗的过程与痕迹,以及在对苦难的超越与领悟中产生的宽广深厚的爱,这也是令中产阶级观众无比着迷的地方。

因而,范雨素所带来的“新工人群体”的社会能见度,不由得让我们重新思索那个悬而未决的自我表述问题。范雨素之后,“皮村文学小组”的《新工人文学》杂志,也让越来越多的劳

动者找到了属于自己的文学表达。尽管他们在表达形式上还略显简陋和粗糙,但似乎并不妨碍写作者真挚情感的流露。无论如何,这种艰难的自我表述都是值得令人期待的。

注释:

[1]秦晓宇:《以诗为证》,《炸裂志•序言》,太白文艺出版社,2019年,第2页。

媒介与事件:“新工人文学”的自我表述问题

Posted in Literature 文学, Society 社会 | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Kinamedia: How “Historical Nihilism” Shapes China’s Film Industry

Thanks to the magic of Google Translate even the scandoilliterates among you may find interesting Linus Fredriksson’s article on historical nihilism and the Chinese film industry. Now on the Swedish website  Kinamedia.

For more on historical nihilism in China see also:

If you would like to read more from Kinamedia, you can start with GT’s version of the Kinamedia top page and click through articles there awaiting your inspection.  Just click through and read.  Fun. Visit   https://translate.google.com/translate?hl=&sl=sv&tl=en&u=https%3A%2F%2Fkinamedia.se%2F


Original URL Hur “historienihilism” formar Kinas filmindustri

Via Google Translate How “Historical Nihilism” Shapes China’s Film Industry


“The Pioneer” is an example of the kind of Chinese film we will probably see more of at a time when China’s film industry is characterized by the concept of “historical nihilism”, writes Linus Fredriksson.

How “Historical Nihilism” Shapes China’s Film Industry

BY LINUS FREDRIKSSON  SEPTEMBER 4, 2021SEPTEMBER 5, 2021  POLITICS & INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS SOCIETY & CULTURE

“The land of a people is destroyed by the destruction of their history” (灭 人 之 国 , 必先 去 其 史). The spirit of this statement is like a recurring mantra for Chinese leader Xi Jinping.

President Xi has many times before placed great emphasis on avoiding the mistakes that led to the collapse of the Soviet Union. One of the reasons for the fall of the Soviet Union, in Xi Jinping’s view , is the failure to control the flow of information and narratives about its own history.

The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) seeks to counteract this by branding the abomination of opposing the party’s interpretation of history as “historical nihilism.”

In February this year, during the Party History Study and Education Mobilization Conference , President Xi Jinping delivered a speech expressing the importance of clearing up unilateral analyzes and obscure observations of Chinese history.

This would be done, among other things, by the Cyberspace Administration of China, the Chinese authority for Internet control, began to use a reporting system to report incorrect theories about Chinese history or interpretations that somehow blacken the time under the rule of the Chinese Communist Party.

About a month later, over 2 million posts on Chinese social media claiming to be history-naive had been deleted.

The posts were deleted, among other things, on the following premises as a basis:

1) The content distorts party history, the history of the new China, the history of China’s opening up and reforms and about China’s socialist development.

2) The content attacks China’ss leaders, the CCP’s political thinking (指导 思想) and general party principles.

3) The content blackens the names of heroes and martyrs.

4) The content denies the grandeur of Chinese culture, revolutionary culture and progressive socialist culture.

“He who controls the past controls the future.” It is not without reason that George Orwell’s words echo in the ears when one first hears of historical nihilism.

And it becomes more Orwellian, when Xie Maosong from the National Strategy Institute at Qinghua University says that historical nihilism is, among other things, an attempt by countries in the West (read: USA) to “bully” (骂) China.

One way of committing historical nihilism is said to be to use one’s own country’s values ​​to interpret the situation in Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang, among others.

Xie Maosong goes on to tell how this is part of an ongoing cultural and spiritual war against China, which is due to the fact that China is now threatening American world hegemony. One way to strengthen historical nihilism is through culture, and especially film.

One example is how the distribution of Lu Chuan’s film The Last Supper (王 的 盛宴, 2012) was withdrawn, after which the content was completely revised. The film was completely redone, and the original can in principle not be found anywhere today.

The film “The Last Supper” from 2012 was temporarily banned and completely cut, as the censorship authorities seemed to find similarities with the content and power struggles that President Xi Jinping has been involved in.

The original version is said to have been censored mainly because the power struggle between the incoming emperor of the Han dynasty, Liu Bang, and those who helped him overthrow the Qin dynasty, would be an allegory for the power struggle that took place in 2012 between Xi Jinping and his political rival Bo Xilai.

Now, almost ten years later, another part of the film has told the truth about Xi Jinping’s rule.

In one scene, the supreme minister of the court – an office with the title 丞相 – talks about how the story of Liu Bang’s path to power should be written, after which the Empress interrupts him to say that the story has already been written – even the parts that have not yet taken place .

A deliberate distortion of the truth is a must to secure Liu Bang’s legacy for the future. But how close to the truth do you get in a movie?

As previously mentioned here on Kinamedia, it is difficult to interpret how censorship will be exercised under Xi Jinping’s rule. Director Feng Xiaogang seems to have come too close: when his film Youth (芳华, 2017) was to premiere, it was suddenly withdrawn and then reappeared. Some claimed that the problem was the depiction of the war between China and Vietnam in the late 1970s.

The same was true of Guan Hu’s The Eight Hundred (八佰, 2020), which depicts part of the Battle of Shanghai during World War II, in which only soldiers from the Nationalist Party’s army participated in the battles against the Japanese.

The film premiered later than originally planned, and with suspiciously much less screen time of the nationalist flag, which today is better known as the Taiwan flag.

The flags had to be cut in the film The Eight Hundred, because they admitted that it was the Nationalist Party’s rather than the Communist Party’s soldiers who fought against the Japanese in the Battle of Shanghai during World War II.

The so-called truth is thus not primarily about avoiding brutality or politically sensitive topics. To understand what “truth” means in this context, take another look at the four points above about historical nihilism.

So what kind of historical film can we expect from the Chinese in the future? If you look at the last two major film productions in the historical film genre and one of the TV series – which is made a whole bunch of every year – these are stories that can simply be classified as pure propaganda.

The films The Pioneer (革命者) and 1921 as well as the TV series The Age of Awakening (觉醒 年代) all share a common factor. They take place shortly before and after the founding of the CCP, and they are in principle completely free from internal conflicts among the historical figures who can be linked to the establishment and development of the Communist Party.

In The Pioneer, Li Dazhao is portrayed throughout the film as a saint, often to the tunes of the International. The Age of Awakening is like a single long cozy family reunion, which is occasionally interspersed with political slogans.

A film that deals with a more contemporary story is The Captain (中国 机长, 2019), where the premise of the story is different but the methods for storytelling are the same. In The Captain, the plane in danger becomes a symbol of that China. However, the captain – who we learn early in the film is a member of the CCP – manages to steer the passengers towards safety.

With the 100th anniversary of the CCP’s founding this year on July 7, the intensification of streamlining history writing has become apparent. And there is no indication that this escalating ambition to control Chinese history will wane.

If postmodernism gave us the tools to see history as a series of events with a variety of interpretive possibilities, historical nihilism gives the CCP a veto to put an end to all forms of interpretation of Chinese history that are not in their own favor.

This, combined with a watertight censorship system, does not bode well for the future of the Chinese film industry.

Of course, some will personally benefit from this future, but the rest of us can expect a stagnation in Chinese film in terms of new ways of expressing and exploring different genres.

With a little luck, we can at least get more hyperaction with Wu Jing, where the so-called wolf warrior mentality is given even more space.

Linus Fredriksson has a far-reaching interest in Chinese film and culture. He wrote his master’s thesis in Chinese on nationalist film in China in the 1940s, and his master’s thesis in Film Studies on Chinese sci-fi film. Linus can be contacted via email .

Posted in History 历史, Ideology 思想, Politics 政治 | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Private Out, State Further “In” as Chinese Education Focuses on the Family

Reading this latest policy statement on education does make one think the Chinese Communist Party does keep on putting the total in totalitarian. For a discussion of totalitarianism in China see my previous posting Is China Totalitarian or Authoritarian?

The Chinese Communist Party and government are currently cracking down on private cram schools and private after-school tutoring students.

Many Chinese parents in China’s rapidly growing middle class see as the key for their children’s future. NPR’s Emily Feng reported on this in September 2021:

BEIJING — They schedule their children’s days in 15-minute increments. They scour online forums and swap tips on the most exclusive tutors and best sports coaches. Some even buy second homes next to the best public schools.

Forget tiger moms. These are China’s jiwa, or “chicken” parents, who are known for their attentive — some say obsessive — parenting style. The term is used to describe aggressive helicopter parenting and comes from an unproven Chinese-medicine treatment dating back to the 1950s in which a person is injected with fresh chicken blood to stimulate energy.

Forget Tiger Moms. Now China’s ‘Chicken Blood’ Parents Are Pushing Kids To Succeed

On the crackdown, read, for example the Financial Times August 2021 article Private school owners forced to hand institutions over to Chinese state. Consider also the anger of China’s young people at an intense and exhausting educational preparation that can often seem to lead nowhere — the so-called Lying Flat tangping people (a nascent hippy movement?) Chinese commentators have written quite a lot of interesting articles about that movement this summer. On my blog I translated:

The other half of the equation is what is going in now that the private sector is being forced out of education. The Chinese Communist Party and PRC government joint circular notice below discusses “Parent School” jiazhang xuexiao 家长学校 and that after-school school services shall come to an end at the same time as local workers get off work.

I took this as a key paragraph:

By 2025 the construction rate of parents’ schools [jiazhang xuexiao] will reach 90% in urban communities and 80% in rural communities. The standardized construction level of parents’ schools in primary and secondary schools and kindergartens is greatly improved. The role of family education and family style construction in grass-roots social governance is ever more prominent, the level of culture of family members and social civilization is further enhanced, and the new socialist family civilization of love for the country and family, love for one other, upward mobility and sharing is promoted.

Concerns About Growing Inequality in Chinese Society

Not to say that there aren’t good things about these efforts to strengthen public education and the primary and secondary levels. Perhaps like the Head Start program in the US, this will improve pre-school educations, especially for the many parents who can’t afford private schools. Higher education in China is tilted towards the children of the wealthy, as it is in the United States where wealthier parents who can afford to send their children to expensive private schools or afford the expensive houses in the wealthier districts that can afford to finance excellent public schools. The relative chances of rural Chinese to get into higher education have been decreasing in recent decades even as the absolute numbers of rural kids in higher education has been increasing. Perhaps this might end up rebalancing the rural/urban balance which has long been the axis of inequality in China. Inequalities in educational and employment opportunitiesand income and the frustrations and resentments arising therefrom are a Chinese problem too. Perhaps the Party decided to put Communist back in its name, to fight creeping capitalism, and to stop being merely totalitarian.

What are the parent schools? I found a Baidu Encyclopedia (China’s analog to the Wikipedia) article about them. It seems particularly interesting since it seems to have prepared the ground for the current shift away from private school and private cram school education in order to strengthen the Communist Party’s monoploy on education. In China both the educational system as well as the state-controlled (well, by post publication censorship — that is intimidated into submission) media are integral parts of the Party’s propaganda bath. Here is a DeepL machine translation of that article.

Parent School

Parent school refers to a form of amateur education that mainly targets parents of infants, toddlers, primary and secondary school students, with the main content of imparting scientific knowledge and methods of home education. The mission is to promote the renewal of family education concepts; to cooperate with the implementation of school education; to help parents master modern scientific knowledge and methods of family education; and to create a suitable family education environment for the growth of their children. It is usually mostly run by primary and secondary schools, women’s federations, maternal and child health institutions (institutes), family education research associations and other departments. [1]
Family education is an important part of modern national education, the basis of school education and social education, and has a special and important role in the ideological and moral construction of minors. Parent school is an important place to publicize and popularize the knowledge of family education and improve the quality of parents, and is the main position and main channel to guide the promotion of family education. [3]
Chinese name Parent School Foreign name Jia Zhang Xue Xiao

Baidu article Parent School Jiazhang Xuexiao via DeepL machine translation

—————————–

On Further Strengthening the Implementing the Policy on Strengthening Family Oriented Education
2021-08-28

The

  • Propaganda Department of the Chinese Communist Party
  • Central Civilization Office
  • Communist Party Central Commission for Discipline Inspection organs
  • Chinese Communist Party (CPC) Organization Department
  • Ministry of Education
  • National Women’s Federation

jointly print and issue “On implementing the Opinion on further strengthening the families, family education and the moral climate of families education family style construction of the implementation of the views” sent to the provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government and Provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government and Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps Party Committee Propaganda Department, Civilization Office, Discipline Inspection Commission organs, Party Committee Organization Department, Supervision Committee, Education Department (Education Commission), Women’s Federation∶

Today we print and issue to you “On the further strengthening of family education family style construction of the implementation of the views”. Please take into account the actual local conditions as you implement this Opinion.

  • Central Propaganda Department of the Communist Party of China
  • Central Civilization Office
  • Central Commission for Discipline Inspection organs
  • Organization Department of the CPC Central Committee
  • State Supervision Commission Ministry of Education
  • All-China Women’s Federation

June 30, 2021

Opinions on the Implementation of Further Strengthening the Construction of Family Education and Family Style

In order to thoroughly implement General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important remarks on focusing on the construction of family education and family style, implement the national “14th Five-Year Program” objectives and tasks, promote the core socialist values in the family to take root, give full play to the construction of family education and family style in the training of the new generation, promote the good family style, strengthen the important role of grassroots social governance, gather the strength of hundreds of millions of families to strive for a new era, to advance a new journey, now put forward The following comments.

The general requirements of the new era of family education and family ethics construction

  1. Guiding ideology

Guided by Xi Jinping thought on socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era, the comprehensive implementation of the 19th CPC National Congress and the second, third, fourth and fifth plenary sessions of the 19th CPC Central Committee we are implementing new development concepts for the new era based on the stage of development at which we have now arrived. In building a new pattern of development, we take as our bottom line the cultivation and practice of the core values of socialism. We will build cultured families, implement scientific education, and make passing down wholesome family styles as our main focus. We will strengthen the family style of party members and leading cadres. We will strengthen the construction of party members and leading cadres, highlight the keys to children’s moral education, strengthen education and guidance, practice and cultivation, as well as institutional safeguards.

We will promote the high-quality development of family education and family style, unite and lead family members to enhance the “Four Consciousnesses” [Note: “The fundamental principle of strengthening consciousness is to follow the ideology, political thinking and deeds of the CPC Central Committee, with Xi as general secretary at its core,”] , firmly realized the “Four Self-Confidences” [Note: “confidence in the path, theory, system and culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics“] , achieve the “Two Safeguards” [Note: Safeguard the position of the core party leadership led by General Secretary Xi Jinping and Safeguard the central role of the Communist Party in China], firmly establish a new era of family concept, unite love of family and love of country, integrate the realization of personal dreams and family dreams into the realization of the China dream, our national dream. For the comprehensive construction of a modernized socialist country, the realization of the Chinese dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation has been gathering majestic strength.

  1. Basic principles
  • Adhere to the overall leadership of the Party, improve the leadership system and working mechanism of unified leadership of the Party Committee, the Party and the government. All departments shall perform their duties and responsibilities, and all sectors of society shall participate in the construction of the correct direction of family education and family ethics.
  • Adhere to the leading role of socialist core values as the basis of requirements for national, social and personal values through the whole process of family teaching and family style construction, guide family members to form the ideology, spirituality, cultured style, behavior norms to meet the requirements of the new era.
  • Adhere to righteousness and innovation, establish a new style of righteousness and eliminate the old rules and bad habits, inherit the excellent Chinese traditional culture, continue promoting the red family style, promote the new era of civilization, and constantly promote the content, means, carriers and grassroots work innovation, perpetuate the family teaching and family style construction vitality and vigor.
  • The government will insist on problem orientation, address the outstanding problems of family education and family style construction, implement precise, targeted measures and make long-term efforts, and to actively respond to the people’s new expectations for a better life.
  • Adhere to the common construction and sharing, have the masses play the main role, absorb the participation of social forces, strengthen the effective coordination of departments, the formation of family education and family culture construction synergy, so that hundreds of millions of families shall share the fruits of development.
  1. Main objectives

After sustained and unremitting efforts, over the next five years as we support the development of the family policies and regulations continue to improve, the whole society focus on family education and family culture construction atmosphere has become ever more intense. The influence and appeal of family civilization construction activities shall be enhanced, the number of typical families cultivated shall be doubled, the exemplary role of Party members and leading cadres in the construction of family style shall be given full play, and the family concept of the new era shall be vigorously promoted. The concept of family education is deeply rooted in people’s hearts. The family education guidance service system covering urban and rural areas shall be constantly improved, the mechanism of coordinated parenting between families, schools and communities is ever more sound.

By 2025 the construction rate of parents’ schools [jiazhang xuexiao] will reach 90% in urban communities and 80% in rural communities. The standardized construction level of parents’ schools in primary and secondary schools and kindergartens is greatly improved. The role of family education and family style construction in grass-roots social governance is ever more prominent, the level of culture of family members and social civilization is further enhanced, and the new socialist family civilization of love for the country and family, love for one other, upward mobility and sharing is promoted.

Strengthen the study and propaganda of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important discourse on focusing on family education and family style construction

  1. Strengthen theoretical armament and research and interpretation

General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important thesis on the construction of family and family ethics is an important part of the study and education of Party members and leading cadres at all levels. It shall be included in the study plan of the theoretical study center group of Party committees (Party groups) at all levels, incorporated into the teaching arrangements of Party schools (administrative colleges) and cadre colleges at all levels. General Secretary Xi’s theses shall be incorporated into the study and education of Party history, integrated into political theory education, education on Party rules and discipline, and education on the purposes of the Party, to guide Party members and leading cadres. This shall be done in order to further enhance their ideological and operational consciousness of family education and family style construction.

Promote the construction of a new type of think tank in the field of the family, the family family education family style construction selected topics into the philosophical and social science research projects. Launch a number of theoretical research which will bring doctrinal depth and academic rigor to this process. Support qualified universities and research institutes to set up relevant professional courses, train specialists and improve the theoretical system of family construction. Strengthen the transformation and application of theoretical results to better guide the practice of family education and family style construction.

  1. Strengthen social propaganda and mass communication

Combined with the history of the Party, the history of the new China, the history of reform and opening up, the history of socialist development propaganda and education, the organization of the preparation of General Secretary Xi Jinping on the focus on the construction of the family, family education and family ethics important discussion study book, the launch of a series of interpretation articles, authoritative reports. Party newspapers and periodicals at all levels, radio and television stations, news websites and other regular set up columns on the construction of family education and family ethics, to create fresh content, innovative forms of integrated media products. Innovative micro-promotion, websites that often educational lectures online, mass education for women, lectures to promote honesty and fight corruption and other mass publicity and education activities.

In both urban and rural communities set up Family Concepts for the New Era bulletin boards, promote the spirit of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important speeches in schools, in the community, int the family, at the patriotic education bases, at the New Era Civilization Study Centers. In May-June every year, multiple departments focus on the theme of family style and family education to tell good family stories, spread the concept of family education and create a strong atmosphere. Grasp the overall planning and production of family-themed literary and artistic works and publications, and through government purchases, launch more high-quality masterpieces that are unified in ideology, artistry and ornamentation. Produce and broadcast public service announcements, widely disseminated in various media at all levels, city screens, building TVs, buses and subways, parks and communities, so that the new era of family values shall be internalized in people’s hearts, externalized in their actions, and become the moral norms and codes of conduct that hundreds of millions of families use every day and do not realize.

Lead the construction of family education and family style with socialist core values

  1. Enrich the connotation of family education and family style construction in the new era

Using true-to-life anecdotes, daily activities and representational art, carry out education on patriotism, collectivism and socialism, guide family members to firmly establish a new-age family concept, pass down to the next generation traditional Chinese virtues such as respect for the elderly, love for the young, equality between men and women, harmony between husband and wife, diligence and thrift, and neighborhood solidarity. Carry forward the great spirit forged by the Party in its long-term struggle, inherit the red family style, practice loyalty and love, family companionship, all one’s lifelong. The family shall promote the modern family concepts of loyalty and love, family companionship, lifelong learning, green ecology, cultivating and integrating love of family with love of country. Build family relationships of mutual love, promote the family virtues of upward mobility and goodness, embody the family pursuit of common building and sharing, and promote the core socialist values so that they take root in the family.

  1. Deepen the construction of family culture

Refine the criteria and content of the creation of cultured families, improve our criteria for recognizing the best and promote the influence of the brand of creating cultured families. Depending response to the actual local situation and needs of different regions, groups of people and families, conduct regular search for “the most beautiful family” activities, carry out star-level cultured households, honest families, green families, five good families and other special innovations, promote the extension of activities from urban and rural communities to schools and institutions, enterprises and institutions, non-public economic organizations and social organizations, and expand the reservoir and reserve team of cultured families. Improve the typical family incentive help mechanism, set up online and offline honor rolls, promote good family style credit, supermarket point system and other incentive measures, to create a good environment in which virtuous people finish first. Makes these things the standard to emulate so that the value of the civilized family guidance will be a more obvious benchmark. Promote culture.

We will continue to carry out “Our Festival” activities, seize opportunities at Spring Festival, Lantern Festival, Qingming Dragon Boat Festival, HerdBoy/Weaver Girl qi-xi Festival, Mid-Autumn Festival, Double Ninth and other festivals. Organize family art activities, cultural lectures, family style story telling, new marriage culture propaganda, the new style of the times propaganda, etc., to attract urban and rural people to participate in passing down holiday customs, feel the spirit of China, enhance people’s pride in their own national culture. Vigorously carry out publicity activities to optimize fertility policy, promote the long-term balanced development of the population, strengthen education and guidance on the concept of marriage and family. Resolutely resist bad social habits such as bad marriage practices, excessively high dowry requirements grooms pay for their brides, neglecting one’s parent’s in life but giving them a fancy funeral, and guide the public to create a cultured countryside, with a family style. Encourage a simple and honest popular style, changing bad habits and creating good new ones, promote changes in prevailing habits and customes cultivating a civilized and healthy lifestyle.

  1. Implement the fundamental task of moral education to carry out family education

Popularize the scientific concept of family education, provide personalized and diversified guidance services through thematic lectures, online classes, consultation and counseling, guide parents to strengthen the main responsibility, focus on character education and mental health education, strengthen the construction of family culture, educate appropriately according to the growth of the child, educate children with the right actions, the right ideas and the right methods to develop good ideas so they will develop good conduct and good habits. Foster the man of the new era who will take up the responsibility of national rejuvenation. Increase family education job slots and teams. Build and use schools, communities, online parenting schools and family education guidance service centers. Museums, memorials, children’s palaces, children’s activity centers also have a role to play.

Combine the strength of teachers, experts, “Five Olds“, good parents and other teams, and promote the construction of urban and rural family education guidance service system. Create a sound family-school-society collaborative parenting mechanism, smooth communication channels between home, school and society, encourage cooperation between schools and families. Terminate after-school services at the same time as the work day ends for local workers. Cooperate to solve the problems of children’s homework, sleep, cell phones, reading materials, physical management, as well as out-of-school training, mental health. Help parents to reduce their children’s education expenses and alleviate educational anxiety. Support those authorities, enterprises and institutions, social organizations and individuals that have adquate resources to provide public welfare services. Support institutions, enterprises and institutions, social organizations and individuals to provide public welfare family education guidance services, and gradually build a whole chain of education pattern with consistent goals, clear boundaries and shared resources.

  1. Grasp the family style construction of party members and leading cadres

Take the construction of family style as an important part of the construction of the style of party members and leading cadres. Guide party members and leading cadres to raise their political awaremess. Deliberately make the construction of a good family style a top priority. Incorporate loyalty to the Party into the construction of family teaching and family style. Strictly abide by Party rules and regulations. Take the lead in governing the family with integrity, distinguish between the public and the private, separate the interests of their relatives from the duty of honesty they own to their position. Strictly teach the properly family lifestyle. Strictly control their family members and children. Frequently supervise, remind, warn, educate and urge them to comply with the law. Work with dedication and responsibility. The use of cases of abuses to strengthen the education through warning. Resolutely investigate and deal with the improper family style of party members and cadres and other issues. Create strong deterrents.

Deepen the use of cases of abuses as lessons for others. Promote reform, through the organization of warning education conference, by listening to the court trial of job-related crimes, organize visits to oppose corruption in government education exhibition, family education family style exhibition. Makes use of in-depth family education, guide party members and leading cadres to correctly deal with the relationship between self-discipline and other types of discipline, trust and supervision, authority and privilege, principles and feelings, build a firm anti-corruption and integrity of the family line of defense, with a pure family style to nurture a clean party style, government style and social style. Ensure that the family style is pure. Make good use of red resources such as patriotic education bases, cultivate red propaganda teams, excavate and organize and tell the stories of revolutionary predecessors’ family style, guide cadres and masses to draw the spiritual nutrients of virtue, integrity, diligence and thrift from the century-old history of the Party’s struggle, inherit revolutionary traditions and pass on red genes.

  1. Focus on the important role of family education and family style construction in grass-roots social governance

Combine the construction of family education and family style with the creation of civilized cities and civilized villages and towns, and organize a variety of cultural and recreational activities such as health and public welfare, parent-child reading, neighborhood mutual assistance and cooking demonstrations in order to attract people to come out of their “small” homes and integrate into their “big” homes. Actively participate in the construction of harmonious communities, harmonious neighborhoods, beautiful villages and safe communities. Combine the construction of family education and family style with the practical activities of “I do practical things for the masses”. Focus on the needs of families such as “an old man and a small child” to implement practical projects for people’s livelihood, encourage kindergartens to carry out integrated services of child care, use existing positions to provide various forms of child care services, and help families solve the difficulties of caring for infants and toddlers under age 3.

Organize and carry out volunteer service activities, play the role of the new era civilization practice center (institute, station). Coordinate the residents (village) people’s committee, owners’ committee, property units and other forces to provide for widows and orphans, empty nesters, disabled elderly, bereaved parents who lost their only child. Provide additional services such as life care, spiritual and cultural comfort, health testing, fraud prevention, the use of intelligent technology. Increase the protection of special groups of children in difficulty. Carry out winter and summer care activities for children left behind in rural areas; carry out marriage and family counseling, conflict and dispute mediation, psychological counseling, after-school student care services, etc., to form a good culture of upward mobility and mutual help.

Strengthen solid guarantees for the construction of family education and family style

  1. Strengthen institutional protection

Accelerate the process of promoting family education legislation, and constantly improve the legal system for safeguarding the legitimate rights and interests of family members and promoting the function of the family. Vigorously promote the Civil Code, the Law against Domestic Violence, the Law on the Protection of Minors and other laws and regulations to guide family members to enhance their awareness of the rule of law and adhere to the moral bottom line. The value orientation of public policies will be manifested, and the requirements of the new-age family concept will be reflected in various economic development and social management policies and in various institutional norms and codes of conduct, so as to effectively play the role of laws and regulations, public policies and social norms in guiding and restraining family members.

  1. Strengthen organizational leadership

All relevant departments at all levels should fully understand the importance of family education and family style construction, and effectively take political responsibility and leadership.

  • The propaganda departments of party committees and civilization offices at all levels shall focus on strengthening the family, family education, good family lifestyle construction into the overall layout of spiritual civilization construction. They shall strengthen the coordination, organization and implementation, selection and recognition, publicity and guidance and supervision of implementation.
  • Discipline inspection and supervision organs, organizational departments shall take effective measures to strengthen party members and leading cadres family style.
  • The education department takes the lead to improve the family-school-society collaborative education mechanism and implement the fundamental task of building moral character.
  • Women’s Federation organizations to implement the “family happiness and well-being project” as a means to play a unique role of women in promoting the Chinese family virtues, establish a good family style.

All relevant departments should make building family and family ethics a top priority, and incorporate it into the overall planning of economic and social development, in improving policies and initiatives, improve the working mechanism, focus on assessment and evaluation, and increase the protection efforts to promote the institutionalization of family and family ethics, standardization and normalization of the work.


关于进一步加强家庭家教家风建设的实施意见
时间:2021-08-28 19:42 来源:未知 编辑:zgykjs

核心提示
中共中央宣传部 中央文明办 中共中央纪委机关中共中央组织部 国家监察委员会教育部 全国妇联印发《关于进一步加强家庭家教家风建设的实施意见》的通知各省、自治区、直辖市和新…

中共中央宣传部 中央文明办 中共中央纪委机关
中共中央组织部 国家监察委员会
教育部 全国妇联印发
《关于进一步加强家庭家教家风建设的实施意见》的通知

各省、自治区、直辖市和新疆生产建设兵团党委宣传部、文明办、纪委机关、党委组织部、监察委员会、教育厅(教委)、妇联∶

现将《关于进一步加强家庭家教家风建设的实施意见》印发给你们,请结合实际认真贯彻落实。

中共中央宣传部
中央文明办
中共中央纪委机关
中共中央组织部
国家监察委员会 教育部
全国妇联
2021年6月30日

《关于进一步加强家庭家教家风建设的实施意见》

为深入贯彻习近平总书记关于注重家庭家教家风建设重要论述,落实国家”十四五” 规划纲要目标任务,推动社会主义核心价值观在家庭落地生根,充分发挥家庭家教家风建设在培养时代新人、弘扬优良家风、加强基层社会治理中的重要作用,汇聚亿万家庭力量奋斗新时代、奋进新征程,现提出如下意见。

新时代家庭家教家风建设的总体要求

  1. 指导思想

以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,全面贯彻党的十九大和十九届二中、三中、四 中、五中全会精神,立足新发展阶段、贯彻新发展理念、构建新发展格局,以培育和践行社会主义核心价值观为根本,以建设文明家庭、实施科学家教、传承优良家风为重点,强化党员和领导干部家风建设,突出少年儿童品德教育关键,加强教育引导、实践养成、制度保障,推动家庭家教家风建设高质量发展,团结引领广大家庭成员增强”四个意识”、坚定”四个自信”、做到”两个维护”,牢固树立新时代家庭观,把爱家和爱国统一起来,把实现个人梦、家庭梦融入国家梦、民族梦之中,为全面建设社会主义现代化国家、实现中华民族伟大复兴中国梦汇聚磅礴力量。

2.基本原则

——坚持党的全面领导,完善党委统一领导、党政齐抓共管、各部门履职尽责、社会各方面共同参与的领导体制和工作机制,确保家庭家教家风建设正确方向。
——坚持以社会主义核心价值观为统领,将国家、社会、个人层面的价值要求贯穿到家庭家教家风建设全过程,引导家庭成员形成适应新时代要求的思想观念、精神风貌、文明风尚、行为规范。
——坚持守正创新,树立新风正气与破除陈规陋习并举,传承中华优秀传统文化,赓续红色家风,弘扬新时代文明风尚,不断推进内容、手段、载体和基层工作创新,永葆家庭家教家风建设生机与活力。
——坚持问题导向,针对家庭家教家风建设突出 问题,有的放矢、精准施策、久久为功,积极回应人民群众对美好生活的新期待。
——坚持共建共享,发挥群众主体作用,吸纳社会力量参与,强化部门有效协同,形成家庭家教家风建设合力,让亿万家庭共享发展成果。
3.主要目标

经过持续不懈努力,未来五年支持家庭发展的政策法规不断完善,全社会注重家庭家教家风建设的氛围日益浓厚。家庭文明建设活动的影响力和感召力不断增强,培树的典型家庭数量翻一番,家风建设中党员和领导干部表率作用充分发挥,新时代家庭观大力倡扬。立德树人家庭教育理念深入人心,覆盖城乡的家庭教育指导服务体系不断完善,家校社协同育人机制更加健全,到2025年城市社区家长学校建设率达 90%、农村社区达80%,中小学幼儿园家长学校规范化建设水平大幅提升。家庭家教家风建设在基层社会治理中的作用更加显著,家庭成员文明素养和社会文明程度进一步提升,推动形成爱国爱家、相亲相爱、向上向善、共建共享的社会主义家庭文明新风尚。

加强习近平总书记关于注重家庭家教家风建设重要论述的学习宣传

4.加强理论武装和研究阐释

将习近平总书记关于注重家庭家教家风建设重要论述作为党员和领导干部学习教育的重要内容,列入各级党委(党组)理论学习中心组学习计划,纳入各级党校(行政学院)、干部学院教学安排,贯穿到党史学习教育中,融入政治理论教育、党章党规党纪教育、党的宗旨教育等,引导党员和领导于部进一步增强家庭家教家风建设的思想自觉和行动自觉。推动建设家庭领域新型智库,将家庭家教家风建设选题纳入哲学社会科学研究项目,推出一批有学理深度和学术厚度的理论研究成果。支持有条件的高校、科研院所等设置相关专业课程,培养专门人才,完善家庭建设理论体系。加强理论成果转化运用,更好指导家庭家教家风建设实践。

5.加强社会宣传和大众传播

结合党史、新中国史、改革开放史、社会主义发展史宣传教育,组织编写习近平总书记关于注重家庭家教家风建设重要论述学习读本,推出系列解读文章、权威报道。各级党报党刊、电台电视台、新闻网站等常态化设立家庭家教家风建设专栏专题,打造内容鲜活、形式新颖的融媒体产品。创新开展微宣讲、云讲堂、百千万巾 帼大宣讲、清廉讲堂等群众性宣传教育活动,在城乡社区普遍设立新时代家庭观宣传栏,推动习近平总书记重要讲话精神进学校、进社区、进家庭、进 爱国主义教育基地、进新时代文明实践中心。每年5-6月,多部门集中开展家风家教主题宣传,讲好家风故事,传播家教理念,营造浓厚氛围。抓好家庭题材文艺作品和出版物的统筹规划与创作生产,通过政府购买方式,推出更多思想性、艺术性、观赏性相统一的精品力作。制作刊播公益广告,在各级各类媒体、城市大屏幕、楼宇电视、公交地铁、公园社区广泛传播,让新时代家庭观内化于心、外化于行,成为亿万家庭日用而不觉的道德规范和行为准则。

以社会主义核心价值观引领家庭家教家风建设

  1. 丰富新时代家庭家教家风建设内涵

运用生活化场景、日常化活动、具象化载体,开展爱国主义、集体主义、社会主义教育,引导家庭成员牢固树立新时代家庭观,传承尊老爱幼、男女平等、夫妻和睦、勤俭持家、邻里团结等中华民族传统美德,发扬党在长期奋斗中铸就的伟大精神,传承红色家风,践行忠诚相爱、亲情陪伴、终身学习、绿色生态等现代家庭理念,升华爱国爱家的家国情怀、建设相亲相爱的家庭关系、弘扬向上向善的家庭美德、体现共建共享的家庭追求,推动社会主义核心价值观在家庭落地生根。

  1. 深化家庭文明建设

细化文明家庭创建标准和内容,完善评选表彰办法,提升文明家庭创建品牌影响力。针对不同地 区、人群、家庭实际情况和需求,常态化开展寻找”最美家庭” 活动,开展星级文明户、廉洁家庭、绿色家庭、五好家庭等特色创建,推动创建活动从城乡社区 向学校机关、企事业单位、非公经济组织、社会组织拓展延伸,做大文明家庭蓄水池和后备队。健全典型家庭激励帮扶机制,设立线上线下光荣榜,推广好家风信用贷、积分超市等激励措施,营造德者有得、争当典型的良好环境,让文明家庭的价值导向和标杆示范作用更鲜明。实施培育.文明风尚行动,持续开展”我们 的节日” 活 动,抓住春节、元 宵、清明端午、七夕、中秋、重阳等节日契机,组织开展家庭文艺活动、文化讲座、家风故事宣讲、新型婚育文化宣传、时代新风宣传等,吸引城乡群众在参与中传承节日习俗、感悟中国精神、增强文化自信。大力开展优化生育政策促进人口长期均衡发展宣传活动,加强婚恋观、家庭观教育引导,坚决抵制婚嫁陋习、天价彩礼、薄养厚葬等不良社会风气,引导群众在改陋习树新风中涵育文明乡风、良好家风、淳朴民风,推进移风易俗,养成文明健康生活方式。

  1. 落实立德树人根本任务开展家庭教育

普及家庭教育科学理念,通过主题讲座、网络课堂、咨询辅导等途径,提供个性化、多元化的指导服务,引导家长强化主体责任,注重品德教育和心理健康教育,加强家庭文化建设,遵循儿童成长规律,用正确行动、正确思想、正确方法教育孩子养成好思想、好品行、好习惯,培养担当民族复兴大任的时代新人。加强家庭教育阵地和队伍建设,建好用好学校、社区、网上家长学校和家庭教育指导服务中心,发挥好博物馆、纪念馆、少年宫、儿童活动中心等阵地作用,汇聚教师、专家、”五老”、优秀家长等队伍力量,推动构建覆盖城乡的家庭教育指导服务体系。健全家庭学校社会协同育人机制,畅通家校社沟通渠道,鼓励学校与家庭合作,推动学校课后服务结束时间与当地职工正常下班时间衔接,合力解决孩子作业、睡眠、手机、读物、体质管理 以及校外培训、心理健康等问题,帮助家长降低子女教育开支、缓解教育焦虑;支持有条件的机关、企事业单位、社会组织和个人提供公益性家庭教育指导服务,逐步构建目标一致、边界清晰、资源共享的全链条育人格局。

9.抓好党员和领导干部家风建设

把家风建设作为党员和领导干部作风建设重要内容,引导党员和领导干部提高政治站位,自觉把家风建设摆在重要位置,把对党忠诚纳入家庭家教家风建设,严格遵守党章党规党纪,带头廉洁治家,公私分明、亲清分开,严格家教家风,从严管好家属子女,经常监督、提醒、警示,教育督促他们遵纪守法、尽心尽责工作。利用典型案例强化警示教育,坚决查处党员干部家风不正等问题,形成强有力震慑。深化以案为鉴、以案促改,通过组织召开警示教育大会、旁听职务犯罪类庭审,组织参观廉政教育展览、家教家风展览等,深入开展家风教育,引导党员和领导干部正确处理自律和他律、信任和监督、职权和特权、原则和感情的关系,筑牢反腐倡廉的家庭防线,以纯正家风涵养清朗党风政风社风。用好爱国主义教育基地等红色资源,培养红色宣讲队伍,挖掘整理并讲好革命前辈家风故事,引导干部群众从党的百年奋斗史中汲取崇德治家、廉洁齐家、勤俭持家的精神养分,继承革命传统,传承红色基因。

  1. 注重发挥家庭家教家风建设在基层社会治理中的重要作用

将家庭家教家风建设与文明城市、文 明村镇等创建活动相结合,组织开展健康公益、亲子阅读、邻里互助、厨艺展示等丰富多彩的文化娱乐活动,吸引群众走出 “小”家、融入”大” 家,积极参与和谐社区、和睦邻里、美丽乡村、平安社区建设。将家庭家教家风建设与”我为群众办实事” 实践活动相结合,聚焦”一老一小” 等家庭所需所急实施民生实事项目,鼓励幼儿园开展托幼一体化服务,利用现有阵地提供多种形式的托育服务,帮助家庭解决3岁以下婴幼儿照护困难。组织开展学雷锋志愿服务活动,发挥新时代文明实践中心(所、站)作用,统筹居(村)民委员会、业主委员会、物业单位等力量,为孤寡老人、空巢老人、失能老人、失独家庭等提供生活关爱、精神文化抚慰、健康检测、防诈骗、智能技术运用等服务;加大对特殊困难儿童群体的保障力度,开展农村留守儿童寒暑假期关爱活动;开展婚姻家庭辅导、矛盾纠纷调解、心理咨询、学生课后托管等服务,形成向上向善、互帮互助的良好风尚。

强化家庭家教家风建设的坚实保障

  1. 强化制度保障

加快推动家庭教育立法进程,不断完善维护家庭成员合法权益、促进家庭功能发挥的法律体系。大力宣传民法典、反家庭暴力法、未成年人保护法等法律法规,引导广大家庭成员增强法治意识、坚守道德底线。彰显公共政策价值导向,把新时代家庭观的要求体现到各项经济发展和社会管理政策中,体现到各类制度规范和行为准则中,有效发挥法律法规、公共政策、社会规范对家庭成员的引导约束作用。

12.加强组织领导

各地各相关部门要充分认识家庭家教家风建设的重要性,切实负起政治责任和领导责任。各级党委宣传部、文明办将家庭家教家风建设纳入精神文明建设总体布局,加强统筹协调、组织实施、评选表彰、宣传引导和督促落实。纪检监察机关、组织部门采取有效措施加强党员和领导干部家风建设。教育部门牵头健全家校社协同育人机制,落实立德树人根本任务。妇联组织 以实施”家家幸福安康工程” 为抓手,发挥妇女在弘扬中华民族家庭美德、树立良好家风方面的独特作用。各地要将家庭家教家风建设摆上重要议事日程,纳入经济社会发展总体规划,完善政策举措,健全工作机制,注重考核评估,加大保障力度,推动家庭家教家风建设工作制度化、规范化、常态化开展。

Posted in Ideology 思想, Politics 政治, Society 社会 | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Working for the Boss: The Art of the Staff Assistant

Staff Assistant: The Art of Serving the Boss

In many organizations, becoming a staff assistant to the leaders in your organization is a fast track to promotion. The staff assistant learns how the organization works, gets to know the personalities, learns by observation leadership skills, and gets the chance to shine in front of people who play a large role in promotions. One colleague who did a year as a staff assistant at the U.S. State Department early on in his career told me “For the first six months it was a wonderful learning experience. For the second six months, it felt like being somebody’s slave.” I imagine some of the stories in this book will resonate with the experience of staff assistants in many countries. Some other stories will have their own special Chinese characteristics.

This 1994 book The Art of the Staff Assistant: the Art of Serving the Boss [参谋助手论——为首长服务的艺术] impresses me with its rare inside view of the work of a key player in the Chinese leadership system — the secretary mishu. A self-effacing worker bee, yet the top leaders of the Chinese Communist Party are also called secretaries and at the top the General Secretary zongmishu under a system inherited from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union where supreme power was nominally vested in the Party Congress but in fact it has lain with the General Secretary from the time of Josef Stalin.

While Chinese leadership is a much discussed topic, I haven’t read much about the process of becoming a Chinese leader. Perhaps this is just my own ignorance. However when I hear people confidently spinning views on this or that Chinese leader and what is going behind the scenes, I wonder. How much, how little do we really know. Hu Shih, a throughgoing agnostic, liked the saying “Have doubts where others are confident; be confident where others have doubts.” 对人事可疑处不疑,对原则不疑处存疑 Nice if you can pull it off!

Interlude: Chinese Leadership Studies

Literature is one way to approach to the study of leadership and officialdom. There are many Chinese novels and television shows about leaders and their staff and their various deeds and misdeeds although some of these are sometimes said to be overly dramatized, exaggerated and polticized. The literary genre of officialdom novels guanchang xiaoshuo 官场小说 is rich. Somewhat less fictional are memoirs of officials from former premier and later unperson Zhao Ziyang’s memoir Prisoner of the State (where in several places Zhao rails against Deng Xiaoping’s deplorable violations of the Charter of the Chinese Communist Party). There are also and historical works based partly on those memoirs like Yang Jisheng’s 楊繼繩 massive book (a mere 2000 pages in two volumes — I read the first 300 pages last fall) Tiāndì fānfù——zhōngguó wénhuà dàgémìng shǐ 天地翻覆——中國文化大革命史 [The World Turned Upside Down — the History of China’s Cultural Revolution] Yang Jisheng does an extraordinary job weaving together memoirs, personal experience and other publicly available materials. Yang didn’t have access to government archive for the Cultural Revolution book. He did on his famine book. The Chinese Communist Party hated the result — his similarly comprehensive book on China’s bad-policy induced famine of 1959 – 61 that killed tens of millions of Chiinese people.

Literature as well as insider books like The Art of the Staff Assistant can help us see the human side of Chinese people and officialdom in these more difficult days of China’s relationship to some foreign countries when views on both sides, things are hardening even more than before into a rigid us/them dualism. No, what Chinese says to foreigners isn’t always so much about the foreigner as about China’s own internal struggles. And versa vica. Mistakes are myriad in all areas of human endeavor. So what we imagine as hostility could be just confusion and mistakes. Reading things like this could encourage us all to have slower-burning fuses and think about the old Chinese saying “When a trend reaches and extreme, it must then reverse its course”. wujibifan 物极必反 A pendulum-swinging tautology yes, but reminds us of the importance of keeping the present, be it ever so exciting, in context and resisting the temptation of simply extrapolating from current trends.

Prosopography is a technique historians and social scientists use to understand the characteristics of a group by looking at a great number of biographies. This technique is often useful where there is not a great deal known about many key individuals.

Looking at Chinese official biographies one can get a sense of where leaders came from, who they have worked with, and the variety of their experiences. Reading though many of them one can see patterns of associations and career paths. Chinese leaders often have a varied range of experiences throughout the country. Former Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao was a mining engineer famous for his encyclopedic knowledge of the mineral riches of Ningxia. Much later, Wen Jiabao was the secretary to Chinese premier Zhao Ziayang. The post-revolutioanry generation of top Politburo leaders were mostly engineers by training reflecting the practical orientation of higher education in New China during the 1950s. This is now changing as leaders with more diverse educational backgrounds rise in the system.

June 1989. Premier Zhao Ziyang pleads with the students to leave Tiananmen Square. His secretary Wen Jiabao is to his left.

The mayor of Chengdu when I served at the US Consulate General had previously been the director of a large steel plant near Shanghai. The websites of local governments and the People’s Daily website has many capsule biographies of local leaders. Here is a machine-translated capsule bio of Beijing Muncipality Party Secretary Cai Qi

Google Translate machine-translation of the capsule bio of Beijing Muncipality Party Secretary Cai Qi

Intriguingly, there is a message button on the leader’s name. The Chengdu mayor told me once that he had a mayor’s mailbox. I sent him a message on it to test it — it came back “mailbox full”. To be fair, I did get angry one time at the city for leaving a big hole in a sidewalk around the corner from the U.S. Consulate after doing some construction work. A friend of mine fell into it but fortunately was not seriously injured. I wrote an angry message to the mailbox of Chengdu city department. After two weeks they did take care of it — in fact on the street I ran into an official on the way to see me to answer the message. Parenthetically, a Chinese friend told me his local street committee (the lowest level of local administration — the equivalent in the city of the ‘administrative village’ that might encompass several villages) has become much more effective in helping people get business done since the Communist Party and government began promoting government online around 2010 or so.

China Vitae, supported by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, is a good source of short biographies of Chinese leaders.

China Vitae

During my ten years working as a U.S. diplomat in China I met Chinese officials who had staff assistants called secretaries mishu in the Chinese system although office managers are also called secretaries. In English too, secretaries, office managers, executive secretaries and staff assistants (in the military staff officers) are on a continuum I imagine. The secretary would arrange a time and sit in on the meeting taking notes while I sat in the official’s office. Sometimes I would take an official out to lunch where we could speak more freely than in the office.

Back to the Book

This 1994 book The Art of the Staff Assistant: the Art of Serving the Boss [参谋助手论——为首长服务的艺术] has gone through many editions and is widely available on many Chinese websites and in bookstore. Here I have relied on the DeepL machine translation program to do a rough translation. I smoothed out some machine miscues in the first few pages. The rest will be more difficult going, but read it for the gist. The authors’ experience was working as a staff officer in the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) although they are writing a more general book about the art of the staff assistant reflecting the experience, hope, humiliations, glories and disappointments of people working as staff assistants in Chinese government and Party organizations. [

Machine translation using DeepL. I smoothed the first few pages. After that it gets a bit rough but can still repay you with its insights and inside view.

Book Excerpt Begins:

The Art of the Staff Assistant: the Art of Serving the Boss

The Bitter, Hot, Sour and Sweet of Following the Boss

As mentioned in the introduction of this book, for the sake of convenience, we refer to the staff officers, officers and assistants who serve the chief as secretaries.

The secretary, as the dictionary explains, is a person who is in charge of paperwork and assists the head of an organ or department in his or her daily work. From here, we can see that the secretary is the leader’s assistant and staff, the main task is in charge of the paperwork, to assist the head of the day-to-day work, and to undertake other tasks assigned.

For the secretary, there are more than a hundred images in the eyes of a thousand people, and more than a thousand comments in the mouth of a thousand people: either honor or shame, or disaster or blessing. In addition, the usual image of the secretary in the mass media and literature is someone who is a flatterer and false. No wonder people so often criticize but rarely praise them.

As a secretary, whether it is a long term of two or three decades, or a short term of two years or three years, are inevitably a few bumps and bruises, a few storms, and even a few degrees of shock and awe. There are bitter and sweet, there are worries and joys, there are comfort and sorrow. Secretary of the staff of the bitter, spicy, sweet and sour, the general outsiders are rare to know. From what I describe there, I think you can come to understand something about their work.


I. The Work of the Secretary


About the characteristics of the work of the secretary, there has long been a sophisticated and authoritative theoretical exposition. Starting from my work experience in the PLA, at the division and corps level and from examining the perspective of close the personal experience of Party and government cadres, I would say that the basic characteristics of secretarial work are as follows.

(A) Secretarial work is hard work

The secretary’s career is a profession that breaks the bones and exhausts the heart. Hard work and endurance is the basic spirit of the secretary should have.

First of all, it is a busy job. A wife said this about her husband who is a secretary: always busy all day long, so busy that there is no dinner time, no time to sleep, no concept of holidays. This is not an exaggeration. According to the statistics of a command office, the secretary in charge of writing work, the annual work 3781.4 hours, calculated on 365 days, the average daily work in more than 10.36 hours, equivalent to 472 days, more than the normal workload of 166 days. The statistical results of an agency in the troop site show that other staff members work an average of 206 days a year, a difference of 266 days.

The second is exhaustion. Secretary’s feet are non-stop running, the heart is always alert. During the day there are endless affairs, and at night there is an endless climbing grid. The work is complicated and specific, and one thing is more demanding than another. Sometimes when you are eating, suddenly something comes up, you have to put down the bowl and run, and when you come back, the food is cold and the time for work has come, so you have to walk into the office half-starved. Writing materials have a long and short, a tighter than a rush, a head than a head to be urgent. When you go to work to write, after work to drive the night to write. Hot days you sweat as you write, cold days you stomp your feet with a runny nose as you write, and even when you are asleep you have this urge to jump up and write. Some people say: the text debt in the body, the food is not tasty, sleep restless.

If you do not believe this, here are are examples in evidence: A

A secretary for 5 years, how many nights for writing articles have not yet been statistics. Once to the head of the rush to write a speech, from the morning to write late at night, hungry, hit the road back to the house, pull out the key but how can not open the lock, sweating, the door suddenly opened, rushed out two people, each holding a stick. It turns out that he was thinking about the manuscript on the way, on the wrong floor, the homeowner saw someone in the middle of the night to get the door lock, thought it was a burglar, want to hit ……

Once again, it is bitter. Although the secretary is not sweat, labor its muscles and bones, nor is it a coarse food and thin clothing, the cost of food and clothing, but the secretary’s hard work is really something else. It is not an exaggeration to say that the secretary sometimes have to spend more effort than the leader, sweat more, eat more suffering. A secretary once went with the the head of a PLA military region to a meeting, when returning to the peak of New Year’s travel rush, the train stunk and cold and crowded. Secretary D squeezed and squeezed, dry mouth, exhausted, finally the head of the arrangement to sit, but he had to stand to get off. When he returned home, his face was not washed, the head of the instructions, quickly put together the meeting materials, tomorrow morning to open the Standing Committee to use. He had to make a cup of hot, strong tea, a cold towel, to lift up his spirits so he could fight on doing the work of the evening. He has a warm nest but can may not rest there; there is a delicious meal but may not eat it. This is not the same as being out in the hunger and the cold, but come down to that in the end.

Secretary work is really “endless, not hungry but never eating you full, day and night have no meaning to you”. It goes on day after day, year after year. You rarely have the opportunity to breathe. A day down, exhausted, a little leisure, you feel sleepy immediately. A Ministry B officer well known as the “pencil” for his writing skills, has broken seven rice bowls during his naps and so got the additional nickname of “rice-bowl smasher”. Such situations are numerous.

(B) the secretary’s work is lonely

Secretarial work is a kind of occupation without flowers and applause. It is often accompanied by indescribable loneliness.

First of all, making clothes for others is always the most distinctive feature of the secretary’s work. Busy offstage, no nameless on stage. In the work of the troops on the stage, the head of the rightful role of the famous and tangible protagonists, and the secretary can not shirk the responsibility is to make the boss look good and to play his part by working desperately hard behind the scenes. People’s eyes tend to focus only on the leadership at all levels, large and small, to hear the impassioned leadership report, see the leadership to make a variety of decisive decisions, to see the the leadership to direct the activities with style. They rarely notice the secretary working beside the leaders, do not think much of the leader’s report, decision-making and style, as the crystallization of untold hours of hard work by the secretary. This just as how delicate flowers are much more likely to make people ignore the green leaves below.

A director, in the military division regiment three-level organs to write more than twenty years of material, to the “official” key moment, but can not find an article signed their names. A head of the speech caused a large reaction, until the people into the restaurant are still talking about: the head of the speech! It was wonderful! As there were more people accompanying the meal, there was no room for the secretary. A staff member said with resentment: “What are these stupid staff officers doing.” It was really irritating and sad. The labor of a secretary and its value are not easily understood and recognized. As long as you as a secretary, we must always be prepared: no one to get ahead of the day, there are silent and unheard of reality.

Secondly, there is “suffering” difficult to say is always the heavy weight of the secretary’s psychological burden. As a secretary, in front of the boss and the crowd, often wears a smile on his face and radiates calm. And it is precisely at this time, they may be suffering fallout from some devious scheme, be wrongly blamed, and even be made to suffer in the place of others. This pain must be openly suffered. This makes it more painful that it would be otherwise. First of all, writing articles, is the the most important psychological burden the secretary cannot escape from. Much indescribable suffering arises from that. Some leaders are too simple, they do not provide a detailed explanation, do not give detailed guidance for the secretary’s work, leaving everything to the secretary. Other leaders are too casual, they’ll change everything in a flash and the secretary’s efforts have all gone to waste. Others are too harsh, the show no mercy when they review a manuscript, keeping the secretary on pins and needles; some leaders hold views that are self-contradictory so that the secretary is in at a loss at what to do; some leaders are too stubborn, the views are not quite right, but the secretary has to be hard-headed and write just as he is told. And so on. The secretary in writing articles, inevitably encounter the above-mentioned situations, but in any case, when the article is not written to meet the requirements, the secretary should not and can not have a plea, no need for a detailed table of hardship. Zhang × × is a well-known “pencil” of a government office, but he is increasingly afraid to write important materials. Once the head of the B called him to say: “Zhang officer, the party committee wants you to write the report on its study and rectification session. They want something special this time.”

“Boss, what will be the main points? What is the most important experience the committee learned from? Give me a hint.”

“You write a draft, and then the party committee will discuss it.”

“What……”

“Now hurry up and do it!”

“……”

Officer Zhang collected materials. From concept to first draft took a whole week. He did two all-nighters. Finally, when the party committee discussed the draft, the senior official B said that it lacks a high-level perspective and sent it back to do over. After writing it out again, the senior official A said it was not realistic enough and so it had to be rewritten once again. It went through seven drafts, until the next day to report it was accepted. When Zhang compared the first draft with the seventh draft it was the same – from the point of view to the examples used. No only were a weeks worth of brain cells completely gone to waste, he also got the “reputation” of being a secretary who has “a hard time understanding the intentions of his boss”.

Once again, bear the humiliation, which is another secretary can not get rid of the psychological burden, sometimes unbearable. Some leaders are unhappy and have no where to vent their feelings. And so they blame their secretary. The secretary becomes a punching bag. Some leaders are dissatisfied with other leaders but are unable to say it so they will criticize the secretary who becomes a scapegoat. When some leaders wrongly entrusted with the work and the relevant superiors examine who is responsible, shift the blame to the secretary and so the secretary has become a scapegoat. A troop had several vehicle accidents one after another, it is ordered that they all take a day in the field to work on their driving. No one is allowed out of the car. This day boss D had a relative visiting, they instructed the secretary to send a car to pick up the relative at the station, and said: “It’s okay, I’m responsible for the accident.” The secretary had to do as he was told. The car had not yet left the courtyard, when he was stopped by administrative head C: “orders today are they we are not allowed to go out in a car. Are you deliberately defying orders?” The secretary knew that the boss C was critical of boss D. When talking with boss C, he hurriedly said, “I made up my own mind, you criticize it!” Some people say that a secretary keeps all is feelings to himself. There is some truth to that. No matter what the complaint, blame or suffer on behalf of others, can only swallow down. It can be said that, for the sake of the overall situation and the commission, can tolerate the good, is the secretary of the unique spirit of loyalty to duty. This generosity of mind is undoubtedly a valuable asset. Tolerate humiliation is probably the secretary’s “life” it!

Caution, caution always on behalf of the leader a code of conduct that secretaries must abide by. The secretariat of an organization, which serves many leaders, while providing good service to the leadership must also to try to maintain the prestige of the leadership and the unity of the leadership collective. Both to often pretend to be deaf and dumb, but also to have hearts beating as one with the leadership. If you have something to say, you can’t always be blunt; nor can you lay it all out at once. As a secretary, the work is governed by people, must be done as the boss intends. One’s time is governed by others; arrangement must be done as the boss requires. It can be said that the secretary studies the expressions on the face of the boss and the boss’s temperament to decide what to do.

G had been a soldier for 30 years, has been a division major, so far, every matter entrusted by the superiors, have done piece by piece to check the implementation; to carry out each work, have shown a desperate spirit; to each visitor is given a warm reception. Also unconsciously reveal a certain sense of inferiority. Why is this so? In his own words, it was because he was used to being a secretary, and the shadow of being a secretary remained everywhere. He once remembered that once with the head of the outing, the first night to rush to write a speech to 3:00 a.m., the head of the dawn to leave, and did not bother to eat, after a few hours, get off to rest, as required by the head of the meal to doze off again. The chief has a characteristic, eat fast, sleep fast, wake up fast, the chief fell asleep, G a person has not finished eating. The chief got up, G just fell asleep. The chief left, G has not yet woken up. The chief is far away, G found that he was abandoned. G had to take the train instead, and it took two days and two nights to catch up with the chief, who was severely criticized. From then on he was cautious up, dreaming when also calculating the work arrangements.

Treat people very cautiously, observe discipline very strictly, consider the problem very carefully, carry out the work very seriously, this is the natural characteristics of the secretary profession, but also the inevitable requirements of the secretary profession.

(C) The secretary Puts on Airs

The role of the secretary is mysterious and unique. In the midst of labor and loneliness and not infrequently can put on airs.

The secretary can often not only represent the head, and even under certain conditions can replace the head. In some occasions, in a particular condition, others respect and fear you. Secretary is the head of the close staff, where the head to go, the secretary to follow to where, the head of what to eat, the secretary can eat what, the head of what to enjoy, the secretary can also enjoy what. Like riding in a car, others in a big car, the secretary can ride with the chief in a small car. The chief to attend a banquet, the secretary of the entourage naturally to participate, not only because of the responsibility to take care of the chief, but also the reception units do not dare to offend the secretary. Because the need for the head to approve things, there are many things that must first go through the secretary. If you offend the secretary, of course, future work will be difficult. For example, a unit to the head of a very nice souvenir, but did not give the secretary a copy, the secretary is not very happy. This is also understandable. The undignified secretary not only has ideas, but also practices. When the unit wants to let the head through the secretary to do something, the secretary thought to himself, when sending something did not expect me, the head of the door when you give the door, I have not gone in, you let go; now something, want me to be a bridge when the boat, to give you a message to think of me, not so cheap. Of course, the mouth does not say, promise when also quite quick: “No problem, can talk about it.” But in the heart said: “You wait.” The result is like a clay ox plunging into the sea — dissolving, never to be heard from again.

Some people say that the secretary is the “second head”. This is not unreasonable. Some times, the head does not directly appear, let the secretary to deal with, then the secretary on behalf of the head. His speech, his opinion, his attitude, is the head of the speech, the head of the opinion, the head of the attitude. Some times the head is not in, entrusted to the secretary is responsible for solving some problems, then the secretary instead of the head, according to the head of the principle of entrusted to the specific undertaking some things. Therefore, in the eyes of the general public secretary is very powerful, the secretary himself will also feel this kind of power. However, here we remind the secretary, must pay attention to modesty and prudence.

(D) The secretary is fortunate

The secretary is indeed quite lucky. “Those on the water tower see moonrise first”, because of working beside the head, the head of the secretary know very well. To the secretary’s level, ability and work achievements, in the eyes, in mind. It is often said that “know people good appointment”, the reason why “good appointment”, the premise is “know people”, the secretary was the head as “know people “can be called on the unique advantage. Because the head understand the secretary, and trust the secretary, it is easier to appoint the secretary, promote the secretary. For the secretary, working under the watchful eye of the head, more opportunities to exercise, work ability to improve quickly, the opportunity to be reused a lot, the possibility of promotion is great. When the need for some people entrusted with important tasks, the head of the first thought may be the secretary. According to a unit of cadres department statistics, in a high-level cadres of the same level, the secretary or as a secretary of the average of about 5 years younger, and 2.5 times more than other professional origins. Under normal circumstances, secretaries almost everyone can go up one level. In today’s important leadership positions in China, people who have been secretaries of all kinds make up a significant proportion. This is the actual situation.


Second, the requirements of the work of the secretary


The basic requirements for secretarial work have been clearly stated in numerous published treatises. The secretarial staff of the army includes both staff officers, officers and assistants, as well as the heads of operational departments. According to this specific object, we believe that the secretary to handle the matters entrusted by the head, there are three requirements as follows.

The first is to remember everything accurately. Secretary to the head of each matter, there can not be the slightest error. In particular, the time, place, personnel, requirements, causes and consequences, specific figures, percentages, and even the head of the attitude, tone of voice, must be clear. Should do: pocket notepad, the table has a notepad, there are notepad helpers around (family members, children at any time to remind), so as not to forget and miss things, while doing ding is ding, dao is dao, there must not be the slightest error. If there is a slight omission, there will be a problem. One Saturday, the army commander said to Secretary D: “Tomorrow I am on duty, 10:00 am. The higher-ups came to inspect the work of the direct team, when you give me a call, I accompanied the comrades of the working group to go together.” Secretary D wrote it down on the notepad as he was accustomed to do, and gave some instructions to his family. The company’s first-ever “The Best of the Best” is the first of its kind. It took this secretary a moment of clarity. If not for the help at home, D How should the secretary answer to the military commander?

For the chief’s outings, it is even more important to make careful arrangements not to make the slightest mistake. Please see a head of the troops to visit the half-day

activities arrangements (see attached).

Secondly, everything has to be done. The chief of every thing, whether it is a major national event, or family matters, and whether it is easy to do things or difficult things, there must be results. You can’t talk about the price, can’t complain, can’t pose difficulties, not to mention the excuse not to do. The chief in handing over the task to the difficult aspects have been taken into account, there is generally some leeway. Of course there are difficulties, or you can not see the secretary’s skills.

Third, the second time to hear back. The chief of the matter, regardless of the outcome, should be reported in a timely manner, and the sooner the better. For example, buy a ticket, is a matter of urgency. The secretary bought a good in the pocket not to report to the head, so that the head of the anxious: buy no? Which train? What time does it leave? The chief may be anxious to go around, you are quite frank. Can you not be criticized? Such things have been three times, the secretary can not do.

These three requirements are not esoteric and do not have any theoretical depth, but is very important, is the minimum conditions for good secretarial work.

Third, the secretary should have these qualities


Secretary to follow the head of the bitter, spicy, sweet and sour, not everyone can adapt, endure. As a qualified secretary, to have some special qualities, in the mind, moral, psychological, clerical ability, writing level and other aspects have very high requirements.

(A) politically strong

Secretary work position is important and has great responsibility. Secretaries are often involved in the core of the Party

The secretary is often involved in the Party’s core secrets, involved in some major issues of decision-making and processing. This requires.

First of all, have a firm political position, always adhere to the belief of communism, in ideology, politics, action and the party to maintain a high degree of consistency. In particular, it must be able to withstand the storm and not make mistakes on major issues of principle. The kind of people who kill back at the first sign of trouble can not be the secretary.

Secondly, there should be a deep theoretical foundation of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought and a high level of policy. Will use the Marxist-Leninist position, views and methods of observation, understanding and solving practical problems, understanding and mastering the party’s line, guidelines, policies, and good at implementing in the practical work.

Again, have a strong sense of enterprise and responsibility. Always put the interests of the Party and the people in the first place; from the high and strict requirements of their own, love their jobs, dedicated to their duties, not afraid of hardship and fatigue, regardless of gains and losses, not for fame and fortune.

(B) business to fine

Secretary directly for the head of the service, not only the important matters, and complicated affairs, high standards and strict requirements. Up to assist the leadership in decision-making, down to food, clothing, housing and transport are to manage. Secretary staff must be both civilian and military, a combination of coarse and fine, doing a good job of big things, small things to do smart.

First of all, to have the ability to work shrewdly and competently. Quick-witted, sharp, efficient handling of documents and telegrams; timely arrangement of relevant activities; initiative to collect, analyze and synthesize the situation; good at representing the leadership, convey the views, arrange work, handle matters. Properly send and receive, call, receive visits and other matters in an orderly manner, even to the leadership’s life issues should also be meticulous and thoughtful arrangements.

Second, to have excellent writing skills. Familiar with the basic knowledge of the application of the authorities, comfortable with the use of various types of documents, clear thinking, reasonable structure, simple and concise style, fluent and vivid language, accurate and appropriate expression.

Again, have a wealth of scientific and cultural knowledge and certain skills. Understand the latest research results in social sciences, natural sciences, know the general state of politics, economics, astronomy, geography, history and culture and art, etc., familiar with the unit’s expertise and business work of various departments, as soon as possible to master the use of microcomputers, fax and other modern office equipment, if necessary, should also learn photography, video, driving and even self-defense skills.

(C) the style should be hard

The style of secretarial staff, related to the quality of service for the head of the issue, but also the overall image of the unit is part of. Secretary staff style is multifaceted, summarized in the following points.

First, diligent efforts, thunder and lightning. Not lazy willingness to make efforts, do not wait and do not rely on, said to do, pay attention to time and efficiency.

Second, in-depth practical, contact the masses. Effective investigation and research, grasp the real situation, do not pose, do not take the form, treat people with generosity, solidarity with comrades.

Three is thoughtful and meticulous, rigorous and steady. The paperwork is perfect, meticulous, modest and cautious in dealing with people and arrangements are well thought out. Not impatient, not paranoid, not self-assertive, calm and collected, coping with a clear sense of urgency, lift the weight as lightly as possible, not panic, not fumbling.

(D) cultivation to be good

The ideological and moral cultivation of secretarial staff is extremely important, it is one of the basic qualities of qualified secretaries. A person’s cultivation is the performance of its psychological quality. Therefore, the secretary must have the following good psychological qualities.

First, indifference and not lose the clear will. No desire for power, being in the power staggering, in the calm, not moved by it, no desire for power will use the power not offside. No profit desire, in the vital sector, the self-poor, not for the temptation, no profit desire will be beneficial not to seek private. No name desire, in the off-stage behind the scenes, in a place of honor and prominence, willing to be a cow, not to be confused, no name desire will become famous not to enjoy the reputation. Although indifferent but should have the will to show an independent personality, with real talent, to show their own ideas, to support the leadership decision. Aloof will directly expressed as not afraid of hardship, not to enjoy; heavy career, light gain and loss, more dedication, less demanding.

Second, calm and not lose decisiveness. Deep and good thinking, patient and steady, never act rashly, emotional, with strong self-control. Firm and decisive, dare to do, never indecisive, fearful, have greater courage and boldness.

Third, self-confidence without losing modesty. Self-respect and self-love, self-confidence, indomitable spirit, review the situation, honor and disgrace. Forbidden to grovel, obsequious, is the strong man of life. He is kind, full of enthusiasm, speaks kindly and is willing to help others. Never arrogant, overbearing, is a friend of all people.

Fourth, dignified and humorless. Demeanor dignified, generous, civilized and elegant, calm demeanor. No dirty words, no complacency and forgetfulness. The expression is rich and subtle, the words imply philosophy, can trigger people’s thoughts and fun, can eliminate tension and dull emotions.

Secretary good ideological and moral cultivation and stable psychological quality is multi-level, multi-faceted. In actual life people from personal experience, there are many very accurate and vivid expressions of this. From the style point of view, the secretary should have the style of willingness to be a ladder, the style of taking the credit, the style of tolerance and generosity, the style of democracy and equality, the style of treating people with sincerity and the style of being a pioneer. From the perspective of character, the secretary should be decisive, self-improvement, composure and generosity. From the point of view of manners, the secretary should be smart, quick, modest, dignified, enthusiastic, confident, simple and humorous temperament. From the point of view of character, the secretary should do: the power does not trespass on power, control of people not whole, no selfishness since the peace of mind; can bear the humiliation, the commission, the overall situation; to comrades warm, caring, sincere, to see the problem accurately, clear, dare to take responsibility; do not believe in gossip, not to set right and wrong, not to “bully others”.

Engels said: “The character of a person is not only in what he does, but also in how he does it.” The ideal quality of secretarial staff is the clever combination of reason and emotion, introversion and extroversion, independence and obedience and other psychological factors. As a secretary, to potter and hone themselves in long-term practice, so that they become qualified secretarial talent.

In the leader’s mind how the secretary is considered qualified, many experts and scholars at home and abroad have proposed many assessment topics and methods, now a little collated for reference. (In the text, “you” refers to the leader)

1 Secretary know the scope of your duties and all activities? Do you understand your goals and intentions?

2. If you leave the organization for 3-4 weeks, are you convinced that your secretary can still handle your business and personal affairs in a serious and responsible manner?

3. Does he help you to arrange the schedule of activities, coordinate appointments, so that you can go to the appointment as scheduled, all without your urging and bothering? Is he a person

who is very good at organizing his own time?

4. if you do not remind him, he can take the initiative to perform and firmly complete the work you give him?

5. Is he polite to your colleagues and visitors? Can he be respectful, helpful and take others’ matters to heart?

6. Is he an imaginative and creative person? Can he come up with new ideas and suggestions for you to consider? Does he often adopt new ways to improve your work and his own work? Is he able to develop new work systems or work procedures? Is he organized in his work?

7. Is he a resourceful person? Can he take the initiative to solve some problems without bothering you? Is he afraid of difficulties?

8. can he improve the efficiency of the paperwork? Can he find in time the documents on your desk that have been sitting there for a long time while other leaders are waiting to read them? Can he pick up the documents you need from other leaders in a timely manner?

9. Does he possess basic secretarial skills (such as filing, shorthand and telephone manner) that are beyond reproach?

10. Is he calm in critical situations? Is he calm in an emergency? When you are under pressure and sulk or lose your temper, he can still calmly continue to work as usual?

11. Is he loyal to you and worthy of your trust? Can you entrust him with some confidential information, both public and private?

12. Does he have a wide reading and knowledge base? Can he often draw your attention to publications that are relevant to the unit and to your personal affairs?

13. does he become a valuable source of information for the unit? Is he a valuable source of information that is difficult, inconvenient, or impossible for you to obtain on your own?

14. Does he have a personal education program? Does he ask to learn more about your unit, your work, your colleagues, or your industry?

15. Does he speak clearly? Can he briefly brief you in writing or verbally? Can he communicate your instructions clearly and correctly? Can he understand your ideas about a policy or action and tell others about it as accurately as you do?

16. Does he get his daily work done regardless of time? Does he volunteer to work overtime at night or on weekends as needed?

17.Can he delegate his unfinished work to others when necessary and supervise others to complete it responsibly, just like a manager?

18. can he take care of the daily routine for you without your intervention?

19.Can he remember some important dates (such as anniversaries, someone’s birthday, traditional holidays, vacations, etc.) and arrange celebrations for your superiors, family or colleagues on your behalf?

20.Is he competent in research work? For example, can he collect information, investigate what happened in a certain matter and write an investigation report with facts, analysis and recommendations, etc.?

May all our secretaries, through their efforts, be able to meet these 20 standards.

The art of familiarizing yourself with the personality of the chief

The secretary-general period and the chief together, get along and work together, need to establish a good relationship of trust and dependence. And the establishment of a harmonious relationship depends mainly on the secretary’s understanding of the head’s personality characteristics and compliance. On the basis of a full understanding of the personality characteristics of the head, the secretary to adjust themselves to the needs of the head. Secretary to the head of the lack of understanding of personality traits can not comply, can not comply with the difficulty of establishing a good relationship. Do a head like the secretary, likewise, also like a head of the secretary, you must do to understand and comply with the head of the personality characteristics.



A, understand the head of the habits of life


The secretary working beside the chief, should be the chief very satisfied with the person. Generally speaking, the size should be moderate, look dignified and clean, the body should be healthy and strong. When which the head of the secretary, should be for which the head of the dedicated service. This requires the secretary to have a clear understanding of the habits of the head of life.

(A) on the head of the “eating” habits

People are food for the day. The chief is also a member of the people, but also to eat. Eating is the most important part of the chief’s habits.

On the leading cadres “eat”, that is, what to eat, how to eat, where to eat, is a current hot issue, is the most discussed by the masses, but also one of the most disgusting issues. Once you hear that the head to eat, it is creepy, in the clean government, with public money to eat and drink is one of the most serious problems. A large sum of the hard-earned money of the workers is eaten up, which is distressing.

In the head of the problem of eating, but also can not be generalized, there should be a comprehensive and specific analysis of understanding. There are three situations: First, some chiefs do love to eat and drink, love to eat good love to eat strange. Second, some of the chiefs do hate eating and drinking, especially resent the endless eating and drinking. Third, some chiefs do not seek to eat and drink, only “Coca-Cola”, that is, to eat smoothly and casually as the standard. According to our analysis of 100 division leaders and above, only 7 people love to eat and drink. The 56 people who hate eating and drinking. “Coca-Cola” of 37 people.

The first kind of head only accounted for a minority, but the impact is greater. Although the secretary can not stop, but to be aware of.

The second kind of chief accounts for the majority, is the hope and strength of the party style improvement. Some of them come from a poor background, home in the countryside, grew up eating hardships, quite averse to big food and drink. There are those who come up from the lower level of the head, know the grassroots of the bitterness, to spend a day of eating and drinking is very uncomfortable. There are also some from the hardship of remote areas out of the head, the squandering of public funds to eat public drinking public also deeply distressed.

The third kind of head accounted for a considerable number, is the secretary should seriously understand the important object to master. There is a chief in the issue of eating especially “picky”, he likes to eat boiled dumplings. See the broken skin of the dumplings will say: “Today’s food is good!” Next to a sumptuous banquet table seems to have little appeal to him. The secretary had to make it clear to the cooks that the dumplings should be made more often, and that there should be some openings. Another head likes to eat thin rice, four plates of pickles, a glass of wine, he is quasi-happy to see: “The food is good, really good.” And the stomach can also eat quite large. Another chief is from Shanxi, nothing else matters, but every meal must have two potatoes, see the skin open flesh of the potatoes, eyes shine, while eating and say: “nutritious ah, where does the starch come from? Mainly from here.” And so on, they are the standard of “Coca-Cola”.

Each head in the issue of eating, habits are very different, the secretary can not be treated equally. Whether at home or abroad, are on the head of the sea and delicacies are not necessarily happy.

(B) on the head of the “drink” habits

Drink, more complicated than in the past. Tea, drinks, wine, fancy, to charm the eye. Wine imports, “Remy Martin”, “XO” a cup with a little, 70 to 80 yuan is considered cheap. Domestic is also very expensive, “Maotai”, “Wuliangye”, “Jiannanchun” one or two hundred yuan a bottle, may also be fake. Plus beer, blue belt, drink a few tubes of half a month’s salary. The variety of drinks is even more, the juice, the pulp, countless. A mouthful of sour water, three or five yuan or even one or two dozen yuan, after drinking the stomach ache. It can really be said that the grade is getting higher and higher, appetite is getting worse and worse.

For the head of the drink, the secretary should also be analyzed to master. Or according to our examination of more than 100 division chiefs as an example, there are roughly four kinds of cases: one is like a big drink, drink high-grade 7 people. 25 people who have to drink a little every day. 40 people who can drink or not. 25 people who hate drinking.

The first kind of head accounted for a very small number of, “no wine is not a seat”, the banquet must be a drunkenness, their own drink, persuade people to drink, “Wuliangye” more than two or three bottles, half are poured on the ground. To these chiefs love to “drink” bad habits, the secretary should try to dissuade.

The second type of head is not a small number, which is a manifestation of their habits. They have to drink two mouthfuls at each meal, or look at the meal can not eat, take a little wine to, without high-grade, eat the meal down, talk more. In general occasions, the secretary can give care, let the cook prepare some wine, the head is very happy, and will not miss work.

The third kind of head of the majority, there is no wine does not affect the meal, on the wine, do not feel cheerful, not on the wine is not feeling spoiled. But in any case can not drink more, and do not want to drink more. To their secretaries do not have to force, and do not need to take special care.

The fourth kind of head of the number of people. They see wine fret, especially for a meal to drink a few hours annoyed to death. If they are forced to go to the mountain, the middle also have to go out a few times to hide, or halfway out of the scene. To them, the secretary should step in to bail out, and greet the accompanying food staff in advance. Don’t be a deadbeat to the head of the wine.

(C) on the head of the “receipt” of the habit

Receive is a gift from someone to receive down. The problem of receiving is more common than the problem of eating and drinking. There is not like to eat, there is not like to drink, but do not want to receive, refuse to receive but not many. There is a receipt, there is a gift, someone in a sedan chair and someone willing to carry the sedan.

There is a story: During the Warring States period, Zou Ji, a great official of the State of Qi, dressed up one day and asked his wife, “Who do you think is beautiful between me and Xu Gong in the north of the city?” The wife said, “Of course you are beautiful!” Zou Ji did not believe it, because Xu Gong was known as a beautiful man. The company’s main business is to provide a wide range of products and services to the public. The company is still not convinced. The company’s main goal is to provide the best possible service to its customers. Later, when Duke Xu came to Zou Ji’s house, Zou Ji was convinced that he was not prettier than Duke Xu in any way. The next day he met King Wei of Qi and recounted the incident. King Wei of Qi asked him, “Look for yourself, who is beautiful?” “Of course Duke Xu is beautiful.” “Then why do they say you are beautiful?” “My wife says I am beautiful because she favors me; my concubine says I am beautiful because she is afraid of me; my guest says I am beautiful because he begs me.”

From this we can know that those who give gifts to the head are mostly trying to achieve some purpose of their own from the recipient. Generally speaking, between sending and receiving, the giver often shows an active behavior.

Nowadays, there are many different ways to give gifts to leading cadres, and they are changing day by day. Call people feel wonderful, and sometimes feel helpless.

First, on the method of sending.

There are direct delivery, face to face to the head. There are indirectly sent to the head of the family, children, or through the secretary and other relevant personnel forwarding.

There are openly sent, mentioned in front of the head is the gift.

There are secretly sent, quietly put there without saying anything, or the surface does not look like a gift, but in fact in the intentional gift. According to the newspaper, a provincial organ a director often pulled by the unit to play mahjong, his tile skills are not really smart, but always he won. A few times even waist back home. But he also had to pay the price, in some documents, instructions or some what to sign his name on the note. As a result, mistakes were made.

Second, about the timing of the delivery.

The birthday of the chief or a family member is a good time to give a gift, especially the best time for the birthday of a junior that the chief likes very much.

When the chief is hospitalized, gifts are often inundated with people in the ward, in front of the couch, condolences piled up into a mountain. One chief likes to smoke, a hospital can receive dozens of red Tashan, Ashima.

When the chief went to the grassroots,

many people also sent things. Before leaving, someone said: “The head of the grassroots is quite hard, take two cigarettes to smoke.”

“Forget it, forget it, I have it with me.”

“Two cigarettes is nothing, this is not a gift!”

“Next time do not come to this set.” Still, they were accepted.

When they returned, someone said, “We have nothing good in this ravine, take a few ginseng head to take back to make wine, tonic body.”

“This is not good, right?”

“What’s wrong with that? A few ginseng is not worth much, your health is good for work. We are also contributing to the construction of the army!” He put a box of ginseng on the car seat.

The chief’s children went to school and joined the workforce, which was also an opportunity to give gifts.

“It’s worth celebrating when you go to college. Take care of yourself away from home. Take this blanket and put it on your feet.”

“Children become adults when they work. It’s time to dress up, this necklace will look good on you.”

The people who came to celebrate expressed in different languages the reasonableness of sending things, and inevitably interspersed with some kind of unreasonable demands.

Thirdly, about the variety of sending.

It can be divided into three categories. The first category is daily necessities, from chicken feed, local specialties, clothing, cigarettes, alcohol, lighters, health care products to high-grade furniture, cameras, VCRs and even video cameras and so on. The second category is the appreciation of goods, there are antiques, jade, jewelry, handicrafts, celebrity paintings, precious books, etc., ranging in value from a few dozen to tens of thousands of dollars. The third category is currency, from red envelopes and cash to credit cards. Peony card, Great Wall card, in which a few digits are stored, it is convenient to give to the head with.

Sometimes the receiving party also shows an active behavior, that is, to take. There are two ways, one is openly take, one is secretly so. The chief to a troop inspection, a banquet to eat a speciality of Xinjiang camel feet, very good taste, so said: “Zhang ah, your camel feet here is very good.” Before leaving, the unit leader prepared a considerable amount of camel’s feet to give to the chief, which is Mingna. The chief went to a unit to understand the situation, saw a good book, loved it, so he said to the secretary: “really a good book, I still see for the first time, we can buy there?” The secretary said, “This is a rare ancient book, I’m afraid it’s not for sale.” The troop leader understood the intention and said, “Take it if the chief likes it, we can only use it as a decoration, why not give the chief a good study.” This is the secret sauce.

The chief in the “collection” of the problem, the performance is more common, only the lightness of different.

(D) on the head of the “live” habits

The head of the problem of living is relatively simple. As the head of the equivalent level, generally speaking, live in a relatively high grade. Regiment-level live in a single room, the division above the suite, the room is not in the size, the key is to live comfortably, thoughtful service. Secretary in consideration of the head to live, to consider the habits of the head. For example, some chiefs like quiet, as long as the quiet is good, not necessarily high class.

(E) on the head of the “play” habits

The chief loves to play what has also developed. From the past walk, play ball, play poker development to watch video, dance, listen to music, sing karaoke and so on. The secretary should make arrangements according to the hobbies of the chief. Love to play chess, go out to bring chess, love to read books to prepare several books, and some only like to brag, after dinner and tea, the sky and the north blow a pass, finished sleeping. For those who love high-grade play the head, but also pay attention to remind him.

(F) on the head of the “line” habits

The chief likes to go out by train, plane or car? Like to drive a fast car or a slow car? The seat of the car should also be careful. The chief likes to sit in the front row or back row? These, the secretary should have a number in mind, do not compete with the head of the seat, making jokes, in foreign countries, leaders are sitting in the back row, while China, in addition to senior leaders, generally sit in the front row. This is because.

First, the leaders go out more without guards, the front row position is empty, so that the leaders have the possibility of choice; leaders sit in the front row with a wide line of sight, conducive to observing the situation on the way.

Second, the quality of China’s roads is poor, bumpy, the leaders sit in the front row than the back row of the smooth some, encounter potholes can also be found early a thought to prepare.

Third, the leader went out with more people, the back row sitting 3 people more crowded, sitting in the front row more comfortable. In addition, there is a traditional cultural psychological factors, many people think that the front row of people sitting than the back row of people to sit noble. So always guests, leaders to the front row please, over time on the convention. It is said that Cixi once imported a small car, she asked the driver to either drive behind her, or kneel to drive. Because of the inability to meet her requirements, and even indignant not to sit in a small car.

(G) the secretary of the head of the various habits should be held attitude

Secretary to understand the head of the habits of life, in order to comply with the needs of the head, in order to achieve the purpose of working with the head of harmony, and to achieve the best work of the head. This is not flattery. The head of the eating, drinking, sending, taking and other habits, to dialectically analyze, they have multiple: political transactions; friendship; emotional compensation; there is a balance of interests. In summary, it can be said that the exchange of power and money; human feelings; courtesy; gratitude. It cannot be regarded as corruption in general. Invitation to give gifts in China is a long history of custom, is a common feeling. During the Spring Festival, when you go to your friends’ and relatives’ homes to pay respects, you have to send boxes of snacks. You send me, I send you, after a big circle, and was sent back. If your in-laws come to visit you, it’s not right to not add two good dishes. In fact, this kind of treats and gifts is not very meaningful, but indispensable. The old head to visit, can not eat some good food? Before leaving can not send something? You have today, are people cultivated, this is emotional compensation, not to talk about corruption.

The secretary can have four attitudes towards the habits of the chief.

First, the normal habits of the head of life should follow him. For example, he goes to bed on time and gets up on time to work. The secretary should not learn from the night owl, reluctant to sleep at night, do not remember in the morning.

Second, the head of the peculiar habits of life should adapt to him. For example, he went to work late in the day and did the work at night, the secretary should also learn to work overnight.

Third, the head of the bad habits should remind him. For example, his respiratory organs are sick, but must smoke, the secretary should try to control him.

Fourth, the head of the bad habits of life to moderate him. For example, he saw the wine no life, a drink will be drunk, drunk on the nonsense, cursing, making a fool of himself. The secretary should do a good job in advance, instructing the relevant personnel not to fill the head. When drinking to grasp the fire, the drink for the drink for the drink, the cup to take away the cup. “The chief has a meeting tonight, I’ll drink this cup.” “The chief has been feeling, and then drink is not good, this glass of wine is exempt.”





Second, good knowledge of the head of the character traits


Everyone has their own character, the chief is the same. Since he is the leader, his character traits are particularly prominent. The secretary must accurately grasp the unique character of the chief.

The chief’s character traits can be broadly divided into these types.

Some chiefs are impatient, some chiefs are very steady.

some chiefs are very fast, some chiefs are very slow.

some chiefs are very bold, some chiefs are very restrained.

some chiefs are lively, some chiefs are subdued.

Some chiefs are rough, some chiefs are very delicate.

The head of the character traits for such a division, is to facilitate the secretary can accurately grasp the different characteristics of the head, in order to respond to the needs of the head, and then get along with the head of the co-workers.

The following is a brief introduction to how the secretary to adapt to the head of several major character.

(A) on the impatient character

Impatient character of the head, the biggest feature is to land on the ground, said dry immediately hands. To be a style, thunder and lightning. Many military chiefs over the years to develop such a character.

The secretary should pay special attention to this: the head of this character often lack of thoughtfulness, his decisions often do not count. One may not have the final decision, the second when he calmed down and self-denial. In particular, an angry discipline, punishment, the secretary should do some work privately to the staff concerned: “Although the head criticized you, scolded you, but that is in the fire, do not carry baggage. I as the secretary, the head of this I know very well. I don’t believe that when we meet again tomorrow morning, he will still smile at you.”

(2) About the bold character

The head of the bold character, the most important feature is generous and cheerful, people are loyal and straightforward, clear and bright, there is never any secret to keep in

mind. Just convey a provincial military-level documents, he walked when he met the directors may leak out in the conversation: “This issue you can pay attention to, the central government has the spirit of the document …… but you know on the line, do not spread. …… just now I gave you guys what to say?”

“Didn’t say anything.”

“Then it’s right.”

This secretary should pay special attention to this, this character of the head of the decision is more casual, anything is full of care. The subordinate’s request, request easily get in his promise. But his promises and often do not count, especially after the promise of alcohol, can not be trusted. “Want money well, 30,000 yuan is not much, can consider.” The secretary should promptly explain to people: the head of just drunken talk, never count, please do not have to take it seriously. Sober up and ask him again, he will forget.”

(C) on the restrained character

Restrained character of the head, the most important feature is the lack of courage and boldness, careful in everything, everywhere to be careful, fear of the word head, worry a lot. Do not dare to take responsibility, do not dare to do something, everything from the book, the spirit of the document prevails. No basis, or the need to adapt the implementation of things, they do not dare to make decisions, wait and rely on the seriousness of the idea. For example, in order to meet the needs of modern army construction, the relevant departments asked the head of B to replace the program-controlled telephone exchange between command organs and large units. He said, “It is indeed necessary, we have money ourselves, but have not seen the specific instructions from the top, this is not good.”

In this regard, the secretary should pay special attention to this character of the head of the decision hesitant, easy to miss things. Some urgent matters, major events, special circumstances of the matter, to his place to play stalemate. The secretary should take the initiative to participate in decision-making, reasoning, talk about the situation, prompting the chief to make up his mind. At the same time in the possible case, may be with other chief ventilation.

(D) on the rough character

Rough character of the head, the biggest feature is only care of the rough branches, regardless of the details. They are not confused about big things, small things are not clear, there is a shuttle angle, no lines. You do right he pretended to be confused, you do wrong he is very clear. Small things can bluff him, big things do not lie to him. He only cares about the principle, do not ask specific. Emphasis on the results, regardless of the process. A large construction task, he was only involved in the plan, as to how to implement, find a deputy or the specific leadership to do.

In this regard, the secretary should pay special attention to this character of the head of the decision is too rough, the lack of specific guidance. Many parts of the work are prone to problems, often due to small losses, resulting in losses that should not have. The secretary should do a good job to make up for the work, for the head of the well thought out, according to his basic principles to develop a specific implementation plan, the head of the neglect of all the little things in mind. For example, after the chief thought of the decision of large-scale operations of the troops, in the formation of documents, the secretary should make a detailed elaboration of the relevant organizational leadership, safety and accident prevention, confidentiality and other aspects of the work.

In addition, about the fast character, the biggest characteristic of this type of head is to do a good job before rest. On the slow character, the biggest characteristic of this type of head is to rest well before doing, and so on, and so forth. The secretary should be the relevant impact of its character traits, make the appropriate response.





Third, adapt to the head of the work style


Because the chief’s habits, characteristics and experience are different, they do their work in a different way. The chief according to their own way to do the work, the secretary should find ways to adapt.

The chief’s way of working is different as follows.

Some love to go to the grassroots, some love to squat organs.

Some love to speak long words, some love to speak short words.

Some love impromptu speeches, some love written reports.

Some love to work during the day, some love to work overtime at night.

Some love to meet to set up, some love to give individual instructions.

Some love collective discussion, some love individual dictation.

The chiefs’ different ways of working are habits they have formed over time. The reason why they take this way and do not use that way is because the chiefs think that this way can make their work effective, impactful and interesting to themselves. There is a Buddhist saying that many things in the world are neither right nor wrong in the first place; it is people themselves who decide whether they are right or wrong. This statement is not without truth. Is it right to love squatting organs? Yes. The leadership is to command the troops through the organs. Love to go to the grassroots right? Also true. How can we make decisions without understanding the grassroots? Love to speak long words right? “I can’t do it without talking. If you don’t talk about it, something will happen to him.” Yes. Is it right to talk short? “Talking too much is nonsense.” Also right. Love to work at night, right? “Too much interference during the day, can not produce results.” Yes. Is it right to love working during the day? “I fool around during the day and pretend to be a fool at night.” Also right. Each has its own reason, no need to force.

Secretary of the head of the grassroots love, you need to be able to suffer. The head of the love of squatting organs, it is necessary to report often. The head of the love to talk long, you need to write more. The head of the love of short talk, you need to refine. The head of the love of daytime work, it is necessary to keep the system. The head of the love of the night work, you need to practice the night war. The head of the love of collective discussion, need to be good synthesis. The head of the love of arbitrary, will need to be accommodated.

In short, the secretary should be able to make their own fully suitable for the head of the way of work, and the head of the cordial co-working, excellent play the role of staff assistant, to do their best for the construction of the troops.





Assist the head of the art of decision-making

Secretary as a profession, in a unit, depending on the size of its establishment, sometimes a person, sometimes several people, and sometimes it may be a team or even several teams. Their duties are not just to go in and out with the head, to help the head copy and write, to send and receive for the head.

In the senior organs of the party, government and military, there are often one or several think tanks, also similar to the secretary team, specifically for the head of the advice and counsel. Their advisory role, decision-making role, the rise and fall of all aspects of our country, playing a pivotal role.

We are talking about the secretary to assist the head of the decision, only from a certain unit, a certain side, or can be said, only on a secretary individual, to grasp the analysis.

Nevertheless, the role of the secretary in the decision can not be underestimated. So, what are some good methods that secretaries can use to assist the chief in decision-making? The following nine are provided here.





A random reminder method


The so-called random reminder method, is to seize the opportunity to advise the head at any time and anywhere.

Secretary often in the head of the side, encounter any problems, some ideas, you can speak out in passing. These suggestions, not necessarily to the entire work sets of programs, nor necessarily to the overall situation to present a complete view. Often from the work of the local, specific problems found at any time, to put forward constructive advice.

The key to the random reminder method is the word “random”. That is, I do not know when, what issue, the secretary found a problem, or the head suddenly asked the secretary’s views on a certain issue, the secretary should be, depending on the situation, to say a “son, ugly, cinderella” to. This requires the secretary to

One should pay attention to the collection of relevant information.

Random reminder is not the secretary only by their own clever mind, a bright idea, you can come up with a good plan, but mainly on the knowledge and information reserves; no rich knowledge and information reserves, all kinds of amateur, everything is a layman, even if the problem touches the nose, can not see, of course, can not find a way to solve the problem.

A unit of financial difficulties, the Ministry of complaints, that the reform tide is so rapid, why not open some companies to earn a few, so some production and management staff want to open a “chemical research company” to get a hundred thousand or eighty thousand, the head also agreed. Secretary × told the head: we are located in a busy downtown, surrounded by factories, research units, this “chemical research company” ready to launch new products in the market has been backlogged. Besides, this is not our advantage, we have to start production, the result is not only can not make money, I am afraid that even the capital will be lost. So the head of the market again sent people to investigate, the results are indeed so. The suggestion was adopted, and the idea of building a “chemical research company” was cancelled, avoiding a likely economic loss. Imagine, if the proposer does not know the market information, do not do market research, can be justified

rationalization proposals?

Second, to master the timing of clever.

Secretary in the use of random reminder method, to make their own ideas, suggestions adopted by the head, we must pay special attention to the timing. For example, when the mistakes and losses in the work has been very obvious, your advice is good, but also can only be considered “hindsight”; when the mistakes and losses in the work has not been revealed, your advice is good, but also can only be considered “good worry”. Therefore, the secretary should always pay close attention to the chief’s attention to the hot issues, found the first signs of bad, you can immediately remind the chief of attention, and help the chief to analyze the potential dangers. After drawing the attention of the head, can immediately come up with a reliable improvement program.

Third, we must have the whole picture in mind.

Some secretaries are only responsible for a certain aspect of work, so they can only find problems and make suggestions from a specific part of the work. Although these recommendations are good and correct, but get the whole picture to measure, and seem too light weight, or one-sided. To the head of the overall situation, your suggestions are just a “drop in the bucket”, of course, can not be adopted. Therefore, the secretary only to understand the overall situation, in order to randomly remind, to produce a positive effect.





Second, the prediction-oriented method


The so-called prediction-oriented method is to predict the future results of a variety of visionary, valuable advice to guide the head of the correct direction to make up their minds.

Secretary’s predictive suggestions, in a sense, in the decision-making process plays a strategic guidance role, it is often the basis and starting point for decision-making. Predictions, such as mistakes, based on the decision, the cause will suffer significant losses. And the higher the level of forecasting advice, the higher the level of scientific decision-making, and can bring prosperity to the cause. This is, of course, with regard to high-level staff agencies.

Secretaries should be especially cautious in their forecast-oriented activities. Don’t speak wildly without 80% certainty. Before predicting the future, pay attention to collecting information, materials and data from all relevant parties, analyze the historical and realistic state and development trend as exhaustively as possible, make a more reliable description of possible future changes, and propose corresponding countermeasures for the future situation. At the same time, in the forecast thinking, but also thoughtfully consider the relationship between macro and micro, overall and local, long-term and near-term, so that the forecast can be comprehensive and thoughtful, to reduce errors to a minimum.





Third, the advice method


The so-called consulting suggestion method, is the head of the decision to be put into practice, through research and study, with sufficient facts, to put forward the feasibility and complementary views.

In the consultation process, the secretary should pay special attention to such points.

First, to prevent the map.

Think the head wants to set the subject is well thought out, it is best not to shake and deny it. So to the lower side of the haphazardly find a few one-sided examples to cite, the head of the determination to lead astray.

Second, focus on objective and comprehensive.

In the collection of data and information, to visit the site, to understand the actual situation and various reflections, timely identification of problems, comprehensive analysis, study of the relationship and changes in relevant aspects, design a variety of solutions and models to solve the problem, a variety of calculations and comparisons, from which to choose the best solution.

Third, write a consulting report.

Secretary to conduct a period of investigation and research, the first preliminary report, exchange views with the head, to obtain the support of the head, and after listening to the views of all parties, and then write a formal advisory report, asking the head to consider the adoption. As long as the facts are reliable, strong arguments, the head of the general can be adopted.





Fourth, provide information method


The so-called provide information method, is about the history of the reality, domestic and foreign, military and foreign, as well as the same industry information, provided to the head of reading, so that the head of the inspiration.

This method is a wordless voice, the wise secretary does not have to buzz around the head’s ears day and night, so that the head distracted.

Provide information method, there are active and passive provision, that is, the head of the request for a certain information, the secretary can quickly meet; the head did not take the initiative to request, but the secretary has guessed the head of the mind, can provide along with the trend.

Intentional and unintentional provision, that is, the secretary to provide the head of a certain information, is specifically for the head of a decision service; secretary to provide the head of certain information, is only for the head of reference, for a decision later spare.

There are provided in the direction and the reverse, that is, some information is the chief is happy to see; some information is the chief is not happy to see, but must see the inevitable.





V. Comparative selection method


The so-called comparative selection method, refers to the head of the decision to put forward a variety of options for the head to choose the best kind.

The best program in the decision is not obvious, a glance through, it is often hidden in the chaos of things. This requires a comparison to identify, from the identification of the best to find the best.

There are many methods of comparison, vertical comparison method, horizontal comparison method, vertical and horizontal comparison method, local link comparison method, and so on.

In the application of comparative selection method secretary should pay attention to.

First, the head should be clear.

That is to say, the secretary is not just passive to a variety of programs of a large pile of information or a few packets of files dumped on the head of the desk, so that the head of buried reading. Should be the secretary in the clutter of information, first sort out a few clear head, for the head of reference. The purpose of doing this is mainly to reduce the mental load and thinking load of the head, so that the head to focus on the choice of decision-making options and thinking about major issues. This is the modern management science advocates the “separation of discussion and decision”. That is, first let the secretary, the staff to collect a wide range of materials, full argumentation, develop a viable program, and then handed to the head of thinking, selection, make a decision.

Second, the analysis should be thorough.

The secretary should be as thorough as possible on all the things involved in the comparison, not only to analyze the overall situation of the relevant parties involved in the comparison, but also to analyze the internal structure of each party; not only to analyze the favorable factors and unfavorable conditions of each link, but also from the overall analysis of their pros and cons, so that in the comparison, a more reliable conclusion.

Third, the comparison should be comprehensive.

In the comparison, to participate in the comparison of the things from the cause, the passage to the end of a comprehensive than, objective than. When comparing, secretaries should especially prevent the mixing of personal feelings. For example, in the units involved in the comparison, some of your old unit, you say good; some of your old head, you say good; some units gave you what benefits, you say good. This is difficult to complete and objective, the comparison will lose its meaning.





Sixth, the rambling chat method


The so-called rambling chat method, refers to the time and place, no fixed procedures, no clear purpose of casual conversation, the exchange of certain ideas and feelings, talk about personal insights. This is the most frequent method for the secretary to make suggestions and assist the head of the decision.

Because of the unrestrained, so the speaker dare to speak, listeners and easy; the speaker’s feelings are true, listeners mean; heart-to-heart, not guard each other, in a relaxed and happy exchange of ideas. In the rambling chat secretary should pay attention to.

First, there is a purpose in the borderless.

That is, the surface is chatting with the head, but in fact (and certainly not all the time) is to do admonition work to the head. A ministry has been repeatedly rated by the higher levels of strict implementation of regulations advanced units, individual leaders have complacency, relaxed to grasp this aspect of the work, so that some of the first signs of accidents. One day, the chief and the secretary chatted while walking after dinner, the secretary introduced the chief to some sentries on duty during the walk and saw individual sentries violating discipline. The chief found the problem, the secretary and the other side of the “idle blow”, and finally make the problem was solved.

The second is to be cautious in small talk.

The secretary should always remember that although it is chatting, but not to erase the boundaries of the relationship between superiors and subordinates. Chat up to be measured, not limitless, no organization and discipline to talk nonsense. Once a chief and the secretary in the office chatting, talking about how to use people.

The secretary suddenly thought of Liu × × is a many years old standard soldier, but the standard soldier to the standard soldier, just do not use him. The secretary wanted to take the opportunity to chat

with the chief for him to voice his grievances. So the chief said: Liu × × is the old standard, but in this post for seven years, there is an opportunity to move a move.” The chief said: this person’s concept of fame and fortune is relatively strong, to suppress him.” The secretary said: “The concept of fame and fortune, who also have. Like you such a big head, but also have not?” Hearing these words, the chief suddenly changed his face: “How do you talk to me like this?” The chief came to such a sentence, the secretary listened to half a day after not back to the mind.





Seven, the complementary method


The so-called complementary improvement method, refers to the program has been determined, but there are local defects; or the implementation of the program is underway, due to changes in a variety of factors have produced certain defects, and the revision and adjustment.

Any level of leadership, even the most brilliant leadership, the determination he has made, the program he wants to set, can not be the best and most beautiful. There is a problem of revision, supplementation and improvement.

Supplementary improvement method can be applied to the initial program, the formal implementation of the program, the original program has been used, etc.. Secretary in the use of complementary method to pay special attention to.

First, we must be careful with dissenting words.

When the head of their own determination and determine the program to the secretary for advice, the head is generally very proud, very sure. The secretary should first confirm the reasonableness and feasibility of the program, on the basis of the overall affirmation of this program, point out the shortcomings and the need to modify the part. Especially those who are trusted by the head of the Secretary, do not rely on their own cleverness, as long as the head of the solicitation of your opinion, you skimmed or do not think on a set, causing the head of the determination to waver, confusion in thinking, and ultimately a basically reasonable program to change the non-donkey non-horse. So secretarial staff in order to prevent backtracking, when the head of the advice, first to correctly analyze and understand the original program, in order to play a complementary and perfect role.

The second is to look at the color.

That is, in the head of a certain determination and program to make suggestions, while saying that the head of the observation of the eyes and face. He is happy you will say more, he is not happy you will say less. This is not to throw in the towel, nor is it a mistake not to correct. This is determined by the identity of the secretary. Secretary is only the head of the assistant and staff, as a last resort, can not force the advice.

Third, to seize the focus.

Some of the chief’s determination and has set the program, in the Secretary’s view, there may be a lot of problems, and even need to push back and start over. But the head is only for you to add changes, rather than let you start another stove. This requires the secretary in the process of proposals, not to be exhaustive to explain the many articles, but after this and other, from the table to the analysis, the determination and the main problems in the program accurately and sharply pointed out, the weight, but also to the point that is sufficient to complement the perfect.





Eight, the same first and then different method


The so-called first with the method of dissent, is to put forward proposals before, it is best not to talk about the differences in understanding with the head, but to focus on the same issues, and then put forward different views.

Experienced secretaries, this first with the law as a “winning technique” to convince the head. The specific method is: first along with the head of the thinking of the board down to say, with the law of psychological inertia, to promote the head of the agreement, to get the head of the good feeling. This way the chief’s thinking will be inertia along the direction of certainty, when this sense of certainty is strengthened up, and then from small to large, from easy to difficult to put forward your different suggestions, the chief in the affirmation of your major premise will also be sure of those different views you. This simple technique, which is often used in real life, is also very effective. If you start out by seeking differences with the head and forming a confrontation, the effect will of course not be good. When using this method secretary should pay attention to.

First, boast the right amount.

That is, the words of praise and affirmation should be appropriate. Not full of praise “far-sighted”, “unique”, “wise and far-sighted”, so that people can hear the name of the affirmative, but actually flattering. The correct approach is to use irrefutable facts to affirm, so that people listen, your words of praise is factual, is from the heart.

Secondly, it varies from person to person.

Some chiefs are straightforward in nature, although he also likes people’s praise, but he hates the secretary’s praise, think that let the secretary praise has lost their identity, is not worth it. For such chiefs’ determination and ideas, once advice is sought, the secretary should be straightforward in his euphemism and exhort in his deliberation. A common opening phrase is: “Here’s how I see this issue.” “I have some thoughts on this matter as follows”. “This matter to let me speak, should be done this way, see if it works”.





Nine, to learn from the law


Cited as a lesson method, refers to the problem has occurred, resulting in adverse consequences, or after a major accident, to help the head to identify the causes, lessons learned, as a warning for future work and proposed.

In real life, the correct decision-making is difficult, the implementation of the decision process errors are often occurring. And the mistakes, especially in the face of major mistakes, the head is quite distressed. Repeatedly pursued by superiors, and even give certain people punishment; the same level of mutual complaints, and even cynicism; subordinate complaints, and even abuse a leader incompetence. These are likely to make those with the creative spirit of the head of the work in the future to become fearful, lose the sense of responsibility and enterprise, and even from then on a stumble, can no longer raise the energy, would rather make the work “soft” loss, but also no longer go “hard” to create. They will feel that this society is really “dry than standing, standing than watching”. To the head of the mistakes, the secretary can not stand on the sidelines, but to actively advise the head, in addition to find ways to reduce and recover losses as soon as possible, we must help the head of the “learn from” method to summarize the lessons learned, and then create a new situation in the work.

First, a clear hazard.

Secretary in front of the accident or setback, to help the head of the clear harm, and the damage caused by accurate statistics and evaluation, but also to the possible future impact, the necessary assessment, so that the head of the ideological understanding: the treatment of the superiors is reasonable, the public opinion is also understandable.

The second is to find the right cause.

Secretary to assist the chief from the accident or setback occurred, the development, the results of the whole process of thorough investigation, to propose ways to avoid the recurrence of similar accidents, and in the prevention program to seek a breakthrough in the positive direction of transformation.

Third, blow the wind to encourage.

Often to the head of a word of relief, so that the head of the gradual relief from the “crisis”, feel that mistakes or setbacks are normal. Who is in this position, who is in this context, who is in this event, there may be mistakes, this time let yourself happen, also count to others to pave the way. Thus, the head to a good state of mind, face reality, look to the future, to do a better job in this job.

Fourth, to help the chief improve reputation.

Generally speaking, when the head of some “grand” determination after the determination, always improve their reputation. Once the “grand” decision falls short, the masses of discontent will rise accordingly. Sometimes the head of some unrealistic wishes, but also to make a part of the people happy. Once these wishes fall short, the masses of complaints will follow. These are the things that leaders need to learn from. The problem is that some decisions are clearly achievable according to the normal operation, but due to the situation, there is an irreversible situation, which is related to the personal quality and ability of the decision maker. At this time, the secretary should use a variety of opportunities to explain to the masses, so that the masses understand the internal situation, so as to understand the difficulties of the chief, improve the trust of the masses in the chief, and make concerted efforts to create a new situation.

From the above nine points of discussion, we can learn the truth that

Smart chief, not in his own can come up with how many good ideas, but in his ability to adopt the number of good ideas proposed by the ministry.

Smart secretary, not because he can be the head of the adoption of how many good ideas, but because he can give the head of how many good ideas.





The art of understanding the head of the intention

Intention that the head of the basic ideas of decision-making, including the main views, opinions, approaches and requirements. The so-called understanding of the intention, in short, is to understand the basic ideas and requirements of the head of a decision.

We know that a very important feature of the work of the secretary is to “act with respect”, is to accept the instructions of the head before carrying out the main

work. Is “to me to do” rather than “I want to do”. Secretarial work of this “ordered” characteristics, we must seriously grasp and understand the head of the idea, accurately understand the head of the intention.

Therefore, understanding the intention is actually the beginning of the secretary’s work. The process of understanding the intention, in fact, is the secretary of the head of a certain will, vision and ideas, after understanding and digestion, into their own ideas, and finally into concrete action.





A, the essence of understanding the intention


What is the importance of understanding the intention in the work of the secretary? How should secretaries treat the head of the intention?

(A) understanding the intention is the basic professional ethics of secretaries

Professional ethics is a code of ethics and norms with professional characteristics. The cornerstone of the professional ethics of secretarial staff is the high degree of consistency between responsibility to the top and to the bottom, to the leader and to the people. Responsible to the top, responsible to the leadership of the specific embodiment of the secretarial staff to be able to accurately understand and implement the intentions of the head.

The essential meaning of secretarial work is to obey the leadership’s decisions, faithful to the established intentions and translate them into concrete and effective actions. Therefore, secretarial staff should respect the views of the leadership, carefully understand the basic ideas, not rash, not out of line, accurately grasp, strictly follow the vein of its ideas, reasonable arrangements, precise planning, the practical realization of the head of the intention. Never allow detachment from the premise, reversing the position; never think that the political level is high, grasp the situation fine, read more materials, strong writing skills, and the head than climbing high and low, secretly “slightly better than a chip” of superiority; never obey the yin and yang, or even make up their own ideas, another set, completely aside from the head of the intention, the immature views of individuals imposed on the The chief.

Of course, the secretary’s obedience to the chief’s intentions, not blind obedience, subservience. When the head of the delivery is ambiguous, the words do not mean, should be faithful to the premise of its meaning, appropriate integration, refinement, processing, perfect; when the head of the delivery of general, slipshod, misleading omissions, to properly supplement and amend, so that it is specific, strict, correct. And should not follow the gourd to draw a diagram, will be wrong on the wrong. If you find that individual chiefs to claim credit for passing the buck, distorting the facts in the account, creating something out of nothing, fabricating achievements, covering up mistakes, will seriously damage the prestige of the authorities and the interests of the people, the secretary should be public, remind, admonish, boldly “advise”, righteousness. Should not be a matter of selfishness, and protect themselves, silent; not to bend over backwards to please, take the principle of trading to win the hearts of the head.

(B) understand the intention is one of the ways to play the role of staff assistant secretary

Secretarial staff to carry out the work, in fact, is to play a staff assistant role in the leadership decision. The more important the work, the more important this role is.

In the actual management activities of the organization, the secretary’s work, in general, there are the following.

1, no delivery procedures and specific intentions, can be carried out by secretarial staff depending on the actual situation. This type of work generally involves only the specific daily affairs of the organs, more simple, they are more by the staff in accordance with the usual management ideas of the leaders of the organs, follow the general management procedures, according to the actual situation at any time to deal with their own.

2. There are procedures and intentions, requiring secretarial staff to be faithful to the leadership’s intentions. This type of work generally involves the organ important affairs, more complex.

3, there are procedures but no specific intentions, by the secretarial staff first according to the head of the rough instructions to develop a program, and then handed to the leadership group or leaders agreed or validated. This type of work are more important, but the leading group or leaders of specific intentions are not yet mature thinking, to be first by the secretaries instead of their own specific intentions and provide a preliminary program to consider or validate.

In the above three ways of working, secretarial staff to use their own political, ideological, policy and other aspects of basic literacy, mobilize their knowledge of a variety of situations and related to the synthesis of rigorous logical thinking. To the intention, or pick up the pieces, the head of the intention of some less than thorough, less appropriate places, to make up, amend, perfect; or for further analysis, synthesis, adjustment, trade-offs, and then, through their own actions will be the head of the intention to reflect a more systematic, thorough, accurate.

(C) understand the good intention, can improve the quality of secretarial work

This is determined by the characteristics of the head. As the head although they are different from each other temperament character, the way to deal with the problem is different, but they also have something in common.

First, the head of a certain issue repeatedly brewing, thinking about mature, before the subordinates or secretarial staff to confide in the intention, if the issue he has not been well thought out, is not let you go for.

Second, the head of the work of a longer period of time, experienced more storms, the general understanding of the lower situation is also more comprehensive. They are able to do a broad view, the overall situation, a high level. Therefore, they generally have a better grasp of the guiding ideology of a certain work, the work should pay attention to what issues, but also more thoughtful.

Third, the head of the ideas and intentions, often a collection of their leadership within the various aspects of the views, sometimes the party committee or the collective leadership of the views. As a result, his requirements for the work, is very authoritative.

These points above determine that if the secretary fully comprehends the head’s intention before acting, and always follows this intention in action, then the result, in fact, is the cohesion of the leaders’ experience, concentrating everyone’s wisdom, the quality is naturally higher.

(D) understand the good intention, can reduce the secretary work of ineffective labor

There is often such a phenomenon: the secretary staff worked hard to finish a job, but in the leadership was denied, and even several times rework, still pass. Here, the secretary staff is to do ineffective labor, take a detour, ha a white hard work.

How to reduce this ineffective labor? A very important aspect is to accurately understand the head of the intention. Comprehend the head of the intention, the work can be less detours, less suffering, reduce ineffective labor. On the contrary, if you do not understand the head of the intention, along with their own to play, the results of the work is likely to be far from the views of the head, the number of rework, and even labor without success.

There are many secretaries can not say that the ability to work is not strong, their requirements can not be said to be not strict, the work attitude can not be said to be not correct, but the results of their work is often in the head of the pass. Another situation corresponding to this is that some people are not very strong, but every work can pass, mainly in how to understand the head of the problem of intention.

Secretary only to their ability to work with the head of the intention of the combination, in order to do things to the satisfaction of the head.





Second, the head of the way to explain the intention


(A) the head of the intention to produce

From the source, the head may be inspired by a certain motive to produce the intention. It can be both the crystallization of the head of long-term work experience, but also the accumulation of the usual research; both the spirit of the policy and the specific circumstances of the unit of the superior convergence of understanding, but also the collective study of the entire leadership decision. It may also be inspired by something and a sudden outbreak of thought sparks.

From the degree of perfection, the head of the initial intention, some more mature, systematic, comprehensive; some are less clear, more simple, is to be processed “thought rough”. There are also the chief although standing high, a new perspective, grasp the key and the essence, with inspiration, insight, broad extension, but not yet set, need to further sharpen, optimize, to make it perfect.

(B) the chief’s intention to account

After the chief has produced the intention, it is necessary to explain to the secretary staff. Account is the starting point for processing, but also a prelude to the work of the secretary. Where the full-time, part-time secretarial staff to handle the important work arranged in the name of the head, should be after the account. If not perfect this procedure, the secretary is difficult to understand the head of the intention and the specific requirements of various aspects, will certainly be closed, thinking hard, although reluctantly work, but contrary to the views of the head, is bound to repeat several times, time-consuming and laborious. Or not combined with the region, the unit’s work practices, flow for the scene of the work. Even against the actual

needs, hindering the development of work activities.

As the head of the temperament, character, ability and leadership methods are different, the way to explain the intention is also different. This requires secretarial staff have the ability to understand the different types of head of the intention, from the author’s many years of experience in the work of the authorities, the head of the intention, there are several ways.

1, from the degree of confession.

Some chiefs are concise, that is, only a few words on the crisp and clear to his ideas, the inner meaning, by the secretary to taste in detail, or even sometimes just say: × × time there will be, I hope you write a material. ××The company’s main goal is to provide the best possible service to its customers. As for what to write the content he did not mention a word. Some heads are detailed, that is, what should be written, how should be written, and even each layer should express what content, are given a clear explanation.

2. from the content of the confession.

Some of the head is the viewpoint type, that is, only a few points, as for the specific content inside the viewpoint by the secretary staff to think separately. Some of the head is the material type, that is, only to many of his understanding of the detailed materials, as to what these materials illustrate the problem, should be summarized how the view, the secretary to summarize, to summarize, the head is not ready.

3. from the means of delivery.

Some chiefs are direct, that is, like to call the clerk, face to face personally, until the clerk understand remembered so far. This chief believes that a pole should be inserted in the end, their intentions should be directly, clearly, face to face to reach the clerk. Some heads use indirect methods. Prefer to give his intentions to his direct subordinates, and then let these subordinates and then one level down to the next, after several transfers to the clerk. The head of this approach believes that all parties should be mobilized, and should make their direct subordinates also understand their intentions, so that there is no misunderstanding in the leadership relationship.

4. From the quality of delivery.

Some of the head is a high level, that is, when the intention of the delivery, language condensed, clear method, specific requirements, as long as the secretary according to the head of the delivery to seriously implement it. Some are low-level delivery, that is, the head of the idea may be very good, but in the delivery, it is unclear, said the rational not strong. Sometimes the secretary listened to half a day, not even understand the meaning, the main idea is not clear.

5. from the frequency of delivery.

Some of the head is a one-time delivery, that is, only one conversation, will be their intentions expressed, ironclad, only this time, and then not change. Some of the chiefs are a number of sexual confessions, that is, by talking with the secretary many times, sometimes repeatedly stressed, sometimes overturned, sometimes abandoned and used, so that their intentions continue to clear, deepen, and focus. Especially for some of the more complex work only once is not possible to explain clearly.





Third, the key to understanding the intention


Above, we talked about the head of the way to explain the intention, which is only one aspect. In practice, more important is another aspect – how to understand the intent.

(A) the process of understanding intentions

The chief of the intention, only the secretary to do the underlying, and not exactly the same as the main idea. Secretary staff must further understand, deepen, and perfect this intention.

1. understanding.

Understanding to be clear. The chief is busy, the head of more, attention often shift. Secretary in receiving the task must follow the thoughts of the leading comrades, listen in detail and take notes on the main points. The unclear issues on the spot for instructions, the words do not mean to ask carefully to understand the original meaning, and strive to grasp the spirit and details of all aspects. On the contrary, if you nod, the head of the Secretary has been fully comprehended, the delivery will be omitted some specific details, the Secretary later to ask for instructions, it is possible that the time has changed and do not understand.

Comprehension should be comprehensive. Figure out the purpose, time frame for completion, according to determine the steps, methods, requirements and action plans, to facilitate integrated planning within the limits of time allowed. If “to its faint, so that people are obvious”, the result is bound to work without success or even cause adverse consequences.

The comprehension should be profound. According to the current basic tendencies and the head of the work schedule, analysis and perception of the background and process of the head of the intention. If necessary, you can follow up supplementary investigation, in order to master the head of the thought process, a more profound understanding of the intention, so as not to scratch the itch, specious.

2. Convergence.

The main idea of the work consists of a variety of elements, the connotation is very rich. Under the premise of not contradicting the original intention of the head, the secretary should repeatedly, lateral diffusion of thinking, to name a few, the actual work, professional knowledge, policy provisions, mass requirements, convergence, enrichment into the head of the intention. For example, “× × party committee work guidance outline” is centered on “reform, pragmatic, innovative, first”. Secretary of the proposed, not only the leadership of the collective discussion of the ideological perspective, focus, goals, measures are centered around this center, but also with the instructions from above, the local situation, etc., to extend this central idea to the chief did not consider or not more detailed, more specific consideration of the views, work, the situation, so that the whole work of the guiding ideological basis more solid, based on a more adequate, more specific reasons, and The measures are more circumspect and strict.

3. play.

Secretary must follow the head of the intention to work, this is a basic principle. However, from the head of the initial intention to the final stereotype before, the secretary can mobilize their own learning, knowledge, talent, ability, to try to discover, so that it deepens; cite one to make a comprehensive. And then extended to the head of the initial intention failed to take care of the aspects.

Secretary in the planning, when found that the initial intention of the head of the handover there is bias, omissions, mistakes, contradictions, to dare to speak frankly based on reason, should not listen to it. In order to improve the main idea, a wide range of sources, the head is often discussed with the secretary or other relevant personnel, encourage them to speak freely, without frame, from different angles to find problems, put forward ideas, and even deny the initial intention. Of course, the secretaries of the head of the initial intention of the play and amendment, the head of the approval needed to establish.

Through the understanding, integration and play, so that the head of the intention to deepen, improve, stereotypes. Once the head of the determination has been made, the main purpose has been set, there should be no further objections, but need to happily and faithfully around the final determination of the intention to act.

(B) the way to understand the intention

Secretary to accurately grasp the head of the intention, what specific ways should be taken?

1, good at grasping the work of the head of the hot spot, tracking pursuit.

The chief’s work hotspots is the most concentrated performance of the chief’s intention in a certain period of time. Seize this point. It is the same as grabbing the core of the head’s intention, you can work with the head of the synchronization, the same goal. However, the head of the intention is formed around the central work of the party in each period, with stages and continuity. For this reason must also be the head of the thought, system mastery, focus on tracking.

2, good grasp of the head of the way of thinking, collaborative action.

Each head has his thinking characteristics and thinking methods. Secretary to be a good chief of staff, must be good at understanding, grasp and strive to do: when the head of a certain work, a certain thing has a certain thinking bud and thinking orientation, we should be able to think together; when the head of a certain work, a certain thing brewing, we should be able to coincide; when the head of a decision, the deployment of a certain work, we should be able to understand; when the head of tracking a certain goal, looking forward to When the head of a certain effect, we have to be able to cite a reaction, not only know what it is, but also know what it is; when the head of the need for a certain material and information, we have to be able to think in advance, do in advance, to improve the service ahead of time.

3, good at grasping the head of the flash point of thought, to deepen.

Generally speaking, the head of the views put forward, most of them are more complete and profound, but a new job or temporary treatment of a problem, often with feeling, the views put forward is often fragmented, fragmented. The head of these scattered, fragmented views, the secretary should be carefully understood, do not be afraid of these views fettered their thinking, not to mention the contempt and rejection. To know, in the scattered among some of the insightful views. The chief in impromptu speech also has a new idea. We want to be a good chief of staff, we must be good at catching the head of the flash point of thought, through consultation with the head and in-depth

investigation, efforts to explore and deepen, in order to further improve the head of the decision to guide the work on the surface.

4, good at capturing the head’s intentions from multiple angles, comprehensive induction.

In this regard, one is to be good at grasping the point, that is, to grasp the main points of the head of the intention and the core, the head of the views expressed with the spirit of the top and the actual string up for comparison. Both consistent with the spirit of the head, and with the actual unit, to justify. Secondly, we should be good at expanding the surface, with the main leadership ideas as the main line, absorbing the views of other leaders in many ways, pooling ideas and forming an overall decision. For example, in the drafting of the leadership speech, we should not only cut with the specific speaker in detail, so that the speaker to set the outline, but also to absorb the views of other leaders in many ways, on the basis of this comprehensive analysis, scientific cutting, so that the correct views from all sides can be integrated into, so that the rework rate is relatively small.

5, good at grasping the head of the personality characteristics, different from each other.

We have contacted the head, different personalities, there are different leadership styles and ways of working. For example, some heads of the classical literature base is thicker, do reports like to quote the scriptures, for such a head to draft a speech, we should appropriately quote some allusions to achieve the purpose of using the past to explain the present, and then, for example, from the grassroots transferred up to the head, the situation below is more familiar, for such a head to draft a speech, we should give some examples of his familiar. On the contrary, we can not give the head of the lower literacy level, specifically write some remote and difficult to recognize the word, let him read up a head of sweat.

(C) to understand the intention of the variation

In the understanding of the head of the intention, no matter what way to take, there are two issues need special attention.

1, the secretary should develop a good habit, that is, should concentrate on listening, with a pencil, even if the head of the impromptu speech, should also be recorded in detail for later use. In the serious record at the same time, but also actively think, not comprehend the problem boldly asked, no need to be careful. A department has a combat staff shortly after serving, accepted the chief of staff explained a military correspondence writing task, because he did not quickly write down the main points, doubts and embarrassed to ask again, for fear of affecting the work of the leadership, writing only by imagination, the result in the troop exercises, because the writing of correspondence does not meet the requirements and rework, delaying the exercise time. The actual work shows that all the comrades who have asked the head of the intention when accepting the task, the work progresses smoothly, the leaders are mostly satisfied; all the comrades who do not clarify the intention to do the work, it is likely to rework, not only affect the work and even delay the event. Experienced secretaries, often while accepting the task, while actively thinking. The scope of thinking is: to implement the intention of a variety of possible situations, timely, so that the head can give a clear answer; to the head of the intention of possible deviations, while the head has not yet considered the maturity of the correction of the correction, the negation of the negation; to the head of the intention of the place involved but not perfect enough, not deep enough, through a discussion-type study, so that it can be perfected before the action profound up . Here the secretary should pay attention to: serious thinking must be closely around the head of the main idea of the intention; bold questions must be used to explore the tone of modesty, to prevent and the head of the intention to have the suspicion of opposition. This talent, not only by the secretary’s intelligent mind, agile thinking, but also must have a good understanding of the actual situation at the lower levels and understanding, as well as a wealth of practical work ability. It can be seen that if you want to do a good job as a secretary, as Lu You a poem chanted: “You want to learn poetry, Kung Fu outside the poem.”

2, in the process of understanding the intention, if the head of the idea is correct, the intention is also reasonable, then we do it on the line; but when the head of the intention of the sloppy, wrong omission or even error, we should do it? In such cases, of course, the secretaries can not be self-righteous, not to mention the “servant” for the “master”, but through some clever ways to their correct ideas, into the head of the intention. These methods are generally: propaganda policy law, provide the next method, the introduction of experience, to fill the gap method. Commonly used statements are: “this issue is very good, but I have this little idea”; “this issue is quite comprehensive, I will add a few points to see if it is okay”; “this issue, whether you can change the formulation ” and so on.

Good understanding of the intention is a very complex mental process. It is a very important aspect of the correct handling of the relationship between the head and the secretarial staff. It requires secretarial staff not only to have a clever mind, agile thinking, the ability to adapt, but also the need to have a correct understanding of the Party’s guidelines and policies of awareness, as well as a true understanding of the actual situation below. In this way, not only can they make good suggestions in the process of understanding the intentions, but they can also achieve the intentions of the head in an excellent manner.





The art of maintaining the dignity of the head

Dignity, the word is very sacred, but also very common.

Dignity means dignity and solemnity. Its external expression is a person’s honorable status and prominent position; its internal requirements are a person’s self-esteem and basic personality. Dignity is a natural requirement for realizing self-worth and thus social value. Dignity is also an important element in safeguarding one’s rights and interests and thus the rights and interests of others. Therefore, dignity should be sacrosanct.

Whether a person has the dignity he should have does not depend on his subjective desire, but is determined by the following conditions: first, his social status; second, the amount of material wealth he possesses; third, the size of his contribution to society; fourth, the level of his prestige in the public. Of course, different people have different criteria for the orientation of dignity. In some people’s view he is very dignified, while in other people’s view, he is undignified. But in any case, as long as a person actually has one of the above conditions, he also has the corresponding dignity.

Dignity is important to life and society. A person’s dignity is compromised, is the person’s character is insulted and the value of the devaluation. Therefore, in real life, the power of discipline is often expressed in the dignity of some people to be sanctioned, such as administrative sanctions, party discipline, demotion, and so on. Subject to disciplinary sanctions, he will also lose the corresponding dignity, and will be looked down upon. If you can’t stand it, he may lose the courage to live or lose his mind, become cruel and aimlessly retaliate. On the other hand, discipline often manifests itself in the form of encouragement for some people in terms of dignity. Merit, awards, honorary titles, etc. When a person receives an honor, he gains the corresponding dignity and is respected by people. A person with dignity becomes greater and more noble in life.

Although dignity has an objective nature, it must be permeated with great artificial power and shows many wonderful features. For example, there are people who are dignified on the surface, but are quite empty inside; there are people who are respected to the face, but are despised behind the back; there are people whose dignity is naturally formed in practice, and there are people who are endowed by their positions.

The dignity of the chief in the army is particularly important. Because he has to command thousands of troops, to fight the war, and to order. Whoever becomes a chief must have a certain dignity and inviolability, the larger the officer, the more sacred. In this regard, the “internal affairs regulations”, “disciplinary regulations” a considerable part of the content is to maintain the dignity of the chief and developed. The simplest example is that the regulations stipulate that any soldier, when he sees a superior leader, must salute. This is a concrete manifestation of maintaining the dignity of the chief. At the same time, we will also find that once a person has assumed a certain position of head, he has a special treasure and love for his dignity. If compromised, it is not tolerated.

As a secretary, working every day at the head, in the maintenance of the dignity of the head of the issue has a special significance and requirements. In addition to those generally follow the principles, should also pay attention to the following such small issues.





A, not in the symbol of the chief position status of carelessness on the small things


Some small things, seemingly insignificant, and actually meaningless, but people are used to judging a chief’s position, identity and status through these small things, to confirm the degree of dignity he has in this leadership group. Although many times these small things are just a formality, no utility in itself, but if the secretary can not properly handle, the head of the mouth does not say, but in

the heart of muttering. For example, the convening of the General Assembly, the issue of seating on the podium, who is on who is not, who is in the center, who is on the left and who is on the right, it is very delicate. Whether necessary or not, each General Assembly corresponding level of leadership are seated on the podium, although he did not say a word, sitting on the stage in full view of the public is not comfortable, but if you miss a leader who should be seated on the stage, or sitting at the head of the people who should be under him, he will feel that his dignity is compromised, the staff may have trouble.

Then again, the podium placed microphone, and do not underestimate. Two deputies, only to a seat in front of the microphone, the other would not speak, but the heart is not comfortable, but also must say a few words, let the secretary staff to take a microphone to.

Another example, photo, camera, the lens to whom, how long, to grasp the right proportion. Only the main office shots, no deputy shots, not appropriate; deputy for the report, too many shots, the main office as a companion, too few shots, also not; two deputies, a lens more, a lens less, more not.

For example, the speech of several heads, whether they are reported and issued? Is the full text published or summary published? Is it made into a document or issue a newsletter? This should also be handled properly. The full text of the commander’s speech issued, the political commissar’s speech summary issued, can it work?

For example, the order of departure of the head of the trolley can not be arbitrarily arranged, the senior head in front of the lower head in the back; the military chief in front, the political chief in the back. Arranged wrong, there are also problems. A troop military exercises, the head of the convoy departure, E head of the car did not fire, W staff officers will let E head of the subordinate a leader of the car first step. Originally, the head of E is less senior, a leader is very unconvinced, there is a gap; this time, the head of E’s car followed by eating all the way to the ash, very annoyed. When he arrived at the destination, the head of E let the driver go to rest, but ordered the staff officer to wash the car, W staff officer is still in the dark, do not know what kind of staff officer business the head wants him to master.

For such trivial matters, secretarial staff should be thoughtful and properly handled so as not to inadvertently damage the dignity of the chief. It should be noted that the head is also an ordinary person, with the character of ordinary people, but he is in a high position, but also have a different character from ordinary people. Some of the head of the command of thousands of troops, very confident, and failure may be very inferior; some of the head of the burden, strong-willed, but with shortcomings and may not be able to withstand criticism, seemingly very fragile; some of the head of the position, is the head of the crowd, leading by example, leading by example, once out of office, individualism and seem particularly serious. The psychology and behavior of individual leading cadres often make it incomprehensible: yesterday morning was so majestic, the afternoon announced the order to leave retirement, this morning how even the clothes are wide open? There is a general, great verve, never speak with his hands behind his back, and after the removal from office, most of the year embarrassed to go out. The position is raised, awareness does not necessarily improve with, for this, the secretary staff should understand. This is also one of the reasons to avoid damaging the dignity of the head in some minor matters.





Second, do not easily call the head of the last name or name

Name, but a symbol, is to facilitate the interaction of people and produced. It does not have a noble or low level in itself, but it can be distinguished with the person’s illustrious and illustrious, with the person’s humble and humble. The name of Yue Fei, people will be the national hero oil respect; mentioned Qin Hui, people will be the traitorous thieves hate to the bone. The chief’s childhood maiden name may not be elegant, what “Tie Dan”, “bolts” may have, but with the chief’s status of prominence and power to increase, the name will also become honored. Under normal circumstances, the general people call the head of the name, it may offend the dignity of the head. It is the custom of our military to call comrades within the party and positions outside the party. As a secretary, the head of the ministry and service personnel, should try to avoid calling the head by name, which should also become the practice of the secretary.

An officer just transferred to the organ work, one day to the head of the matter, salute said: “Fu Commander”, the words did not finish, the commander turned him a look: “You know my surname Fu?”

“Yes.”

“You know and still call me that?”

“Well, how do you call it?”

“Go back and ask your director.”

The officer hurriedly went to the director, who said, “Just call him ‘commander’, don’t add Fu, it’s not good to add ‘Fu’.”

“Why?”

“Really a melon, the commander’s surname is you call? We have a commander in this unit, not to call his surname can be wrong? Besides, the commander’s surname is ‘Fu’, and everyone adds a surname in front of his position, the commander can never be ‘positive’.”

“The three vice commanders together, I look for one of them, how to address ah?”

“As secretary, you can eyeball the deputy military commander you are looking for. When eye-to-eye with the chief, then address ‘Vice Chief’, he will know you are calling him. Understand?”

“Understood.”

In particular, some chiefs’ surnames themselves are a bit indecent, and calling out makes it possible to create ambiguity, which naturally undermines dignity. For example, the surname Gou, you call him Gou Division Chief, people heard it thought “dog division chief”, of course, not appropriate. There are also chiefs surnamed Diao, although he is the Chief of Staff, but with the addition of the surname, it has become “Diao Chief of Staff”. He has been the head of the decades, but always “Diao”. He is very taboo, you should not call it so.

The chief has a clear position, as the ministry, under normal circumstances, not called the position and called the name of the chief, indeed, a loss of respect, loss of dignity, secretarial staff to pay special attention.





Third, do not casually point or pat the head with a finger


First of all, an example: a professor of a college, a major in the division. When he was a correspondent, once greeted the instructor, in the instructor’s shoulder gently tapped, the instructor fire: “What are you doing? My shoulder is you patted?” The instructor’s fury sobered him up for most of his life: the chief, no matter how big or small, as a subordinate is not to be patted. From then on he never patted anyone who was higher in rank than him. But he didn’t quite understand why he got angry after gently patting the instructor. After that, he also became a leader in the army, and since his subordinates never patted him either. So he didn’t quite understand how he felt after being patted by his subordinates. Later, he was transferred to an institution and rose to the rank of a full division and a major, a professor in the hall. Once he was standing in front of the courtyard when he was suddenly tapped heavily on the shoulder, and turned around to see that it was the head of the canteen cooking team. Because to eat in the canteen, offending the head of the cooking team is not easy to do. He said with great feeling, my own mentality shows that when the official was patted by the subordinate heart must be uncomfortable.

Pointing or patting, is a way of communication between people. Away from a certain distance, with a finger point, greeting; close to the side, with a hand patting the shoulder, arm. General colleagues or between people familiar with each other, is normal behavior, are acceptable. But used to point, pat the head is a disrespectful behavior. It can be said that subordinate staff either pointing or patting the head, are likely to make the head of the dignity is violated.

Therefore, the secretary should pay attention to do: First, when calling on the head, you can not use your finger point. For example, the political commissar is in a meeting, the secretary pushed open the door to call out: “political commissar”, and then a hook hand, “you come here a moment.” This is a disrespectful action, the political commissar will not be pleased. Second, when talking with the chief, you should not pat the chief. For example, when talking happily, the secretary taps the chief’s shoulder repeatedly, “Chief, you’re so right.” The chief may immediately change his face. Third, to the head of the work, you do not have to use your fingers to cross. For example, to the head of a certain work, to talk about their own determination, pointing hands and feet and say: “Chief, my determination is very big!” The chief is certainly not happy.



Fourth, not in public to correct the chief’s shortcomings and problems


Secretary is the chief of the subordinates, is to serve the chief, no authority to criticize the chief’s shortcomings and faults, or give correction in public regardless of time, occasion and place. Secretary to the head of the shortcomings of course can not take a completely irresponsible attitude, especially the Secretary to participate in the head of certain decisions, found that the head of the error should be corrected, but that is conditional.

According to general experience, the secretary of the head of the shortcomings in public, should take the following attitude.

First, not in public.

Out of sight, pretend not to know, let nature take its course, let the boss correct it on their own or wait for the appropriate time to raise again. A chief loves to curse, “shit” is his verbal language, speak for five minutes to curse on several sentences. One day a group of male and female college students to the army exercise. The secretary accompanied the head to visit. Conversation from time to time with this verbal phrase, in front of everyone the secretary can not correct, pretend not to hear, facial expression a serious, the surrounding people will not have a big reaction. On the way back, the secretary said, “Chief, the evening of the symposium, you do not speak like training soldiers. Girls cry when scolded.”

At the beginning of the symposium, the head of the speech, he just said a “mom” word, found some female students cover their faces and laugh, or lowered their heads, suddenly remembered the secretary’s reminder, busy to change their mouth: “Mom, ah, mom and dad for you to go to college is not easy.”

Second, do not underestimate the ridicule.

The chief made a mistake, and even made a fool of himself, the secretary must not follow the coaxing laughter, not to mention as a laughing stock behind the discussion. Can take the necessary methods to prevent similar situations from happening again. The director of a political department in the auditorium of thousands of people in the General Assembly to give a welcome speech, the “thousands of miles” read “thousands of miles super super”, so that the auditorium full of people laughing. The secretary did not laugh at the head of the low level, but in future writing, try to use less out-of-the-way words, or in the difficult to recognize the word next to the sound note. The chief is very satisfied with this.

Third, not head-on.

To the head of the opinion or have ideas, can not take a confrontational approach, in front of everyone to reveal the head of the old bottom. A director was transferred to a regiment political commissar, the heart can not think, the branch assembly director criticized him fame and fortune thinking serious, low awareness. He retorted at the time: “when you were transferred to the deputy director, emotions than I made a fierce, three days did not get up, what qualifications to criticize me.” The director was embarrassed in front of the crowd.

Fourth, do not just interject.

Some of the chief’s shortcomings and faults, often in the conversation with subordinates exposed, the secretary found, but also do not have to intervene to correct. Once the head of a troop B to find a subordinate to talk, ready to transfer him to another unit to serve, ask him what opinion. b chief dry mouth for two hours, the subordinate is silent. b chief began to beat the table angry. b secretary saw, kindly intervene and said: “chief, do not get angry.” And then turned to the subordinate said: “The chief talked with you for nothing so much reason, you take a stand.” The subordinate glared at him, “How old are you?” and turned away. The chief had a fire in his belly and came at the secretary: “Today is your talk or my talk, no big deal, the talk is all because of you.”

The secretary always and everywhere to maintain the dignity of the chief, which is not only the need of the chief, but also the need of the secretary. The chief will never because the secretary tolerance and generosity, can tolerate, take the initiative to take responsibility and think the secretary incompetent, but on the contrary will be very trust you, reuse you, so you have a greater use.

跟随首长的苦辣酸甜

本书前言中已讲过,为称呼方便,我们把为首长服务的参谋、干事、助理员统称为秘书。

秘书,词典上解释:掌管文书并协助机关或部门负责人处理日常工作的人员。从这里可以看出,秘书是领导的助手和参谋,主要任务是掌管文书,协助首长处理日常工作,并承办交待的其他任务。

对于秘书,千人眼里有百多形象,万众口中有千余评说:或荣或耻,或祸或福。加之一般大众传媒和文学作品所塑的秘书,多为阿谀不实之徒,也就难怪云云众说薄褒厚贬了。

作为秘书,不论是长任者二三十秋,还是短任者两年三载,都少不得几番坎坷磨砺,几多风风雨雨,乃至几度惊涛骇浪。这其中有苦有甜,有忧有喜,有舒坦也有愁难。秘书人员的苦辣酸甜,一般局外之人是难得而知的。从以下所述中,想可领悟一二。

一、秘书工作的特点

有关秘书工作的特点,早有精深而权威的理论阐述。我们仅从部队中军师团三级机关的工作实践出发,以贴近机关干部切身经历的角度加以考察,秘书工作有如下基本特点:

(一)秘书工作是辛劳的

秘书的职业是一个磨碎筋骨、耗尽心血的行当。吃苦耐劳是秘书应具备的基本精神。

首先是忙。一个妻子这样叙说她那当秘书的丈夫:一天到晚总是忙,忙得没有吃饭的钟点,没有睡觉的时候,没有节假日的概念。这话一点也不夸张。据某司令部办公室统计,负责文字工作的秘书,全年工作3781.4小时,按365天计算,平均每天工作在10.36小时以上,折合工作日472天,超出正常工作量166天。而该部队驻地某机关的统计结果显示,其他工作人员平均每人全年工作206天,两者相差266天。

其次是累。秘书的脚是不停的奔波,心是永远的警醒。白天有做不完的事务,晚上有爬不完的格子。办事繁杂具体,一件比一件要求高。有时正吃着饭,忽然有事,放下饭碗就得跑,待回来,饭也凉了,上班时间也到了,只好半饿着肚子走进办公室。写材料有长有短,一篇比一篇催得紧,一个首长比一个首长要得急。上班时写,下班后开夜车还要写。大热天光着膀子汗流浃背地写,大冷天跺着脚吸着鼻涕写,甚至睡到了床上,一有所感,跳起来还要写。有人道:文债在身,食不甘味,寝不安席。如若不信,有例为证:

A某当秘书5年,为写文章熬过多少夜晚尚无统计。一次给首长赶写篇讲话稿,从上午写到深夜,饥肠辘辘,打道回府,掏出钥匙却怎么也打不开锁,满头大汗之际,门突然洞开,冲出两人,各执棍棒。原来他一路上还在想着文稿,上错了一层楼,房主见半夜有人弄门锁,以为是窃贼,欲迎头痛击……

再次是苦。秘书虽不是汗滴禾下,劳其筋骨,也不是粗食薄衫,煞费温饱,但秘书的辛苦却着实另有一番滋味。不夸张地说,秘书有时要比领导费更多的劲,流更多的汗,吃更多的苦。D秘书一次跟首长去军区开会,返回时正值春运高峰期,车厢里又臭又冷又挤。八位首长连一个硬坐都没有。D秘书挤来挤去,口干舌燥,筋疲力尽,总算把首长安排坐定,他却只好站到下车。回到家脸没洗完,首长指示,赶快把开会的材料整理好,明天上午开常委会要用。他只好泡杯热浓茶,涮条冷毛巾,打起精神挑灯夜战。他有暖烘烘的被窝却不能钻,有可口的饭菜却吃不下,这与饥寒交迫非出一辙,却也殊途同归。

秘书工作真是“没完没了,没饥没饱,没昼没宵”,且日复一日,年复一年,很少有喘息机会。一天下来,疲惫不堪,稍有闲暇,困意马上袭来。某部B干事是有名的“笔杆子”,因吃饭时打盹已摔碎了七个饭碗,被送绰号“砸饭碗”。此种情形不胜枚举。

(二)秘书工作是寂寞的

秘书工作是一种没有鲜花和掌声的职业。与之相伴的倒常常是难以名状的寂寞。

首先,为他人作嫁衣裳,永远是秘书工作最鲜明的特征。台下忙煞,台上无名。在部队工作的舞台上,首长理所当然地扮演有名有形的主角,而秘书不可推卸的职责就是为让主角亮好相、唱好戏而拼命地做好幕后工作。人们的眼光往往只盯着大大小小的各级领导,听到领导慷慨激昂的报告,看到领导做出各种果断的决策,领受到领导指挥各项活动的风采,却不大想到领导身边工作的秘书,不大想到在领导的报告、决策和风采中,凝结着秘书们数不清的辛勤劳动。就像娇艳无比的花朵更容易使人们忽略了它下面的绿叶一样。

某处长,在军师团三级机关写了二十多年材料,到了“官”键时刻,竟然找不出一篇署自己名字的文章。他当秘书时,有一次陪A首长去×师进行冬训动员,为了写好A首长的动员讲话,他3天跑12个连队,行程200公里,开了8个座谈会,收集了六万字的材料,回来后又连续28个小时没合眼,起草修改讲话稿。A首长的讲话引起较大反响,直到人们进了餐厅还在纷纷议论:首长的讲话太精彩了!由于陪餐的人较多,没有秘书的位置了。一个工作人员带有怨气地说:“带这些瞎参谋烂干事干啥。”真是可气又可悲。秘书的劳动及其价值不易被人们理解和承认。只要你作为秘书,就要时刻准备着:无出人头地之日,有默默无闻之实。

其次,有“苦”难言永远是秘书心理承受的沉重砝码。作为秘书,在首长和众人面前,常是面含笑意神情镇定的。而恰是这时,他们内心可能正经受着委曲、错怪、乃至代人受过的痛苦折磨。这种必须坦然受之的痛苦,比其他方式的痛苦更痛苦。先说写文章,就是秘书第一个无法摆脱的心理负担,有诸多难言之苦。有些领导交拟过于简单,不做详细交待,一切由秘书代劳;有些领导过于随便,一会儿一变,秘书的心血随之付诸东流;有些领导过于尖刻,审阅稿子不讲一点情面,搞得秘书如坐针毡;有些领导意见相互抵触、令秘书左右为难,无所适从;有些领导过于固执,意见不尽正确,秘书却要硬着头皮违心去写。如此等等。秘书在写文章时,难免遇到上述情形,但无论如何,当文章写出后不合要求时,秘书是不应该也不能够有所申辩的,苦衷无须细表。张××是某机关小有名气的笔杆子,可他却越来越怕写重要的材料。一次B首长把他叫来说:“张干事,这次党委学习整顿的总结由你来写,要写出点特色。”

“首长,大体写几个问题?最主要的经验是什么?您提示一下。”

“你先起个草稿,然后党委讨论一下。”

“那……”

“好了,快点动手吧!”

“……”

张干事从收集材料,到构思,到拿出草稿整整用了一个星期,熬了两个通宵,结果,党委讨论时,B首长说缺乏高度,推倒重来。又写出后,A首长又说不够实在,再次改写。先后七易其稿,直到第二天要上报了才算通过。当张干事拿出第一稿和第七稿相对时,从观点到事例几乎完全一样,这期间的脑细胞不仅全部白耗,而且落了个“很难领会首长意图”的“美名”。

再次,忍辱负重,这是秘书又一个无法摆脱的心理负担,有时苦不堪言。有的领导心里不快,无处发泄,便对秘书莫名其妙地指责,秘书成了出气筒;有的领导对其他领导不满,不好明说,便对秘书进行批评,秘书成了路边石;有的领导把工作交待错了,有关上级追查责任,他便把责任推给了办事的秘书,秘书成了替罪羊。某部队接连发生几起车辆事故,便规定车场日进行学习整顿,一律不准出车。这天D首长一亲属来访,便指使秘书派车接站,并说:“没关系,出了事我负责。”秘书只好照办。车还没出院门,就被主管行政的C首长拦住:“规定今天一律不准出车,谁还明知故犯?”秘书知道C首长对D首长有点看法,在称呼过首长以后赶紧说:“是我自作主张,您批评吧!”有人说,秘书的心扉是关闭的,这话有一定道理。无论有什么委曲、错怪或者代人受过,都只能吞咽下肚。可以说,为顾全大局而委曲求全,能忍善让,是秘书忠于职守的特有精神。这种宽大的胸怀无疑是宝贵财富。忍辱负重大概也是秘书的“命”吧!

还有,为人谨慎,永远是秘书恪守的行为准则。秘书处在诸多领导之间,在为领导提供优质服务的同时,还得尽力维护领导的威信和领导集体的团结。既要经常装聋作哑,又要心有灵犀。有话,不能总是痛痛快快地说;有事,也不能全都潇潇洒洒地做。作为秘书,工作是受人支配的,必须根据首长的意图办事;时间也是受人支配的,必须按照首长的要求安排。可以说,秘书是长年看着首长的脸色、眼色和气色行事。特别是跟随一些比较厉害的首长,要求严格的首长,又特别是刚刚当秘书的时候,话不敢多说一句,事不敢误办一件,甚至每个动作都十分小心。G某当兵30年,已是正师大校,至今上级交待的每件事情,都做到逐件检查落实;进行的每项工作,都表现出一种拼命精神;对每个来访的人都热情接待。还不自觉地流露出某种自卑感。为什么是这样呢?用他自己的话说,都是因为当秘书当惯了,处处残留着当秘书时的影子。他曾记得,一次随首长外出,头天晚上赶写讲话稿到凌晨3点,天不亮首长要出发,饭也没顾上吃,经过几个小时,下车休息,按首长要求吃完饭打个瞌睡再出发。首长有个特点,吃饭快,睡得快,醒得也快,首长睡着了,G 某还没吃完饭。首长起来了,G某刚刚睡着。首长走了,G某还没醒来。首长走远了,G某才发现自己被丢弃了。后来才知晓,这是首长要给秘书个教训,让秘书在后边慢慢赶吧。G某只好改乘火车,两天两夜才把首长赶上,被狠狠批了一通。从此他谨慎起来,做梦时也在盘算着工作安排。

待人处事十分谨慎,遵守纪律十分严格,考虑问题十分周详,进行工作十分认真,这是秘书职业的自然特性,也是秘书职业的必然要求。

(三)秘书是神气的

秘书的角色是神秘而又独特的。在劳苦和寂寞之中又不乏能体现出几分神气来。

秘书不仅常常可以代表首长,甚至在一定条件下可以代替首长。在某些场合,在某种特定条件下,别人对你又尊重又害怕。秘书是首长的贴身工作人员,首长去哪里,秘书要跟到哪里,首长吃什么,秘书能够吃什么,首长享受什么,秘书也能享受什么。像坐车,别人坐大车,秘书可以和首长一起坐小车。首长参加某个宴会,随从的秘书自然要参加,不仅因为有照顾首长的责任,而且接待的单位也不敢得罪秘书。因为需要首长批办的事情,有很多先要通过秘书。得罪了秘书,以后办事当然也就难了。例如,某个单位给首长送了一件很不错的纪念品,却没给秘书一份,秘书心里不很痛快。这也可以理解。不正派的秘书不仅有想法,还有做法。当这个单位想通过秘书让首长给办点事时,秘书心想,当初送东西时没想到我,首长进门时你给开门,我还没进去,你就松了手;现在有事了,想让我当桥当船,给你传话才想到我,没那么便宜。当然,嘴里不说,答应时也挺痛快:“没问题,可以说一说。”心里却说:“你等着吧。”结果是泥牛入海无消息。

有人说,秘书是“二首长”。这话也不无道理。有些时候,首长不直接出面,让秘书去处理,这时秘书就代表首长。他的讲话,他的意见,他的态度,就是首长的讲话,首长的意见,首长的态度。有些时候首长不在,委托秘书负责解决一些问题,这时秘书就代替首长,根据首长交待的原则,具体承办一些事情。因此,在一般人眼里秘书是很神气的,秘书自己也会感到这种神气。不过,在这里我们提醒秘书,一定要注意谦虚谨慎。

(四)秘书是幸运的

秘书确实挺幸运。“近水楼台先得月”,由于在首长身边工作,首长对秘书甚为了解。对秘书的水平、能力和工作成绩,看在眼里,记在心上。常说“知人善任”,之所以能“善任”,前提是“知人”,秘书被首长当作“所知之人”可称上得天独厚。正因为首长了解秘书,又信任秘书,才更容易任用秘书,提拔秘书。对秘书来说,在首长眼皮底下工作,锻炼的机会多,工作能力提高得快,受重用的机会很多,提升的可能性很大。当需要对一些人委以重任时,首长首先想到的可能就是秘书。据某个单位干部部门统计,在一个高层次同级干部中,秘书或当过秘书的人平均年轻5岁左右,又是其他职业出身的2.5倍。正常情况下,秘书几乎人人都能一级级上去。在当今中国重要的领导岗位上,曾当过各类秘书的人员就占相当大的比重。这是实际情况。

二、对秘书工作的要求

有关对秘书工作的基本要求,在已发表的众多论著中,都有明确的阐述。军队的秘书人员,既包括参谋、干事、助理员,也包括各业务部门的负责人。根据这一特定对象,我们认为,秘书要办理好首长交待的事项,有如下三点要求:

一是事事记准确。秘书对首长交待的每件事,不能有丝毫的差错。特别是时间、地点、人员、要求、前因后果、具体数字、百分比以至首长交待时的神态、口气,都必须搞清楚。应做到:口袋里有记事本,桌子上有记事板,身边有记事帮手(家属、小孩随时提醒),以免遗忘误事,同时做到丁是丁,卯是卯,不得有丝毫差池。稍有疏漏,就出问题。有一次星期六,军长对D秘书说:“明天我值班,上午10点。上级来人检查直属队工作,到时你给我打个电话,我陪工作组的同志一同去。”D秘书照习惯记在记事板上,又向家属做了一番嘱咐。当时他正赶写一份材料,要得挺急,写时很投入,确实把这件事给忘了。9点40分孩子打来电话说:“你10点钟要给军长挂电话。”这位秘书才恍然大悟。要不是家中有帮手,D 秘书该如何向军长交待?

对首长的外出活动,更要精心安排不出一点差错。请看一位首长下部队视察时半天的活动安排(见附表)。

二是件件有着落。首长交待的每件事,不论是国家大事,还是家庭小事,也不论是易办的事还是难办的事,都要有结果。不能讲价钱,不能叫苦,不能摆困难,更不能借故不办。首长在交待任务时对困难方面已有所考虑,一般都有一定余地。当然有难度,不然就看不出秘书的本事了。

三是次次有回音。首长交办的事情,无论结果如何,都要及时报告,而且越早越好。比如买车票,是件叫人着急的事。秘书买好了放在口袋里不向首长报告,让首长着急:买到没有?哪次车?几点出发?首长可能急得团团转,你倒挺坦然。能不挨批?这样的事有过三次,秘书就干不成了。

这三点要求并不深奥也不具什么理论深度,但却很重要,是做好秘书工作的起码条件。

三、秘书应具备的素质

秘书跟随首长的苦辣酸甜,不是人人都能适应、忍受的。作一名合格的秘书,要具备一些特殊的素质,在思想、品德、心理、办事能力、文字水平等方面有着很高的要求。

(一)政治上要强

秘书工作岗位重要,责任重大。秘书常常涉及党的核

心机密,参与一些重大问题的决策和处理。这就必须:

首先具有坚定的政治立场,始终坚持共产主义信念,在思想上、政治上、行动上和党保持高度一致。特别要能经得起风浪,在重大原则问题上不犯错误。那种一有风吹草动就杀回马枪的人是不能做秘书的。

其次要有深厚的马列主义、毛泽东思想理论基础和较高的政策水平。会用马列主义的立场、观点和方法观察、认识和解决实际问题,理解和掌握党的路线、方针、政策,并善于在实际工作中贯彻执行。

再次,要有较强的事业心和责任感。时刻把党和人民的利益放在第一位;从高从严要求自己,热爱本职工作,兢兢业业尽职尽责,不畏苦累,不计得失,不逐名利。

(二)业务上要精

秘书直接为首长服务,不仅事关重大,而且事务繁杂,标准高要求严。上至辅助领导决策,下至衣食住行都要管。秘书人员必须文武兼备,粗细结合,大事干得好,小事干的巧。

首先,要有精明能干的办事能力。头脑敏捷,办事利落,高效率的处理文电;适时安排有关活动;主动收集、分析、综合情况;善于代表领导出面,传达意见,安排工作,处理事务。妥善地把收发、打电话、接待来访等事宜有条不紊地办好,甚至对领导的生活问题也要细致周到地予以安排。

其次,要有出色的写作能力。熟悉机关应用问题的基本知识,自如运用各个文种,思路清晰,结构合理,文风质朴简练,语言流畅生动,表达准确得体。

再次,要有丰富的科学文化知识和一定的技能。了解社会科学、自然科学的最新研究成果,知晓古今中外政治、经济、天文、地理、历史和文化艺术等等的一般状况,熟悉本单位的专业技术和各部门的业务工作,尽快掌握微机、传真等现代化办公设备的使用方法,必要时还应学会摄影、摄像、驾驶以至防身术等技能。

(三)作风上要硬

秘书人员的作风,关系到为首长服务的质量问题,也是本单位总体形象的组成部分。秘书人员的作风养成是多方面的,归纳起来有以下几点:

一是勤奋努力,雷厉风行。肯出力不偷懒,不等不靠,说干就干,讲究时间和效率。

二是深入实际,联系群众。切实搞好调查研究,掌握真实情况,不摆架子,不走形式,宽以待人,团结同志。

三是周到细致,严谨稳重。办文办事精益求精,一丝不苟,接人待物谦虚谨慎,安排周详。不急躁不偏激,不自作主张,沉着冷静,应付自如,分清急缓,举重若轻,不惊慌失措,不手忙脚乱。

(四)修养上要好

秘书人员的思想品德修养极为重要,它是合格秘书的基本素质之一。一个人的修养是其心理素质的表现。因此,秘书必须具备以下良好的心理素质。

一是淡泊而不失于明志。无权欲,身在权力交错之中,处之泰然,不为之所动,无权欲就会用权不越位。无利欲,身在要害部门,自守清贫,不为之所诱,无利欲就会有利不谋私。无名欲,身在台下幕后,处于荣誉显赫之处,甘为黄牛,不为之所惑,无名欲就会成名不享誉。虽然淡泊却应有志有为显示独立的人格,拥有真才实学,表明自己的主张,辅佐领导决策。淡泊明志直接表现为不畏艰苦,不图享乐;重事业,轻得失,多奉献,少索取。

二是沉稳而不失果断。深沉善思,耐心稳健,决不草率行事、感情用事,有较强的自控能力。坚定果断,敢做敢为,决不优柔寡断,畏首畏尾,有较大的胆识和魄力。

三是自信而不失谦和。自尊自爱,自我充满信心,有不折不挠的精神,审时度势,荣辱不惊。禁绝卑躬屈膝,唯唯诺诺,是生活的强者。为人亲切,满腔热情,说话和气,乐于助人。决不傲视他人,盛气凌人,是众人的朋友。

四是庄重而不失幽默。举止端庄,落落大方,文明典雅,神态从容。话无污言俗语,做无得意忘形。表情丰富维妙,话语隐含哲理,能引发人们的思索和乐趣,能消除紧张和沉闷的情绪。

秘书良好的思想品德修养和稳定的心理素质是多层次、多侧面的。在实际生活中人们从切身经验出发,对此有许多十分准确而生动的表述。从风格角度出发,秘书应具有甘当人梯的风格,担过让功的风格,宽容大度的风格,民主平等的风格,以诚待人的风格和身先士卒的风格。从性格角度出发,秘书应表现为果断、自强、沉着和宽让。从风度角度出发,秘书应表现为聪慧、爽快、谦虚、庄重、热情、自信、朴实和幽默的气质。从品德角度出发,秘书应做到:有权不擅权,管人不整人,无私心自安;能忍辱负重,委曲求全,顾全大局;对同志热心、关心、诚心,对问题看得准、摸得清、敢承担责任;不信流言蜚语,不拨弄是非,更不“仗势欺人”。

恩格斯说:“人物的性格不仅表现在做什么,而且表现在他怎样做。”秘书人员理想的素质是理智与情感、内向与外向、独立与服从等各种心理因素的巧妙结合。作为秘书,要在长期的实践中陶冶和磨练自己,使之成为合格的秘书人才。

在领导者的心目中秘书怎样才算合格,国内外不少专家、学者提出了许多测评的题目和方法,现稍加整理,以供参考。(文中“你”指领导者)

1.秘书知道你的职责范围和全部活动吗?是否了解你的目标和意向?

2.假如你离开机关3~4周,你是否深信你的秘书仍能认真负责地处理你的公事和私事?

3.他是否帮助你安排活动日程、协调约会,使你如期赴约,一切都不用你催促和烦神?他本人是不是一个很会安排自己时间的人?

4.如果你不提醒他,他能否主动执行和坚决完成你交给他的工作?

5.他对待你的同事来访者是否有礼貌?他能尊重人、肯帮助人、把别人的事放在心上吗?

6.他是一个富有想象力和创造力的人吗?他能否提出一些新的设想和建议供你参考?他是否经常采用新的方法来改进你的工作和他自己的工作?他是否能制订新的工作制度或工作程序?他的工作有条理吗?

7.他是一个机智的人吗?他能否主动地解决一些问题而不麻烦你?他害怕困难吗?

8.他能否提高文件运转效率?他能否及时发现你办公桌上搁置很久而其他领导人正等着看的文件?他能否及时地从其他领导处取来你正需要的文件?

9.他所具备的秘书基本技能(例如文件归档、速记和听电话的态度)是否无可指责?

10.他在危急关头是否沉着?在紧急状态下是否冷静?当你承受压力而沉不住气或发脾气时,他是否仍能平静地像平常那样继续工作?

11.他对你忠诚值得你信赖吗?你能把一些公和私的机密信息资料委托给他吗?

12.他是否有较广的阅读面和知识面?他是否能经常提请你注意那些与本单位及与你个人事务有关的出版物?

13.他是否成为本单位的一个有价值的信息来源?而这些信息靠你自己是很难获得、不便获得、或不能获得的?

14.他是否有个人进修计划?他是否要求更多地了解你的单位、你的工作、你的同事、或者你的行业?

15.他发言是否清晰?他能否以书面或口头的方式简要地向你汇报情况?他能否清楚而正确地传达你的指示?他能否了解你关于某项政策和行动的想法,并像你一样把它准确地告诉别人?

16.他是否不计时间地将每天的工作做完?他是否根据需要自愿在夜间或周末加班?

17.他能否像管理者那样,必要时将自己未做完的工作委托给别人,并督促他人负责地完成?

18.在你没有插手的情况下,他能否替你处理好每日的例行公事?

19.他能否记住一些重要日期(如纪念日、某人生日、传统节日、假期等),代你为上级、家庭或同事安排好庆祝活动。

20.在调研工作中他是否称职?如能否收集资料、调查某件事情的经过,并写出有事实、有分析、有建议的调查报告等?

愿我们所有的秘书,都能够通过努力,达到这20条标准。

熟悉首长个性的艺术

秘书长期和首长在一起,相处共事,需要建立起良好的信任、依赖关系。而融洽和谐关系的建立,主要取决于秘书对首长个性特点的了解和顺应。在对首长个性特点充分了解的基础上,秘书进行自我调整,以适应首长的需要。秘书对首长个性特点缺乏了解就无法顺应,不能顺应就难以建立良好的关系。做一个首长喜欢的秘书,同样,也做一个喜欢首长的秘书,就必须做到了解和顺应首长的个性特点。

一、了解首长的生活习惯

在首长身边工作的秘书,应该是首长十分满意的人。一般来说,个子要适中,长相要端庄清秀,身体要健康强壮。当哪个首长的秘书,就要为哪个首长尽心效力。这就需要秘书对首长的生活习惯有比较清楚的了解。

(一)关于首长“吃”的习惯

民以食为天。首长也是民的一分子,也要吃。吃是首长生活习惯中最重要的内容。

关于领导干部的“吃”,即吃什么,怎么吃,在哪里吃,是当前的一个热点问题,是群众议论最多,也是最反感的问题之一。一听说首长要吃,就毛骨悚然,在廉政建设问题上,用公款大吃大喝是最严重的问题之一。一大笔劳动者的血汗钱被吃掉了,令人痛心。

在首长吃的问题上,也不能一概而论,应有个全面具体的分析了解。这大体有三种情况:一是有些首长确实爱大吃大喝,爱吃好的爱吃怪的。二是有些首长也确实讨厌大吃大喝,特别反感没完没了的吃喝。三是有些首长不求大吃大喝,只求“可口可乐”,即以吃着顺口随意为标准。根据我们对100名师以上领导的大体分析考察,爱大吃大喝的只有7人。讨厌大吃大喝的56人。“可口可乐”的37人。

第一种首长只占少数,但影响较大。秘书虽不能制止,但要心中有数。

第二种首长占了大多数,是党风好转的希望和力量所在。他们中有的出身贫寒,家居农村,从小吃苦,对大吃大喝颇为反感。还有那些从下边一级一级上来的首长,知道基层的甘苦,对花天酒地的吃喝很看不惯。还有一些从艰苦边远地区出来的首长,对挥霍公款吃公喝公也深感痛心。

第三种首长占了相当数量,是秘书应认真了解掌握的重要对象。有一个首长在吃饭问题上特别“挑剔”,他就喜欢吃煮烂饺子。看见破了皮的饺子就会说:“今天伙食好!”旁边一桌丰盛的宴席似乎对他没有什么吸引力。当秘书的就要对炊事员讲明白,多包几次饺子,而且要有些开口的。另一个首长则喜欢吃稀饭,四盘咸菜,一杯酒,他见了准高兴:“伙食不错,确实不错。”而且肚子也能吃得挺大。还有一个首长是山西人,别的无所谓,每顿饭必须有两个土豆,见了皮开肉绽的土豆,眼睛就发亮,一边吃一边说:“有营养啊,淀粉从哪里来?主要从这里来。”如此等等,他们就是“可口可乐”的标准。

每个首长在吃的问题上,习惯很是不同的,秘书不能一视同仁。无论家里外头,都上山珍海味首长并不一定就欢喜。

(二)关于首长“喝”的习惯

喝,比过去复杂多了。茶水、饮料、酒,花样翻新,欲迷人眼。酒有进口的,“人头马”、“XO”一杯子装一点点,七八十元算便宜。国产的也很贵,“茅台”、“五粮液”、“剑南春”一二百元一瓶,还可能是假的。再加上扎啤、蓝带,喝几筒半个月工资。饮料的品种就更多了,这个汁,那个浆,数也数不清。一口酸水水,三五元甚至一二十元,喝完了肚子疼。真可谓档次越来越高,胃口越来越差。

对于首长的喝,秘书也要加以分析掌握。还是根据我们对100名师以上首长的考察为例,大致有四种情况:一是喜欢大喝的,喝高档的7人。每天都要喝一点的25人。可喝可不喝的40人。讨厌喝酒的25人。

第一种首长占极少数,“无酒不成席”,宴席上一定要一醉方休,自己喝,劝人喝,“五粮液”不止两三瓶,有一半都倒在地上了。对这些首长爱“喝”的不良习惯,秘书应设法劝止。

第二种首长为数不算少,这是他们生活习惯的一种表现。他们每顿饭都要喝两口,否则看着饭吃不下,拿一点酒来,不用高档的,饭吃下去了,话也多了。在一般场合,秘书可以给予关照,让炊事员备上点酒,首长很高兴,也不会误事。

第三种首长占多数,有没有酒不影响吃饭,上了酒,不觉助兴,不上酒也不觉扫兴。但无论如何不能多喝,也不想多喝。对他们秘书不必勉强,也无须特别关照。

第四种首长人数也不少。他们见酒发愁,特别对一顿饭喝几个小时烦死了。如果被逼上梁山,中间也要出去几次躲一躲,或中途退场。对他们,秘书要出面保驾,事先向陪吃人员打招呼。不要死皮赖脸地向首长劝酒。

(三)关于首长“收”的习惯

收就是有人送礼就接收下来。收的问题较之吃、喝问题更具普通性。有不喜欢大吃的,有不喜欢大喝的,但不想收、不肯收的却不多。有收就有送,有人坐轿也有人甘愿抬轿。

有一则故事:战国时代,齐国大官邹忌,有一天穿戴好后,问妻子:“你看我和城北的徐公谁漂亮?”妻子说:“当然你漂亮!”邹忌不大相信,因徐公是有名的美男子。于是又问妾,妾说:“徐公哪能比得上您漂亮!”邹忌还是不信。这时有客人来访,他又问客人,客人笑着说:“您比徐公漂亮多了。”后来徐公到邹忌家来了,邹忌确信自己无论如何也比不上徐公漂亮。第二天他见齐威王,讲述了此事。齐威王问他:“你自己看,到底谁漂亮?”“当然徐公漂亮。”“那他们为什么说你漂亮?”“我妻子说我漂亮,是因为她偏爱我;妾说我漂亮是因为她怕我;客人说我漂亮是因为他有求于我。”

由此我们可以知道,向首长送礼者多是想从收者那里达到自己的某种目的。一般来说,在送与收之间,送者常表现出一种主动行为。

现今,给领导干部送礼方式多种多样,日新月异。叫人感到很精彩,有时也会感到很无奈。

第一,关于送的方法。

有直接送的,当面交给首长。有间接送的,送给首长家属、子女,或通过秘书及其他有关人员转递。

有明着送的,提在首长眼前的就是礼品。

有暗中送的,悄悄放在那里不吭气,或表面看并没送礼,实际上却在有意赠送。据报载,某省级机关一位局长常被有关单位拉去玩麻将,他的牌术实在不算高明,但总是他赢。有几次竟腰缠万贯回到家中。不过他也要付出代价,在某些文件、请示或某些什么字据上签上自己的名字。结果犯了错误。

第二,关于送的时机。

首长或家庭成员的生日,是送礼的好时机,特别是首长非常喜欢的晚辈过生日,时机最好。

首长患病住院时,送礼的人常常是络绎不绝于病房里、卧榻前,慰问品堆成了小山。有个首长喜欢吸烟,住一次院可收几十条红塔山、阿诗玛。

首长下基层时,也有不少人送东西。离开前,有人说:“首长下基层挺辛苦,拿两条烟吸一吸。”

“算了,算了,我带着呢。”

“两条烟算什么,这也算不上什么送礼!”

“下次别来这套了。”还是收下了。

返回时,有人说:“我们这山沟没什么好东西,拿几根人参首长带回去泡酒喝,补补身体。”

“这样不好吧?”

“这有什么?几根人参不值钱,您身体健康有利工作。我们不也是为部队建设贡献嘛!”随手把一盒子人参放在车座上。

首长子女升学,参加工作也是送礼的机会。

“考上大学啦,值得庆贺。远离家门,要自己照顾好自己,这条毛毯拿去压个脚。”

“孩子一工作成大人了。也该打扮打扮,这条项链戴上准好看。”

前来庆贺的人用不同的语言表达了送东西的合理性,也免不了夹杂着某种不合理的要求。

第三,关于送的品种。

可分为三类。第一类是生活用品,从鸡饲料、土特产、服装、烟酒、打火机、保健用品到高档家具、照相机、录像机以至摄像机等等。第二类是欣赏物品,有古玩、玉器、首饰、工艺品、名人字画、珍贵图书等等,价值从几十元至上万元不等。第三类是货币,从红包、现金发展到信用卡。牡丹卡、长城卡,里面存上几位数,送给首长用起来很方便。

有时收方也表现为一种主动行为,即拿。有两种方式,一是明拿,一是暗索。首长到某部队视察,宴席上吃到了新疆特产骆蹄,很合口味,于是说:“老张啊,你们这里的骆蹄很不错。”临走时部队领导准备好了相当数量的骆蹄送给首长,这就是明拿。首长到某单位了解情况,看到一本好书,爱不释手,便对秘书说:“真是本好书,我还是第一次看见,咱们那儿能买到吗?”秘书说:“这是古籍珍本,恐怕没有卖的。”部队领导领会了意图,便说:“首长喜欢就拿去吧,我们这只能当摆设,不如给首长好好研究研究。”这就是暗索。

首长在“收”的问题上,表现比较普遍,只是轻重不同。

(四)关于首长“住”的习惯

首长住的问题较为简单。作为相当一级首长,一般来说住的档次相对较高。团级的住单间,师以上的住套间,房间不在大小,关键是住得舒适,服务得周到。秘书在考虑首长住时,要考虑首长的习惯。比如,有些首长喜欢安静,只要安静就好,不一定档次高。

(五)关于首长“玩”的习惯

首长爱玩什么也有所发展。由过去的散步、打球、玩扑克发展到看录相、跳舞、听音乐、唱卡拉OK等等。秘书要根据首长的爱好作好安排。爱下棋的,出门要把棋带上,爱看书的要准备好几本书,还有的只喜欢吹牛的,饭后茶余,天南地北吹一通,完了睡觉。对于那些爱高档次玩的首长,也要注意提醒他。

(六)关于首长“行”的习惯

首长出门喜欢坐火车、飞机还是小车?喜欢开快车还是开慢车?对小车的座次也要讲究。首长喜欢坐前排还是后排?这些,秘书应心里有数,别跟首长争座位,闹出笑话,在国外,领导人都坐后排,而我国除高级领导外,一般坐前排。这是因为:

第一,领导人出门多不带保卫,前排位置空着,使领导人有选择的可能性;领导人坐前排视线开阔,有利于观察途中情况。

第二,我国公路质量较差,凸凹不平,领导坐前排比后排平稳些,遇到坑坎也可及早发现有个思想准备。

第三,领导出门带得人多了,后排坐3人较挤,坐前排较宽舒。除此之外,还有一个传统文化心理因素,很多人认为前排坐的人比后排坐的人要高贵。于是总把客人、领导往前排请,久而久之就约定俗成了。据说慈禧曾进口一辆小车,她要求司机要么在她后边开,要么跪着开。因无法满足她的要求,竟忿而不坐小车。

(七)秘书对首长各种习惯应持的态度

秘书了解首长的生活习惯,是为了顺应首长的需要,以达到与首长融洽地相处共事之目的,并达到首长的最佳工作状态。这不是拍马屁。对首长的吃、喝、送、拿等生活习惯,要辩证地分析,它们具有多重性:有政治交易;有友谊交往;有情感补偿;还有利益均衡。概括起来可以说是权钱交换;人情世故;礼尚往来;感恩戴德。不能一概视为腐败。请客送礼在我国是有久远历史的习俗,属人之常情。过春节时,到亲朋好友家拜年,少不了送盒点心。你送我,我送你,转了大圈,又被送回来了。亲家来串门,不加两个好菜就不像话。其实这样的请客送礼也没啥意思,但又不可缺少。老首长来看望,能不吃点好的吗?临走时能不送点东西吗?你有今天,都是人家培养的,这是情感补偿,谈不上腐败。

秘书对待首长的生活习惯可以有四种态度:

第一,对首长正常的生活习惯应追随他。例如他按时睡觉,准时起床工作。秘书就不要学夜猫子,晚上不愿睡,早上不想起。

第二,对首长奇特的生活习惯应适应他。例如他白天迟上班,晚上干工作,秘书也要学会加夜班。

第三,对首长不良的生活习惯应提醒他。例如他的呼吸器官有病,却非要吸烟不可,秘书要设法控制他。

第四,对首长恶劣的生活习惯要节制他。例如他见酒没命,一喝就醉,醉了就胡说、骂人、出洋相。秘书事先就要作好工作,吩咐有关人员别灌首长。喝酒时把握住火候,该替喝的替喝,该夺杯的就夺杯。“首长今晚有会,这杯我喝了。”“首长已经有感觉了,再喝就不好了,这杯酒免了。”

二、善知首长的性格特点

每个人都有自己的性格,首长也一样。由于他是领导,其性格特点表现就尤为突出。秘书必须准确掌握首长的独特性格。

首长的性格特点大体可以划分为这样几种类型:

有的首长很急躁,有的首长很稳重;

有的首长很快速,有的首长很缓慢;

有的首长很豪放,有的首长很拘谨;

有的首长很活泼,有的首长很沉静;

有的首长很粗糙,有的首长很细腻。

对首长的性格特点作这样的划分,是便于秘书能准确掌握首长的不同特点,以便顺应首长的需要,进而与首长融洽地相处共事。

下面就秘书如何适应首长的几种主要性格,作些简单介绍。

(一)关于急躁性格

急躁性格的首长,最大特点是落地有声,说干马上动手。要的是一种作风,雷厉风行。许多军事首长多年来养成了这样一种性格。

对此秘书要特别注意:这种性格的首长往往欠深思熟虑,他的决断常不算数。一者可能没有最后决定权,二者当他冷静下来后又自我否定。特别是一怒之下的处分、处罚,秘书要对有关人员私下做些工作:“尽管首长批评了你,骂了你,但那是在火头上,不要背包袱。我作为秘书,首长的这一点我非常清楚。不信明天早晨再见面时,他还会对你笑。”

(二)关于豪放性格

豪放性格的首长,最大特点是大度开朗,为人忠厚直率,明来明去,心中从没有什么密可保。刚传达一份省军级的文件,他散步时见了处长们就可能在谈话中漏出去:“这个问题你们可要注意了,中央已有文件精神……不过你们知道就行了,不要乱传。……刚才我给你们说什么了?”

“没说什么。”

“那就对了。”

对此秘书要特别注意,这种性格的首长决策较为随便,什么事都满不在乎。下边的请示、要求很容易在他那儿得到允诺。但他的许诺又往往不算数,特别是酒后的许诺,不能信以为真。“要钱嘛,3万元不算多,可以考虑。”秘书要及时对人解释:首长刚才是酒后谈话,从来是不算数的,请不必当真。酒醒再问他,他就忘了。”

(三)关于拘谨性格

拘谨性格的首长,最大特点是缺乏胆量和魄力,事事小心,处处提防,怕字当头,忧虑重重。不敢承担责任,不敢有所作为,一切从本本出发,以文件精神为准。没有依据,或需要变通执行的事,他们不敢决策,等和靠的思想严重。例如,为适应现代化军队建设的需要,有关部门请示B首长在指挥机关和大单位间更换程控电话交换机。他说:“的确有必要,咱们自己也有钱,但还没见上级的具体指示,这事不好办。”

对此秘书要特别注意,这种性格的首长决策犹豫不定,容易误事。一些急事、大事、特殊情况的事,到了他那里就打梗。秘书要主动参与决策,讲道理,谈情况,促使首长定下决心。同时在可能的情况下,不妨同其他首长通气。

(四)关于粗糙性格

粗糙性格的首长,最大特点是只管粗枝,不管细节。他们大事不糊涂,小事不清楚,有梭角,无纹络。你办对了他装糊涂,你办错了他很清楚。小事能唬他,大事别骗他。他只管原则,不问具体。重视结果,不计过程。一项大的施工任务,他只参与计划,至于如何实施,找副职或有关具体领导去办。

对此,秘书要特别注意,这种性格的首长决策过于粗略,缺乏具体指导。很多工作环节容易出问题,常因小失大,造成不该有的损失。秘书要做好弥补工作,替首长考虑周密,根据他的基本原则拟订出具体的实施计划,将首长忽略的小事全部装在心中。例如首长想定部队大规模行动的决策后,在形成文件时,秘书就要对有关组织领导、安全防事故、保密工作等环节做出详细阐述。

此外,关于快速性格,这类首长最大特点是先干好了再休息。关于缓慢性格,这类首长最大特点是先休息好了再干,等等,不一而足。秘书都应对其性格特点的有关影响,做出相应的反应。

三、适应首长的工作方式

由于首长的习惯、特点和经历不同,他们干工作的方式也有区别。首长按照自己的方式干工作,秘书就要想方设法加以适应。

首长的工作方式有如下不同:

有的爱下基层,有的爱蹲机关;

有的爱讲长话,有的爱说短话;

有的爱即兴发言,有的爱书面报告;

有的爱白天工作,有的爱晚上加班;

有的爱开会布置,有的爱个别交待;

有的爱集体讨论,有的爱个人独断。

首长不同的工作方式,是他们长期形成的习惯。他们之所以采取这样的方式,而不用那样的方式,是因为首长认为这种方式能使自己的工作有效益,有影响,自己也有兴趣。佛家有一句话:世上的很多事本无所谓对也无所谓错,对不对是人们自己决定的。这话不无道理。爱蹲机关的对不对?对。领导就是通过机关来指挥部队的。爱下基层对不对?也对。不了解基层怎么做出决策?爱讲长话的对不对?“不讲不行啊,你讲不到他就出事。”对。爱讲短话的对不对?“讲多了就是废话。”也对。爱晚上工作的对不对?“白天受干扰太大,出不了成果。”对。爱白天工作的对不对?“白天瞎混,晚上装蒜。”也对。各有各的道理,无须强求。

秘书对爱下基层的首长,就需要能吃苦。对爱蹲机关的首长,就需要常汇报。对爱讲长话的首长,就需要多写稿。对爱讲短话的首长,就需要多提炼。对爱白天工作的首长,就需要守制度。对爱晚上工作的首长,就需要练夜战。对爱集体讨论的首长,就需要善综合。对爱独断的首长,就需要会通融。

总之,秘书要能使自己完全适合首长的工作方式,与首长融洽地相处共事,出色地发挥参谋助手的作用,为部队建设尽心尽力。

协助首长决策的艺术

秘书作为一种职业,在一个单位,视其编制大小,有时是一个人,有时是几个人,有时还可能是一个班子甚至几个班子。他们的职责不仅仅是跟首长进进出出,帮首长抄抄写写,替首长收收发发。

在党政军的高级机关,常常有一个或几个智囊团,也类似秘书班子,专门为首长出谋划策。他们的咨询作用、决策作用,对我们国家各个方面的盛败兴衰,起着举足轻重的作用。

我们在这里讲的秘书协助首长决策,仅仅是从某个单位,某个侧面,或者可以说,仅仅是就某个秘书个体,来把握分析的。

尽管如此,秘书在决策当中的作用也是不能小看的。那么,秘书在协助首长决策中有哪些好的方法可以使用呢?这里提供以下9种:

一、随机提醒法

所谓随机提醒法,是指随时随地地抓住机会向首长进谏。

秘书经常在首长的身边,遇到什么问题,有些什么想法,就可以顺便讲出来。这些建议,不一定要对整个工作提出成套方案,也不一定对全局提出完整的看法。往往是从工作中随时发现的局部的、具体的问题入手,提出建设性意见。

随机提醒法的关键是“随机”二字。就是说,不晓得在什么时候、什么问题上,秘书发现了个什么问题,或者首长突然间问起秘书对某个问题的看法来,秘书就要视情况,说出个“子丑寅卯”来。这就要求秘书:

一要注意收集有关信息。

随机提醒并不是秘书仅靠自己聪明的头脑,灵机一动,就能拿出锦囊妙计,而主要靠的是知识与信息的储备;没有丰富的知识与信息储备,样样是外行,事事是门外汉,即使问题碰到了鼻子,也看不到,当然也就找不到解决问题的办法了。

某单位资金困难,部属怨声载道,认为改革大潮如此迅猛,何不开些公司赚上几笔,于是有些生产经营人员想开个“化学研究公司”弄个十万八万,首长也表示同意。×秘书便告诉首长:我们地处繁华闹市,周围工厂、科研单位林立,这个“化学研究公司”准备上马的新产品在市场上已经积压。再说,这又不是我们的优势,我们硬要开工生产,其结果不仅赚不上钱,恐怕连本钱也要赔光。于是首长再次派人到市场调查,结果确实如此。就采纳了这一建议,取消了建“化学研究公司”的设想,避免了一笔很可能出现的经济损失。试想,如果这位建议者不懂得市场信息,不做市场调查,能提出有理有据的合理化建议吗?

二要巧妙掌握时机。

秘书在运用随机提醒法时,要想使自己的设想、建议被首长采纳,就要特别注意时机。比如当工作中的错误和损失已很明显时,你的建议再好,也只能算做“事后诸葛”;当工作中的错误和损失还没有显现出来时,你的建议再好,也只能算做“好操闲心”。所以,秘书应经常密切关注首长关注的热点问题,发现不好的苗头,就能立即提醒首长注意,并协助首长分析潜在的危险。在引起首长重视之后,能立即拿出可靠的改进方案。

三要心中有全局。

有些秘书人员只负责某一方面的工作,所以仅能从某一具体工作环节发现问题,提出建议。这些建议尽管是好的,正确的,但拿到全局来衡量,又显得分量太轻,或具有片面性。对统筹全局的首长来说,你的这些建议仅仅是“杯水车薪”,当然不能采纳。所以,秘书只有了解全面情况,才能在随机提醒中,产生出积极的效果。

二、预测导向法

所谓预测导向法,就是通过预测未来的多种结果,提出有远见、有价值的建议,引导首长向正确的方向定下决心。

秘书的预测性建议,从某种意义上讲,在决策过程中起着一种战略导向作用,它常常是决策的基础和起点。预测如有失误,以此为依据的决策,就会使事业蒙受重大损失。而预测建议的水平越高,决策的科学化水平也越高,也就能给事业带来兴旺发达。这当然是就高层次的参谋机构而言的。

秘书在预测导向活动中,要特别慎重。没有八成把握不要狂言。在预测未来之前,要注意收集各有关方面的信息、资料、数据,尽可能详尽地对历史的、现实的状态和发展趋势进行分析,对未来可能发生的变化做出比较可靠的描述,并针对未来的状况,提出相应的对策。同时,在预测思考中,还要周密地考虑宏观与微观、整体与局部、长期与近期之间的关系,这样的预测才能全面周到,把失误减少到最低限度。

三、咨询建议法

所谓咨询建议法,就是对首长即将付诸实施的决策,通过调查研究,以充足的事实,提出可行性和补充性意见。

在咨询过程中,秘书要特别注意这样几点:

一是防止按图索骥。

认为首长想定的课题是经过深思熟虑的,最好不要动摇和否定它。于是到下边胡乱找几个片面的事例加以引证,把首长的决心引入歧途。

二是注重客观全面。

在收集资料、信息时,要到现场考察、了解实际情况及各种反映,及时发现问题,综合分析、研究相关方面的关系和变化,设计各种解决问题的方案和模型,进行各种计算和比较,从中选择最佳方案。

三是写出咨询报告。

秘书要在进行了一段调查研究之后,先提出初步的报告,与首长交换意见,取得首长的支持,并在听取了各方面的意见之后,再写出正式咨询报告,请首长考虑采纳。只要事实可靠,论证有力,首长一般是可以采纳的。

四、提供资料法

所谓提供资料法,是将有关历史的现实的,国内的国外的,军内的军外的,以及同行业的资料,提供给首长阅读,使首长从中获得启示。

这种方法是一种无言的声音,聪明的秘书不必一天到晚在首长耳旁乱嗡嗡,让首长心烦。

提供资料法,有主动提供和被动提供,即首长索要某个资料,秘书很快能够满足;首长没有主动索要,但秘书已猜透了首长的心思,能顺势提供。

有有意提供和无意提供,即秘书给首长提供某种资料,是专门为首长的某个决策服务的;秘书为首长提供某些资料,是仅供首长参阅的,为以后的某个决策备用的。

有顺向提供和逆向提供,即有些资料是首长乐意看的;有些资料是首长不乐意看,但非看不可的。

五、比较选优法

所谓比较选优法,是指在首长决策时能提出多种方案,供首长从中选择最佳的那种。

决策中的最佳方案并不是显而易见、一眼看穿的,它往往掩盖在纷纭杂乱的事物之中。这就需要通过比较加以鉴别,从鉴别中找到最佳者。

比较的方法很多,有纵向比较法,横向比较法,纵横交错比较法,局部环节比较法,等等。

在应用比较选优法时秘书要注意:

一是头绪要清晰。

即是说,秘书不仅仅是被动地把多种方案的一大堆资料或几包卷宗甩在首长的办公桌上,让首长埋头阅读。应该是秘书在杂乱的资料中,先理出几个清晰的头绪,供首长参考。这样做的目的,主要是可以减少首长的精神负荷和思维负荷,让首长集中精力,进行决策方案的选择和对重大问题的思考。这就是现代管理学上所提倡的“议决分离”。也就是先让秘书、参谋人员广泛收集材料,充分论证,制订出可行性方案,再交首长思考、选择,做出决断。

二是分析要透彻。

秘书要尽可能对所有参与比较的事物进行透彻的分析,不仅要分析参与比较的各相关的整体状况,还要分析各方的内部结构;不仅要分析各个环节的有利因素和不利条件,还要从整体分析他们的利弊得失,从而在比较中,得出较为可靠的结论。

三是比较要全面。

在进行比较中,要把参与比较的诸事物从起因、经过到结局进行全面的比,客观的比。比较时,秘书人员要特别防止掺杂个人感情因素。比如在参与比较的单位中,有些是你的老单位,你就说好;有些是你的老首长,你就说好;有些单位给了你什么好处,你就说好。这就很难完整客观了,比较也便失去其意义了。

六、漫谈聊天法

所谓漫谈聊天法,是指不分时间、地点,无固定程序、无明确目的的随便交谈,交流某种思想感情,谈出个人的见解。这是秘书提出建议、辅佐首长决策最经常的方法。

由于无拘无束,所以讲者敢讲,听者随和;讲者情真,听者意切;推心置腹,互不戒备,在轻松愉快中交流了思想。在漫谈聊天中秘书要注意:

一是在无边际中有目的。

即是说,表面上是与首长聊天,但实际上(当然也不是所有的时候)是在向首长做进谏工作。某部曾多次被上级评为严格执行条令条例先进单位,个别领导就有了骄傲自满情绪,放松了抓这方面的工作,以至于出现了一些事故苗头。一天,首长和秘书饭后边散步边聊天,秘书就在散步中把首长引入了一些哨兵执勤点,看到了个别哨兵违犯纪律的行为。首长发现问题后,秘书又由此及彼地“闲吹”,终于使这个问题得到解决。

二是闲聊之中须谨慎。

秘书要永远记住,尽管是聊天,但不可抹去上下级关系的界限。聊起来要有分寸,不可无限度、无组织纪律地乱说。一次一位首长和秘书在办公室闲聊,讲起了如何用人的问题。

秘书突然想到刘××是个多年老标兵,可是标兵归标兵,就是不用他。秘书就想借与首长聊天的机会为他鸣不平。于是对首长说:刘××是老标兵,可在这个岗位上干了7年,有机会该动一动了。”首长说:这个人名利观念比较强,要压一压他。”秘书说:“名利观念嘛,谁也有。像你们这样大的首长了,不是也有吗?”听到这句话,这位首长突然变了脸色:“你怎么这样跟我说话?”首长来了这么一句,秘书听后半天回不过神儿来。

七、补充完善法

所谓补充完善法,是指对已经确定的方案,但有局部缺陷;或对正在执行中的方案,因多种因素的变化产生了某些缺陷,而进行的修订和调整。

任何一级领导,那怕是最高明的领导,他所下定的决心,他所想定的方案,都不可能是至善至美的。这就有个修订、补充、完善的问题。

补充完善法可适用于初定方案、正式执行中的方案、已经使用过的原有方案等等。秘书在运用补充完善法时要特别注意:

一是要慎出异言。

当首长对自己的决心和确定的方案向秘书征求意见时,首长一般是很得意的,很有把握的。秘书首先要确认该方案的合理性和可行性,在总体肯定这个方案的基础上,指出不足和需要修改的部分。特别是那些首长信得过的秘书,不要自恃聪明,只要首长征求你的意见,你略加思索或者不假思索就说上一套,引起了首长的决心动摇,思路混乱,最终把一个基本合理的方案改得非驴非马。所以秘书人员为了防止帮倒忙,当首长征求意见时,先要正确地分析理解原方案,才能起到补充和完善的作用。

二是要察颜观色。

就是说,在对首长的某个决心和方案提出建议时,边说边观察首长的眼神脸色。他高兴了你就多说点,他不高兴你就少说点。这不是投其所好,也不是有错不纠。这是由秘书的身份决定的。秘书仅仅是首长的助手和参谋,不到万不得已,不能强行进谏。

三是要抓住重点。

首长的有些决心和已定的方案,在秘书看来,可能毛病很多,甚至需要推倒重来。但首长仅仅是让你补充修改,而不是让你另起炉灶。这就要求秘书在建议过程中,不必面面俱到地罗嗦许多条加以说明,而是经过由此及彼、由表及里的分析,将决心和方案中存在的主要问题准确利索地点出来,其分量之重,也到了足以补充完善的地步了。

八、先同后异法

所谓先同后异法,是指在提出建议之前,最好不要讲与首长认识上的分歧,而着重谈一致的问题,然后再提出不同意见。

有经验的秘书,把这种先同后异法当作一种“致胜术”来说服首长。其具体方法是:先顺着首长的思路有板有眼地往下说,用心理惯性规律,促进首长的认同,获得首长的好感。这样首长的思路就会沿着肯定方向惯性发展,当这种肯定意识强化起来时,再由小到大,由易到难提出你的不同建议,首长在肯定你的大前提下也就会肯定你的那些不同意见。这种简单技巧,在现实生活中是经常运用的,也是很有效的。如果一开始就与首长求异,形成对立,效果当然不会好。使用这一方法时秘书要注意:

一是夸得适度。

即赞美和肯定之词要适当。不可满口称赞“高瞻远瞩”,“独树一帜”,“英明远见”,让人一听名为肯定,实为谄媚。正确的做法是用不可辩驳的事实加以肯定,让人一听,你的赞美之词是实事求是的,是发自内心的。

二是因人而异。

有些首长性情直爽,他虽然也喜欢人的赞美,但他很讨厌秘书的夸奖,觉得让秘书夸奖有失自己的身份,是不值得的。对这种首长的决心和想法,一旦征求意见,秘书就应在婉转中直说,在商讨中劝告。常用的开头语是:“这个问题我是这么看的”。“对这件事我有以下一些想法”。“这事要让我讲,应该这样办,看行不行”。

九、引以为鉴法

引以为鉴法,是指在已经发生了问题,造成了不良后果,或者发生了重大事故之后,帮助首长找出原因、教训,作为以后工作的鉴戒而提出的。

在现实生活中,正确进行决策是困难的,执行决策过程中的失误也是时常发生的。而对失误,特别是面对重大失误,首长是相当痛心的。上级的反复追查,甚至给予某些人惩处;同级的互相埋怨,甚至冷嘲热讽;下级的怨声载道,甚至谩骂某个领导无能。这些很可能使那些具有创造精神的首长在今后的工作中变得畏首畏尾,失去责任心和进取心,甚至从此一蹶不振,再也提不起劲来,宁肯使工作“软”损失,也再不去“硬”争创。他们会觉得这个社会真是“干的不如站的,站的不如看的”。对首长的失误,秘书不能站在一旁观望,而要积极为首长出谋划策,除想方设法尽快减少和挽回损失外,就要帮助首长用“引以为鉴”法总结经验教训,再创工作的新局面。

一是明确危害。

秘书在事故或挫折面前,要帮助首长明确其危害性,并对已造成的损失进行准确的统计和评价,还要对可能给未来造成的影响,进行必要的评估,使首长从思想上认识:上级的处理是合情合理的,群众的意见也是可以理解的。

二是找准原因。

秘书要协助首长从事故或挫折发生、发展、结果的全过程中进行周密调查,提出避免类似事故再次发生的办法,并在预防方案中寻求向积极方向转化的突破口。

三是吹风鼓劲。

经常给首长讲一讲宽心话,让首长逐步从“危难”中解脱出来,觉得失误或挫折是正常的。谁在这个岗位上,谁在这个背景下,谁在这个事件中,都有可能发生失误,这次让自己碰上了,也算给别人铺出条路。从而使首长以良好的心理状态,面对现实,着眼未来,把本职工作做得更好。

四是帮助首长提高声誉。

一般说来,当首长某些“宏伟”的决心下定以后,总会提高自己的声誉的。一旦“宏伟”的决定落空,群众不满的呼声就会相应而起。有时首长的某些不切实际的许愿,也使一部人高兴起来。一旦这些许愿落空,群众的抱怨情绪也会紧随而来。这些,都需要领导者引以为鉴。问题是,有些决策按正常运转明明是可以实现的,但由于形势所迫,出现了不可逆转的局面,这与决策人的个人品质、能力是相关无几的。这时候,秘书就应该利用多种机会,向群众加以解释,使群众了解内情,从而体谅首长的困难,提高群众对首长的信任度,齐心协力再创新局面。

从以上九点论述中,我们可以悟出这样一个道理:

聪明的首长,不在于他自己能想出多少好点子,而在于他能采纳多少部下提出的好点子。

聪明的秘书,不在于他能被首长采纳多少好点子,而在于他能给首长提出多少好点子。

领会首长意图的艺术

意图即首长决策的基本思想,包括主要的观点、意见、办法和各项要求。所谓领会意图,简言之,就是摸清首长某一决策的基本思想和要求。

我们知道,秘书工作一个很重要的特点,就是“尊旨行事”,是接受了首长的指示以后,才去开展各项主要工作。是“要我办”而不是“我要办”。秘书工作的这种“受命性”特点,要求我们必须认真地掌握和理解首长的思想,准确地领会好首长的意图。

因此,领会意图实际上是秘书工作的开始。领会意图的过程,实际上就是秘书人员将首长的某个意志、设想和构思,经过理解和消化,变为自己的思想,最后转化为具体行动。

一、领会意图的实质

领会意图在秘书工作中占有什么重要地位呢?秘书人员应怎样对待首长的意图呢?

(一)领会意图是秘书人员的基本职业道德

职业道德是具有职业特征的道德准则和规范。秘书人员职业道德的基石,就是对上负责和对下负责、对领导负责和对人民负责的高度一致性。对上负责,对领导负责的具体体现,就是秘书人员能够准确地领会和贯彻首长的意图。

秘书工作的本质意义,就是服从领导的决策,忠实既定意图,并将其转化为具体有效的行动。因此,秘书人员应尊重领导的意见、认真领会基本观点,不草率,不走样,准确把握、严格遵循其思路脉络,合理安排,精确筹划,切实实现首长意图。绝不允许脱离前提,颠倒位置;决不能自以为政治水平高,掌握情况细,阅读材料多,文字能力强,与首长比攀高低,暗存“略胜一筹”的优越感;决不能阳奉阴违,甚至自作主张,另搞一套,完全丢开首长意图,将个人不成熟的看法强加给首长。

当然,秘书人员对首长意图的服从,不是盲从、屈从。当首长的交待含糊不清、辞不达意时,应在忠实其意的前提下,适当融汇、提炼、加工、完善;当首长的交待笼统、粗疏、误漏时,要适当补充和修正,使之具体、严密、正确。而不应依葫芦画瓢,将错就错。倘若发现个别首长为邀功诿过,在交待中歪曲事实,无中生有,捏造成绩,掩盖错误,势将严重损害机关威信和人民群众利益时,秘书人员要出以公心,提醒、劝诫,大胆“进谏”,仗义执言。不应事不关己,明哲保身,缄口不言;更不可曲意逢迎,拿原则作交易去博取首长欢心。

(二)领会意图是秘书发挥参谋助手作用的方式之一

秘书人员进行的工作,实际上是在领导决策中发挥参谋助手作用。工作越重要,这种作用也就越重大。

在机关实际管理活动中,秘书工作情况,大体有如下几种:

1.无交待程序和具体意图,可由秘书人员视实际情况开展工作。这类工作一般只涉及机关日常具体事务,较为简单,它们多由工作人员按照机关领导平时的管理思想,遵循一般管理程序,根据实际情况随时自行处理。

2.有交待程序和办事意图,需要秘书人员忠于领导意图。这类工作一般涉及机关重要事务,较为复杂。

3.有交待程序但无具体意图,由秘书人员先根据首长的粗略交待拟出方案,再交机关领导集团或领导人议定或审定。这类工作都较为重要,只是领导集团或领导人对具体意图尚无成熟思考,要先由秘书人员代替自己设想具体意图并提供初步方案再来审议或审定。

在上述三个工作方式中,秘书人员要运用自身的政治、思想、政策等方面的基本素养,调动自己掌握的多种知识和有关的情况综合进行严密的逻辑思考。要针对意图,或拾遗补阙,对首长意图某些欠周密、欠恰当的地方,给予弥补、修正、完善;或作进一步的分析、综合、调整、取舍,而后,再通过自己的行动将首长意图体现得更加系统、周密、准确。

(三)领会好意图,可以提高秘书工作的质量

这是由首长的特点决定的。作为首长虽然他们彼此气质性格不同,处理问题的方式也不同,但是他们也有共同之处。

第一,首长对某个问题反复酝酿,思考成熟以后,才会向下属或秘书人员交待意图,如果对这个问题他还没有考虑周全,是不会让你去办理的。

第二,首长参加工作的时间较长,经历的风雨也多,对下情的了解一般也比较全面。他们能够做到胸有大略,统揽全局,高屋建瓴。因此,他们对某项工作的指导思想一般把握得比较好,对工作中应注意些什么问题,也考虑得比较周全。

第三,首长的想法和打算,常常是汇集了他们领导层内部的各方面意见,有时是党委或领导集体的意见。由此,他对工作的要求,是很具有权威性的。

以上这几点决定了,如果秘书在行动前充分领会了首长的意图,并在行动中始终遵循这一意图,那么其结果,实际上就是凝聚了领导人的经验,集中了大家的智慧,质量自然是比较高的。

(四)领会好意图,可以减少秘书工作的无效劳动

常常有这样的现象:秘书人员辛辛苦苦干完了一件工作,却在领导那里被否定了,甚至数次返工,仍然通不过。在这里,秘书人员就是做了无效的劳动,走了弯路,闹个白辛苦。

怎样减少这种无效劳动呢?很重要的一个方面就是准确领会首长的意图。领会好了首长的意图,工作就可以少走弯路,少吃苦头,减少无效劳动。相反,如果不去领会首长意图,随任自己去发挥,工作的结果就很可能同首长的意见相去甚远,返工的次数也多,甚至劳而无功。

有很多秘书的工作能力不能说不强,对自己要求也不能说不严格,工作态度也不能说不端正,可他们工作的结果却常常在首长那里通不过。与此相应的另一种情况是,有些人工作能力并不是很强,但每次工作都能过关,主要也在于如何领会首长意图的问题上。

秘书只有把自己的工作能力同首长的意图结合起来,才能办出令首长满意的事情来。

二、首长交代意图的方式

(一)首长意图的产生

从来源看,首长可能受某一动因激发而产生意图。它既可以是首长长期工作经验的结晶,也可以是平时调查研究的积累;既可以是上级政策精神和本单位具体情况相融汇的认识,也可以是整个领导层的集体研究决定。还可能是受某一事物的启示而突然爆发的思想火花。

从完善程度看,首长最初的意图,有的比较成熟、系统、全面;有的则不太明确,比较简单,是有待加工的“思想毛坯”。也有的首长虽然站得高、角度新,把握住了关键和实质,具有启发性、洞察性、广延性,但还未定型,需要进一步磨砺、优化,使其臻于完善。

(二)首长意图的交代

首长产生了意图后,就需要向秘书人员交代。交待是办理的出发点,也是秘书开展工作的前奏。凡是由专、兼职秘书人员经办以首长名义安排的重要工作,都应经过交待。如不完善这一手续,秘书难以明白首长的意图和各方面的具体要求,必定会闭门造车,苦思冥想,虽勉力工作,但与首长意见相悖,势必数次反复,耗时费力。或不结合本地区、本单位工作实践,流为应景之作。甚至违背实际需要,妨碍工作活动的开展。

由于首长的气质、性格、能力和领导方法不同,交代意图的方式也是不同的。这就要求秘书人员具有领会不同类型首长意图的本领,从笔者多年在机关工作的经验看,首长交待意图,大致有如下几种方式。

1.从交待程度上看。

有的首长是简洁式的,即只用几句话就干脆利索地把他的想法说了出来,其内在涵义,由秘书去详细体味,甚至有时只是说:××时候有个会,希望你写份材料。××时候有个纪念活动,希望你写篇讲话稿。至于要写什么内容他只字不提。有的首长是详细式的,即把应该写些什么,应该怎样写,甚至每一层应该表达哪些内容,都交待得一清二楚。

2.从交待内容上看。

有的首长是观点式的,即只提示几个要点,至于观点里面的具体内容则由秘书人员去单独思考。有的首长是素材式的,即只给许多他了解的详细材料,至于这些材料说明了什么问题,应该概括出怎样的观点,则由秘书人员去总结,去归纳,首长还没有现成的。

3.从交待手段上看。

有的首长是直接式的,即喜欢把办事人召来,面对面地亲自交待,直到办事人弄懂记清为止。这种首长认为,应该一竿子插到底,自己的意图应该直接地、清晰地、面对面地传达到办事人那里。有的首长则采用间接方法。喜欢把意图交待给他的直接的部下,然后让这些部下再一级一级地往下交待,经过几次转手传到办事人那里。采用这种方式的首长认为,应该调动各方面的积极性,应使自己的直接部下也了解自己的意图,这样才不至于在领导关系上闹出误会。

4.从交待质量上看。

有的首长是高水平的,即交待意图时,语言凝练,方法明确,要求具体,只要秘书根据首长的交待去认真落实就可以了。有的则是低水平的交待,即首长的想法可能很好,但在交待时,却是头绪不清的,说理性不强的。有时秘书听了半天,连意思都听不明白,主旨都弄不清楚。

5.从交待频率上看。

有的首长是一次性交待,即只用一次交谈,就将自己的意图表述完毕,铁板钉钉,只此一次,再不更改。有的首长则是多次性的交待,即通过和秘书多次交谈,有时反复强调,有时推倒重来,有时弃之又用,从而使自己的意图不断清晰,不断深化,不断集中。特别是对一些较为复杂的工作仅一次是不可能交待清楚的。

三、领会意图的要诀

上面,我们谈了首长交待意图的方式,这仅是一个方面。在实际工作中,更重要的是另一个方面——如何领会意图。

(一)领会意图的过程

首长交待的意图,仅是秘书办事的底蕴,并不完全同于主旨。须经秘书人员进一步领会、深化,并完善这种意图。

1.领会。

领会要清楚。首长工作忙,头绪多,注意力经常转移。秘书在领受任务时须依循领导同志的思路,详细聆听并摘记要点。对不明确的问题当场请示,对辞不达意的话要仔细询问清楚,吃透原意,力求把握其精神实质和各方面的细节。相反,如果一味点头,首长误认为秘书已完全领悟,交待时就会略掉一些具体细节,秘书日后再去请示时,则可能时过境迁而不得要领。

领会要全面。弄清目的、完成时限,据此确定步骤、方法、要求以及行动方案,便于在时间许可的限度内统筹规划。如果“以其昏昏,使人昭昭”,其结果必然是劳而无功甚至造成不良后果。

领会要深刻。可根据当前的基本倾向和首长的工作日程,分析、感知首长产生意图的背景和过程。必要时,可进行跟踪性补充调查,以掌握首长的思想脉络,更深刻地体会意图,以免隔靴抓痒,似是而非。

2.融汇。

工作主旨由多种要素构成,内涵十分丰富。在不违背首长初衷的前提下,秘书要反复、横向扩散思维,举一反三,把工作实际、专业知识、政策规定、群众要求,融汇、充实进首长意图之中。例如,《××党委工作指导纲要》的中心是“改革、务实、创新、争先”。秘书的拟议,不仅把领导层集体讨论的思想观点、工作重心、目标、措施都围绕这个中心展开,而且还与上级指示,本地情况等相结合,把这一中心思想延伸到首长没有考虑或没有更细致、更具体考虑到的观点、工作、情况中去,使整个工作的指导思想基础更坚实,依据更充分,理由更具体,措施更周严。

3.发挥。

秘书必须依循首长意图办事,这是一条基本原则。但是,从首长的最初意图产生到最后的定型之前,秘书人员可以调动自己的学、识、才、能,去努力发掘,使之深化;举一反三,使之全面。进而引伸到首长最初意图所未能照顾到的方面。

秘书在筹划中,当发现首长交待的最初意图存在偏颇、疏漏、失误、矛盾时,要敢于据理直言,不应听之任之。为完善主旨,广征博采,首长也往往与秘书或其他有关人员一起讨论,鼓励他们畅所欲言,不带框框,从不同角度发现问题,提出设想,乃至否定最初意图。当然,秘书人员对首长最初意图的发挥和修正,需经首长首肯才能确立。

通过领会、融汇和发挥,使首长意图深化、完善、定型。一旦首长决心已下,主旨已定,就不应再有异议,而需愉快、忠实地围绕最终确定的意图行事。

(二)领会意图的方式

秘书要想准确把握首长意图,应当采取哪些具体的方式呢?

1.善于把握首长工作的热点,跟踪追击。

首长的工作热点是首长在一定时期内工作意图最为集中的表现。抓住这一点。就等于抓住了首长意图的核心,就能与首长工作同步,目标同向。但是,首长意图是围绕党在每个时期的中心工作形成的,具有阶段性和连续性。为此还必须对首长的思想,系统掌握,重点跟踪。

2.善于把握首长的思维方式,协同动作。

每个首长都有他的思维特点和思维方法。秘书要当好首长的参谋,必须善于了解、把握并力求做到:当首长对某项工作、某件事情有了某种思维萌动和思维导向时,我们要能有所共思;当首长对某项工作、某件事有所酝酿时,我们要能不谋而合;当首长做出某项决策,部署某项工作时,我们要能心领神会;当首长追踪某项目标,期待某种效果时,我们要能举一反三,不仅知其然,而且知其所以然;当首长需要某种材料和信息时,我们要能想在前,做在前,搞好超前服务。

3.善于把握首长思想的闪光点,加以深化。

一般说来,首长所提出的意见,大都是比较完备和深刻的,但对某项新的工作或临时处理某个问题的时候,常常是有感而发,提出的意见往往是零散的,片断的。对首长这些零散的、片断的意见,秘书要认真加以领会,不要害怕这些意见束缚了自己的思路,更不能轻视和拒绝。要知道,在零散之中有一些是有见地的观点。首长在即兴讲话时也有新意。我们要当好首长的参谋,就必须善于抓住首长思想的闪光点,通过与首长切磋和深入调查,努力加以开掘和深化,以进一步完善首长的决策,指导面上工作。

4.善于多角度捕捉首长意图,综合归纳。

在这方面,一是要善于抓点,即紧紧抓住首长意图的要点与核心,把首长所讲的观点同上头精神和下头实际串起来进行比较。既与上头精神一致,又与本单位实际相吻合,做到有理有据。二是要善于扩大面,以主要领导思想为主线,多方面吸收其他领导的意见,集思广益,形成整体决策。例如在起草领导讲话稿时,我们不仅要和具体的讲话人详细进行切磋,让讲话人把提纲定下来,而且还要多方面吸取其他领导人的意见,在此基础上进行综合分析,科学剪接,使各方面正确的意见都能融汇进去,这样返工率就比较小。

5.善于把握首长的个性特点,因人而异。

我们所接触过的首长,不同的个性,就有不同的领导风格和工作方式。比如,有的首长古典文学底子较厚,做报告喜欢引经据典,为这样的首长起草讲话稿,就要适当地引用一些典故,以达到借古喻今明理之目的,再比如,从基层调上来的首长,对下面的情况比较熟悉,为这样的首长起草讲话稿,就要多举一些他熟悉的例子。相反,我们不能给文化水平较低的首长,专门写一些生僻难认的字,让他读起来一头的汗。

(三)领会意图的变通

在领会首长意图中,不论采取何种方式,有两个问题需特别注意。

1.秘书人员应养成一个良好的习惯,即应当集中精力倾听,随手奋笔疾记,即使是首长的即兴发言,也应详细地记录下来,以备后用。在认真记录的同时,还要积极思考,对没有领会的问题大胆询问,不必拘谨小心。某部有个作战参谋任职不久,接受了参谋长交代的一份军用公文的写作任务,由于他当时没有迅速记下要点,对疑惑处也不好意思再问,怕影响了领导的工作,写作时只得凭想象,结果在部队演习时,因撰写的公文不合要求而返工,延误了演习时间。实际工作表明,凡是在接受任务时问清了首长意图的同志,工作进展顺利,领导人多为满意;凡是不弄清意图就动手干的同志,很可能返工,不仅影响了工作甚至还耽误大事。有经验的秘书,往往是一边接受任务,一边积极思考。思考的范围是:对贯彻意图中可能出现的多种情况,及时提出来,让首长能给予明确的答复;对首长意图中可能出现的偏差,趁首长还没有考虑成熟,该纠正的纠正,该否定的否定;对首长意图中有所涉及但还不够完善的地方,不够深刻的问题,通过讨论式研究,使之在行动前就能完善深刻起来。这里秘书人员要注意:认真思考必须紧紧围绕首长意图的主旨;大胆提问必须用谦虚探讨的口气,谨防产生和首长的意图有对立之嫌。这种才能,不仅靠秘书聪慧的头脑,敏捷的思维,而且须有对下层实际情况的谙熟和体察,以及丰富的实际工作能力。由此可见,倘想做好秘书工作,一如陆游一诗所咏:“汝要欲学诗,功夫在诗外。”

2.在领会意图的过程中,如果首长的想法是正确的,打算也是合理的,那么我们照着做就行了;但是当首长的意图有粗疏、误漏甚至是错误时,我们应当怎么办呢?遇有这种情况,秘书人员当然不能自以为是,更不能反“仆”为“主”,而是要通过一些巧妙的方式,把自己的正确想法,转为首长的意图。这些方法大致有:宣传政策法,提供下情法,介绍经验法,弥补漏洞法等。常用的语句是:“这个问题是很好,不过我还有这样一点想法”;“这个问题挺全面了,我再补充几点看行不行”;“这个问题,是否可以改换个提法”等等。

善于领会意图,是一个很复杂的心理过程。它是正确处理首长和秘书人员关系的很重要的方面。它要求秘书人员不仅要具有聪慧的头脑,敏捷的思维,应变的能力,而且更需要有正确领会党的方针政策的觉悟,以及对下边实际情况的真实了解。这样,在领会意图过程中不仅能提出很好的建议,而且能出色地实现首长意图。

维护首长尊严的艺术

尊严,这个词很神圣,又很寻常。

尊严就是尊贵和庄严的意思。它的外在表现,是一个人可尊贵的身份和显赫的地位;它的内在要求,是一个人应有的自尊心和基本的人格。尊严是实现自我价值进而也是实现社会价值的自然要求。尊严又是维护个人权益进而也是维护他人权益的重要内容。因此,尊严应该是神圣不可侵犯的。

一个人是否具备了应有的尊严,并不取决于他的主观愿望,而是由下列诸条件所决定的:第一,他的社会地位的尊卑;第二,他拥有物质财富的多少;第三,他对社会贡献的大小;第四,他在公众中威信的高低。当然,对尊严的取向,不同的人们有不同的标准。在一些人看来他很有尊严,而在另一些人看来,他却毫无尊严。但无论如何,一个人只要切实具备了上述条件之一,他也就具有了相应的尊严。

尊严对人生和社会有着重要意义。一个人的尊严受到损害,就是对这个人的人格的污辱和价值的贬损。因此,在现实生活中,纪律的力量常常表现为对某些人从尊严上加以制裁,如行政处分、党内处分、降职降级,等等。受到了纪律的制裁,他也就失去相应的尊严,也就被人看不起。如果忍受不了,他就可能失去生活的勇气或者丧失理智,变得残忍,无目标地进行报复。另一方面纪律又常常表现为对某些人从尊严上加以鼓励。立功、受奖、授予荣誉称号等等。获得了荣誉,他也就获得了相应的尊严,被人们所尊重。具有尊严的人在生活中会变得更加伟大和高尚起来。

尊严虽然具有客观性,但必定渗透着巨大的人为力量,并且显示出诸多奇妙的特色。例如,有的人表面很有尊严,但内心却相当空虚;有的人当面受人尊敬,背后却让人看不起;有的人的尊严是实践中自然形成的,有的人是职务所赋予的。

军队中首长的尊严格外重要。因为他要指挥千军万马,要打仗,要令行禁止。无论谁当了长官,都必须具有一定的尊严,而且不可侵犯,官越大,越神圣。对此,《内务条令》、《纪律条令》有相当一部分内容是为了维护首长的尊严而制订的。最简单的例子,条令上规定,任何军人,见到上级领导,都必须敬礼。这就是维护首长尊严的具体体现。同时,我们也会发现,一个人一旦担任了一定的首长职务,他对自己的尊严也就特别珍视和爱护。如果受到损害,是不能容忍的。

作为秘书,每天工作在首长身边,在维护首长尊严问题上有着特别的意义和要求。除了那些普遍遵循的原则外,还应注意下边这样一些细小问题。

一、不在象征首长职务身份的小事上疏忽大意

有些小事情,看起来无足轻重,实际上也没有意义,但是人们习惯透过这些小事来判断一个首长的职务、身份和地位,确认他在这个领导团体中所具有的尊严程度。虽然很多时候这些小事情只是一种形式,本身没有效用,但如果秘书不能妥善处理,首长嘴上不说,心里却在嘀咕。例如,召开大会,主席台上就座的问题,谁上谁不上,谁居中,谁在左谁在右,就很有讲究。无论有无必要,每次大会相应职级的领导都在主席台上就座,尽管他一言未发,坐在台上在众目睽睽之下也不自在,但如果漏了某一个该台上就座的领导,或者坐在了本应在他下首的人的下首,他就会感到自己的尊严受到了损害,有关工作人员就可能有麻烦。

再如,主席台摆放麦克风,也别小看。两个副职,只给一个座前放了麦克风,另一个本来不讲话,但心里不舒服,也一定要说几句,让秘书人员再取一个麦克风来。

再如,照相、摄像,镜头对准谁,多长时间,要把握好分寸。只有正职镜头,没有副职镜头,不合适;副职作报告,镜头过多,正职作陪衬,镜头太少,也不行;两个副职,一个镜头多,一个镜头少,更不行。

再如,几个首长的讲话稿,是否都上报下发?是全文发表还是摘要刊登?是制成文件还是出期简报?这也要处理得当。司令员的讲话全文下发,政委的讲话摘要下发,能行吗?

再如,首长小车出发的顺序也不能随意安排,高级首长在前,低级首长在后;军事首长在前,政治首长在后。安排错了,也有问题。某部队军事演习,首长车队出发时,E首长的车没打着火,W参谋便让E首长的下属a领导的车先行一步。本来E首长资历较轻,a领导很是不服,已有隔阂;这回E首长的车跟在其后吃了一路灰,心中非常恼火。到了目的地,E首长让司机去休息,却命令参谋去洗车,W参谋还蒙在鼓里,不知首长想让他掌握何种参谋业务。

对诸如此类的小事,秘书人员都应考虑周到,处理得当,以免无意中损害首长的尊严。应该指出,首长也是普通人,具有常人的性格,但他身居高位,又有与常人不同的性格。有的首长统帅千军万马,很自信,而失败时又可能很自卑;有的首长肩负重担,意志坚强,但有了缺点又可能经不起批评,显得很脆弱;有的首长在位时,是众人之首,以身作则,身先士卒,一旦卸任,个人主义又显得特别严重。个别领导干部的心理和行为常常使人无法理解:昨天上午还那么威武,下午宣布了离退休的命令,今天早晨怎么连衣服都宽大了?有一位将军,气魄极大,从来都是背着手讲话,而免职后,大半年不好意思出门。职务提高了,觉悟不一定随着提高,对此,秘书人员是应该理解的。这也是在一些小事上避免损害首长尊严的原因之一。

二、不轻易呼叫首长的姓氏或姓名

姓名,不过是一种符号,是为了便于人们的交往而产生的。它本身并无贵贱高低之分,但它却可以随着人的显赫而显赫,随着人的卑贱而卑贱。提起岳飞,人们便对民族英雄油然起敬;提起秦桧,人们便对乱贼奸佞恨之入骨。首长小时候的乳名可能并不高雅,什么“铁蛋”、“栓柱”都可能有,但随着首长的地位的显赫和权力的增大,名字也会变得尊贵。一般情况下,一般的人直呼首长的姓名,就可能冒犯首长的尊严。党内称同志,党外称职务,这是我军的惯例。作为秘书,是首长的部属和服务人员,应尽力避免直呼首长的姓名,这也应成为秘书的惯例。

一个干事刚调机关工作,一天向首长请示事宜,敬过礼说:“傅司令员”,话没说完,司令员翻了他一眼:“你知道我姓傅?”

“知道。”

“知道还这么叫?”

“那,怎么叫?”

“回去问你们处长。”

干事赶忙去找处长,处长说:“你直呼‘司令员’就行了,不要加傅,加了‘傅’就不好叫了。”

“为什么?”

“真是个瓜子,司令员的姓是你叫的吗?咱们这个单位就一个司令员,不叫他的姓能错了吗?再说,司令员姓‘傅’,大家在他的职务前面加上个姓,司令员永远当不成‘正’的了。”

“那三个副军长在一起,我找其中一个,怎么称呼啊?”

“作为秘书,你可以目视要找的副军长。当与首长对视后,再称呼‘副军长’,他就知道你在叫他。懂了吗?”

“懂了。”

特别是有的首长的姓本身有点不雅,叫出来使人可以产生歧义,自然有损尊严。比如姓苟,你叫他苟师长,人家听了以为是“狗师长”,当然不妥。还有的首长姓刁,尽管他是参谋长,但加上姓,就成了“刁参谋长”了。他当了几十年首长,但始终都是“刁”的。他很忌讳,你就不要这么叫。

首长都有明确的职务,作为部属,正常情况下,不称职务而叫首长姓名,确有失尊重,有损尊严,秘书人员要特别注意。

三、不随便用手指点或拍打首长

先举一个例子:某学院一位教授,正师职大校。他当通信员时,一次招呼指导员,在指导员肩上轻轻拍了一下,指导员火了:“你干什么?我的肩是你拍的吗?”指导员的发火,使他清醒了大半辈子:首长无论大小,作为下级是不能随便拍打的。从此他再也没有拍过任何一位比他职务高的人。但他不大明白,为什么轻轻拍了指导员一下,他就发火。之后,他在部队也当了领导,由于他的部下从来也没有拍打过他。所以他也不太明白被下级拍打后的感觉。后来他调院校工作,官升正师,衔晋大校,堂堂的教授。曾有一次他站在院门口,突然肩上重重地被人拍了一下,回头一看是食堂的炊事班长,心里很不高兴,但脸上还是强作笑容。因为要在食堂吃饭,得罪了炊事班长不好办。他很有感触地说,我自己的心态表明,当了官被下级拍打心里肯定不舒服。

指点或拍打,是人们之间沟通联系的一种方式。离开一定距离,用手指点、招呼;近在身边,用手拍打肩膀、胳膊。一般同事或相互熟悉的人之间,属正常行为,都可接受。但用来指点、拍打首长则属于不尊重的行为了。可以这样说,下级人员无论是指点还是拍打首长,都很可能使首长的尊严受到侵犯。

因此秘书要注意做到:第一,呼唤首长时,不能用手指点。比如,政委正在开会,秘书推开门唤一声:“政委”,然后一勾手,“你过来一下。”这就是一种不尊重政委的动作,政委就会不高兴。第二,与首长交谈时,不能拍打首长。比如,说到高兴处,秘书连连拍打首长的肩膀:“首长,您说得太对了。”首长可能马上变了脸。第三,向首长请示工作时,不必用手指指划划。比如,向首长请示某项工作,讲到自己的决心时,指手划脚地说:“首长,我的决心大得很!”首长当然不高兴。

四、不当众纠正首长的缺点和毛病

秘书是首长的下属,是为首长服务的,没有权力对首长的缺点毛病进行批评指责,或不分时间、场合、地点当众给予纠正。秘书对首长的缺点当然不能采取完全不负责任的态度,特别是秘书参与首长的某些决策时,发现首长有误应予纠正,但那是有条件的。

根据一般经验、秘书对首长在公开场合出现的缺点毛病,应采取以下态度:

第一,不当众理采。

视而不见,装不知道,顺其自然,让首长自己去纠正,或者等待适当时机再提出来。有位首长爱骂人,“妈个屁”是他的口头语,讲五分钟话要骂上好几句。一天一批男女大学生来部队锻炼。秘书陪首长去看望。交谈中不时带出这句口头语,当着众人面秘书不能纠正,装没听见,面部表情一本正经,周围的人也就没有大的反应。回来的路上,秘书说:“首长,晚上开座谈时,您讲话时可别像训战士一样,女孩子一骂就该哭了。”

座谈会一开始,首长讲话,他刚说了一个“妈”字,发现一些女学生掩住脸笑,或者低下了头,猛然想起了秘书的提醒,忙改口:“妈,啊,妈妈爸爸供你们上大学挺不容易。”

第二,不小瞧讥讽。

首长出了差错,甚至出了洋相,秘书决不能跟着哄笑,更不能当作笑柄背后议论。可采取必要的方法,防止类似情况再次发生。某政治部主任在大礼堂上千人的大会上致欢迎词,把“千里迢迢”读成了“千里超超”,搞得满礼堂的人哄堂大笑。秘书没有笑话首长水平低,而是在以后的写稿中,尽量少用生僻的词语,或者在难认的字旁加上音注。首长对此非常满意。

第三,不正面交锋。

对首长有意见或者有想法,不能采取对着干的方法,当着众人的面揭首长的老底。某处长被调任某团政委,心里想不通,支部大会上主任批评他名利思想严重,觉悟低。他当时就反驳:“当年平调你当副主任,情绪比我闹得还凶,三天没起床,有什么资格批评我。”弄得主任在众人面前下不来台。

第四,不随便插话。

首长的某些缺点和毛病,常常在和下级的谈话之中暴露出来,秘书发现了,也不必插话去加以纠正。有一次某部队B首长找一位下属谈话,准备调他到另一个单位任职,问他有什么意见。B首长口干舌燥说了两个小时,这位下属就是不吭声。B首长开始拍着桌子发火了。B秘书见状,好心地插话说:“首长,不要发火。”又转过头来对这位下属讲:“首长白白与你谈了这么多道理,你就表个态嘛。”这位下属瞪了他一眼,“你算老几?”转身就走。B 首长一肚子火都冲着秘书来了:“今天是你谈话还是我谈话,没大没小,谈砸了都是因为你。”

秘书时时处处维护好首长的尊严,这不仅是首长的需要,也是秘书的需要。首长决不会因为秘书宽容大度,能忍让,主动承担责任而认为秘书无能,相反会非常信任你,重用你,让你有更大的用武之地。

探究首长情绪的艺术

情绪是心理学名词,是人的心理活动的外在表现。包括高兴、悲伤、害怕、恐惧、喜悦、苦恼等现象。人们某种情绪的产生还紧紧依赖于外部世界的影响,是环境和人的活动作用于自身心理机制的结果。

一、了解首长复杂多变的情绪

情绪的调整,对人的活动有极重要意义。无论是喜悦还是悲伤,超过限度,或长期积蓄,都会使人过分激动,不仅引起心理上的痛苦,带来生理上的病变,而且会减弱理智的力量,从而做出某些不当的甚至是错误的举措。从这个意义上讲,首长情绪的产生和调整就显得更加重要。他手握大权,举足轻重,任何不良情绪影响到他的决策,就可能产生严重后果。作为秘书,探究首长的情绪变化,努力协助首长调整情绪,对此负有不可推卸的责任和义务。

人的情绪不仅通过语言和声音的信号得以表现,而且总是伴随着富有表情的动作,包括面部表情动作和身段表情动作。这种表情动作有时比语言信号更富情绪的表现力。我们知道,有时难以用语言说出某种情感,词汇似乎总是不能鲜明、准确地反映各种不同情绪状态及其细微差别,而表情动作则更易于为别人所感知。秘书探究首长情绪的变化就是要仔细观察、准确体会首长的语言信号和表情动作,从而掌握首长可能产生的各种情绪变化。

但是,人的心理是复杂的,常常不能完全根据语言信号和表情动作确切地判断一个人的情绪。人的生活经历越丰富、越漫长,心理感受就越细腻、越丰富,它们的表现形式也就越复杂、越独特。同时,人们在积累生活经验的过程中,也逐渐学会控制自己的情绪和它的外在表现。比如,能够把慌张掩盖起来,装扮成某种喜悦的样子;把不愉快隐藏起来,让人看到的却是镇静。首长们大都有多方面的工作经验和丰富的生活阅历,风风雨雨,坎坎坷坷,使得他们更能把握住自己的情绪变化和发泄方式。因此秘书探究首长的情绪,就不能简单直接地,根据一般表现方式,从首长的言谈和表情动作轻率地做出判断。而应该对首长有深入、全面、细致地了解,透过现象看本质,准确地把握住首长的情绪变化。

第一,了解和掌握首长的性格、脾气、嗜好、习惯等有关心理构成因素。

第二,了解和掌握首长的出身、家庭、学识、经历等有关成长发展过程。

第三,了解和掌握首长的人际关系,可能影响情绪的事件、时机、条件和背景等等环境状况。

秘书只有综合上述各种因素,对首长的语言信号和表情动作进行分析,才能准确地把握住首长的情绪变化。

同时,首长也是普通的人,他们的喜怒哀乐愁等情绪的产生和变化也和普通人一样,有着共同的规律和特征,而且,由于首长不受周围环境和人员的一般性制约,这种情绪的外泄方式、表情动作等有可能表现得更加直爽、充分和明显。特别要指出的是,由于首长活动圈子较小,接触的人员有限,加之所处地位的特殊制约,生活中又很孤独,心里话不能一吐为快,难言之苦无处倾诉,秘书就成了他们表露情绪的重要对像。他们的欢乐,他们的愁苦,他们的怨恨,他们的过去和将来,以至他们的某些隐私,都可能对贴心的秘书袒露,这就为秘书探究首长的情绪创造了极为有利的条件。

秘书探究首长的情绪变化,重要的不在于了解和掌握,而是顺应和化解。所谓顺应,就是秘书要根据首长的情绪需要,把握自己的言行,调整自己的安排,免得不识时务,弄巧成拙。首长正在着急,你却催他快拿主意,急中添乱。首长本来心里窝火,你还说不该如何如何,火上加油。所谓化解,就是秘书要对首长产生的各种激动情绪,因势利导,选择恰当的时机和方式,使之适当发泄,并逐渐平息,从困挠中解脱出来。

二、舒展首长愉快高兴的情绪

愉快高兴的情绪,正常情况下都是一种健康有益的情绪。舒发扩展这种情绪,能使人充满信心,增添力量,并产生相应的感染力。

首长产生愉快高兴情绪大约有这样一些时机:

一是受到表扬。上级机关和首长对本单位或该首长主持完成的某项工作表示非常满意;或者是检查巡视时给以肯定;或者是一定会议上予以表扬;或者是召开现场会加以推广。

二是受到重用。或者是提升职务;或者是让其主持负责全面工作;或者是担负更重要的领导责任。

三是重大任务顺利完成。不仅取得了预期效果,而且未发生任何大小问题。

四是家庭遇到好运。家庭成员安排了好工作、考上大学、提干入党等等。

五是多年身体不适突然找到原因;或病情有了较大好转等等。

遇有上述几种情况时,首长都会不同程度地产生高兴愉快的情绪。对此,秘书要采取主动的行为,与首长同享欢乐。

第一,提醒首长庆贺一下。加点好菜好酒呀,与身边的同志讲点开心的事呀,或者召集家人坐在一起,听听音乐、歌曲呀等等,使愉快的情绪扩展开去。

第二,与首长一起回顾一下这种欢乐到来的不易过程,可以从中领悟到痛与快的辩证关系,感受到人生的苦涩与甘甜。

第三,简要地总结一下工作的经验教训,这是非常有利和有用的。首长的愉快情绪,使他的大脑处于较为兴奋的状态,正效应功能得以加强,富有灵感,能产生很有价值的东西,这对日后的工作大有益处。

第四,恰当地吐露秘书的某些苦衷、比如,长时间淤积心头的苦闷,经常困扰工作的难题等等,利用首长心情好的机会提出来,可能会得到一定的解脱或满意的解决。某集团军在×师炮团召开的文化工作现场会非常成功。师政委亲自在炮团蹲点抓落实,所以他更是高兴。李干事趁机对政委说:“首长,现场会您打了一个大胜仗,我可吃了一个不小的败仗。”

“胡说,你的材料写得不错,怎么吃了败仗?”

“您知道,半年前研究炮团和坦克团谁作为重点单位时,我和工作组一起到两个团调查,整理了调查材料。后来师里决定炮团作为重点,可坦克团是咱们师参谋长抓的点,这次没选为重点,可能对我有点看法。这不,我家属随军的报告,半年多了,直属队党委始终没研究。”

“在哪个团抓点你没责任,上午总结会上我已讲过了,是我主张抓炮团。你家属随军的事,也别怪参谋长,他事太多,可能忽略了。这好办,明天党委会时把你们几个人的随军问题也顺便研究一下。”

三、体谅首长烦躁愤怒的情绪

人们遇到极不顺心的事时,在个人的意愿受到不公正的侵害时,就会产生烦躁、愤怒的情绪。这是一种很激动的情绪。以某种方式使这种情绪得以适当的释放并逐渐平息,是必要和有益的。

首长产生烦躁愤怒的情绪,大体有这样一些时机:

一是下级违背了他的命令,没有完全按照他的要求去做,甚至还另搞了一套。

二是部队发生了事故,造成了人员伤亡或较大的财物损失,产生了很坏的影响。

三是有人写告状信,内容多为诬陷不实之词。

四是被看中的人出了问题,刚在党委会上提出对他的使用意见,他的错误问题就暴露出来了。

五是最信任的人背叛了他,站在反对他的一边,直接或间接地对他提出批评或指控。

六是受到上级不公正的批评,与事实不符,定性不准,或责任不清等等。

在上述情况发生时,首长的情绪就会变得烦躁或愤怒。控制力强的首长也会眼含怒火,紧咬牙关。难于控制的首长就可能大吼大叫,骂娘,拍桌子,摔东西,不顾影响。对此,秘书应采取充分理解和原谅的态度。

第一,不要立即劝阻。欲速则不达,首长一发怒,你马上说:“首长您发火也没用”,“骂我们也解决不了问题”,“你大发雷霆影响多不好”等等,都可能产生反效果。而让首长适当地发泄,喊几声,骂几句,摔几下。这时你可以把旁人巧妙地支开,把门悄悄地关上,首长心里的火气出完了,也就舒服了。

第二,不能火上浇油。首长发火有道理,秘书也跟着起哄,瞎吵吵,反而会把气氛搞得越加紧张,可能导致缺乏理智的首长更加激动。

第三,适时化解。首长的情绪得到适当的发泄,就会由激动转向平静。这时,秘书可以好言相劝,使首长的情绪趋向正常,此外,秘书还可以采取分散注意力的方法使首长情绪化解。比如把首长带到另一个环境:首长喜欢看打球,可以把首长拉到球场去,让赛场上的情绪,冲淡首长的情绪。再比如,让首长关注另外一件事:“首长,咱们党委关于今年大抓基层问题的请示,上级已批示了。您看,批示上说这件事抓得非常及时非常必要,让我们尽快拿出具体方案并加以实施。”

“对,这可是件大事,准备一下,明天召开政治部会议,研究具体方案,我参加。”用首长更为重视的事压下使首长不愉快的事。

第四,妥善对待首长的决断。首长在感情冲动时做出的决定和安排,可能缺乏理智的思考,难免有不当之处。对此,秘书应审慎处理。

有的可以不办。比如,首长一怒之下:“我免了你这个连长。”事实上不能这么简单就决定了,秘书不去办,事后首长决不会怪罪你。

有的可以缓办,首长逼着你干,你不能不干,就慢慢干,拖开时间干。比如,首长让你把人找来当场对质,你先打电话,再去办公室,又跑到家里,转一圈回来,人没找到。这时首长消气了,可能也不想找了,正好下台阶:“找不到算了。”这样可以给首长留下回旋的余地。

有的可以附带说明地办,就是把首长决断时的情绪或有关背景情况,向对方作必要的介绍,以便于对方灵活处理。比如首长在火头上要求下级领导改变原来方案,这可能很困难,损失也大。但经秘书解释,下级了解了首长做出决定时的情况,就可以只作某些必要的调整,而不用全部改变。当首长平静时也是可以接受的。

秘书善于对待首长冲动中做出的决断,不仅是一个技巧问题,更主要的是一个思想品德问题。个别心术不正的人就会“借助钟馗”,趁机出坏点子,说自己“冤家”“对头”的坏话,诱使首长做出错误的判断,以达到秘书的个人目的,这是决不可取的。

四、解脱首长苦恼沉闷的情绪

苦恼沉闷的情绪是一种非常有害的消积情绪。它不像愤怒暴躁情绪那样迅猛地外泄,又很快地平息,而是长时间积压在人的内心深处,很难袒露,也不易化解。

首长通常在下列时机可能产生苦恼沉闷的情绪:

一是该提升而未能提升,或提升的是他不服气的人。

二是受到上级的误解或错怪。有些事情本意虽好,结果却让领导不满;有些批评没有根据,却又无法向领导解释等等。

三是主官间闹不团结,各拉山头,自搞一套,明和暗斗,相互拆台。

四是离开重要工作岗位,平调到无足轻重的岗位,或他不愿去的地方。

五是久病查不出原因,别人有意回避,自己却越感不妙。

六是家中出了丑事,“家丑不可外扬”,只有闷闷不乐。

首长因上述原因产生苦恼沉闷情绪时,秘书要暗自设法使首长从苦闷中解脱出来,或者减轻这种苦闷的压抑程度。

首先,要很自如地给首长以必要的宽慰。“有心”地引出话题,“无意”地加以开导、劝解和安慰。

其次、要暗自做好工作,断开情绪“根源”,介绍情况,说明原因,讲清道理,消除误解,减少隔阂,淡化矛盾。使苦闷情绪从根本上得到解脱。S首长三个孩子,最小的一个是女儿,叫小婉。生得聪明,长得漂亮,被视为掌上明珠,该单位的干部都知道,S首长对她是百依百顺又引以为荣。可是当别人的孩子带来考上大学的喜讯时,她却传来了弃学早恋的消息。S首长恨爱相交,可越是说她,她越是对着干,后来干脆不见父亲面。早早晚晚,秘书向首长说了不少宽慰的话,可首长还是眉头难展,菜饭欠香。于是,秘书在做了充分的了解和准备之后,找小婉谈了几次终于谈通了。有一天,S首长下班刚一迈进家门,女儿便哭着向他道歉,并下了保证,然后给他端上一碗最爱吃的“臊子面”。第二天上班时,人们发现他来得特别早,脸上又出现了多日不见的笑容。

再次,多搞一点“业余”,少安排点工作。在首长情绪低沉期间,秘书要对首长日常工作、生活习惯作些适当的调整。对于首长喜爱的散步、打球、下棋等业余活动,可有意地增加一些次数或延长一点时间。但千万不要纵容他喝酒,特别是烈性酒。可把不急的工作事项先搁置一边,缓一缓办。这一定可以减轻首长的心理负担。同时,不要随意提及使他扫兴、后悔的事,或者令他讨厌、伤心的人。

五、维护首长冷静理智的情绪

首长担负着繁重的工作任务和重大领导责任,更多的时间是在思考和决断问题。这时首长的内心是稳重的,表现是冷静、理智的。首长这种情绪的出现大体有以下几个时机:

一是思考重大决策的出台、即对有关全局的重大政策、规定或带有综合性内容的部署、安排。

二是酝酿重要的组织人事变动,下级班子的调整,主官的配备、调动、提升或处分等等。

三是准备对某个单位或对有影响的人和事做出评价。

四是即将发布重大的行动性命令。

五是构思重要请示的内容,特别是有关请示的根据、原因、目的、要求和措施等。

首长在对上述问题进行思考和决断时,情绪是冷静和理智的。此时,秘书的责任是维持和保护首长的这种情绪。应努力做到:

第一,排除各种干扰。不仅自己不能轻易打断首长的思考,而且对一些非紧急重大的事宜和人员,也要“挡驾”,以保证首长情绪的连续性。

第二,慎重参与。当首长与秘书商讨时,要顺着首长的思路发表意见、不要节外生枝,瞎参谋、乱干事、胡助理,以保证首长情绪的稳定性。

第三,适时调整。当首长对某项决断的思考时间过长,精力耗费过多,冷静和理智的情绪已接近极限状态时,秘书有必要提醒首长暂时中止思考,稍加休息,或做一些能够调整情绪的活动,比如散散步,听听音乐,下盘棋,打几下球等,使高度兴奋而且显得疲劳的情绪得以舒缓,然后使首长再重新进入思考状态,以保证首长情绪的有效性。

某集团军政治委员,稳重周密,特别善于思考。一次,为全军基层党支部建设分期目标实施方案问题,整整思考了一上午没动一步,午饭也没去吃,秘书小黄不敢惊动首长,只得返回自己办公室打了一个盹。忽然听到一声招呼,他忙跑过去,看见政委伏在桌子上,额头流出汗珠,因为情绪过度紧张,犯了偏头疼的老毛病,实施方案没审定完,却住了半个月院。政治部主任把黄秘书叫来:“你知不知道首长有偏头疼的毛病?”

“知道。”

“那为什么不提醒首长休息一下?”

“我不敢。”

“那你还当什么秘书?成事不足败事有余。”结果,黄秘书受到了一次严厉的批评。

否定首长错误意见的艺术

在与首长相处中,秘书会发现,在大多数情况下,首长确实站得高、看得远、想得深。他们的意图、决断、指挥确实有独到之处,从中可以学到很多东西。像处理问题的果断,分析情况的全面,待人处事的风度,顾全大局的风格等等,都给部下留下深刻的印象。与此同时,秘书也会发现,首长不是神,在处理某些问题时也有一些不正确、不全面、甚至是错误的地方。秘书就不能视而不见,知错不纠。如果这样,不仅有害于事业,有害于首长,也有害于秘书自己。一个好的秘书,不仅表现为对领导言听计从,努力完成领导交办的工作,而且表现为善于给领导出主意、想办法。尤其是在领导的决策、指示不符合实际乃至完全错误时,能够通过努力,使领导改变初衷,重新做出正确的决策,就显得更为重要。

一般来说,首长对秘书或部属的“进谏”是持欢迎态度的。但作为秘书或部属,如果不讲究“进谏”的艺术,也很难使首长乐于接受你的“进谏”,甚至产生与目的相反的结果。因此,秘书在否定首长错误意见时,必须把握住正确的原则,恰当的时机和有效的方法。

一、否定首长错误意见的原则

秘书要对首长的意见加以否定,并使首长能够接受这种否定,采纳正确的意见,必须遵循这样三条原则:

(一)真诚友善

坚持真诚友善的原则,就是首先使首长有这样一种印象:你决不是要达到某种个人目的,也决不是有意让领导出丑,而是真心协助领导把工作搞好、是出于与领导为善的目的。例如,秘书在对首长的重大决策提出不同意见之前,可简明扼要地提醒首长,这个决策对有关行动成败的重要性,以及这种成败对有关活动和首长本人所产生的巨大影响,而与秘书个人目的没有丝毫关系,甚至首长的原有决策还可能给秘书带来某种好处。有了这样印象,即使首长有一种拒绝采纳的心理倾向,他还是愿意坐下来听一听你的想法。有了良好的开端,有了友好合作的和谐气氛,秘书就可以从容地发表不同的意见。

(二)力求谦逊

谦逊在这里不仅是指态度上的恭敬,主要是指方法的谦诚。因为在一般情况下,秘书对首长不可能采用颐指气使的态度,而谦逊的态度也有诸多不同的表达方法。有关秘书否定首长错误意见的方法,我们在下面的内容专门阐述,但无论秘书采取何种方法,基本的原则是力求谦逊。对此我们不妨举例分析:

1.秘书说:“××首长,我认为您的决策有些失误的地方,想和您谈谈,好吗?”

2.秘书说:“××首长,我对您的决策提点意见可以吗?”

3.秘书说:“××首长,我有个想法说给您听听,不知行不行?”

以上三句话的态度同样是谦逊的,但在表达的方法上却不同。前两句显然不够恰当,第一句中有两处容易引起首长反感。一处是用了“失误”这个词,“失误”这个词本身的分量比较重,又是绝对否定的句式,在没有说出失误的事实前用“失误”一词是轻率的,容易引起首长的反感。另一处用了“谈谈”这个词,有居高临下之感,这种词下级对上级一般少用或不用为好。

第二句中的“意见”不如第三句中的“想法”好。虽然“意见”也有正确与不正确之分,但作为提出者来说,似乎有一种自认正确的含义在内。而“想法”则是中性词,听者从“想法”本身就能感到一种谦和。第三句中的“说”比“谈谈”和“提点”都好,既富当面对话的口语色彩,又谦逊之至,极易接受。

(三)避免交锋

要否定别人的意见而不交锋是很困难的。但秘书否定首长的意见有一种特殊的艺术要求,即不能像否定其他人的意见那样,双方提出观点,谁正确服从谁。这很难达到否定领导意见的目的。有些首长本来在深层心理上就有拒“谏”的本能,如果再与他交锋,很可能砸锅。

要避免交锋,就要使首长的拒“谏”心理随着你的表达而逐渐消失,并在你的表达过程中为之动容。坚持避免交锋的原则至少要注意这样两点:

第一,从态度改变的一致性着手。态度改变可分为两种情况,一种是一致性的改变,就是改变一个人原有态度的强度而不改变方向。例如劝说某人少喝一点酒,并不是从根本上要他戒酒。另一种是不一致性的改变,就是以新的态度替代旧的态度,即态度方向有改变。秘书在否定首长错误意见时,要使首长一下子有一个不一致性的改变,并且避免交锋,是相当困难的。因此,应首先从态度改变的一致性着手。即从肯定首长错误意见中某些合理性开始,逐步向否定不合理性方向发展,因为即使首长的意见彻底错了,而首长的意图、目的等等还是有值得肯定的地方。从态度改变的一致性着手,就有了一个回旋的余地,可有效地避免交锋。

第二,采取“蚕食”的策略。即不直接向首长提出全部否定意见,而是先从首长容易接受的某些部分开始,步步为营,各个击破。因为,如果一下子把全部看法和盘托出,对首长的意图彻底加以否定,不给首长一点面子,首长当然接受不了,甚至会把你的正确意见当即加以否定。采用“蚕食”策略,既避免了与首长交锋,也可以逐步达到否定的目的。

二、否定首长错误意见的方法

秘书否定首长的错误意见能否奏效,在坚持基本原则的前提下,最主要的就是方法了。方法得当,谏讷互容;方法不当,谏讷两伤。总结多方面的实践经验,有如下一些有效的方法可供参考。

(一)权威震慑法

权威震慑法就是通过宣传在首长心目中具有权威力量的有关理论,来纠正首长的错误意见。这对于否定首长在重大问题上的错误意见或否定较为固执己见的首长的错误意见,是一种有效的方法。权威震慑法可以分为这样几点:

一是宣传政策法。如革命导师的论述,中央文件的精神,特别是邓小平的有关理论。这些,不仅在首长心目中有巨大的权威,而且在全党全军全国人民心目中也具有巨大的权威。恰当地运用这些权威性有关论述,就能否定首长的错误意见。

二是情感服从法。就是通过传达首长平时最佩服、最尊重的上级领导的有关精神,来否定他的错误意见。我们知道,在服从问题上,有总体上的服从,也有具体上的服从,有行政命令上的服从,也有感情上的服从。首长有了错误的决定,当他听到他发自内心所佩服或尊敬的领导的不同意见时,就会痛快地改变自己的想法。驻边疆某部队长期缺水,带来许多困难问题,几个月洗不上一次澡,战士们身上生了许多虱子,休假时,家人感到惊讶,啥年头了还长虱子,条件之艰苦真不可想象。对此,该部队领导下决心打深井,解决部队的用水问题。同时,也为当地老百姓办一件开天辟地的大好事。打井要花钱,两口深井,预算为十几万元。当时正紧缩开支,财源不足,该部队的a首长感到有困难,不想办了。秘书觉得这样做既不利于部队的长远建设,也有碍军民关系的发展,应提出不同意见。于是就把自己的想法转给了这位a首长最佩服的首长——上级的A首长。这位a首长在A首长手下干了几十年。认为A首长在重大问题的决策上都是正确的。因此,已经有了一种“服从惯性”,只要A首长说的,他认为都正确,A首长听了秘书的意见专程来了一趟,与这个部队的领导共同分析了打井的有利条件和深远影响,也分析了不利条件和困难,最后说:“你们一定要把这件事办好,这是件千秋万代的大好事。老百姓祖祖辈辈到十几里地外提水喝的状况一改变,将是什么结果?你们缺少资金,我给你拨点,干好了功德是你们的,怎么样?”a首长觉得这位首长讲得太对了,当即改变了自己的主意,下令开工。

(二)提供下情法

提供下情法就是对首长的错误意见不直接给予否定,不正面提出不同看法,而是提供下面的真实情况,进而使首长明确这些真实情况与首长的意见不吻合,如果按原来的意见办,下边就可能出问题。这样,首长听了你反映的情况,就会再加斟酌,在事实的基础上,自己纠正自己的错误意见。

采取此种方法秘书要注意做到:第一,提供的情况一定要真实,准确。第二,内容要具体,有事例有数字。第三,口气要坚定,不能含含糊糊。

某部队的领导班子进行了大调整。新班子上任后打算对下属三级班子也进行大的调整,目的是增强团结,打乱原有的山头帮派。但事实上并非如此,秘书感到这样做不利于部队的稳定,反而会妨碍团结。因此,向首长提供如下情况:第一,下属三级班子调整的时间不长,从下命令算起,只有8个月零6天,工作刚刚走上正轨,如果再次调整,还要有一段过渡时间,不利于眼下全训任务的完成。第二,这三级班子的绝大多数同志干劲正高,表现很好。其中有21%的同志在上任后立功受奖,33名指导员被评为优秀指导员,6个基层党支部在全军区名列前茅,全训任务已受到军区的通报表扬,有94%的连队进行了作风纪律整顿,第二季度事故发生率,违纪现象比上一季度下降了73.5%等等。首长了解了这些情况后,就放弃了各级领导班子大调整的打算。

(三)介绍经验法

介绍经验法就是通过介绍兄弟单位的先进做法、经验教训、错误事实,打开首长看问题的思路,开阔首长的眼界,从而改变首长不正确的意见。

一是介绍成功的经验,从正面加以引导。某部队A首长革命精神很强,从当排长开始就有股干劲。当了高层领导还是不减当年,与干部战士一样风里来,雨里去,战士身上有多少汗他身上有多少汗,战士身上有多少泥他身上有多少泥。但他平时学习不够,对深层次上的问题想得少,特别是对先进的科学技术、现代化装备设备的运用缺乏认识。司令部根据现代条件下战争的需要,请示装备计算机,他说:“作训处十几个人,干什么?买计算机还得增加人,人浮于事。”他的意见显然是不正确的,但他又很固执,下边几次请示他都不批。后来,秘书把他一个亲密战友在他原来干过的那个单位怎样运用计算机提高训练质量和机关指挥能力的情况向他做了详细介绍,并把有关成果、经验、简报等材料拿给他看。看后,A首长说:“他小子能搞出点明堂,我不信干不过他。”一次就买进20台微机,没用半年,部队训练面貌就发生了奇迹般的变化,A首长大会小会总忘不了说几句必须重视高科技在军队建设中的作用之类的话。

二是介绍失败的教训,从反面予以提醒。A首长一贯的作风是省吃俭用,舍不得花一分钱,部队攒了许多钱,也不想给官兵增加一点生活补贴。正值青黄不接的季节,战士们参加支援地方水电站建设,挥汗如雨,确需补点营养。可他说,挣点钱不容易,都吃了还讲不讲艰苦奋斗的传统。秘书为了说服他便送给他一份材料看,说的是某单位为了争红旗,给各单位下伙食节余指标,节余多的给奖励,结果节余伙食费越来越多,可伙食却越来越差,连续发生战士拒餐,私自开灶的问题,被通报批评。秘书说:“好钢用在刀刃上,这个季节补贴一点伙食费,战士们干劲就更大,花去的钱还能赚回来。”A首长说:“对,就这么办。”而且进一步发展到凡部队建设需要的事,该花的就花,扩修了幼儿园,改建了浴池,为连队购置了一批新式炊具。一时间A首长成了众人议论的中心:“都说A首长是个老扣,其实是能挣会花。”“那是他反对大吃大喝省下来的钱。”

采取介绍经验法否定首长的错误意见,无论是介绍成功的经验,还是提供失败的教训,都要防止领导产生逆反心理。切不可把成功说得神乎其神,也不能把失败说得一无是处。要客观一些,婉转一些,给首长留下思考的余地。

(四)弥补不足法

弥补不足法就是先肯定首长意见中正确的部分,再否定首长意见中不足的方面。首长的决策总有合理的一面,这一点不但不应忽略,还应重点指出。指出合理性,使首长提起精神,就在感情上附和了他,认为你是知己,能理解他,体谅他。感情接近了,才有接受不同意见的可能。这时再顺势提出某些不同看法,供他参考采纳。

弥补不足法可采取几种不同方式。

一是当场弥补,即当首长真心征求你的看法时使用。

二是背后弥补,即在大庭广众之下不宜发表不同看法时,私下提出。

三是形成文字时弥补,即首长的口头意见,在你形成文字材料时,是一个弥补的好机会,可以把首长不够全面、准确的地方给予补偿。

(五)方案选择法

方案选择法就是不直接否定首长的错误意见,而是通过提供几个方案表述自己的意见或主张,使首长权衡利弊,通过肯定你的某一方案而改变原有决策。

在提供多个方案时,要详细、严谨地说明每个方案的优劣,陈述得越透彻,越充分,首长采纳你的意见或建议的可能性越大。尤其要注意做到,凡与首长的意见接近或类似的部分应重点阐述,以求大同存小异。

三、否定首长错误意见的时机

秘书对首长错误意见的否定,除了方法要巧妙得当外,还应选择有利的时机。许多时候秘书的“进言”没能受到首长的重视或采纳,除了其他多种因素外,进言时机不妥也是一个主要原因。把握时机,说白了也就是要“趁机”。

(一)趁首长心情比较愉快之机

否定首长的意见,只要情况允许,最好选在首长心情比较舒畅之时。此时进言,常常会收到平时难以收到甚至无法收到的良好效果。

(二)趁首长主动问询之机

这种机会作为秘书是经常遇到的,要抓住机会,力陈见解。此时首长正专注考虑这个问题,又是主动征询,成功的可能性较大。

(三)趁参加会议允许发言之机

秘书经常随首长参加会议。大体有两种情况:一种是作为一名工作人员参加领导会议,只能听、记,不可发言。但有时也会向你问询或征求看法;一种是参加领导召开的座谈会、工作会议等,与会人员皆可发表看法。逢此良机,不可丧失。

(四)趁领导需要情况反馈之机

领导的决策已经开始实施,他急需了解进展情况,这时秘书可在及时反映情况的同时对首长决策的不足之处巧妙地给予否定。由于此种否定是在实践的基础上,更能引起首长的重视。

除此之外,秘书还可灵活地选择其他有利时机,诸如趁随领导外出之机;趁领导较为空闲之机;趁领导深入筹划之机;趁领导进退两难之机等等。

四、否定首长错误意见的条件

否定首长的错误意见不是一件易事。秘书本身素质如何起着关键性的作用。你看不出错误的地方,提不出正确的主张,或者看出来了,也提出来了,却无法使人接受,你就达不到应有的目的。因此,秘书在否定首长错误意见时,必须具备如下基本条件。

(一)勤奋学习,精通上级有关政策

这是最重要也是首要的条件。由于秘书年轻、记忆力好,加之学习的机会比首长多,所以有些时候,秘书对政策界限的掌握可能比首长准,对有关规定的了解要比首长细。这样才容易发现问题,提出建议。这不是说秘书比首长高明,而是秘书有责任,也有时间和条件做到这一点。

(二)广才博学,不断拓宽知识面

秘书应博览众书,爱好广泛。对古今中外,天文地理都有所了解,文学艺术、体育活动都有所爱好,虽不求精通,但应略知一二。报纸要全翻,新闻要全听。两耳常听天下事,两眼统览众多书,这一点对秘书非常重要。知道的东西多了,需要时就能拿出来用。某集团军党委办公室的一位秘书学习刻苦,各种知识都接触,每天晚上看书到十一、二点。对热点问题反复研究,悟出道理;抽时间听家属讲讲社会上的情况;经常查阅新书简介、内容提要;重点翻阅小说、文学作品的主要章节等等。首长知道他学识渊博,对他非常器重。时间一长形成了一个不成文的制度。每星期三、六下班前的最后一小时,军长政委去到这位秘书的办公室听他讲讲天下大事,部队的具体情况,社会上的热点问题等等,什么《废都》、《白鹿原》也请他介绍一下。首长们的决策,常常专门征求他的意见。

(三)足智多谋,让首长从内心信任你

秘书应该成为首长心中最值得信任的人,有能力的人。在关键时刻能顶上去,真正起到助手作用。这样在秘书与首长的关系上,就会出现如下情景:一是首长遇上久思不得其解的问题能找你探求;二是首长做出决策前能找你定夺;三是首长遇到难题时能找你出谋划策;四是首长心情不快活时能找你骂娘。如果首长对秘书特别信任,首长和秘书的关系真正到了“无话不谈”、“无事不说”的地步,那么,秘书的意见很容易被首长采纳。有时候,与别人不好说,不好扯,不好骂,但与秘书就可以。

(四)经常深入,对下情了如指掌

全面、准确地了解部队的实际情况,对秘书参与首长决策,纠正首长的错误意见至关重要。你对下边情况根本不了解,自己的眼前一片漆黑,怎么去否定首长的意见?了解下情就要深入实际。一是跟随首长一块深入;二是自己常去接触基层广大官兵,倾听他们的意见和呼声。

秘书对下情了如知掌的标准应该是:

第一,熟悉下一级班子的全面情况。比如你是大军区政治部的秘书,你就应该对军区所管辖的集团军、省军区,以及其他军级单位领导班子中每个成员的思想、干劲、作风、性格特点,了解得都很清楚、全面。

第二,熟悉下两级班子的基本情况。比如你是集团军办公室的秘书,你就应该对这个集团军所管辖的团级班子每一个成员的任职、年龄、主要个性特点等,都能有所掌握。

第三,熟悉下三级主官的一般情况。比如一个集团军办公室的秘书,对所管辖的营级主官的姓名、简历、功过等等都应掌握。

五、否定首长错误意见应注意的问题

秘书在否定首长的错误意见时,要注意这样几点:

第一,一定要留有余地。无论首长的决策如何不正确,也无论你采取何种方法,都不要用完全肯定或否定的方式表达你的不同意见,也不要在当事人面前否定首长的意见。这样做既不损害首长的尊严,也有利于首长接受你的看法。

第二,一定要明确身份。首长毕竟是首长,首长有了错误意见,秘书有责任提出不同看法,但决不能强求首长甚至和首长对抗。在首长没有改变主意之前,秘书必须无条件执行首长的指示。

第三,一定要有耐心。对于首长在重大问题上有了失误,而秘书的正确意见不能被首长接受的情况下,秘书既不能急于求成,也不能避而不管。急于求成可能事与愿违,后果一定不好。避而不管,等于不负责任,后果更加难堪。而应耐住性子,寻找各种时机,采取多种方式,想方设法使首长认清问题的严重性,防止不良后果发生,或者至少减轻不应有的损失和影响。

聪明的秘书,他的表情经常是微笑的;他的精力,经常是充沛的;他的大脑,经常是思考问题的;他的情绪,经常是富有朝气的。聪明的秘书,在首长面前常显出某些傻气来,但就是在这种傻气中透出足够的灵气来;他们又常常显出某种呆气来,就是在这种呆气中,显出恰当的精气来;他们又常常显出稚气来,就是在这种稚气中,显出充分的才气来;他们还常常显出一种文气来,而在这种文气中,又常常显出他们的骨气来。

向首长传递假话的艺术

假话,就是骗人的话。向首长传递假话,不是在欺骗首长吗?还要掌握传递假话的艺术,不更是大逆不道了吗?

其实不然。

在生活中,人们是离不开假话的,每个人都需要一定的假话,或是说给人家听,或是人家说给自己听。有时说者和听者都明知是假话,可说者想说,听者愿听。有人说,我就不讲假话,也不喜欢假话,这本身就是一种假话。例如,秘书参加党委会,研究人事变动和班子配备问题。一散会,有人问:“我怎样?”秘书全说实话:“会上你被否决了,这回你是彻底完蛋了。看来你与主任的关系不好,主任对你的意见最多、最凶,否决你的因素主要是主任。”秘书讲的是真话,可后果不堪设想。

所以说,无论是谁,都不能保证自己一辈子全讲真话,否则,他就是一个十足的傻子。谈恋爱中,女朋友问你:“是不是就爱我一个?”

你说:“讲真话还是讲假话?”

“当然讲真话了。”

“我爱的人可不只你一个。那些歌星、影星,你看人家的模样、身材,哪个小伙子不喜欢?就是我家隔壁的小妞,也真叫我喜欢,可人家不喜欢我,只好爱你一个了。”

“那好,咱们Bye‐Bye吧!爱你的歌星、影星去吧!”

所以,你只能说“我就爱你一个。”这并非真话,但却有实效。

应该说,会讲假话也是人们智慧的象征,是聪明才智的一种表现。有一个关于讲朋友之间聚会的故事。主持人等了好长时间人尚未到齐,便自言自语地说:“该来的怎么还不来?”听了这话有人起身走了,心想,看来我可能是不该来的人。见状,主持者又说:“不该走的怎么又走了?”于是剩下的人全走了,他们心想,看来我可能是该走的。主持者讲的确是真话,聚会所等的人肯定是该来的,起身走了的人也一定是不该走的。如果他换一种说法,或者另找一个理由,尽管可能不是真话,但结果就大不一样。主持者是该说的不说,不该说的乱说。作为秘书,向首长传递必要的假话,或者是会讲善意的假话,的确是一种艺术。

一、什么是“假”

说到传递假话的艺术,首先就需弄清“假”的内涵和外延,“假”的本质特征和它的价值。

(一)“假”的概念

如果给“假”下个定义,那就是:虚伪的;不真实的;伪造的;人造的;跟真相对立的。例如:假发、假牙、假钞;由此可以推出一系列假的概念:假冒、假装、假借、假名、假笑、假死、假造、假面具、假惺惺、假情假义等等。

一般来说,“假”是个贬义词。在我们所经历的历史过程中,有许多令人难以忘却的假的记忆。“大跃进”的高潮中,某报刊载:某地区亩产小麦10 万斤,不要说当时的中国农业生产还处在“三条驴腿”人拉犁的水平上,这样的产量是不可想象的,就是今天在最发达的国家,小麦的亩产也只能以千斤作为数量词。然而,类似的假话,却决非仅此,倒是有过之而无不及。文化大革命”时期,“假”充斥了十年之久,其严重后果是短时间无法消除的。今天,假又冒出了许多新花样,假得实在而又具体:假烟、假药、假商标,假官、假兵、假党员,假学历、假职称、假钞、假股、假护照……假假假,真可谓谈假色变,害死人。但这只是“假”的一个方面,还不是“假”的本质的全部特征。

(二)“假”的本质特征

“假”的本质特征可以概括为这样几点:

第一,与真实相对立。假的反面就是真的,真是以假为映衬的,假从对面展示了真的光辉:唯心——唯物,形而上学——辩证法。

第二,与虚伪相一致。虚伪的事物是假的东西,虽然可能存在,但无法起到真的作用,形存实亡,很快也就消失了。伪政权,并不能真正管理好国家,终将被人民抛弃。虚报的成绩,并没有实际效果,很快也被人揭穿。

第三,与科学相伴随。科学领域的许多奋斗,常常是为了制造假。随着科学技术的发展,被制造出来的假更像真,甚至达到以假乱真的地步。仿生学、生命科学、器官移植和再造科学,以及军事演习、科学幻想小说等等,都是以造假为前提的。英国著名作家柯南道尔的小说《福尔摩斯探案集》就是在假说的基础上撰写出来的。但因为该小说以假仿真太逼真,竟流传世界,经久不衰。在日常生活中,每个都在享受着“假”所带来的幸福和欢乐,只是我们不太注意罢了。

第四,与善意相联系。“假”,并不都是虚伪和丑恶,相反却常常表现为温馨和善意。许多善意的举措,尽管是假的,但能使人接受,并且接受得十分愉快。在一个走到了生命尽头的病人面前,人们总是说:“会好的,你的病一定能治好。”对此病人痛苦的表情中,总会显露出一丝欣慰和感激之情。

“假”,本身具有两重性。假到了极限,也就成真了。俗话说,假亦真来真亦假,真亦假来假亦真。真假往往是混淆在一起的。抗日战争时期,东北有一支民众自发组织起来的抗日武装,他们为着抗日活动的需要,硬把一个思想进步的小学老师拉来当共产党。这个老师曾经读过《共产党宣言》和《论持久战》,他效仿共产党的抗日统一战线的作法,使这支队伍日益壮大。后来党的组织派人来与他们联系,他们便推出了这位“党”的领导人。经过审查,这位老师的思想和行为符合共产党员的要求,认可了他的党员身份,并将他提任为该武装的党支部书记。在现实生活中,真假难分,弄假成真的事例屡见不鲜。

(三)“假”的价值标准

“假”的本质特征说明,“假”,也蕴含着积极的社会价值。准确地发掘、积极地利用“假”的社会价值,无疑是十分必要的。而要做到这一点就必须首先把握住鉴别“假”的积极社会价值的标准。假的事物或现象,是否具有积极的社会价值,应同时具有下列三条标准:

第一,尽管是假的,但它是有用的。没有任何现实效用的假,就是毫无意义的假,地地道道的假,它不会产生任何积极的价值。比如有人说,只要张着嘴巴耐心地等,天上一定会掉下馅饼来。对于这样的假话,凡是正常的人都不会去理采。

第二,尽管是假的,但它是逼真的。如果与真的相去甚远,产生不了真实感,人们也就不会信以为真,自然也就不会产生相应的价值。演电影时,主人公从暴雨中跑进屋来,身上却没有一丝雨迹,这样的假,自然产生不了应有的艺术效果。

第三,尽管是假的,但它是无害的。产生不良后果的假就是虚伪的假,它只具有消极价值,不仅不能利用和发挥它的作用,而且应当揭穿和消除它的危害。用假枪去劫机,就是犯罪,当然应该绳之以法。

具备了上述三条标准(必须同时具备,缺一不可),“假”就具有了积极的社会价值,就可以仿效它,利用它,以满足人们的正当需要。例如,卓别林是世界著名的电影艺术大师,他的表演为世人公认。但有一次仿卓别林表演比赛,他只得了第三名。毫无疑义,第一名、第二名肯定是假的,但这种假是有积极价值的。它有用,表明人们对卓别林表演艺术的赞赏;它逼真,说明表演者的表演艺术已达到或超过了卓别林原有水平,使裁判都误假为真了,这当然是无害的,不会产生什么消极的后果。

再如,有个“灭鼠大王”发明了一种灭鼠器,能发出一种鼠的鸣叫声,老鼠听了便产生强烈的快感而奔跑过来,随之将其捉获。这种鼠的鸣叫是假的,但它有用,逼真,不是有害而是灭害,因此,具有积极的社会价值。

“假”,如果不能同时具备上述三条标准,就不会产生积极的社会价值。例如,某地举办学猪叫比赛,有一个人学得最像,连续几届冠军,裁判员对他的声音极为熟悉。有一次一个人拉了一头真猪在幕后参赛,结果猪只得了第二名。学猪叫应该说是无害的,此人得了第一名,也是逼真的,但却是无用的,一般情况下它不具有什么积极的社会价值。相反,人们认为这是一种无聊的举动。

假牙、假肢,有用无害,越逼真越有积极价值。

相反,假钞,尽管逼真而且可以通过欺骗进入流通领域,对欺骗者来说是有用的,但它是有害的,决无积极价值。

假枪,也可以说是有用而逼真,用来演戏无害,有积极价值;用来劫机、抢银行,就是犯罪,决无积极价值了。

所以,我们在衡量“假”的价值意义时,一定要坚持上面的三条标准,使“假”产生出积极的社会效应来。

二、假话存在的必然性

不真实、不符合实际的话就是假话。假话是诸多假的现象的一种,因此,它受假的本质特征所制约,其外延也表现为善意的假话,恶意的假话;有用的假话,无用的假话;过头的假话,不及的假话等等。生活中,我们无须特别注意,就能够发现各式各样的假话。可以说,假话,无人不说,无人不听,表现出一种顽强的生命力。

假话存在的必然性,其根源在于人的社会性。

第一,它来源于人的思维的隐蔽性。

人与其他动物的显著区别在于他有独特的、高级的思维。人的思维能力,使人的心理和行为复杂化。有的人高尚善良,有的人卑鄙残忍;有的人真心实意,有的人虚情假意;有的人团结友爱,有的人勾心斗角。就是同一个人也往往表现出两重性,并不是高尚又高尚,纯洁又纯洁,也不是卑鄙又卑鄙,污浊又污浊。当然这不是绝对的,也不是平衡的,因此,人有公开的一面,也有隐蔽的一面。世界上一切生物中,人是最善良的,也是最残忍的;是最聪明的,也是最愚蠢的。地球上大约有三十四万种动物,它们在与同类的决斗中,绝大多数是以驱赶为手段和目的,而人却要残杀。最凶猛的食肉动物并没使任何生命灭绝,而人却使诸多的凶猛食肉动物灭绝或濒于灭绝,同时也破坏了自己生存的环境。这不是既善良又残忍,既聪明又愚蠢吗?

人的两重性,确切地说人的隐蔽性决定了假话是不可避免的。想的与说的不一致,说的与做的不一致,当面说的与背后说的不一致,这就是假话的突出表现,谁都逃不出去。

秘书给首长写讲话稿。稿子写得不错,可首长读得不通顺。秘书心里想,这个首长真够呛,但嘴里不能说:“首长,我写好你却读不好,干脆咱俩换一换吧。”而只能说:“我这个稿子写得不太好。”

你见了一个漂亮姑娘,心想真好,我真爱她。可你已有妻室,你不能对别人说:“我现在真爱她。”而动物则不一样,它可以直接表现出来。这就是人们共有的隐蔽性,这种隐蔽性表现在语言上,就产生了假话。

第二,它来源于人的利益的对立性。

从宏观的角度来看,人类的根本利益是一致的。人们越来越感到地球太小了!当我们看到宇航员在遥远的太空中观察地球的电视时,这种感觉就更加强烈。人们生活在地球上,一个太阳,一样的空气和水,利益本该一致。但具体到现实生活中,利益又是对立的、有区别的。这就是对立统一。人们利益的对立性,表现在民族之间、阶级之间、集团之间、家庭之间以及个人之间。无论是不同的民族、不同的阶级、不同的集团还是不同的家庭、不同的个人之间,都存在着差异性。差异就是矛盾,矛盾即为对立面。而根本的对立是利益的对立。一个球队,为了夺得锦标,有关队员的状况、出场安排以及战术技术等等,就必然向对方保密,只能说假话,决不可说真话。

在敌人的严刑拷打面前,江姐说得好:“上级的姓名、地址我知道,下级的姓名地址我也知道,但这是党的秘密,决不能告诉你们”。这虽然不是假话,却丝毫也未暴露真情。任何打入对方的人,为了本阶级的利益,都只能说假话,不说真话。

夫妻算是亲密无间的了,也有利益的对立。丈夫要给母亲点钱,妻子不高兴,丈夫只好偷偷地给,向妻子说假话:“哎,真倒霉,叫小偷掏了包。”

第三,它来源于人的需要的多样性。

人的需要是多方面的,由低级到高级,由物质到精神。听假话,传假话,就是精神需要的一个方面。比如,某些过头的赞扬,庸俗的吹捧,违心的歌颂,尽管是虚假的,不真实的,但人们喜欢听,自然也就有人喜欢说。说假话的能满足喜欢听假话的需要,反过来听假话也具有满足喜欢说假话的需要的可能。这正是说假话的人往往受宠的原因所在。

首长作报告几个小时,把人都听睡了。结束后,如果秘书说:“报告真好,切中要害,是解决当前问题的总方针。”首长听了心里很舒服,尽管嘴上说“哪里哪里”。如果秘书说:“这个报告有些地方不太合适,把人都听得睡觉了”,那首长就不高兴了: 你来试试,不知天高地厚。”

第四,它来源于人的生存的艰难性。

人的一生充满矛盾、痛苦和困难。解脱的方法各式各样,其中听假话、说假话就是一个重要解脱方式。明知等待自己的是厄运,但却自己欺骗自己说:“万能的主啊,你无时无刻不在保佑我们。”“万能的主”在哪里,谁也没见过。

阿Q被人打了一个大嘴巴,又不敢还手,只好在心里说:“儿子打老子”,于是他减轻了脸的疼痛感。

有人患了癌症,你知道了实情,对他说:“完了,最多还有三个月。”病人可能两个月也活不成。如果你说:“没事,小毛病,不理它,很快就好。”病人也许能顽强地生活几年十几年。

三、传递假话的方式

秘书向首长传递的假话,是善意的假话。善意的假话就是出于好心的说谎。其目的是出于工作的需要和对首长的关照,也是出于秘书职责的要求。

秘书需要在什么样的时机,向首长传递怎样的假话呢?

第一种,宽慰性假话。

宽慰性假话是对身陷困境,遭受挫折甚至处于危难之中的人的一种安慰、劝解方式。首长在工作和生活中,也难免有失误、有打击、有不幸。秘书是首长身边最亲近的工作人员,此时,有责任有必要向首长传递宽慰性的假话,以便使首长减轻心理负担。传递宽慰性假话,一般有这样一些时机:

1.首长决策失误,产生不良后果。秘书对于处在困境中的首长,不是去责怪和产生不满,而是设法使首长从沉重的打击中解脱出来,以便另谋出路再显身手。这时需要向首长传递些必要的宽慰性假话。

2.首长受到上级批评,情绪受挫。秘书面对首长一时的消沉,不是急于去帮助总结经验教训,而是先努力促使首长振作精神,弃旧图新。这时需要向首长传递一些必要的宽慰性假话。

3.首长家中遇有不幸,心烦意乱。例如亲人病重、病故等。秘书在积极协助首长处理的同时,也需向首长传递某些必要的宽慰性假话,以安抚首长愁苦的心情。

4.首长本人身染病疾,担心忧郁。这时秘书更需要向首长传递某些必要的宽慰性假话,不将实情告诉首长,而有意把病情说得轻一些,把前景描绘得好一些。据权威人士统计,患有癌症的病人,同期内,知道病情的死亡率高出不知道病情死亡率的3.5倍。

第二种,誓言性假话。

誓言性假话是对艰难困苦表现出蔑视的态度的一种方式。在首长肩负重任、困难重重、缺乏信心时,秘书有必要适当地向首长传递誓言性假话,给首长以鼓舞和力量,促使首长定下决心,努力奋斗。传递誓言性假话一般有这样一些时机:

1.首长承担的工作难度大,并带有相当的风险。

2.所处的环境异常艰苦,条件十分险恶。

3.秘书本人受领首长交待的重大任务,特别是影响成败的关键性任务时。

在上述一些情况下,秘书有必要向首长传递一些誓言性假话,其意义和效果有时是超出事情本身的。1993年9月6日《解放军报》发表通讯,报道某工兵团八年前组建时,接收的是30栋破旧平房,只有24块玻璃。首长视察时问;“有困难吗?”团长、政委说:“没有。”作者写道:其实没有困难是假,而有困难是真。然而,无私无畏的官兵们,却用假战胜了真。这就是一种誓言性的假话,它给人们的是巨大的精神力量。这种情形在部队的实际生活中常见:抢险救灾,连续奋战了三天三夜。首长来看望,问:“同志们累不累?”大家异口同声:“不累!”这是说假话。首长非常高兴:“你们是好样的!”如果说真话:“太累啦,该休息几天了。”首长一定不满意:“什么部队,干得不错,可精神状态不好”,成绩抵消了,士气也没有了。

第三种,谦虚性假话。

谦虚性假话就是有意压低自己、提高别人的恭让方式。作为秘书,以虚怀若谷的气度,在首长面前说一些谦虚性的假话是十分必要的。它有助于维护首长的威信,协调上下级关系,搞好周围的团结,树立良好的形象,顺利地开展工作。向首长传递谦虚性假话一般有这样一些时机:

1.落实首长的指示,通过自己的努力取得圆满结果。

2.与同事共同开展工作,自己的贡献突出。

3.工作能力强,受到领导的赏识和重用。

总之,由于成绩显著,受到领导的表扬和同志们的好评时,秘书都应在首长面前说一些谦虚性的假话。不要洋洋得意,自视高明,而应把成绩和进步看作是领导的培养和同志们帮助的结果。例如,首长的讲话稿你写得不错,受到称赞,你应该说:“还是首长的意图好,确定的观点好,换了别人也能写好。”再如,你水平很高,提拔你当了科长,你在首长面前只能说:“这是领导培养和大家帮助的结果,还要更加努力。”决不能说:“我当科长是我的能力强,肯定合适。”心里这样想可以,嘴上不能说。

第四种,弥补性假话。

弥补性假话是对无法回避的缺陷加以巧妙的掩饰,对难以预料的不足给以必要的开脱的一种假话。秘书向某些首长传递弥补性假话是为了使首长扬长避短,发挥优势,弥补不足。传递弥补性假话一般有这样一些时机:

1.涉及首长自身的缺陷。例如某政委身体很健康,但很胖,肚子较大,行动不方便。他上楼梯时,别人在房子里就能听到他的喘气声。政委自己经常叹气:“真没办法,喝凉水都长肉。”秘书可以说:“胖也有胖的优势,您精力充沛,遇到急事,熬几个通宵都顶得住。可人瘦了,一晚上不睡觉眼窝就陷下去了。”

2.产生了未预料到的结果。某学院副院长下功夫抓了许多学员留长发蓄胡子的问题。可没想到,一天早晨出操时,又出现了一大排光头,有的甚至连眉毛也刮了,让人哭笑不得,副院长很恼火。秘书便说:“剃光头说明他们知道不准留长发。您抓得是有成效的。用不了几天头发就长出来了。年轻人谁愿当和尚?”

3.首长的愿望未能全部得到满足。某连是射击先进连,上一年曾获军区比赛第三名。今年副军长亲自蹲点,下决心保证进入前三名争取第一名。结果仅以一环之差获得第二名,首长总感到有点遗憾。秘书便说:“您的保证已经达到了,第二名比第三名又有了进步,再说也有客观原因,要不是赶上风速加大了,这次肯定是第一名了。”

第五种,通融性假话。

通融性假话是为增强团结,消除隔阂有意制造的谎言。在一些非原则问题上首长与他人产生分歧和看法时,秘书就应向首长传递通融性的假话,以增强团结和统一。传递通融性假话一般有这样一些时机:

1.领导之间有误解;

2.上下之间有矛盾;

3.友邻之间有看法。

在出现上述问题时,只要不是原则问题,秘书应以通融性的假话加以疏通,这也是秘书的重要职责。例如,甲首长对乙首长只抓小事不抓大事有些不满。对秘书说:“办公室的桌子、地板倒挺干净,可天天让机关打扫卫生,还干不干工作了?”乙首长问秘书,甲首长跟你讲什么了?秘书只能说:“甲首长认为我们的办公室确实干净整齐,有利于工作。”

第六种,保密性假话。

保密性假话是为封闭某种不宜公开的事项而故意隐瞒的假话。在首长个人生活和工作中,总有一些不宜公开的事情,秘书必须以保密性的假话来加以掩饰。保密性假话一般有这样一些:

1.对待首长的某些隐私。隐私权受法律保护,秘书对首长的隐私更应予以保密。例如某首长夫妇不能生育,抱养一个孩子,秘书了解内情,但别人问起时,就要说假话。

2.妨碍首长关系的问题。例如,甲首长在秘书面前发了几句牢骚,说了乙首长几句难听话。乙首长问起时,秘书不能实说,编造几句无关的假话,甚至还可以编造几句有利于消除隔阂的假话。这就叫会做媳妇两头瞒,不会做媳妇两头传。

3.有关机密事项。对于不应该或暂时不宜某些首长知道的机密事项,秘书也应以保密性假话来处理。例如涉及对某领导的任免、奖惩、调动等事宜,在没有上级机关或本级党委明确指示的情况下,秘书可以装不知道,以恰当的假话回答有关首长的询问。

第七种,祝愿性假话。

祝愿性假话是表示礼貌吉祥的一种假话。这种假话本身并没有什么实际意义,但可产生一些积极的心理影响和情感作用。

鲁迅曾在杂文中写过:某人喜得贵子,甲前来祝贺说:这孩子长大能当大官。主人很高兴,赏给银钱。乙前来祝贺说:这孩子以后能发大财。主人也很高兴,赏给银钱。丙前来一看,说这孩子将来必定要死。主人怒不可遏,一顿棍棒赶了出去。说当官发财者难免假,说必然死者一定真,但结果不一样。秘书在必要的场合也应向首长传递祝愿性假话。传递祝愿性假话一般有这样一些时机:

1.首长遇有好运。例如职务提升,家有喜事以及首长的生日、结婚纪念日等。秘书这时说些祝愿性的假话,虽不一定能如愿以偿,但可增添喜庆气氛。

2.首长出门、上路执行重要任务。秘书可以说:祝您一路顺风!祝您马到成功之类的假话。顺风还是逆风不能随人心愿,但听起来顺耳。如果你说:“首长,您要小心火车出轨。”准会挨骂。

3.首长失落或不顺。例如几次应提升而因某种原因却没动,或连续遇到一些倒楣的事情等等。秘书可以用带有祝愿性的假话以宽慰首长:“俗话说,塞翁失马安知非福,遇难而过必有福来。”秘书祝愿性的假话有助于首长情绪的调解。

四、传递假话应注意的问题

假话毕竟是假的,假过了头或时机不当,缺乏技巧,就可能造成不良后果。因此要掌握好“度”。

第一,必须重视讲假话的目的性。

一定要从党的利益出发,从大局、从团结出发。决不能从私利、从帮派、从歪门邪道出发。该讲的讲,不该讲的不讲。离开了这个目的性,就成了真正的欺骗。

第二,必须重视讲假话的时限性。

善意的假话具有较强的时间性和范围性。有的假话具有暂时性,超过了一定的时间假话就不起作用。例如某些保密性事宜,一经公布,再说假话就适得其反。患了不治之病,开始可以骗他,到了最后关头,还不告诉人家病情,让人临终连句话也没留下。有的假话具有永久性,要一假到底才有作用。例如个人隐私,至死也不能随便泄露。有些假话范围较窄,超出了一定范围,假话会产生严重后果。例如有关首长间的误解问题,只能在有关首长间传递。扩散到群众中去反而添乱。有些假话范围较大,范围大了才起作用。例如消除与友邻之间的磨擦问题,大家都相信就减少了矛盾。

第三,必须重视讲假话的逼真性。

一定要使假话像真的一样,假得恰如其分,假得合情合理,让人听了信以为真,受了骗还很愉快,这才能产生奇特效果。如果假话一出口就露了馅,还不如不说。妻子给她自己妈妈买件衣服,不合适,送给婆婆,说:“今天我多得了几十元奖金,您老给我们带孩子挺不易,买件衣服,您看合适不?”这是假话,婆婆穿上不合适也高兴。如果说:“本来我给我妈妈买了件衣服,可这件衣服您穿着准合适,因为我妈妈比您瘦,买错了穿着太肥。”这是真话,婆婆准会不高兴。

第四,必须重视讲假话的选择性。

真理只有一个,但假话却多种多样。从什么角度,对什么人,讲什么假话,都要加以选择。比如,有人喜欢好听的,你吹他几句可以;有人不喜欢吹捧,你就不要去奉承。

总之,真话具有普遍性,而假话只能哄骗少数人;真话的存在是永久的,假话的存在是暂时的;真话与假话是对立统一的,在一定条件下可以互相转化;真话的条件是以客观事实为依据,假话的条件是人为编制的;真话不能过头,过了头就变成了谬误;假话也要掌握分寸,没有分寸也便失去它应有的价值。

整理首长讲话精神的艺术

秘书跟随首长,其中很重要的一项工作就是把首长在各种场合中的讲话内容记录下来,必要时整理出来。首长的讲话,有时是在会上讲的,有时是在会下讲的;有时是针对某个问题讲的,有时是在某种场合随便讲的;有时是面对他的领导或上级机关汇报式地讲的,有时是面对他的下属指示式地讲的;有时是在公开场合讲的,有时仅仅是和秘书及他的身边人员讲的。

无论哪种场合的讲话,都体现着首长的一种想法,体现着首长的一种意向。首长的一些新的观点,新的思路,新的决心,以及首长可能给部队即将下达的一些大的动作,大的举措,都常常先在他的各种场合的讲话中零零散散地流露出来。

秘书很重要的一项任务,就是把首长在各种不同场合的讲话内容记录并整理出来,以备首长使用。

整理首长的讲话,有如下一些方式。

一、抓紧记录

所谓抓紧记录,就是尽量能把首长讲出的原话、原意记录下来。秘书整理首长讲话精神的前提是做好记录。而做记录是有窍门有技巧的。这里讲的窍门和技巧不仅是指用速记、符号、代号等方式,而指的是如何把首长讲话的主要精神记录下来。

秘书在对待首长随时性讲话问题上,通常易犯三个毛病:

一是不记。有的秘书懒得很,无论首长在什么场合讲话,他都不做笔记,东张张西望望,甚至丢盹打瞌睡。首长的话讲完了,他的本子上竟是白纸一张。要知道,大多数首长是不喜欢秘书对他的讲话不屑一顾的。特别是不喜欢秘书人员对他的讲话无动于衷。某部A首长,不仅有很高的军事才能,而且有很高的写作水平。他的讲话常常在深思熟虑之后。每次讲话简直是一篇很有分量的材料。秘书只要把他的讲话记录下来稍加整理,就可以定型成文了。一次,这位首长下部队调查回来,同随员一起研究怎么样写好这个调查报告。当大家发言完毕后,他缓缓地站起,开始发言。跟随他多年的秘书人员,知道这位首长要“一锤定音”了。于是都拉开了做记录架势。部属的这些举动,引起首长的快悦,进一步激发他发言的热情。然而,有一位新来的宣传干事,不知道A首长的这种习惯。当A首长发言时,他心里想:首长还不是随便扯一扯。所以,他的两眼只是紧紧地盯着首长,并不去抓紧记录。A首长看到这位干事的举动,当即给予批评。

二是乱记。有的秘书,仅仅是首长讲话的记录机器。凡首长讲的话,什么都想记。结果,笔记做了一大摞;眉毛胡子满把抓,到整理的时候,该用的内容却找不出来。这种记录也等于没有记。

三是假记。有的秘书,首长讲话时,只是礼貌地装出一副做笔记的样子,其实什么也没有记,或者仅是随便地记录了与首长讲话无关的内容。

正确的做法是:巧记。

第一,记原话。

记录时,尽量记下首长发言时的原始语言,他怎么讲你怎么记。这种语言很生动,很有个性特点。因为同样一件事情,表达时个人有个人的表达方式。比如讲到体育:

生物学家说:“体育是物竞天择式的淘汰。”

心理学家说:“体育是人类征服欲的宣泄。”

科学家说:“体育是高科技的较量。”

医学家说:“体育是包治百病、延年益寿的灵丹妙药。”

艺术家说:“体育是健、美、力三维一体的组合。”

教育家说“体育是社会文化的重要组成部分。”等等。

从上面的对同一事物的不同表达方式看出,记录发言人的原始语言是何等重要。当然,首长们对同一事物的表达语言不会像上面这些“家”们大相径庭,但个人的不同风格却是异常明显的。

第二,记要点。

即把你认为重要的观点、语句、段落详细地记下来。这些要点可供你在整理时,进行扩展、发挥,来个举一反三。

第三,记易忘点。

主要包括:时间、地点、人名、数字、各类专业的专用术语等。

第四,记疑问点。

首长在发言中,或者由于讲得太快,或者语言深奥难懂,或者专业性太强,秘书人员没有听懂,没有听清,就要用特殊符号记下来,以便抽空问清楚。

第五,及时追记。

有时首长随便讲话时,秘书不好意思当面拿出本子就记,但又非记不可,就先在脑子里牢牢记住,离开首长后赶快追记下来。

二、及时分类

我们在这里讲的记录,不是会务工作中讲的那种专门进行的“会议记录”,要求有言必记,有音必录。我们讲的记录,主要是指为以后准备整理加工成文的一种记录。

所以,这种记录一般不要把每个人的发言按先后顺序一个接着一个地往下记,而是按问题归类记录。比如,在某个会议上,甲首长共讲了4个问题,你可以把第一、二、三、四个问题分别记在笔记本的1、10、20、30页上。当乙首长发言时,他也讲4个问题,你在记录时就要思考,乙首长讲的第一个问题和甲首长讲的第3个问题差不多。于是,就记在笔记本的20页,即甲首长发言的第三个问题之后;乙首长讲的第二个问题与甲首长第四个问题相似,于是就记在笔记本的第30页,即甲首长发言的第四个问题以后;乙首长讲的第三个问题,和甲首长讲的内容没有类似的部分,就新开辟个专栏,记在第40页上。以此类推。

当把首长们的讲话记录完毕,你回头一看,这种记录已基本形成几个条条、块块,再经过反复琢磨,不断推敲观点和事例,首长讲话的主要精神基本上可以呼之欲出。为了便于整理,在记录时对首长讲出的重点内容,重要观点,以及自己没有听明白的地方,都要用自己特定的符号标注出来,以备整理时使用。

三、引起联想

引起联想,不是随心所欲的胡思乱想,而是根据首长讲话的精神,把首长的讲话加以完善和深化。也就是,把首长想说但没有来得及说出来的那个意思说出来;把首长想说但没有说完全的那些空缺填补起来。

引起联想的一般方式是:先顺着首长讲话的顺序往下听,往下记。听着听着可能会突然发现首长讲出了一些精彩的话,而这些精彩的话首长并没有讲全、讲透,聪明的秘书能顺接着首长这个精彩内容的“茬口”,想出一些更精彩的内容来。这些精彩的内容,如果没有首长这个“茬口”的引发,自己无论如何是想不起来的。遇有这种情况,秘书人员就干脆顺着自己的新思路,来上一番“畅想曲”。这个“畅想曲”实际上就是我们平时所说的“灵感”的萌发和开启。这种“灵感”有时像打开闸门的蓄水可以一泻千里,也像充满压力的水柱,可以高高喷起。只要秘书人员把这些灵感毫无保留地引发出来,并快速地记录下来,那么,这种记录即使这一次整理首长的讲话用不上,将来也是会成为用得上的宝贵资料,甚至会成为某篇文章中的点睛之笔。

秘书人员把自己的某些联想整理进首长的讲话内容里时,要坚持两条原则:

一是必须符合首长讲话精神的原意。即是说,首长的讲话精神必须有你的这种联想的意思,只不过是没有充分表达出来。你的这种联想,仅仅是对首长讲话精神的一个补充,一种完善。如果首长的讲话根本没有这种意向,而仅仅是你本人的一种想法,那么,你的联想再深刻,再精粹,也不能往里“瞎掺和”。如果要“掺和”进去,必须事先征求首长的意见。

二是必须是首长讲话精神的深化。即是说,你的联想,可以使首长的讲话内容“锦上添花”,而不是“节外生枝”用自己的所谓联想。把首长的讲话内容搞得面目全非,或者让别人产生某种歧义,这是万万不可取的。

四、借机引导

首长讲话时,秘书人员是不能乱插话、乱提问、乱启发的。但是,秘书人员为提高首长的讲话质量,便于自己事后整理,对首长的讲话进行巧妙的引导,还是有机会的。比如,秘书去旁听首长的某个会议,主持会议的首长可能明确告诉你:会后要整理出一个材料,或者写一份简报,或者写一份报告,或者写一个指示、通知、会议纪要等等,这就更需要认真加以记录。秘书人员引导首长发言的艺术是:

(一)提醒首长主持好会议

秘书人员都有这样的体会:只有主要领导人主持好会议,才能调动与会人的发言积极性,使发言出现高质量、高水平。如果主持会议的首长责任心不强,他只就会议的主旨讲上几句开场白,至于会议如何发展,他不去启发、引导,会议是不可能产生出高质量的内容来。

一次,某部召开常委会,学习上级的一份重要文件。这些常委成员都是为了学习这个文件而匆匆忙忙从基层单位赶回来的。他们每个人都带回了军内外的许多新闻、消息,加之相互间快一个月不见面了,需要互相“吹一吹”的内容很多。开会前,你争我抢地发言没完没了,会议主持人几次让大家静一静,都静不下来,可见发言之热烈踊跃。当会议开始,传达完文件之后,让大家就文件的内容发言表态时,会场上却出奇地安静。有的看其他文件,有的翻报纸,有的互相交耳私语,就是不往正题上发言。这时,一旦某一个首长挑头讲点别的内容会场马上像开了锅似的重新热闹起来。下班的时间快到了。会议主持人扭头看了看秘书,随口说:“今天的会议先开到这儿。下一步我们还要很好地学习。王秘书,把今天会议的讨论情况整理一下,写个电报,给上面报告一下。”秘书当场回答:“是!”可他心里慌乱极了。整理什么呢?有什么了不起的内容值得汇报?只好回去瞎编吧!

有经验的秘书不这样做。他知道这次会议很重要,他知道会议后肯定要写汇报材料,他也知道在会议上首长们发言可能不积极。于是,在开会前,就去做会议主持人的工作,诱导首长主持好这次会议:“政委,这个会挺重要,如果首长们发好了言,我整理一下汇报上去,上级准能转发。然后咱们再写它一篇稿子,往报社投一投,碰巧了还能抢个头版头条呢!”

经秘书人员这么一启发,首长们一重视,会议的开法就大不一样了。

(二)启发与会人做好发言准备

秘书不可能用直来直去的方式,“指示”首长在会议上如何如何积极发言,但可以提醒首长做一些准备。其方式是在通知首长开会时加以暗示和启发:

“副军长,明天8点钟开会,我觉得您在发言时,是否把第一个专题好好讲一讲。就结合您的切身体会来谈,我好好记录。一定能讲好。”

“副政委,明天8点钟开会,我看您讲第二个专题最拿手。就把您上次在我们办公室里讲的那些内容再归纳几条。我一定记好。”

“参谋长,明天8点钟开会,您很忙,又刚回来……”

经过秘书会前这样对首长们的提醒和启发,尽管不一定有想象得那么理想,但首长们发言的内容肯定会提高质量的。

(三)诱导会议主持人做好总结性发言

主持会议的首长常常能统揽全局,胸有成竹。他们可根据自己多年的实践经验,对许多问题讲出高人一筹的看法。只要他们能认真地加以思考,就可能出语惊人,观点新鲜,思路清晰。秘书把他们的总结性发言记录下来稍加整理,就是一篇好文章。所以有经验的秘书,常常不是事后自己苦思冥想,给首长的讲话“编”出什么新鲜的内容来,而是事前,启发首长顺理成章地讲出你预料不到的内容来。

(四)追踪重点人做好补充发言

首长对某个问题的看法,不仅仅限于会议上的一次发言。秘书在会议记录的过程中会发现,有些首长的发言,绝大部分内容可能很一般,但就某个问题的认识很独到,见解很精辟,想法很新鲜。可由于时间的关系,讲得还不透彻,不精确,需要追踪补充。于是就找一个适当的场合,如到他家里,到他办公室,或者和他散步,让首长就这个问题再谈一谈看法。一般说来,首长们很欢迎秘书这样做,他们觉得这是对自己的一种尊重方式,一种重视方式,能体现出自己的水平。所以,他们能侃侃而谈,而且有问必答,讲得很认真,很耐心。比如秘书对这位首长讲:“首长,您在会上讲的第二个问题,我觉得挺深刻,可我还没有全明白您的意思,您再给我讲一讲。”“首长,您在会上讲的第二个问题我觉得很有新意,但由于别人插话了,您没有讲完,能不能麻烦您再补充一下?”“首长,您在会上讲的第二个问题,很有见解。但我觉得您好像没有把话讲完,您能不能再给我往深里说一说?”

只要秘书这样做了,就一定可以把首长的讲话精神整理好。

适应首长不同工作类型的艺术

一天,某部队政治部突然接到地方当局某部门的来信,信中要求该部队出10万元支援一项工程建设。否则,随军家属的工作安排,将很难予以考虑。

该部队领导对这封来信,都表示不解甚至气愤。A首长气冲冲地将秘书叫来,让他记下口述的一封回信,立即答复对方。内容是:我们没想到你们会这样不讲情理。尽管支援地方建设是人民军队宗旨的必然要求,但你们不能搞摊派,更不能硬性规定出多少钱。尤其应该指出的是,军队随军家属的工作安排是有法律规定的,地方当局有不可推卸的责任。如果你们有意作难,我们将通过你们的上级加以解决。

对首长这个口头指示,秘书可以有多种处理方法。一是照办法,立即将首长口授的内容打印成文寄给地方。二是建议法,提醒首长最好不要发这封信,否则对部队许多工作将产生不良影响。三是批评法,不仅不照办,反而批评首长:这样做后果是什么,您可能感觉不到它的严重性,可下边随军家属工作的安排就难上加难了,人家以种种理由加以推拖,那该怎么办?再说,支援地方建设也该出点力,没多还没少?这样做不更合适吗?四是缓冲法,下班前20分钟时,把打好的口授信递给已经心平气和的首长,说:这封信是不是马上发出?要不要您再过目斟酌一下?

上述四种方式秘书采取哪一种更好呢?根据调查,大多数秘书同意第四种。因为根据他们的经验,缓冲法是辅佐急躁型首长的最佳方法。第一种照办法,虽然坚决执行了首长指示,但可能有所失职。第二种建议法,当时的情形很难奏效,也有越权之嫌。第三种批评法,对首长决策进行指责干涉,不亚于火上浇油,更不可取。第四种缓冲法,在秘书职责范围内,巧妙地对首长决策施加影响,无越权之嫌,有完美之益,事后首长一定满意。

但秘书仅会使用缓冲法是不够的。因为首长的类型不间,性格各异。只有根据首长的特点,采取相应的方式,才能产生最佳效果。

每个首长的生长环境,文化程度、性格气质、工作经历各不相同,他们之间的种种差异是客观存在的。由此,构成了不同的领导类型和工作特点。秘书只有了解领导的类型并适应他们的工作特点,才能提供优质的服务。

一、对谋略自信型首长的适应

这类首长能谋善略,又才华出众。既有军事工作才能,又有政治工作才能。既有基层工作经验,又有机关工作经验。既能写作,又能演讲。可以说是首长中的佼佼者,是令众人崇拜的全才。他们运筹帷幄,统揽全局,对每项工作,特别是他认为重大的、有影响的工作,都有总体的预谋和规划。开始怎样、进程怎样、结局怎样,心中有数,胸有成竹。一经考虑成熟,一锤定音,再不更改。他们工作中充满自信甚至自豪:再也没有比自己决策更正确的了,再也没有比这种安排更成熟的了。对有些重要的决策,在定夺之前他们也常听取别人的意见,当然包括秘书在内。有时是真心实意与你讨论问题。静心地听取,深刻地思考,甚至耐心启发你陈述意见。在你的话语中,找到他认为闪光的东西。同时,也在观察你的能力和水平,以便适时对你做出评价。这时,你可以沿着他的思路大胆往下讲,并讲出最高水平。他有时又并不是真心听你的意见,他找你谈看法,主要是把你当成他阐述自己想法的引子,使自己的深思熟虑得以淋漓畅尽地抒发。在这样的情景下,如果你是个爱在领导面前表现自己的秘书,不知趣地多说几句,首长就会不耐烦,提醒你简单一点。相反,你顺着他的思路加以随和,他很高兴,也有利于他思路的成熟和开阔。

这类首长很有见解,但有时也很固执和自负。对他的决断,别人已明显地看出错误,但还可能坚持不改。秘书怎样给他们当好助手呢?

第一,多服从少参与。因为他们能力强,秘书主要是听话、办事,不是参与。对他职权范围内的事,不要插手,当首长问到秘书时,可被动思考,顺着他的基本思路提供某些参考意见,他有听的耐心,就顺着他的思路往下说;他没有听的诚意,就当即打住。

第二,集中精力领会意图。他交待工作时,要与他产生对视,全神贯注。不能顾及任何他事,并抓紧记录,争取记全,他的讲话整理出来可能就是一篇好文章。

第三,在他讲话时,可大胆询问。这类首长很乐意重复自己的重要观点,并且在重复时再次产生出新意。他交待完毕,可简要复述,将记录内容简略陈述一遍,他很高兴。

二、对超脱粗放型首长的适应

这类首长坦率直爽,为人处事宽宏大量。他们一般从基层上来,机关工作经验比较少。他们有明显的特点:一是喜欢在会上、当面作指示,亲自下部队搞调查,就地立即解决问题,讨厌坐在屋里听汇报,逐级传递情况,一步一步解决问题。二是喜欢进行原则领导,很少亲自处理具体问题。三是讲求明确分工,不爱多管份外“闲事”。四是交待工作笼统简略,具体处理不加干涉。秘书汇报工作只把情况大略一提,他就能通过。

给这类首长当秘书有较大的自主权,很自在,可以当“二首长”了。但要特别注意以下几点:

第一,要出好点子。因为首长对具体情况不太过问,对秘书很放手,如果出馊主意就可能坏事。

第二,要格外精心。替首长把工作想细想全,考虑周到,不能首长马虎,你也大意。

第三,要主动汇报。及时把首长交待事情的结果简明扼要地反馈给他。

第四,要防止越权。首长超脱,秘书不能放肆,首长不太过问具体事,秘书不能哄他。秘书更不能打着首长旗号,假传指示,干不得人心的事。

三、对民主纳谏型首长的适应

这类首长待人友善,和蔼可亲,民主平等,容言纳谏。

他们对同级和部下都很尊重,即使是受到不公正的对待,也能忍善让,从不抱怨或苛求。

他们非常重视听取他人意见,不耻下问。他们工作不是没有主见,办事不是没有谋划,只是民主作风意识强,不习惯独断专行。他们一般都曾在机关工作过,特别懂得发挥身边工作人员积极性的重要。这类首长,其中一些人曾有过挫折,受过磨难,锋芒已钝,虎气已减;他们的经历决定了他们看任何人生活得都很不易。他认为秘书不仅只是办事,更多是参与,甚至参政。他按自己的习惯要求秘书凡交待的事情一定要办得圆满。但办不好,也不为难。凡没交待的事,秘书办妥了,他也十分赞许。

在这类首长身边当秘书,轻松舒畅,心理上没有重负感,更宜表现秘书自身的价值和才华。但要注意以下几点:

第一,要谨言慎事。不能因为首长信任你,就信口开河,甚至胡来。应严格按照指示办事,不能另搞一套,乱表态。

第二,要常思多想。把涉及首长职权内的各项事宜都事先考虑好,首长征求你的意见时,要在充分准备的基础上发言。

第三,态度谦和。首长的民主意识强,没有官架子,不计较谁高谁低。秘书也不能认为善人好欺,随意顶撞,看不起甚至诋毁领导。

四、对看人审事型首长的适应

这类首长有自己的用人模式,最大特点是情感因素强烈。他们衡量秘书和身边工作人员的标准,往往受到思维定势的左右,带有明显的主观性。对在身边工作时间长、用得顺手的人总是抓住不放,而对其他人则存有偏见,放心不下,即使你干得不错,也不很满意。而他放心的人把某件事情没有干好,可他仍然觉着顺心满意。

某军政治部刘干事在主任身边干了多年,对主任的意图了解得好,常常是不点自明。主任对他十分器重,刘干事写的讲话稿,主任甚至看都不看就通过了,而其他干事办事,主任总有不满意之感。一天刘干事没在,关干事来给主任的办公室挂地图。关干事知道自己在主任心中的地位与刘干事大不相同,挂图时格外用心,上下对比,左右衡量,费了很大精力挂完了,可主任还是不很满意:“高低还可以,左右怎么不对称?这边宽,那边窄。”关干事心里挺闷,找到刘干事,刘干事笑了笑:“没关系。”他一进主任办公室,便大加称赞:“这图挂得有水平,不仅高低与首长的个头相适应,而且左右也很得当,左边有窗户亮堂,又靠近办公桌,留得窄一点,您看起来方便,右边有门,又有衣架,留宽一点,既不被遮挡,又显得对称,这是谁挂的?还真费了一番苦心!首长,您说是不是?”主任眉头一展,“你讲的还真有道理。”结果是,关干事挂图,首长不满意;刘干事解释,首长却很满意。

为这类首长服务,首要的是尽心尽力,周到细致。但仅此是不够的,还应该知道首长的心理特点,明趋暗抑,才能事半功倍。要注意做到这样几点:

第一,不怕吃苦。你是首长信任的秘书,叫你干的事就多,一个接着一个等着你,你不要喊苦叫累,忙一点也有好处。当然,周围的人对你也许有议论,你有苦无处诉。这就需要有任劳任怨,忍受误解的精神。

第二,巧妙推荐。对首长还不太信任的同志,不放弃任何有利时机,恰到好处地向首长介绍和举荐,使首长改变看法。一是顺水推舟,首长问:“这个材料谁写的?”有人说:“好像处长给刘干事交待过。”首长高兴了:“观点明确,结构新颖,语言也挺流畅”你接过来:“原来是交给刘干事写,后来他去开会,就由曹干事完成的。”首长已说过写得不错,不好改口,只能说:“依曹干事过去的水平,只能到车站接个人,布置一下会场。现在写材料也大有长进。你们要给大家一些机会锻炼。这不,曹干事也成才了?”二是直接建议。政治部要搞一个大型图片展览,确定人选时,你可以向首长建议:“这件事李干事特别内行,他在师里当干事时搞了3年多摄影,有5幅作品在画报上发表,是××摄影学会会员,××团团史展览搞得很有特色,那就是在他指导下布置的。这次图片展览的事交给他,一定比我弄得明白。”三是有意出错。在无关大局的事情上出点小差错。这可以显示其他同志的优点,使首长对其他同志逐步产生信任感。

五、对多变无定型首长的适应

这类首长属于“多动型”气质,情绪不够稳定。因此,工作无主见,见异思迁,最初的决断往往不算数。在他职权内的事常拿不定主意。面对多种方案、意见,不知哪个更好,自己决定了的事也极易推倒重来。今天这样,明天那样,刚刚拍板的事,一觉醒来又觉不妥。某机关参谋干事最怕给F部长写材料,不知要浪费多少劳动。一次一个3千字的总结,竟在两天内5次变动大的结构,两个参谋三十多个小时没合眼,直到总结大会要开始了,才算定稿。

在这类首长身边工作,肯定很紧张,很繁忙,无效劳动太多。在完成首长交待工作的过程中,缺乏自信心。常常是一边拼命干一边在想:是不是又要推倒重来?所以,为这种工作类型的首长服务,重要的是有耐心和毅力,能沉住气,开动脑筋,尽快适应。要注意做到这样几点:

第一,当面遵从。无论首长怎么反复无常,多次变动,推倒重来,你都要耐心听,认真记。心里不痛快,表情上不流露,更不能顶撞。否则,你干了多少工作,也会落个骄傲自满的名声,难得平反。

第二,私下等待。首长更来改去,你愉快遵从,首长就放心了,你只管耐心等待。说不定首长改来改去改到最后,又回到原来的观点上。

第三,最后加劲。敲定的时间到了,无法再改动了,这时再下功夫干好它,干完美它,首长会很满意。

总之,作为秘书,在对待各种不同工作类型首长的问题上,应采取这样的基本对策:

首先,世上没有万能的首长。无论在哪种类型的首长身边工作,都不能有丝毫的抵触情绪,不能消极对抗,不能有意为难,更不能指责和看不起首长。只能准确地了解首长的特点,采取恰当的方式,使自己逐步并尽快完全适应首长的要求。

其次,世上也没有万能的秘书。服务是自己的本分。要忠于职守,要有自知之明,为适应各种类型的首长,自己要刻苦学习,拓宽知识面,提高当参谋和助手的水平。

忍让首长弱点的艺术

弱点,是一个人思想、性格、行为等方面不足的地方。弱点人人有,首长当然也不例外。

忍让,是个人良好的心理素质和高尚的思想修养的标志之一。秘书能够并善于忍让首长的某些弱点,就是这种良好心理素质和高尚思想修养的表现。

首长之所以成为首长,不是因为他们十全十美。他们有常人没有的优点,也有常人不喜欢的弱点。人们在交往中,对相互存在的某些弱点,只要不关系到重大原则问题,都应该也能够做到忍让。而首长们正因为他们是首长,周围对他们的约束力相对较少,所以他们的某些弱点暴露得更为直接,表现得更为充分。秘书每日与首长在一起,这种忍让就显得尤为重要。这有利于维护首长的尊严,也有利于协调首长与秘书之间的关系。在这方面秘书应注意做到这样几点:

一、忌在没有现成根据的问题上与首长争论

在与首长相处的日子里,秘书总会发现,首长在某些方面,在某些知识上,不如自己涉猎得面宽。这是很正常的。每当谈论到这些问题时,首长可能会出现某种差错。这种“差错”,秘书心里是清楚的,但由于一时没有现成的根据,即使秘书当面把正确的答案讲出来,首长由于种种原因,也不一定服气。这就很容易产生“无现成答案”的争论,使双方都不愉快。

在一次“树立正确的人生观”政治教育中,政治部陈干事跟随B首长下部队抓试点。讨论过程中B首长说:“人生,不管别人如何评价,自己首先应该为别人多办好事。记得大诗人郭小川曾经写过一首诗:‘有的人活着,但他死了;有的人死了,但他活着’。这诗写得多好啊!”

B首长正讲在兴头上,陈干事插话了:“首长,这首诗是臧克家写的,不是郭小川写的。”

B首长不高兴了。“怎么是臧克家写的?明明是郭小川写的嘛!”

陈干事不服,补充一句:“是臧克家写的!等我回去给您查一查。”

B首长讲话的兴趣没有了。屋子里死一般的沉寂。

明明是首长错了,但由于没有现成的“答案”,首长不服气,陈干事也觉得很委屈。退一步讲,即使找到了正明的答案,首长输了,又能怎样呢?

那么,这是不是说,故意让首长错下去才对呢?——也不对。纠正首长类似的问题,正确的做法应该是:

(一)不必过分认真

对一些非原则问题,对一些无关大局的问题,首长说错或做错了,就让他错去。不要非弄个水落石出,让首长低头认错不可。而是找个适当的机会,采用一种能让首长接受正确答案的做法,更为合适。比如上面这位陈干事,完全没有必要在首长讲话兴趣正浓的时候,当头给首长一击,使首长下不了台。可以利用某一个机会,拿着《诗选》对首长说:“首长您看,您上次讲到的那首诗,原来是臧克家写的。”首长一定会说:“是嘛?我怎么记成是郭小川写的啦?不是你这么纠正,我还不知道错到哪一天呢!让人笑话!”然后,首长又补充了一句:“小陈呀,你的学习很刻苦,大家都说你是‘活字典’。还要努力呀!”

指出首长弱点的方法巧妙了,两方皆大欢喜。

(二)只反驳一次

首长的某些弱点暴露出来以后,秘书如果实在看不下眼,可以当场予以纠正,但最好只纠正一次。如果首长不认同,秘书就不必再还嘴。

首长说:“我看从咱们营房到县城至少有30公里。”

秘书说:“没有吧?只有28公里。”

首长说:“你这个人呀真是个书呆子,怎么何止28公里呢?”

尽管28公里是正确的,但秘书的反驳应就此打住,不必再争辩下去。因为又不是打仗,28公里和30公里相差无几,即使找到正确的答案又有多大意义呢?如果秘书还想把首长的毛病纠正过来,以后还有很多机会。

(三)多用疑问句

秘书在纠正首长某些缺点毛病时,使用疑问句,主要是为了“进退两便”,给首长留一个思考和回味的余地,自己也不至于在论理过程中“顶死”在一个地方。

首长说:“A领导现在是上将了。1955年授衔时,才是个上校。”

秘书明明知道首长讲得不对,1955年授衔时,A领导已经是少将了,但无论当时授的是上校,还是少将,都无关大局,只是记忆上的错误。于是秘书回话:

“好像55年给他授的是少将吧!记不清了。”

这里,秘书的记忆是正确的,但在纠正首长不正确的议论时,使用了“好像”、“记不清”,也足以使首长去考虑哪对哪错了。

(四)找到可靠证据

对于一些原则的问题,大是大非的问题,秘书发现首长明显不对。如果这样错下去,会影响部队建设,那就要建议首长立即纠正。最好的办法是找到可靠的根据来。

用事实说话,不言自明,首长也会心服口服。首长说:“现在训练任务重,要求高,我看把政治教育的时间适当再减一减。”

秘书说:“这事是不是再斟酌一下?上级有规定,全训部队军政所占时间的比例是7:3。”说着,拿出有关文件递给首长。

“那好,按原计划进行。”首长收回了自己的看法。

二、忌玩乐时首长总是输家

秘书经常陪着首长进行一些业余文体活动,打球下棋等等。首长虽然年大体弱,但更爱争强好胜。原本是玩耍,目的不过是为了活动活动身体,调节一下精力。但首长有时是很叫真的,秘书或其他工作人员总是让首长输,就可能使首长感到不快活,尊严受到损害。因此,秘书人员在陪同首长玩乐时,应有意识地避免这种情况的发生。

比如打篮球时,不能总盖首长的“帽”,让首长一个也投不进去。有位C首长个子小,却偏爱打篮球,球场上总能找到他,可有一段时间他不去球场了。原来一块打球的参谋、干事都比他个子大,一场球下来他一个球也没投进去,甚至连球也抓不到几次,心里很不痛快。后来有人做了一点工作,然后又把他拉到球场上,这回他如鱼得水,投得很顺手。打完球他非常快活,说:“打打球就是有好处,出一身汗,腿脚灵活,精力充沛。”

比如玩乒乓球时,陪者不能总扣球,让首长连着去拣球。有位B首长肚子挺大,喜欢打乒乓球,但动作迟缓,人家扣球他接不着,弯腰拣球又很吃力,打不了几分钟就是一身汗。一般的规则是,人人都喜欢打球,但不喜欢拣球。拣球总不如扣球痛快。首长也如此。后来这位首长专门和E秘书打球,换别人都不打。E秘书很少扣球,专门打首长正手,首长能连扣十几板。他常夸E秘书球打得好,很正规,很有基本功。其实,E秘书的反手扣杀是拿手好戏,只不过和首长打球时拿手戏不出场罢了。

再比如下象棋时,不能总是让首长输。首长越是叫真你越是一个子儿不让,赢了一盘又一盘,首长的脸色就会难看起来。尽管首长棋术不如你高明,但你要有意识地出现一点失误,而且装得很像真的,不能让旁人看出来是在让着首长,那样首长就更觉得丢面子,比如,有时故意错走一步棋,首长吃了你的车,你连忙要悔棋,首长决不肯,无奈,这盘棋让首长赢了。首长脸上就会出现笑容:“怎么样,不服气?再来一盘。”

总之,秘书在陪首长玩乐时,也要记住这样四句话:备好首长喜好的活动设施;当好首长活动的陪伴;照顾首长活动的情绪;勤看首长输赢时的脸色。

三、忌出了问题把责任推给首长

在首长身边工作常会出现一些非原则的小问题,而问题的责任多不在秘书身上。因为秘书一般都是按首长的指示精神办事。但秘书不能把责任推回给首长。秘书和首长一起乘车外出,半路上车坏了,首长很生气:“怎么搞的,派这么个破车?”你不能说:“是你要这辆车嘛。”首长会有失尊严。对于诸如此类问题的责任,秘书应持两种态度:

一是默认。无论首长是否责怪你,你都不需要辩明责任,而是赶快解决问题。首长身边新近调来一个警卫员,挺懒,还偷首长的烟吸,被首长发现了,对秘书说:“瞧你们办的事,连个警卫员也选不好。”这个警卫员明明是首长自己看中的,但秘书说:“这个警卫员确实没选好,我马上让他回去,三天内再选一个合适的。”

二是主动承担。不等首长责问便把责任揽过来。首长指示秘书通知下属主官来开会,不要带车和随行人员,浪费汽油,住宿也不好安排。可以考虑带一个参谋帮助标图。人到齐了,因上级来了工作组,招待所房间紧张,一时安排不下。首长很恼火,对秘书说:“让领导干部来开会,带个参谋干什么?”秘书赶紧说:“是我们考虑不周,没想到工作组会来得这么快。不过首长不用着急,问题已经解决,通信营就在招待所旁边,有一个连昨天外出训练一个星期,我们只开三天会,可以让工作人员住在那里,我已经安排过了。”在这类事情上,只要问题妥善解决,即使是秘书的责任,首长也不会追究,更何况他的尊严已得到了秘书的维护。

秘书可能会问:“难道都是我们的错?”回答是肯定的:跟首长在一起,在小事小非问题上你就准备着永远没有正确的时候。

为首长提供事务性服务的艺术

什么是服务?这里是指服从、服侍。含有一种听从、照料、侍候的意思。秘书的服务工作,主要是做好与首长本人有直接关系的接人待物,迎来送往,衣食住行,业余活动等事务性工作,为首长顺利开展工作提供方便。

秘书能为首长提供优质的服务,不是一件容易的事。要养成一种习惯,比如,从秘书说话的声调到用语,从表情到姿态,从装束到动作,都能看到一种风度,透出一种气质,体现出你是首长的部下,能正确理解首长的意图,能充分反映首长的思想。首长想说的你能表达出来,首长想办的你能圆满实现,使首长感到顺心、顺手。这样首长就可以全身心地进行他的决策和指挥了。这是秘书应尽的责任。

举一个例子:某院校一教授带研究生下部队搞调查,到××军区去,找谁帮助安排呢?想到了一个战友,他现在是××军区司令部首长,教授和这位首长曾经一块儿当兵,一块儿当排长、又一块儿进机关当干事、参谋,两个人可以说在革命的征途中一块儿往前走了很长一段路。后来,一个当教员走上讲台,一个当首长指挥千军万马。教授出发前写了信又打了电话。当教授走出车站时,一眼看见,一个大个子将军直挺挺地站在那里,旁边一个标致的少校军官打的牌子上写“××教授”。教授与首长边握手边拍了一下他的肩说:“你小子,混得不错呀!”

“你小声点,你看那边,有工作人员。”将军说。

离他们大约5米处,站着那位少校,不时地向这边看一眼。到宾馆后,教授问少校:“贵姓?怎么称呼?”

“姓杨,秘书。”

“有个问题请教一下。”

“您太客气了。”

“刚下车你和首长站在一起,而当我与首长握手时,你离开我们5米多远,有什么学问吗?”

“说不上什么学问。作为秘书,在等候客人时可以与首长近一些,能陪首长随便谈几句。如果远了,把首长单独丢在一边不礼貌,而且有事也不好招呼。但客人一到,你们很亲近,很随便,我们在跟前不方便。站在5米以外,若即若离。就是说,既有一定距离,又便于随叫随到,就是这个道理。”

——这就是秘书为首长服务的艺术。

教授临走时首长来送行。教授说:“送不送我无所谓,关键是住你这高级宾馆的房子要多少钱?”

“不算多,两个人每天一百元。”

“那不行!我这个教授每天只能报30 元,这已经不错了,多一分钱都得自己添。”

“杨秘书。”

“在。”

“有个事,×教授一天只能报30元,这事你看……”

“首长,我明白了。”不出半小时,发票开回来,每天30元。

——这就是秘书领会首长讲话精神的艺术。

教授对将军说:“你这个秘书真不错。”

“现在秘书挺难选,选不合适还弄不清谁为谁服务呢?眼下是孙子厉害还是爷爷厉害,你能说清楚?”

从这位杨秘书迎送他的首长的老战友的两个简短的情节中,我们可以看出,杨秘书是一个合格的秘书。

那么,秘书在为首长服务、办事过程中,有哪些要求呢?

一、谙知本人身份

秘书要时刻明确、懂得自己是个秘书,是为首长服务的,是一般的机关干部。不搞特殊,不搞特权,不狐假虎威,不利用职务之便谋私利。一定要严格做到:不骄横,不狂妄,不放肆。

要特别防止三个问题:

一是当了秘书身价高了,比首长还难见,比首长还老大,比首长还难说话。某教授写了一本书,要首长写前言,单是找秘书约见,就在招待所等了7天。当了秘书不能看不起周围的老同事、老领导和下边来的工作少人员。不能“身居秘书位,一览众人小。”

二是当了秘书欲望强了,给首长办事时顺便给自己办事。为亲属安排工作、调动工作、入党、提干,转志愿兵等等。首长得到什么好处秘书也要得到,否则心理不平衡。一次某部队军事演习,为来参加演习的上级首长买了副水晶眼镜,秘书没有得到,心里很不痛快。演习结束时,该部队领导见到秘书说: 这次演习规模挺大,经费超了,能不能给首长说一声,再拨一点钱?”秘书嘴里说:“好,我帮你们说一说,”心里却说:“现在才想到我呀,等着吧!”根本没有理睬。

三是当了秘书胆子大了,打着首长的旗号,甚至利用首长职权,违反规定,拉关系,走后门,招摇撞骗,大搞不正之风。

某部队钱秘书常给下边打电话:

“王团长吗?我是钱秘书。”

一听是钱秘书,惹不起,团长的声音变了:“原来是钱秘书啊,有什么指示,我们好好办。”

“你们团二连钱××,我们准备调走,怎么样?”

“哎呀,这事得求你高抬贵手了,钱××是我们团军事训练三项全能尖子,他一调走我们团的个人全能训练可就没戏唱了。是谁让调走的呀?”

“那你就别管了”电话放了。

钱秘书是按谁的指示调动人?不得而知。

钱秘书又给下边打电话:

“要三团李政委。”

政委接话:“是我,请问你是哪位?”

“我是钱秘书。”

这个李政委过去也当过这个部队的秘书,对有些秘书以权谋私特别反感。所以一听钱秘书找他,未问原因先来气:“是小钱啊,有什么事吗?”

“你们团五连的孙××,我们想调去学开车。”

“这不行!团里有规定,学开车的兵要连队民主推荐,你这样干我们不好做工作。”

“我们已定了。”

“谁定的?”

“这你别问了。”

“当然要问了,天皇老子也得问。”政委说着“啪”地把电话摔了。钱秘书碰了一鼻子灰。

现实生活中确有个别秘书人员,不知自己能吃几碗干饭,不知自己算老几。他们的不当行为破坏了首长的威信,破坏了上下级关系,让群众总觉得首长在搞名堂。到底谁在搞名堂呢?这样的秘书最终会损害他自己的威信,成为孤家寡人。

所以,秘书一定要明确自己的身份,特别是那些高层首长的秘书,那些资格较老的秘书,那些高干家庭出身的秘书,更要严以律己,遵职守责。

二、作风庄重严谨

秘书必须有良好的思想作风、工作作风和生活作风。大处着眼小处着手,时时处处严格要求自己,树立起一种严肃端庄、朴实无华的好形象。虽然工作在首长身边,但要置身于群众之中。按一般干部的要求对待自己,循规蹈矩,不搞特殊化,包括按时起床出操,整理军容风纪,不留长发等等细枝末节。严格做到:不轻佻、不散漫、不装蒜。

要注意克服这样一些毛病:

一是工作作风上老滋老味,装模作样,不像个秘书,倒像个“九号首长”。首长在队前吸烟,你也吸烟,首长披件大衣,你也披件大衣在队前晃来晃去,首长讲话哼哼哈哈,你也跟着哼哼唧唧。有的秘书还喜欢作点指示,跟在首长后边显威风。首长给部队讲完话,人家客气地请秘书讲几句,秘书还真讲:“我再补充三点,一…二…三…”。大家表面上在听你补充讲话,但心里在骂:“你算老几呀。”

二是生活吊儿郎当,没有下属的样子。在熟悉的首长面前,过于随便甚至比较放肆。嘻嘻哈哈,拍拍打打,乱开玩笑,有时还口出狂言,令人难堪。

三是思想作风上刁滑虚伪,心术不正,叫人琢磨不透。“势利眼”比较严重,对有职有权的首长曲意迎合,毕恭毕敬,总是围着团团转。对有职无权的首长看不起,交待的任务敷衍了事。对已失势的首长,不屑一顾,可以随便顶撞。对水平低的首长有意愚弄,写讲话稿时专门用繁体字,生僻词。

作为秘书,应该牢记:无论谁当首长,都是你的首长;无论给谁当秘书,你都是秘书。对任何一位首长都不能看不起;看不起任何一位首长都是自己思想意识不好的表现。秘书必须明白,领导的水平、能力总有差异,越是水平不高能力较弱的首长,越是把你对他是否重视看得特别重要。

作为秘书,还应牢记:你所做的每项工作,首先要得到直接首长的肯定,一般情况下不能“隔着锅台上炕”。给政委写个材料,是主任向你交待的,但你写好后绕过了主任,直接送给政委就不妥。次数多了,就有不良后果。不论秘书的能力有多强,成绩有多大,在首长面前都要谦虚谨慎。不仅要对直接服务的首长周到热情,而且对所有的领导都能以诚相待。

三、动作勤快干练

秘书干事应迅速果断,干净利落,不能漏洞百出,拖泥带水。说走就马上出发,说停可就地安顿。既紧张快速,又有条不紊,严格做到:不窝囊、不迟缓、不懒惰。要尽量克服以下几种毛病:

一是动作太拖拉,慢条斯理,不慌不忙,让首长为你着急。某机关一个郭干事,总爱抱本书蹲厕所,跟首长出去开会,出发前照样蹲厕所看书,半个小时过去了,首长坐在车上着急,他蹲着不起来,首长气得直骂:“懒驴懒马屎尿多,你怎么也这样?”

二是生活太懒散,丢东忘西,睡眼惺松,让首长为你操心。某部队一个赵干事,写材料功力很深,生活却很懒散,总是拖拉个鞋,提两个水瓶进食堂,吃完饭却忘了提水瓶,时间一长,炊事班的水瓶没处放,一下子还给他十二个。吸烟时随便丢烟盒,没有烟又干不成事。首长要随时给他捡烟盒,机关不少人都知道,他的烟经常装在首长口袋里。一次外出,火车晚点一小时,他和首长一起看书等候,结果火车到站了,他不知道;火车启动了,他才发现,大喊:“站住”,无奈换成第二天的车票。回来后大家一问,他说:“广播里说晚点一小时,我一看表,火车提前了8分钟。”

三是工作太被动,眼中无活,拨拨转转,让首长为你服务。某政治部曹干事,大学本科毕业生,没经过部队严格训练,材料写得很好,但工作不主动,总是要人跟在后面催。让他参加会,然后写简报,他说:“写那有啥用?”一拖再拖,催急了,他又说:“写快了干啥,有啥用?”一次,部队首长去开会,只能带一个人为首长整理材料,就带他去。按理说,首长外出,坐什么车,几时出发,都得随行人员操心。可曹干事想,跟首长出门啥都是现成的,不用操心。于是他就坐在屋里等首长来叫他。十点半的火车,九点四十首长来找他,他正在刷鞋。首长让他动作快点,他说:“还早着呢!慌啥?”结果是一路堵车,紧赶慢赶到了火车站已停止检票,两人赶快跑,曹干事跑得快,首长跑不动,刚迈上二号车厢,火车就启动了。曹干事还说:“我说误不了嘛。”

首长喘着气:“车没误,可我的腰可扭了。”

“那你缺乏锻炼。”

首长的软卧在九号车厢,人多,好不容易挤到了,无奈又挤回来。

“您怎么又回来了?”

“我的车票呢?没有车票不让坐呀!”原来是曹干事忘了给首长车票了,让首长在车厢的走道上折腾了一个多小时。首长非常不高兴。心里想:这个曹干事,怎么是这样呢?真得

让他到艰苦的地方好好锻炼锻炼。要不然,他连怎么当个合格的干事都不明白。

开会回来后,首长问有关人员:“哪最艰苦?”

“腾格里大沙漠,侦察连正在那里训练呢!”

“那好,让曹干事去锻炼锻炼。”

秘书的职能要求,无论你正在干什么,只要首长一招呼,就要立即停下来,很快去见首长。比如你正在洗头,满头的洗洁净;正在洗衣服,满手的肥皂沫;正在洗澡,刚要擦背。等等。都要立刻停下来,去接受首长的指示。

秘书要做到:听到首长的喊声,能立即答“到”;接到首长来的电话,能快速接应,传来首长的指示,能马上去办。

四、反应机灵敏捷

秘书要有机灵的头脑,快速的思维,敏捷的反应。努力做到:不痴呆,不死板,不犯傻。

有的秘书,首长给他交待一件事情,讲了三遍他还没回过味儿来。所以,秘书要记住下面三句话:

不等首长把话说完,你就能知道下面的内容;

不等首长把话说透,你就能清楚其中的含义;

不等首长把话说明,你就能领悟暗中的成份。

对首长的比喻、双关、暗示语都能准确理解。要避免发懵犯傻,也要避免自作聪明。该明白的要明白,该痴呆的要痴呆,这就是精明。与首长谈论重大理论问题时,你要装一点糊涂,让首长多给你一点指点,显示首长的高明。这样做既不影响具体工作的进行,也不损害你在首长心目中的形象。当首长交待具体问题时,你要多一份聪明,举一反三,抛砖引玉,对首长意图理解得非常透彻。

某部队直属队野营拉练,B首长的汽车被一辆大卡车挡住,左超左挡,右超右挡,最后超了过去。秘书让车停在路中央,拦住大卡车,把连长叫过来,狠训了一通。待秘书回到车里首长满意地看了他一眼。快到宿营地时,首长的车陷在一条小河中,怎么也推不出来,天快黑了,衣服也湿了,又饿又累,明知道这几个人推不上来,可大家还是推。随车的一位保密员自作聪明,不想白费劲,学着首长的样儿在岸边踱步。到目的地后,首长把参谋长叫来:

“你那个保密员从哪调来的?”

“从七团”

“明天叫他回去!”再没话了。

参谋长找秘书一问,知道保密员犯傻了。保密员回到团里,干得也不错,可他始终不知道为什么把他从军里退回来。

秘书人员在为首长服务中,对那些有实际意义的工作要努力干好,对那些表面已失去实际意义,但却隐含其他意义的工作也不能轻易放弃。

某部队在老山前线参战。C首长到前沿阵地视察,情况很危险,身边跟了十几个人。刚一到阵地,就听到“啾”一声炮弹飞来的声响,听声音离这里非常近。一霎间所有的人都不由自主地就地卧倒,连警卫员也趴在了地上。这时只有秘书一下子扑在C首长身上。虽然是场虚惊,但C首长对秘书的这种机灵敏捷的反应却极为赞赏,对秘书有了种无法更改的好印象。在关键时刻,秘书想到的首先是首长,而不是自己,这不仅仅是反应速度的问题,而是职责和习惯问题了。离开前线不久,秘书便到某团任职。C首长在党委会上说:“作为秘书,他的行为不仅仅是保护了领导,而是尽职尽责的具体表现。有了这种精神,在任何岗位上都能干得出色。”

察觉首长间矛盾的艺术

秘书面对很多首长。每天都在诸多首长之间来往,一方面,首长之间的关系必然制约着秘书的言行,另一方面,秘书的言行也对首长间的关系产生影响。因此,秘书的职责也包含着协调首长之间关系的重要内容。

无论首长们怎样团结一致,怎样亲密无间,他们之间总有裂痕、矛盾、扯皮和纠缠不清的问题。一个新秘书很可能不大理解,连长指导员有矛盾很正常,这么大的首长间怎么也有类似情况?其实首长和我们差不多,甚至有时比我们还小孩子气,这也很正常。因此,秘书协调好首长间的关系,包括协调好正职首长间的关系、正职与副职首长间的关系,以及首长和各部门领导之间的关系,就显得特别重要,而协调好首长关系的前提,首先要察觉首长之间可能或已经产生的诸矛盾。

一、察觉首长间矛盾的目的

秘书察觉首长间矛盾的目的,不是仅仅为了知道首长的一些内部情况,更不是为了看首长的笑话,而是为了力所能及地调解首长的矛盾,协调首长间的关系,增强首长之间的团结,更好地为部队建设服务。

但是,秘书协调首长间的关系,居下仰高,不是一件容易的事。主要表现在这样几个方面:

第一,协调对像的逆向性。秘书是首长的下级,不像上级协调下级那样,可以居高临下,无所顾忌;也不像授权去协调下属单位的纠纷那样,可以亮出“尚方宝剑”。秘书协调首长间的关系,只能采取一套非权力法术,而且由于受到身份的限制,该说的不好说,怕引起首长的反感;该协调的想协调,又怕影响或干扰首长的工作。甚至连首长的情绪也要注意,弄不好就会碰一鼻子灰。

第二,协调内容的隐晦性。首长之间,无论什么原因引起的误解、隔阂、分歧和矛盾,虽然也有放在桌面上公开论短长的,但更多的却是各自放在心里,不易外露。尽管秘书贴近领导,可以进行判断,却也难免有误;即使判断准确,首长也可以不予承认,甚至反唇相讥,使秘书陷入难堪境地。

第三,协调权威的软弱性。秘书在协调过程中,可以说一千道一万,而被协调的首长们,可以听也可以不听。因为秘书人员不具有强制力、约束力和平衡力。所以,这种协调比起行政的、纪律的手段的威慑力要逊色得多。

第四,协调过程的风险性。秘书协调首长间的关系,容易遭到种种误解。尽管出以好心,也可能被误认为心术不正,有个人野心;尽管不带任何个人成见和偏袒之心,也可能被误认为是对方的说客而遭“白眼”,或者坐“冷板凳”;尽管态度诚恳,行为得体,也可能使领导看不顺眼,想不顺心,甚至将某种不快转向秘书发泄。这给秘书人员的心理增添了很大压力。

不过,只要秘书明确了协调首长关系的重要意义,出以公心,首长总是会理解的。

二、容易产生矛盾的方面

秘书对首长间关系的协调难度较大,这就需要有驾驭这种协调的能力和艺术,而这种能力和艺术的发挥,其前提是充分地了解和掌握他们之间到底在什么问题上容易产生矛盾,可能产生些什么矛盾,这样,才能进行有效的协调工作。首长间容易产生矛盾和分歧的问题主要有以下七个方面:

(一)在党委集体领导与个人说了算的关系上

军队最重要的组织原则和领导原则,是“党委集体领导下的首长分工负责制”。这一原则有三层意思:第一,凡重大问题应经过党委集体讨论决定。第二,必须坚持少数服从多数。第三,在党委统一领导和少数服从多数的前提下,属于军事工作的,由军事主官负责实施;属于政治工作的,由政治主官负责实施,军政副职协助主官工作。

实际工作中,多数领导班子里总有一个核心人物,可能是军事指挥员,也可能是政治委员,这个核心人物在重大问题上左右着全局。这是一种无形的力量,他一个人的讲话常可形成班子的决议。其他人有不同想法,也只能服从和执行,这个核心人物一般是凭能力、水平、功绩和模范作用,凭在长期工作中建立起来的威信,有一种威严感,甚至使人产生盲目服从感。有这样一个核心人物,具有很多优越性:班子是稳定的、团结的、统一的,没有多少公开的磨擦和斗争,有利于顺利地开展工作。

但是,由于班子不断地调整更换,核心人物也在变动之中。他们离去,班子就不稳定了,各种情况的矛盾和分歧显露出来,特别容易出现争核心、争领导权、争说了算的问题。这就会产生一些不正常的情况:谁资格老谁说了算;谁厉害谁“骂娘”谁说了算;谁在这个单位时间长根子深谁说了算;谁有后台谁说了算,大家见了他望而生畏,他去趟北京就顶事。上述情况一产生,矛盾、分歧就出现了,坚持正确原则的一些同志不信邪,斗争也便开始了。可以说,坚持集体领导与个人说了算之间的矛盾和斗争,始终是各级领导班子影响团结的主要方面。

(二)在对下属两级班子的配备和评价问题上

首长们在如何配备下属两级领导班子,怎样评价这两级班子的主要领导人问题上,也常有不一致的想法。例如军对师团两级的领导人,特别是主官要谁来干,特别关心。一方面关系到部队建设的核心问题,一方面也关系到个人的切身利益。每个首长都有自己的考虑和打算。在用人的问题上,政治领域与自然科学领域不一样。诺贝尔奖的获得者,一般能做到标准明确,众望所归。而选用行政领导人则不一样,有副对联说得好,上联是:说你行你就行,不行也行。下联是:说你不行,你就不行,行也不行。横批是:不服不行。一代代的政治家们在用人的问题上制订了诸多条件和标准,但在实际选拔中,却很难把握。用谁都有道理,分歧自然产生。

讲资历的说:“这么老的同志,怎么不用?战争年代过来的,经过长期考验,有经验又靠得住,好同志嘛!”你用不用?

反对论资排辈的说:“资历不能当饭吃,资历是过去,不是将来。我们要的是年轻力壮,这才能继往开来,使我们的事业后继有人。”你说有没有道理?

主张有学历的说:“光年轻力壮还不行,改革的时代,高科技的新时期,没有科学文化知识怎么搞国防现代化?要重视学历。最少也要大专以上才能当主要领导。”这话对不对?

除了每个人的着眼点不同,选人的标准不同外,还有其他因素的影响,也会产生分歧。

上级首长来视察,见了老部下说:“好久不见了,挺好吧?”

“首长不认识了?”

“认识,不就是小刘嘛!现在干得怎么样?”

“努力是挺努力,就是不长进!”

“有什么要我说说?”

“首长是我的老领导,说句话当然更好了。”

首长在一个合适的机会果然说了:“小刘原来是我的部下,他不错,最近你们是不是准备用他?”

“是啊,是准备用他。”

“那我就放心了,谁没点毛病,改了就是好同志。”

有了这个关系(后台)也成了用人的标准。而反对他的人就会说:“没有本事,还有一身毛病,光凭后台硬怎么能行?”矛盾出来了。

有个单位的D领导,干了6年没有动,看来没戏了。1983年,上边要一个同志去院校学习一年半。时间较长,可能误一些事,比如职务呀、待遇呀,家庭生活呀等等,都不想去。一班人坐在那儿谁也不吭声,光喝水。水喝多了就要上厕所,这个D领导憋不住就去解手。

回来后党委书记说:“刚才大家议过了,你去。”

“我本来没文化,去了也白搭。”

“就因为你没文化,才让你去深造。”

D 领导学两年回来了,位子已经没有了,干点杂事。突然有一天有份文件规定,进上一级领导班子必须经过某级院校进修,有文凭。党委又开会研究,进校一年半以上,只有一个,就是那位D领导,他果然进了上一级班子。其他人很后悔,“早知道这样咱们也去解小便呀!”

上述种种原因,使首长们在用人和评价人的问题上就容易产生矛盾和分歧。

(三)在军政关系和各项主要工作的安排上

首长都有各自的分工,谁对自己主管的工作都很偏爱。要人,要物,要时间。例如,上级规定,全训部队和技术分队要抽出一定时间组织学习××重要文件。“一定时间”是多少为好呢?

政治首长说:“这个学习很重要,是全党的中心任务,要加大学习量。”

军事首长说:“上级讲抽一定时间组织学习讨论,‘一定时间’就是说不能抽太多时间,特别是技术分队,中心任务是全训。”

诸如此类,矛盾出现了。

(四)在部队发生重大问题,寻找原因和责任时

无论在什么时候,什么情况下,一旦部队发生重大问题,作为领导,必须查找原因,明确责任。而原因在哪?责任谁负?看法不一,就会产生矛盾。

例如,整编中,调出去一个分队,又调进来一个分队,这个新调入的分队发生了伤亡事故。党委找原因查责任时,有的首长认为,一调到我们这里,就出现事故,我们负有不可推卸的领导责任。又有的首长认为,他们刚调来,出了事故让我们负责任,不合理;它们没来时,我们为什么没事故?根源不在我们。各执己见,难明确责任。

再如,领导班子调整了,新班子刚组建,部队出了问题。原班子的首长认为,老班子时,一切正常;新班子不得力,因此出了问题。新班子的首长认为,冰冻三尺非一日之寒,老班子留下的问题,这时候暴露了。到底是谁的问题?也易发生分歧。

(五)在工作取得成绩,评论贡献大小的问题上

工作有了成绩,取得了经验,受到上级的肯定和表杨,无疑这是党委集体领导的结果。但毕竟有首长的分工不同,个人的努力不同,发挥的作用不同。在评论每个人所做贡献时,也难免会产生矛盾和分歧。

某分队是军区先进单位,上级总结经验时,B首长的事迹较突出,例子用得多,A首长的例子较少。B首长看了不同意这么写,说:“你们写材料的人要注意,班子本来有不团结的苗头,你这样写是爱我还是害我,让A首长看了有想法。”写材料的人说:“实事求是吗!”拿给A首长看,A首长说:“写得好!不愧是秀才,写得确实好。不过也有点毛病。工作是大家的,全分队两三千人不全是领导的功劳,更不是我们两位领导的功劳。至于我嘛,你们也写了不少,我看算了,不要提了,好不好?”

其实,在评价谁的功劳大小上,无形中给两位主官之间又加了个楔子。吃饭时A首长说:“经验总结得不错,来,咱们干一杯,”一口进去了。B首长感到这酒太难咽了。

(六)在生活待遇和福利的分享上

尽管有些事情很小,甚至没有多大实际意义,但也容易产生问题。例如:房子谁的大,谁的小了,谁靠前,谁在后了;院子谁的墙高了,谁的墙低了;猪肉谁的肥了,谁的瘦了。等等,家属们常吵嚷,丈夫有时也冒出一句,产生了矛盾。用车也是样,谁用车一叫就到,又是好车;而谁用车来得不及时,或者车不好,也会产生想法。

(七)在家庭成员升学、入伍、工作安排问题上

部队中军师两级首长般都有两个子女,正是上大学、就业的时候。谁的孩子进了军校,谁的孩子没办成;谁的孩子当兵在北京,谁的去了内蒙,首长们很有想法;他的孩子能去广州市当兵,我的孩子为什么要去马兰受苦?有些首长为家属的工作安排也常计较。某某首长的家属在部队的服务社上班,工作轻闲又能照顾家,而某某首长的家属在地方上班,工作很累离家又远,由此又引发矛盾或不团结。

三、容易产生矛盾的班子

首长们在上述一些问题上容易产生矛盾或误解。而这种矛盾或误解又容易发生在下述这类班子里:

(一)班子调整过于频繁

领导班子成员经常调动,特别是两个一把手调整过于频繁,刚来没几天就调整了,再换一个,很不稳定。越不稳定,越容易产生矛盾。领导成员间缺乏了解,缺乏信任,缺乏长远打算,缺乏配合和适应。最容易产生矛盾。

(二)班子超编人员太多

“文革”期间,各级领导班子副职一大堆,打牌够好几桌。人多了内耗就严重。这几年按编制定位,超编的现象大大减少了,但个别单位这种现象仍然存在,过去讲“人多好办事”,现在讲“人少好办事”。人一多想法多,很难统一,争论半天定不下来。他说你应这么干,你说他应那么干,到底怎么干?最后还是不好干。干不干都有矛盾。

(三)两个一把手性格相同,能力都很强

两个正职首长水平相当,都有很强的工作能力,并且都是一样的性格,也易产生矛盾。能力强本来是好事,配合得好,能有大的作为。但一旦有了分歧,就可能各不相让。所以,配班子时应搭配合适。当然不能公开说:“师长很强,配个弱一点的政委”。性格上也注意对应,一个急点,一个慢点,才好办事。连长急了,一瞪眼把战士骂了一顿,指导员不能再补上骂几句,那样战士就没法活了。连长性格急躁,把战士骂了:“看你那样子,除了吃6个馒头还能干啥?平脚板,行军时就你掉队,滚!”指导员过来,和风细雨:“连长刚才骂了你,还不是为你好?不爱你骂你干啥?马路上那么多人,他骂过谁?爱的方式有多种,连长这人就是这么个爱法。往后多锻炼一下就行了。”两种性格,一硬一软,配合得天衣无缝。

(四)部门领导能力强于首长

比如某个师,参谋长、主任特别能干,而师长、政委则相对弱一点,就容易出问题。政委的指示有片面性,主任执行不好办,不执行也不好办。师长指挥不当,参谋长给予纠正,就会产生矛盾。参谋长、主任常有所不满,师长、政委常有反感。

(五)正副职资历、年龄相差较大

正职首长年轻,资历浅,而副职首长年龄大,资历深,就不易搞好配合。正职首长常常不好开展工作,有时压不住台。副职首长可能不服气,不愿听摆布,矛盾出现了。某师政委很年轻,军衔低,地方领导来访,总是与副职先握手,把他丢在一边,他心里就很不舒服。

(六)首长间有旧的恩恩怨怨

因各种原因有些领导在很久以前就有矛盾或分歧,甚至在一个连、一个营当连长、指导员时就闹过不愉快,现在又同在一个领导班子里任职,很难免把旧的恩怨带进新的共事中。

四、察觉首长矛盾掌握的原则

察觉首长之间的矛盾是为了帮助首长解决矛盾,因此,必须遵循下列原则:

第一,顾全大局的原则。

目的在于统一首长的意志,加强首长的团结。唱的是“将相和”,而不是从个人感情出发。

第二,绝对保密的原则。

察觉和掌握首长间的矛盾,是属于领导层内部的重大问题。无论有什么矛盾,也无论协调得结果如何,都不能产生任何外部影响。

第三,服从领导的原则。

秘书了解首长间的矛盾,进而协调首长间的关系,是在接受首长领导的前提下进行的。

不能随心所欲,背离首长的意志行事。

秘书人员协调首长间的关系,一定要有良好的思想素质。必须具备对党对人民高度负责的精神,才能克服“凡人不管神仙事”的思想,自觉参与协调首长间的关系;才能不怕困难,不惧风险,不计荣辱,积极主动参与协调首长间的关系。

至于秘书如何协调首长间的矛盾,我们在下边分专题进行具体阐述。

给首长圆场的艺术

圆场本是戏曲表演的一种程式动作。最初的圆场,是作为两个不同的表演内容或方式的过渡而出现的。我们这里说的圆场,是在协调首长关系中,为打破僵局,消除尴尬处境,化解矛盾,帮助领导下台,秘书从中解围或采取折衷方法的一种方式。

我们可以这样理解:首长在物质生活上应该说是富有的,出门有车坐,视察有人陪,就连吃饭、休息也有人照顾。可以说是需要什么就有什么。但首长在精神上又常常很孤独,有心事、有麻烦、有不满、有怨言,不能跟部下讲,不能跟同级讲,有些事甚至不能跟家人讲。讲了就可能坏事。所以,他们活得也挺累,也挺艰难,内心免不了有种种不快和痛苦,于是在某种场合或时机,一些不负责任的话,缺乏原则性的话也就讲出来了。对此秘书就要出面圆场,使矛盾得到缓解。

一、淡化情绪法

秘书的办公室常是首长议论工作的场所,交流感情的场所,谈天论地的场所,也是发泄不满情绪的场所。因此,秘书的圆场,很重要的一个方面是把某个首长或首长与首长之间不太正常的情绪减弱下来,这就是淡化情绪法。根据不同的首长产生的不同情绪,可以采取这样一些方法:

(一)顺意引伸就是先顺着首长的情绪和意思向前发展,然后再逐步引导加以淡化。某些首长的情绪比较强烈,或者他的性格本来就比较固执,秘书企图一下子淡化或转移这种情绪很困难,弄不好还会适得其反,不仅使这位首长对其他首长的不正常情绪得不到缓解,反而使这位首长又加上了对秘书的某种不正常情绪。在这种情况下,秘书就要先顺着首长的情绪发展一下,使自己被首长的情绪所容纳,然后,再趁势引导,逐渐淡化。

某单位C首长在六十年代后期,4年生了3个孩子,都是男孩,老大智力弱,老二特别淘,老三非常任性,整天在一起打闹。然后是一块上学,一块待业,等着父亲给安排工作。这位首长提前半年想办法,拉关系,跑路子,用车、送礼比较多,占了许多时间和精力,自然影响工作。该单位B首长对此很不满,曾多次向C首长做过暗示,但都没起什么积极作用。B首长非常气愤,对秘书说:“这样干怎么行呢?党风哪里去了?部队建设哪里去了?看来就得撕破脸皮对着干了!”秘书听了就要圆场:“是啊,这个问题确实挺突出,机关里也有反映,您作为党委书记,不能不过问。”

这种回答就是“顺意”法。

“你说该不该解决一下?”

“是需要解决一下。”然后一转,进行淡化, “我看您不用太着急。他忙活了大半年,该跑的都跑了,听说已有了着落,用不了十天人天就都安排完了。您要再给他几天,把事办完了,然后开会批评他,说重点也没关系。既给了面子,又坚持了原则,问题就会得到解决。细想来,他三个儿子同时待业也真叫他头疼,都五十几岁的人了,什么时候离退还很难说,不趁决把孩子的事情解决了,以后就麻烦了。”

接着再一转:“您好办,就一个‘千金’,长得又漂亮,又听话,不愁分配问题。”

“我的王秘书,你可不知道,现在的姑娘比儿子难伺候多了,别看就这一个也难办,要求很高!”

话说到这儿,虽然还是子女就业问题,但讨论的内容已从对方发展到B首长自己这方面来了。原有的情绪淡化了,“我了解,您在家也是‘三号’首长,一号是您家属,二号是您姑娘,三号才是您。”秘书一个玩笑讲得首长喜上眉头。

“我是不管闲事,都叫他们管还省心。”

一场疾风暴雨过去了,B 首长的激动情绪平息了,有关的矛盾和问题自然会得到较为和缓的解决。

(二)顺事推理

就是为了转变首长的某种情绪和看法,先不直接说明道理,而是置首长于一种促使其转变的环境、现场和气氛之中,然后再用事明理,达到预期目的。先看事,后明理,通过活生生的事例或现场观察,旁敲侧击地讲道理,引起首长由此及彼的联想,也就冲淡了原有情绪,并改变态度。

某部B首长上任不到半年,该部队连着开了两朵大红花:第一朵,中央军委命名一位班长为“爱兵模范”;第二朵,被军区评为“卫生先进单位”,一面大锦旗挂在那里。B首长春风得意。可这时一份内参登了一篇文章:“卫生单位不卫生,文明单位欠文明”,还附了两幅照片,反映该部队的家属院垃圾成堆,蚊蝇结群。过了几天,联合工作组又来检查该部队工作。B首长很是恼火。刚得了先进,就有人写信告状,心里估摸着是政治部有关人员干的。主任任职时间不短,干得也不错,没当上政委是不是有气,干了这件事?于是,B首长把组织科长和宣传科长找来说:“现在有些人吃里扒外,有问题不讲出来,写匿名信,搞什么鬼名堂?当科长的要注意这样的人呢!”B首长对两位科长挺信任,两个先进材料就是他们写的。他俩心照不宣地说:“天快黑了,咱们散散步吧。”B首长平时不爱动,这会儿想边走边谈,于是说:“可以嘛。”看上去他们像没有目标地往前逛,但每到叉路口总有一位科长先行两步。正走着,B首长嗅了嗅,“这么臭。”组织科长说:“三十米远处,是家属院公用厕所,您提前闻到味了。”继续走,似乎踩到厚厚的地毯上,宣传科长说:“您脚下是家属院垃圾,长期无人拉。”B首长说:“这么大一片?有几十米长吧?”继续走,进了家属院大门,B首长脚下一滑,差点摔倒,原来是一堆西瓜皮,“怎么搞成这个样子?”两位科长没出声,回来的路上才说:“不讲卫生的死角还有不少,像维修队的库房,修械所的厂房,宣传队的练功房等等,都是脏乱差的地方。”B首长不再说什么了。第二天,他把管理科长和有关领导都找了来,下决心解决这些问题。然后对两位科长说:“内参的稿子不管谁写的,不提了。你们俩再写一篇:“清死角查漏洞,让卫生单位更卫生,文明单位更文明。”

两位科长就是采用了顺事推理的方法,淡化了首长原有的情绪,为首长之间的矛盾打了圆场。

(三)顺势变向

所谓顺势变向,就是把首长谈话的内容及谈话气势,巧妙地转移到其他方面去,从而淡化原有情绪,使双方的矛盾得到缓解。

一段时间以来吃喝风盛行,有位D首长对此很是不满,特别是对班子中的另一位首长更是一肚子意见,他曾几次拒绝参加吃喝。部队搞廉政教育时,恰是D首长最有意见的那位首长负责这项工作。当D首长出差在外,到很远的边防部队检查工作。刚到那里,就接到电报,让他回来参加常委学习班。他很不高兴,一边看文件一边发泄不满:“现在是廉洁的人学习,腐败的人也学习。吃喝的时候,他最积极,学习的时候他又最积极,学完了接着吃,这怎么得了。”话说得不错,但应该在常委会上讲,不能在群众中讲,并且还应本着治病救人的态度,从团结的愿望出发,而不是在私下场合犯自由主义,这就很难达到团结的目的。于是秘书说:“是啊,现在吃喝问题太严重了。买本业务书没钱,订几份报纸没钱,吃喝有钱。”话题没有变,但指向开始发生变化了:“吃喝风严重,毛病不仅在有些人爱吃喝,还在于环境所迫。有时候,不请吃要不来钱,不请喝批不了地。没钱、没地就盖不了房子,部队建设就受影响。所以要从根本上治起,不光针对几件事,几个人,而是加强法制教育,加强法制约束。”

D首长看到秘书对自己讲的问题认同了,就接着说:“对!要有纪律,用法律来惩治,杀他几个,办他几个。”

这时,秘书趁机顺势转变话题:“杀也该,办也该。许多国家抓这方面的教育很突出,惩治很严厉,有长期规划。从小学开始就抓这方面的教育,我们也应该从娃娃抓起。新加坡、日本小学课本上没有语录,但主要进行法制教育。新加坡可称得上法制教育第一流的国家,法制教育贯穿50年。据说,有人在公共场所丢烟头要罚5000~15000元新币,而且执行得特别严格。一位部长无意中把烟头掉在候机厅地上,还没等他捡起来,管理人员便把罚款单据递过来了。他们现在还有两种刑律:一种是绞刑,一种是鞭刑。一鞭子下去,皮开肉绽,至少要养伤4~5个月。最重的要在两年内抽够7鞭子。姑娘们找对像有一个共同条件,先看一看对方屁股上有没有鞭痕。人们的法制观念都很强,生怕留下鞭痕。我们虽不一定要搞鞭刑,但也应该在人们头脑里树立起十分强烈的法制观念。这样,违法犯罪行为和各种不良风气也就随之减少或削弱了,吃请的少了,请吃的也就少了。”

话说到这里,首长在吃喝问题上的不满情绪,已不主要是对着另一个首长了,而是如何搞好法制教育的问题了:“你从哪看到的,胡吹吧?”

“不是胡吹,您看看1993年9月16日《中国财经报》,就是这样登的。”

有关新加坡法制教育、鞭刑等等,在首长心中留下了深刻印象,他下部队时就讲:“我们反对不正之风,加强廉政建设,重要的一条是加强法制教育和法制约束,新加坡从小学生开始教育,一搞就是50年,还有鞭刑……”讲得津津有味,矛头所向是法制教育而不是某个首长了。

二、中止交锋法

当首长面对面发生分歧和矛盾,话不投机,有可能伤害感情甚至出现冲突时,秘书通过巧妙的方法,使这种不协调的局面被迫中止,从而达到圆场的目的。

首长因故发生面对面的交锋,情绪都很激动,秘书很难通过劝解、引导、转移等和缓的方法使双方平息下来。因为任何一方的退让,就意味着理屈,面子上也过不去。实践证明,在双方的争执中,直接的劝解显得很无力,此时起主导作用的是感情而不是理智,劝解者说一千道一万都可能是耳旁风,而采取某种方法使这种冲突不得不中止,就会造成一种时机和条件,使双方或一方借机下台,摆脱尴尬处境,为以后的和解奠定基础。中止交锋可使用这样一些具体办法:

(一)请示某个首长一个问题

秘书拿着电话记录进来:“首长,刚接到电话,军区兵种部问火箭营演习开始的具体时间,其他部队也将有人参加,请首长马上定下来。”这位首长丢下争执,处理这项工作,另一位首长也很聪明,赶快走了。一个忙着工作,一个离开现场,再不会有冲突了。

(二)送上一份文件

让某个首长或几位首长当场传阅、批示。他们只好看文件,考虑如何批示,也就不再争执了。

(三)报告一个重要情况

秘书很急地进来:“刚接到一份事故通报,××部队在支援地方水电站建设中,发生了一起事故,没有人员伤亡,有关情况正在调查和处理中。”首长们立即把注意力转到事故上来了,无暇顾及争执的问题。

(四)传播一条重要新闻

当然这条新闻应能足以引起重视。秘书假装不知首长的争执,闯进来就说:“贝?布托再次当选。”“果然了不起,女中豪杰。”“八次入狱,两次执政。”“只有三十几岁。”……大家很感兴趣,你说我讲,刚才的争论丢开了。

三、支出现场法

支出现场是中止交锋最直接最有效的方法。把首长从不愉快的现场支派出去,双方脱离了接触,不仅争执马上停止,而且激动的情绪也会随之逐渐平静下来,双方就可能以理智的态度解决问题。

在首长之间因某个问题争执不下,一时又不能有什么结果时,其他的领导不好劝,也有人想看笑话:“争争吵吵有生气。”这时,秘书就要用支出现场的方法来圆场。

(一)让首长接电话

本来首长自己感到处境很难堪,借接电话之机正好摆脱。如果没有电话,秘书应在很短的时间里制造一个“电话”。比如给作训处长打个电话:“快,首长正在办公室,你不是有事要请示吗?马上给首长打电话,不然首长就走了,几天也找不到。”一个首长去接电话,另一个首长就没有争执的对像了。心理学实验表明,双方对立的激情,在对立面消失后,数秒钟之内就会消除。因此,支出现场的方法具有立竿见影的效果。

(二)告诉首长有人找

秘书可安排一个人来找首长,比如打个电话给宣传处长:“你不是要汇报下×××教育的安排吗?现在就来,越快越好,再过一会儿首长又要开会去了。”宣传处长来后,秘书简单交待几句:“你等着,我去叫首长。”结果是,一个首长出去搞接待了,另一个首长的气也消了。

(三)转告首长家中有事

首长家中有事,当然顾不上争执了,得赶快去处理。有个首长身边只有一个女儿。对女儿特别宠,只在她面前没脾气。秘书打电话找到她:“小媛,你爸爸又出了点事。”

“是不是又发脾气了?你叫他接电话。”

“首长,家里来电话找您。”

“怎么这时候来电话,是谁?”

“小媛。”

首长只得回办公室接电话:“什么事呀?”

“你答应我的事怎么忘了,给我买台收录机,要超薄型的,日本进口原装的。”

“就这事呀,我记着呢!下班就和你一块去。”

“你又生气了是不是?不要生气嘛!你保证!”

“好好,我不生气了。”刚才的那种激动情绪也便烟消云散了。

(四)请首长参加某项活动

有时,首长们对某个问题争来争去,一时又争不出结果,可谁也不甘示弱。这时秘书可以插进来,招呼首长休息一会,打打乒乓球,玩会扑克,下盘棋等等。有个首长特别爱下棋,只要见人下棋,无论如何也得放下手中的事来一盘。开完党委会,他与另一首长争论起来,秘书便对他说:“开了半天会,怪累的,轻松一下。瞧,那边把棋都摆好了,就等着您去应战了。”

他一听说下棋,没情绪争下去了:“算了,以后再说吧。”便急着去下棋了。

秘书的圆场是一项很微妙的调解方式,如同走钢丝,稍有不慎,就可能会出毛病。无论采取何种方法,都要恰到好处,不露痕迹。否则,就会引起首长不高兴,带来反效果。因此,要注意这样几点:

第一,涉及问题应比较重要。秘书借故的缘由和内容足以镇住首长的争论,可以把首长的注意力很快转过来。比如,送一份事故通报,能起到转移的作用,如果秘书说:“门口的哨兵与人吵起来了。”首长就会训斥:“哨兵吵架找我干什么,找军务参谋去。”不仅没能圆场,反而使首长气上加气。

第二,具有浓厚的兴趣。就是说,秘书打叉的话题是首长关注、爱听、感兴趣的事情,这样才能把首长吸引过来。首长喜欢跳舞,你说:“七点钟演出队举办周末舞会,请您参加,还有十分钟就开始了。”首长就没心思再争论下去了。

第三,时机要恰当。要选择应该插进话也能够插进话的时机。例如:双方都感到无法说服对方,或者至少有一方已感到有些不耐烦,或者暂时的沉默等等。如果首长刚把话说一半,你就插一杠子,他可能听都不听,就把你轰出去了。

第四,必须得体大方。有充分的准备和认真的思考。正副职首长发生冲突,要将正职支出去。如果让副职因故离开,副职可能会觉得不妥,而达不到目的。一个急,一个缓,可把急的支出去。急的走了,缓的很容易平息。如果让缓的走了,急的可能更急,缓的也走不成。

做好圆场工作对秘书的要求是很高的。

首先,能够在很短的时间里,通过观察、分析和判断,掌握双方发生纠纷的原因、内容和目的。并对其态度发展的可能趋势作出敏捷的反应。这样才能对症下药,获得成功。

其次,应以冷静、公正、理解的心理决定圆场的方法。目的只有一个,排除难堪场面,让领导下台。不要盲目站在一方,以2:1战胜另一方。即使自己喜欢的首长,占有道理的首长,秘书也不要轻易把自己“陪进去”,导致对方横下心,干到底,此谓“成事不足,败事有余。”

再次,有耐心,能忍让。首长在争执中,感情可能都很冲动,可能缺乏理智的控制。秘书在圆场时,难免受些责难和委屈。不要蒙受了不白之冤,就撒手不管。而应坚持自己的努力,达到预期目的,事后首长也会感激的。

有意隐秘首长分歧的艺术

所谓有意隐秘,就是把某些事实真相暂时隐藏起来,以维护首长间的团结。首长们有矛盾或分歧,背后互相议论,或在秘书面前说长道短,这是常有的事。常言说:谁人背后无人说,哪个人前不说人?从心理学角度看,这是对消极情绪的宣泄,从某种意义上说这也是自我缓解的一种方式。自我控制能力强,比较有修养的人,可能注意场合、时机和对像,并且较为含蓄。而自我控制能力差、尚欠修养的人,可能很少考虑环境和不良影响。首长也是人,也免不了会有这样的情绪产生。对于首长们在秘书跟前议论的一些你长我短的事,秘书不必大惊小怪。重要的是不要随意泄露出去,应守口如瓶。对此,秘书要做到这样几点:

一、不主动向上级反映首长间的矛盾

秘书不是监督员,整天向上级打小报告。如果这样,该级首长肯定不高兴。你也当不成秘书。文化大革命中,某个领导被打倒了,第一个贴他大字报的是秘书,这位秘书当时很神气。后来那个领导又平反了,这个秘书没法当下去了。现实生活中,某个首长免职了,秘书立刻反戈一击,与首长“划清界限”,结果查清了问题,首长又复职了,秘书无法做人。还有,某首长调走了,秘书服务于新领导,总说原来首长的坏话,讨新领导的喜欢。没过多久,原首长又调回来了,秘书的日子不好过了。

首长个人间的一些恩怨问题,甚至是较为突出的矛盾问题,原则上是由本级班子或首长个人来加以解决,秘书要尽力在上下左右之间维护首长们的威信和团结。如果班子出了大问题,上级专门来调查情况,秘书该怎么办呢?我们认为,除了立场方面的问题,大的原则问题,明显地违犯党的方针政策问题,秘书还是以“沉默”为好,尤其是不能借机把首长个人间的问题往外抖。社会上很多有关领导人的回忆录,可能都不是秘书写的,其实秘书更具备写作条件,他们知道许多鲜为人知的秘闻。他们之所以不写,可能就是因为他们需要守口如瓶,这既是做秘书的职业道德的要求,也是基本人格的要求。

二、不随便在有分歧的首长间传话

首长之间在工作上有分歧,私下里可能和秘书说了对方一些闲话,秘书只能到此为止,绝不可以有意无意地传给对方。如果随便乱传,不仅会加大首长间的分歧和矛盾,秘书本身也会在首长心目中失去应有的形象。

某部队B首长极力推荐李××提职,在办公室里很随便地对秘书说:“他这个人,有缺点,但有干劲,改革开放,带领部队搞现代化建设,没干劲就一事无成。”A首长则喜欢张××提职,也随便对秘书说:“光有干劲有什么用?把事情弄错了,干劲越大越糟。用人不能只看干劲,要全面衡量。”秘书不能把两个人的话互传。如果秘书把首长对你讲的这些话传来传去,或者只传一头,就足以使两位首长产生矛盾。所以,秘书在“传话”这个极为敏感的问题上,一定要“守口如瓶”,特别是涉及到首长个人利益的一些问题,如果有分歧意见,有不同看法,让秘书听到了,秘书就“到此为止”。一单位A首长本来与副职关系不错,工作中有点不同看法是正常的。一次A首长说:“副职嘛,要听招呼,定了的事就该办,不听招呼我怎么干呀?”他是与秘书随便讲讲。秘书便跟副职说:“有些事您还得考虑考虑!

“我考虑什么?”

“比如别让人感到不听招呼什么的!”

这位副职便说:“有些人光叫我们听招呼,他有什么能耐?炮兵训练一点不懂,瞎指挥!”

过后秘书又对A 首长说:“炮兵技术您有空还要多了解点!”

“我了解它干什么?有副职懂就行了。”

“您如果不懂,可能让人说您瞎指挥呢。”

“谁说的?”

“……”

“你不讲我也知道。”

秘书传话可能是好意,可后果却不好。

对首长间相互不满的闲话,秘书应做到:

第一,不打听、不追问。

首长有时对秘书讲一讲首长之间的事,秘书随便点点头听就是了,首长说多少听多少,说到哪听到哪,不随便插话,不仔细打听,也不轻易表示赞同或否定。这样做首长也不在意,哪说哪了。如果你详加追问,甚至添油加醋,并拿起笔来记录,首长就会起戒心,很可能惹出事非。一天政委从会议室出来、心情不大好,秘书倒了杯水递过来。政委便随意说了句:“有些人也真是的,拿人家的手短,吃人家的嘴软,只得给人家卖力气。”秘书忙问:“给谁卖力气呀?”

“还不是××科长,党委会上有人又提出让他当副参谋长,这个科长不行。”秘书接着说:“我也觉得这个人就是不行,光靠拉关系、请客送礼的一套,是不是又给E首长送礼了?”

政委听到这儿,抬起头看了秘书一眼,改变了原来的口气说:“谁说的?别胡猜疑,我不过是随便说说,你想到哪去了。”秘书很尴尬。

第二,不张扬、不暗示。

秘书不能把首长的一些非正式讲话特别是有碍于团结的讲话随便乱传,更不能直接转达给另一有关的首长;也不要以某种方式向另一首长暗示这个首长的意见。暗示比直说更具危险性。被暗示的首长会产生许多联想,简单的问题复杂化了。某部队B首长对E领导工作中的某些做法有意见,没头没尾地对秘书说了句:“讲了几次,要注意政策,怎么就不听呢?”领导开会回来布置工作,秘书小声说:“首长,要不要再分析一下,看有没有涉嫌政策性的问题。B首长特别强调这个问题。”E领导一听,火了:“谁让你提醒的?你去问问他,是不是派个政策监督员在我身边。”秘书一句话,问题闹大了。

三、不在背后议论首长间的矛盾

秘书在首长身边工作,对首长了解得比较深,知道的情况也比别人多。因此要特别防止自由主义倾向,无论首长有什么不足,相互间有什么分歧,都不能随便议论,扩大影响。秘书出现自由主义问题的机会和条件较多,要特别在以下五个方面加以注意:

第一,防止在车上流露。

秘书跟随首长乘小车,与首长谈论一些其他首长的问题,司机或其他随行人员都会听到,可能带来不良影响。一次秘书跟C 首长去开会,小车开到大门口时,秘书说:“大门口横着两根铁管子,车出车进真不方便,您说过几次要拿下去,可参谋长太固执,总是落实不了。”

“明天开会回来,我派人把它拆了。”

放铁管是为了让车减速,以便门卫盘查。但车从铁管上开过去,坐得就很不舒服。司机听了他们的议论挺高兴,他们早就对大门口横放铁管子有意见。于是就对自己的老乡——公务班的小李说了。小李是参谋长的公务员,此话又传到参谋长那里。结果C首长开会一回来,参谋长就找他,两人都很不愉快。

第二,防止酒后流露。

秘书常参加有关人员的酒席。酒后容易失言,不注意就可能流露出一些不该流露的问题。

因此,秘书在酒席上要自我检点,不出差错。不可来个“酒后吐真言”。

第三,防止乐中流露。

在一些欢乐愉快的场合,人的情绪比较兴奋,一高兴就忘乎所以,无话不谈。但话多必失,很可能就说出一些不该说的话。某秘书过生日,几位当参谋干事的老乡把他请到卡拉OK歌舞厅祝贺,张干事能唱能跳,还即席发表了热情洋溢的祝词,其他几个人大加赞赏张干事:“真是个当科长的料。”秘书说:“他是该当科长,可主任提出好几次,政委总是不表态。为此,主任还和政委差点儿闹翻。”高兴之中,秘书说了不该说的话。

第四,防止家中流露。

对于首长的长短和他们之间的分歧与矛盾,秘书在家中也不能随意流露,主要是防止在爱人和孩子面前议论。夫妻间再亲密,也不能代替组织关系、工作关系,不该说的绝不要说,这一点对秘书来说更为重要。

第五,防止热恋中流露。

正谈恋爱的秘书要注意,热恋中感情容易冲破理智的防线,对心上人什么都说,可能会出问题。有的人为讨好恋人,明知不该说也说,可他并没有想一想,一旦两人吹了还可能成为对方的把柄。某干事谈恋爱时,正搞反击右倾翻案风运动,他对女朋友说:“批邓是瞎胡闹,政委给我们布置过几次批判会,主任都暗地里另搞别的了。我们对主任非常拥护。”后来,两人吹了,女方写信给政委,揭发了他们的问题。政委专门找主任谈话,上级也派了工作组,主任做了检查,政治机关人人过关,差点弄翻了天。还好,没多久“四人帮”粉碎了,问题才算了结,可主任与政委间的矛盾却无法了结了。

四、不把工作失误的责任推给有责任的首长

秘书做的事,一般都是按首长的吩咐干的。有的时候由于首长考虑不周,事情干完了,问题也出来了。查责任时,秘书就不能说:“这不是我要这么干的,是××首长让我干的,我自己敢这么干嘛?”

首长交待给秘书一件事情,干得好与坏,首长也负有一定的责任,但秘书不应该把责任推给这位首长。特别是另一位首长查问时,你把责任推给交待任务的那位首长,就可能在首长间造成矛盾或误解。

某部队为活跃文化生活,建了一个卡拉OK歌厅,由于管理不严格,一些地方上不三不四的人也被带进来,出了一些问题。政治部决定,各单位用两个半天时间整顿作风纪律,歌厅暂时停开两天,谁也不能去唱。一位C首长找到宣传科分管这项工作的刘干事说:“来了两个客人,把歌厅打开玩一玩。”

“首长,有规定,这两天进行整顿,不让开。”

“整顿还整到我头上来了,打开,玩一下嘛,出了问题我负责。”刘干事只好照办。结果政治部主任把刘干事叫过来:“告诉你不能开,你怎么还开?谁让开的?”刘干事本来想讲“这是C首长让开的”。但转念一想,如果这样一讲,主任对C首长不就会有意见吗?于是只好说:“我自己开的。”结果刘干事被主任批评了一顿。

我们认为,刘干事处理这件事情是合适的。这样处理,尽管自己受点委屈,但有助于维护首长间的团结,缓解他们相互间的矛盾,也有助于增强首长对工作人员的信赖。对己、对人、对工作都是有益的。因此,为协调首长间的关系,在查找有关问题的责任时,秘书应努力做到:

第一,不辩解。

工作中出了问题不向有关首长身上推。对自己错怪就错怪了,忍辱负重,有失也将有得。

第二,不挑明。

工作中出了问题,有时上级知道责任不在秘书,而在于某个首长的失职。但只要未点出来,秘书就不要挑明,装糊涂,和稀泥,这样可避免矛盾激化,并能起到缓解作用。

第三,不汇报。

工作出了问题,当有关首长追查责任时,秘书不要向负有责任的首长汇报,要大事化小,小事化了。首长们见面还会照样客客气气,通力合作。

为协调首长关系而有意隐秘,对秘书自身的要求很高。除了具备隐秘的艺术技巧,还应具有坚强的组织纪律观念,全局观念以及优良的品质修养和心理修养。达到这些要求,不是轻而易举和一朝一夕的事情,要靠刻苦的学习,长期的磨炼和一点一滴的积累,做一个合格的秘书人员,就要为此而不懈地努力。

协调首长关系装糊涂的艺术

装糊涂就是假装对有些事认识模糊,故意不明事理,不知真情。

既然是装糊涂,就不是真糊涂,但又要让人觉得你是真糊徐。装糊徐就要装得像,装得不像就达不到目的,还可能弄巧成拙,惹出麻烦。因此,装糊涂也是一门艺术。

郑板桥说得好:难得糊徐。这既是说要想糊涂很不容易,也是说某些时候糊涂一点是非常必要的。人不能太糊涂,也不能太清楚。太糊涂了,活得就没有意义;太清楚了,也会活得很累。一段时间以来。男女老少都会唱叶倩文的“何不潇洒走一回”,其中有两句,“留一半清醒留一半醉,至少梦中有你追随”,说的就是这个意思。因此,聪明的人,活得潇洒。人应该是有时清楚,有时糊涂。

糊涂有许多种。真糊涂那是傻瓜,等于白活;难得糊涂则又太消极,也无意义;假装糊涂而心中清楚才是一种智慧和手段。

作为秘书,在首长间产生矛盾和分歧的问题上,就时常需要装糊徐,而且要会装,装出艺术性来。这既是自己和首长相处的需要,也是协调首长间关系的手段。

一、对影响首长团结的某些原因,秘书知道但装不知道

首长一方与另一方在某些问题上产生了分歧或想法,自然会影响双方的关系。但是如果把产生分歧和想法的真实原因向对方挑明,则更能使首长感到难堪或反感。相反,让首长暂时不了解真相或者永远不了解真相,则更有助于协调双方的关系。在这样的情况下,秘书即使对有些事情的来龙去脉知道,也说不知道,用自己的装糊涂,使首长真糊涂。

某部队机关公务员小张,挺机灵也挺勤快,是主任家属的老乡,与主任一家关系很密切,主任也很喜欢他。但参谋长不止一次地发现,小张为了讨好主任家属,偷偷摸摸地把公家的财物拿到主任家去。当然这事也都是背着主任干的,参谋长不好找主任明说,非常恼火。年底决定让小张复员,主任让秘书找军务科的同志说一说,把小张留下,但参谋长坚决不肯。主任对参谋长的做法很不满,不明白为什么平时关系挺不错,可在这么个小问题上却一点情面也不讲。于是把秘书找来问:“参谋长到底为啥和我过不去?”

“好像没有什么过不去的。”

“那为什么一定让小张走?”

“您说的是这件事呀,”秘书知道内情,一个战士复员的问题,本来没有啥,但考虑到涉及的原因,又牵扭到主任的家属,挑明了反而更复杂,于是说:“具体情况我也不是很清楚,好像是因为小张身体不太好,还听说他父母身边也需要人照顾。战士复员是军务部门的业务,我也不好详细打听。”

“我不是想再留小张一年吗?”

“依我说主任,换个公务员的事您别太费心,参谋长说了,公务班里随您挑一个,这事交给我,保您满意。”

“那就这么着吧!”

后来秘书为主任选了一名公务员,主任又很满意。时间一长,小张的事也就忘了。

试想,如果秘书把参谋长让公务员小张复员一事的真相告诉了主任,那主任及其家属和参谋长的关系将会是一种什么结果呢?

二、对首长要求证实他们关系的某些事实,秘书了解但装不了解

首长间发生了矛盾或争执,一方想证实对方说过或做过什么,另一方想证实没有说过或做过什么,就可能会把当时在场的秘书找来对证,很多时候这样的证实不会产生什么好结果。因为秘书无论证明哪一方正确,都会伤害另一方,首长的裂痕加深了,秘书自己也搭进去了。因此,当首长把你找来证实时,你必须装做记不清了。

某部队发生一起车辆事故,上级调查组来调查这件事情时,甲首长很气愤地说了一些过头话,话里话外对乙首长工作方法表示不满。后来事故的责任查清楚了,与乙首长没有多大关系,但乙首长对甲首长的讲话耿耿于怀,两人为此发生了争执。乙首长说:“那一次你说这些话时秘书在场。”

甲首长说:“那好,把秘书叫来。”

秘书一来,两人都问:“是不是这样说的?”

秘书说:“时间挺长了,又不是什么会上讲的话,也没有记录,我当时也没仔细听,确实记不清了。”

由于无法得到证实,两个人都没有什么情绪再争下去了。

如果秘书没有装糊涂,而是很认真地证明当时甲首长是这么说的或不是这么说的,那将会是一种什么结局呢?

三、对造成首长间不团结的责任该由谁负,秘书清楚,但装不清楚

首长间出现不团结的问题,总是事出有因的,总有负主要责任的一方。但俗话说:一个巴掌拍不响。无论哪一方负有主要责任,另一方也会负有某些责任。任何矛盾都有一个产生和发展的过程,这期间你对我错,我对你错,相互纠缠,很难完全辨清。就是把是是非非、大大小小的问题都能搞清楚,也不一定有利于问题的解决。大事不糊涂,小事不清楚,这是处理人际关系的条很重要的原则。因此,在被询查这方面的责任时,秘书心里是明白的,但嘴上却说不明白。实践证明,这样的装糊涂是非常必要的。

某单位两位首长过去曾有过恩怨,最近又因安排人写材料、派人去开会等一系列的工作上的事情产生了新的矛盾。两个都曾对秘书说,小组生活会上要把责任搞清楚,请秘书谈谈看法。秘书对他们说:“首长间的小磨擦,我们当秘书的怎么能说清,说清了又有什么用。又不是原则问题,查责任还不是为了解决问题?都是过去的事了,往后就当没发生过,不就完事了。”

小组会上两位首长都做了自我批评,心平气和,关系得到了缓和。

四、对首长的某些自由主义,秘书听见了但装没听见

首长间有想法,背后议论几句,常常不背着秘书,有时就是对着秘书随便议论。秘书就要左耳听右耳冒,过后全忘掉。任何时候提起这些问题,全装没听见。这样的糊涂特别重要,是协调首长关系所必不可少的。既然是背后议论,是自由主义,当然不是好事情。议论者和被议论者都不希望传出去。没听见就无法传,秘书装没听见就是为了不传。所以,第一,无论什么时候也不要在议论的首长面前再提起这些事。第二,无论什么时候也不要在被议论的首长面前提起这些事。第三,无论什么时候更不要在别人面前提起这些事。只有这样,才有利于首长间的团结。

以上这几方面装糊涂,对秘书来说都是必要的。这不是事不关己高高挂起。秘书不是首长的裁判员,秘书的工作更不是评判首长谁是谁非,首长的一些是非评价自然有人来管。对于首长间的一些矛盾和分歧,不需要秘书协助解决时,就要装糊徐,能装好糊涂本身就是在协调首长关系。

秘书对首长间的相互议论会装糊涂,要注意做到“四不”:

一是不拒听。首长与你议论其他首长的问题或是非,你只能听,而且必须听。你不能说:“我正写材料,你们出去议论吧。”

二是不记录。比如一位首长对另一位首长有一些不满情绪,在你面前议论,你很认真地说:“事情很重要,您慢点说,我记下。”首长当然就不说了,你这个秘书也别当了。

三是不追问。无论听没听明白,都不去寻根问底,说多少听多少,没说的也不想听。你若仔细打听,首长就会觉得不对劲。心想:这个秘书怎么这样爱多管闲事呢?

四是不肯定也不否定。首长问你:“对不对?有没有道理?”“是不是这回事?”你既不点头也不摇头,微笑着听他继续说就是了。

秘书对首长间的相互议论会装糊徐,还要做到“四要”:

一是要听而不听。哪听哪了,听完了也就忘完了,听了和没听一样。

二是要少答多听。不多插话,不随便回答问题,对首长的寻问一笑了之。

三是要边干工作边听。不真往心里去,不专心致志听,不影响手头工作,不放下手中的活儿,该干啥干啥,一边干一边听。

四是要边打圆场边听。能和稀泥的就和几下,能化解的就插几句。“是吗?”“算了吧!”“哪能呢?”

会装糊涂的秘书才是聪明的秘书。

暗中沟通首长关系的艺术

所谓暗中沟通,是指因首长对有些事情考虑不周到,造成首长间的误解或隔阂,秘书在私下或背地里进行串通和化解,通过秘书暗中的工作,使当事人双方不直接接触就可消除误解,避免可能产生的矛盾。

暗中沟通可采取以下几种方式:

一、及时提醒

对于可能产生矛盾或误解而首长又没注意到的问题,秘书要及时提出来,以引起首长的重视,这样就可以避免不愉快的后果。秘书要在哪些方面及时提醒呢?

第一,对首长忽略了的事要提醒。

有些事本身并不错,也不会产生不良后果,但在决策或执行过程中,有一些必不可少的程序或环节。如果越过了,就可能带来一些矛盾或误解。首长在面临较为紧急或重大工作事项时,容易在这些问题上有所忽略。秘书要及时提醒首长,防止或弥补这种忽略。

一次某部队发生了重大事故,领导的心情都很沉重,特别是司令员、政委更是痛心。年底了嘛,本来一年的工作都不错,这一锤子给砸了。政委对秘书说:“通知在家的领导,开个常委会。”司令员得知后很生气地对秘书说: 乱弹琴,事故的原因还没弄清楚,开什么常委会?能解决什么问题。”秘书看到司令员不同意开常委会,但不能把司令员刚才那种态度和原话转达给政委,而是返回来对政委说:“按过去的惯例,开常委会是不是先与司令员通个气?您先给司令员打个电话,我再发通知。”政委马上说:“对。你看我有点着急了,不用打电话,我找他去。”司令员和政委当面说,自然不会发火,认识也统一了,问题也解决了。

第二,对首长“越位”了的事要提醒。

部队的领导原则是党委集体领导下的首长分工负责制。军政主官和各个副职首长,根据党委的统一意志,各负其责。

所谓“越位”就是政治干部管军事的事太多了;军事干部管政治的事太多了;正职干涉副职太多了,副职未经正职同意,行使了正职的职权;副职之间也有分工,干涉了对方所管的事务,等等,一旦有类似的问题出现,秘书就有必要提醒首长,以便挽回影响,防止产生矛盾。

某师李副师长脾气不好,也不喜欢有人当面吹捧。常说:“谁吹我,我就收拾谁。”主管后勤工作的是张副师长,批钱的事要由张副师长签字。宣传科搞文艺汇演要批点钱,一位干事见张副师长不在,只好找李副师长:“您是我们平时最敬重的首长。”

“少吹捧,小心我收拾你。”

“就是因为您不喜欢吹捧,我才敬重您。”

“你这个小鬼会讲话,算了,不收拾你了。有啥事说吧!”实际上谁都爱听好话,“找我有什么事?”

“有个条子,500元,文艺汇演急着用,您批了吧!”

李副师长大笔一挥,批了。秘书知道后对李副师长说:“搞汇演批500元钱没问题,党委已经定了的事。不过要不要等张副师长回来看一眼再让他们办?因为用钱的事统一由他管,不然,财务上还得去报告张副师长,这不多转了一圈。”

“对,对,刚才我有点越位了,快去告诉宣传科一声,我那批条不算数。”

秘书的提醒非常必要,非常及时。

第三,对首长疏漏了的事要提醒。

首长考虑问题往往是从整体上、原则上做出决策和安排,而对其中的一些细节和具体问题,则不一定想得很周密很完善。在执行和落实过程中,就可能出现一些疏漏,由此而产生某种不该出现的问题。

首长有疏漏,秘书就要提醒,协助首长及时加以弥补,挽回影响。

首长们下班后经常要在家中继续工作,阅读和批示文件。为了安全起见,某部队常委决定给每个首长家中配发一个保险柜。C首长把管理处长找来交待:“一个首长配一个保险柜,3天之内办好。”

什么是首长呢?按惯例参谋长、主任以上的算首长。于是管理处长就按这个概念购买了保险柜,送到各个首长家中。这一下出了毛病,首长们都住在一个院,参谋长、主任以上的首长家中都送了一个保险柜,副参谋长、副主任家中没送,家属们首先不快活,冲着丈夫发泄:“看你那样儿,当了这么多年的领导,连个‘正’的也没混上,配保险柜都没你的份。”家属一闹腾,丈夫也跟着发牢骚:“买个保险柜有什么了不得的,怎么没我们的事?”

秘书马上对C首长说:“一个保险柜要不了多少钱,是不是给副参谋长、副主任也配一个,也是工作需要嘛。”

“怎么不配呢?我不是告诉管理处长了吗?叫他来。”管理处长一来,C首长问:“怎么不给副参谋长、副主任配呢?”

“您不是说给首长每家配一个吗?”

“糊涂!副参谋长、副主任就不是你的首长?快去买,还要作检讨。”

秘书又对管理处长说:“首长交待时可能不够具体,有点疏漏,我们办事的就得想办法弥补一下,送保险柜时解释解释。”

管理处长给各家送保险柜时便说:“首长指示我给每个领导干部家都配一个,而且要3天内完成。是我们的工作不得力。前一次拉回来的数量不够。这不,今天全拉回来了,不过刚好3天,没误事。”

秘书的提醒,进一步协调了首长间的关系。

第四,对首长忘却了的事要提醒。

首长工作忙,事情多,难免忘事。一些不很重要的事,一些随时决定的事,一些忙中安排的事,很容易忘记。事到临头,首长自己还当没事,或者又有新的安排,这就可能产生误解或矛盾,秘书要适时提醒首长,以免误事或造成影响。

某部队政委在一次机关党委会结束时说:“从这个月起,常委委员都要给机关上党课,从我开始,每月一个人。组织处做个计划,通知大家。”定下后,政委一直忙着军区在这里召开市场经济条件下思想政治工作研讨会的准备工作,把这一事给忘了。到了上党课的前一天,他对副主任说:“告诉你们主任,让他准备后天讲课。”副主任犹豫了一下,转身出去。秘书觉得不对劲,忙跑出去拉住副主任:“是不是政委忘了,这一课应该由他上?”

“是啊,我看主任好像没做什么准备,恐怕不好办。”

“你先别通知主任,我去去就来。”秘书回来对政委说:“根据记录,第一次党课由您上,这可是您自己定的。讲课提纲我已经准备好了。”

“是吗?我给忘了。那好,你快和我一块准备一下,我来上。再去跟主任说一声。”

“还没告诉主任呢。”

政委笑了:“差点没让主任误会了,以后这样的事还得多提醒我点。”

二、单独劝解

单独劝解就是发现首长一方对另一方有意见,有想法,秘书用劝说和调解的方法来做和解工作。这种劝解不是在首长们发生矛盾和争执时,当着双方的面劝说和调节,而是私下、背后、单独地进行劝解。因此,也是暗中沟通的一种方法。

单独劝解在秘书协调首长关系中,有非常重要的意义。秘书在首长身边工作,了解情况,关系密切,有机会,也有条件进行劝解。对于首长间矛盾和分歧,多数情况下,秘书都可以采用单独劝解的方法,并且有明显而独特的效果。

秘书的劝解应具备两个基本的条件:一是首长能把秘书当朋友,愿意接受你的劝解。二是首长能把秘书当知己,主动找你叙谈。首长与秘书之间不仅仅是一种工作关系,上下级关系,服从与被服从的关系,同时还是一种相互信赖、相互理解、相互帮助、无话不谈的亲密关系。具备了这样的条件,秘书的劝解才能得以顺利进行,才能产生应有的效果,达到预期目的。

单独劝解有以下几种基本方法:

第一,理解性劝解。

这种劝解主要是促使首长能够设身处地的从对方的角度看待和处理问题,理解对方的处境和难处,谅解对方的态度和作法。这样,就可以消除对立情绪,为化解矛盾创造条件。

一天,某部队甲首长下部队视察,中途所乘的“桑塔那”轿车陷在泥道上,怎么也开不上来。甲首长一肚火:“给我弄这么个烂车,只能在城里头跑,怎么下部队?我这个领导当得还不如参谋干事,他们下部队都坐‘丰田吉普’,不知道有些人想干什么?”

首长小车的分配,是分管行政工作的乙首长拍板定下的。秘书知道甲首长话中的含义,便过来给首长点了支烟说:“这样的车确实跑不了山路,可这事也有点难办。咱们单位车辆情况您知道,除了两个一把手的车外,能跑山路的好车只有三辆‘丰田吉普’开始分配时,是给您分了一辆‘丰田’,可剩下的车三个部门首长不好分了,司政后机关的领导和干部经常下部队,卧车不合适,考虑再三,决定把三辆“丰田”分给三个部门,您和其他首长只好用‘桑塔那’了。乙首长专门吩咐把这辆新的给您,他用旧的,还跟三个部门的领导作了交待,别的首长下部队时,可随时调用他们的车。今天这件事也怨我,事先打个招呼,三辆‘丰田’也不至于全都开出去了。”

听了这话,甲首长出了口长气:“我也不是怪乙首长,他也没办法,我是说这个问题不解决很误事,这条‘熊’路真成问题,什么好车也难过。好了,快去看看车弄出来没有。”

秘书的劝解确实起了作用。

第二,解释性劝解。

主要是针对由于不明真相或误传以及某种巧合等原因,使首长产生了误解而做的劝解工作。秘书通过对客观情况和事实真相的必要说明,使首长消除误解,避免矛盾的产生。

某军政治部副主任去国防大学学习三个月,回来时,政治部的人员刚刚进行了大调整,被调下的人员多是从他原来所在单位调来的。因此对主任很有看法:我不在,你就把我调来的人弄下去了。没直说,但话里话外带有这个意思。主任感到了这一点,不过人家没直说,自己又无法解释,弄不好就是“此地无银三百两”。于是对秘书说:“你参加了常委会,能不能把有关情况给副主任介绍一下,也可以把我当时的态度做些必要的说明,我自己解释不清。”秘书说:“您放心,这事就交给我了。”

晚饭后,副主任出来散步,正好碰见秘书,话题很快转到人员调整上来了。瞧准时机,秘书说:“您刚才讲到那几个人的调动问题,不过有些情况您还不了解。这次调整方案是两个一把手提出来的,常委会讨论时主任从政治部工作需要出发,对几个骨干人员的调动直接提出了不同看法,特别是在组织处长和宣传处李干事调动问题上,主任几次发言力争保留。但常委会是从整个大局出发考虑问题,例如加强师团领导班子建设,充实机关新生力量以及让一些机关工作的骨干增长实际工作经验等等,最后作出了这样的安排。不过主任的努力也受到常委会的重视,组织处长暂不去上任,留在机关带一段新手,李干事也调到直属队任职,以便帮助工作。看得出来,主任的一些想法和您刚才说得差不多。”

副主任停下脚步说:“我们这些想法都是从工作需要出发,一些老骨干调出去,新手上路得一段时间,困难不少啊。”

“这是肯定的,会后主任还说:这一下副主任回来可要受累了,一些大材料少不了你要亲自出马。”

“我出点力没啥,我们也是首长的大秘书罢了。不过话说回来,我对常委会的决定还是非常赞同的,不能只从政治部的利益出发,只从眼前利益出发嘛。想得远一点,这样的调整早晚都得进行,晚了不如早点好。”

通过秘书的解释。副主任与主任之间完全沟通了。

第三,安慰性劝解。

安慰性劝解就是对于首长没能达到预期目的或愿望而对其他首长产生了想法,秘书以安慰、宽心的方法进行的劝解。主要是从事情的另一面,从进一步发展变化的角度,来分析看待已成的事实。使首长超越原有情绪的困绕,宽心大度地看待对方。

某部队在抗洪救灾工作中组织有力,成绩显著,受到灾区人民群众的赞扬,被评为军区先进单位。上级派工作组来了解情况并总结经验。听取汇报时,该部队B首长对抗洪救灾中思想政治工作方面的情况准备得充分,因而讲得内容丰富,事例突出,给工作组留下了深刻的印象。不久上一级班子调整,B 首长被提升为政治部主任。而资历、威信、影响都优于B首长的A首长却没有动,心里很不痛快,不免有点牢骚:“会干不如会说,把功劳都记在自己头上,这算什么?”

秘书对A首长说:“您现在的心情我知道,抗洪救灾工作搞得好,当然不单是政治工作的原因。不过政治工作也确实搞得不错,这次B首长被提升,也是上级对我们党委的充分肯定。现在我们单位是军区的先进单位,您继续留任,不能不说明上级的用心良苦,只要您带着我们继续往前走,我想您的前途可能更光明。”

“你这个家伙就会给我吃宽心丸。好了,快去通知开会,正事还等着我们干呢!”

秘书的一番宽慰话,驱开了首长心头的一片云。

三、妥善弥补

弥补就是对已经出现的并有可能影响首长间团结的一些问题,通过秘书的暗中努力,给以补救的一种沟通方法。

“提醒”主要是事前,并且通过当事人自己来解决。而“弥补”主要是事后,不通过当事人,秘书可以利用自己的职权直接来解决。

在实际工作中常常会发现,很多时候问题已经出现,但只要秘书及时恰当地给予补救,还是可以挽回影响的。

弥补主要有以下几种情况:

第一,首长忘了的事秘书直接去办。

有些涉及首长之间关系的事宜,本来可以办,也打算办,但结果却忘记给办了。秘书就可以直接按首长原来的打算继续办好。不管首长间是否已经产生了想法,最终结果是办妥了,自然也就缓解了他们矛盾。

在军民共建活动中,某部B首长与经济开发区领导商量妥,在部队待业子女中招收一批合同工。报名统计时,C首长的女儿准备继续考大学没报名,后来C首长找到B首长说还是去当合同工。结果B首长给忘了,通知书下来后,只有C首长的女儿没接到,C首长非常不满。第二天一上班刚要去找B首长,秘书却迎面走来,笑呵呵地把通知书递了过去说:“怨我工作疏忽,昨天办手续时,忙乱中少带回来一份,让您着急了。”

“早一天晚一天怕什么,只要办了就行。”原来秘书发现B首长忘了这码事,当天下午就赶到开发区补办手续,从而挽回了影响。

第二,首长没想到的事秘书想着办。

有些应该办也能办成的事,首长因各种原因而没有注意到,结果可能影响首长间的关系。遇有这种情况,秘书不需要提醒首长,自己想着办好就可解决问题。

某集团军机关有不少干部的老人,户口是农村的,人长期住在他们这里。为了解决他们看病的问题,政委指示有关部门,所有带老人的机关干部都给办理医疗证,费用由公家出。副军长的母亲也是同样情况。秘书注意到政委只提了机关干部,忘了副军长也有位母亲在身边。于是在办证时特意查看了一下,名单上果然没有副军长的母亲,便及时做了弥补。虽然事情不大,但秘书这种人不知鬼不觉的弥补,却可以避免首长间可能产生的不愉快。

第三,首长考虑欠妥的事秘书去完善。

有些事情由于首长考虑得不周,或处理得欠妥当,可能会引出矛盾。秘书可以另想办法合理解决。使矛盾得到化解。

有一年,几个首长的孩子一起长大,年底征兵工作开始时,都想去当兵。A首长的两个孩子学习不怎么样,但都当了兵。而C首长只有一个孩子却没能走成,发牢骚:“有些人不像话,我当副师长了他还是副团长。现在摇身一变,连一点情分都不讲。”秘书知道事情原委,赶紧找武装部,把这个首长的孩子送走了。回来又找到C首长说:“A首长听说你的孩子也要当兵,让我去办的。”

“啊,他还没忘了我。”

秘书又把情况向A首长作了汇报。A首长说:能送去当然好,不然还以为我为难他呢。”

秘书的弥补工作,使首长双方都很满意。

维护首长团结故意拖延的艺术

对于首长的指示和要求,秘书必须及时迅速地去办理,无端或任意拖延都是失职的表现。而在协调首长关系中,采取必要的拖延方法,则是一种艺术。

所谓故意拖延,就是在首长们意见不统一的问题上,秘书通过合理的拖延,以求找到更好的解决办法。

几个首长对某个问题有不同的思路、看法以至重大分歧,有的首长让秘书去办,有的首长不同意秘书去办。秘书既不能说“是”,也不能说“不是”。最好的办法之一就是故意拖延。或者暂时不办,或者慢慢地办,或者办一点停下来。让你办的首长问起来,你说:已开始办了。不同意你办的首长问起来,你说:这不停着没有办嘛。当首长们的意见一致时,你就好办了。

故意拖延是为了协调首长的关系,并不是真的不办。因此,采取这种方法应注意这样几点。

一、拖延是有条件的

对于首长们有分歧的指示或要求,不是一律都能采取故意拖延的方法,只有具备了下列条件才能拖延:

第一,有较充足的时间。有些事情并不是马上就得完成,稍拖一拖并不误事。这时采取拖延的方法,可以给首长们留下思考、讨论的时间和机会,以求得对问题的统一看法。某院校要盖一栋师职家属楼,楼址选好后,主管领导从几个设计方案中确定了一个,让秘书交给营管部门办理。但秘书了解到,其他一些领导对方案的选择有分歧。这时有关场地的清理、工程队的招标以至建筑材料的购进等等尚未进行,有充足的时间来统一方案的选定。于是秘书借故推迟数日向有关部门交待。并建议主管首长召开一次师职干部座谈会征求意见。最后首长统一了思想,一致同意A方案。事后,几个首长都对秘书说,亏了你晚送了几天方案,要不然房子盖起来意见就大了。

第二,对首长们在急躁中、火头上作出的决定,秘书可以在口头上先答应下来,但在行动上却要拖一拖。比如,某些首长酒后的意见,或在激烈的情绪中做出的决定,都可能缺乏理智。这时拖一拖,待首长冷静下来,可能会采取更正确的作法。

第三,凭经验感到有明显疏漏的问题。如果急着去办,十有八九要产生不良后果,秘书可以拖一拖,不急办,待确认无疑时再抓紧去办。

二、拖延是有限度的

有些事情拖一拖,问题仍未解决,就不能再拖了,必须马上干起来。否则,无论对错,都可能误事。对此,秘书可以这样去办:

第一,执行大多数人的意见。首长们的意见有分歧,又难统一,但总有多数人的意见相仿。秘书可以按多数人的意见去办,即使错了,也不违背组织原则。

第二,执行主管该项工作首长的意见。这些首长对这项工作负有主要领导和指挥的责任,执行他的意见也是无可非议的。

第三,执行第一把手的意见。副职首长的职责是协助正职首长开展工作,秘书理所当然地要服从正职首长的意见。

第四,两个一把手有分歧时,秘书要公开建议他们统一思想。这里指的是带有全面性、综合性的事宜,两个一把手负有同样的责任,秘书不能服从一个违背一个,否则无论对错,秘书都要得罪一方。如果是属于军事工作领域或属于政治工作领域的事宜,则分别以军事或政治首长的意见为依据。

三、拖延是有原则的

对于首长们的分歧意见,秘书应明确,下述情况是不能拖延的:

第一,紧急行动的命令或指示。无论首长们有什么分歧或矛盾,秘书都必须立即执行主官首长的意见,否则后果不堪设想,秘书负不起责任。一次某师接到扑灭森林大火的命令,当时,该师正分散在几个不同的地点执行施工任务,师长命令各部队立即就近登车赶赴现场,而政委则认为应立即返回营区后再统一行动,这样有利组织和指挥。意见发生了分歧,秘书毫不犹豫地按师长的意见撰写了行动命令。事后有人问秘书为什么不等首长意见统一了再行动,秘书说:“火情迫在眉睫,没有时间等待统一思想,立即行动是第一位的。”

第二,首长不容商讨的决断。在首长执意要这样做,已没有拖延的可能的情况下,秘书必须立即执行首长的命令。如有不良后果,由作出决断的首长负责。一次,某师进行军事演习,机关的直属分队行至河边,天已黑下来又突然下起大雨。师长命令部队想尽一切办法渡过河去,而其他几位首长认为黑天渡河本来就很危险,雨天又随时有洪水袭来,主张次日凌晨过河。师长毫不犹豫地指示参谋人员立即下达渡河命令。谁不执行命令,影响了明天的正面进攻演习任务,就撤谁的职。在这种情况下,任何人都不能故意拖延了。

第三,首长明示他完全承担责任。尽管有不同意见,但作出决断的首长明确表示,他对一切后果负责。在这种情况下,秘书也不能故意拖延。1988年后门兵问题较突出,有个部队把一位地方领导有残疾的儿子也收进部队当兵。秘书对首长说:“这样恐怕不行吧?”首长说:“你少多嘴,这其中的轻重你知道吗?你照着办就行了,出了问题,由我负责。”秘书只好照着办。至于后果,当然由这位首长负责了。

四、故意拖延要掌握方法

故意拖延的方法可分为缓、急两类。缓的方法很多,可以随便找许多理由拖着不办,或缓办。比如当首长问起你:“那件事情为什么不赶快办呀?”你就说:手头有一件急事脱不开身呀,一份稿子写了一半等着要呀,中途被上级召去汇报情况误了两天呀,等等。

急的方法有这几种:当首长要你打电话落实时,你拨个错号,连拨几次总是挂不通;当首长让你去把某个人找来时,你走了几圈并没去,或去了同被找人串通好,就说没见到;当首长指示你马上发电报时,你告诉机要人员这份电报先别急着发。等等。急的方法主要是对付首长在急躁、火头上作出的不正确或不太正确的决策而采取的应急拖延方法。事实上,只要稍拖一点时间,容首长冷静下来,首长会自己否定刚才的不正确决策的。

采取故意拖延的方法,无论是缓的还是急的,都需要配以其他的方法来促进问题缓解,单凭拖延有时难以达到满意的结果,弄不好还会适得其反。

某部队在支援地方水电站建设过程中发生了一起翻车事故,C首长具体负责这项工作,他听说另一个首长向上汇报情况时,提到原因之一是领导不够重视,也缺乏具体要求和措施。他得知这一情况后,火冒三丈,立即让秘书把某科长找来,想当面向另一首长对证是否有明确要求和具体措施。秘书绕了一圈回来说,某科长不在。然后给C首长倒杯水说:“首长,他真来了也不一定就能解决问题,一是科长不好说话,有顾虑;二是其他首长也没面子。不如我同科长谈谈,让他找机会同其他首长说明情况,这样做你显得更大度更有主动权。”C首长喝了几口水,点点头:“也是,算了,别去找了。”拖延加引导,矛盾缓解了,秘书的做法很得当。

为了使故意拖延产生良好效果,秘书首先应锻炼自己的应变能力。例如:在无准备的情况下,能把话说得得体、流畅,不出纰漏。当采用急的拖延方法时,能马上对首长说出可信的理由,并且把话说得生动、巧妙、有感染力。当采用缓的拖延方法时,能对首长的发问对答如流,而且天衣无缝,又能使首长有所触动。

其次,要加强自信心的培养。要突破语言表达时的恐惧心理,善于表达内心的真实意向,在首长面前敢于释放自己的智能,敢于把首长作为自己诱导的对像。这样,才能在积极的拖延艺术中更好地发挥自己的作用。

替首长搞好接待的艺术

替首长搞好接待,是秘书的一项经常性的工作。搞好这项工作,对于建立上下之间、左右之间、内外之间的良好关系,确立首长在人们心目中的良好形象,至关重要。同时,对于及时准确处理好来访者的问题,从中取得更多的信息,也关系极大。因此,接待工作就是首长了解下情的一个窗口,进行调查研究的一种方式,为决策提供依据的一个渠道。

一、接待工作的特点

信访部门或其他一些部门接待来访工作,是以组织的名义专门接待来访者。替首长做接待工作则不完全一样,其中大部分是来访首长个人,而由秘书出面接待。因此它们之间有许多共同点,也有许多不同点。替首长搞接待工作,有三条明显的特点:

(一)任务繁杂

来访者有的是事先约好,有的是突如其来;

有的是首长认识,有的是首长不认识;

有的是首长的远亲,有的是首长的老上级、老战友、老部下;

有的是很受欢迎,有的是遭人讨厌:

有的是第一次来访,有的是三番五次还要再来;

有的是代表一级组织,有的是代表个人或家庭;

有的是来求办事,有的是来解决问题;

有的是专程看望,有的是前来挑刺;

有的是衣锦还乡,有的是上门乞求。

……

如此等等,罗嗦而又麻烦。一个军级单位办公室的秘书,一天办了49件事,其中接待来访人员9次,派车12次,接车送站6次,安排餐宿三个规格8次。一天中有三分之二是接待工作,既不可推,也无法推。有的来访,首长亲自出面接待;有的来访,首长不便出面接待;有的来访,首长脱不开身无法出面接待。所有这些,都需要秘书去办理。

(二)工作具体

人来了,要吃、要住、要玩、要办事、要派车、要接送、要费口舌。而且来人层次不同,要求各异。如何安置处理不仅费心思也费体力,哪一个环节没想到、没说到、没跑到都可能出差错。来人会说:“不热情”、“不讲交情”、“忘恩负义”等等,骂了首长。首长会说:“粗心大意”、“不懂礼貌”、“不考虑影响”等等,训了秘书。

有一个老同志,看样子很普通,到某部队送孙子当兵。现在的这些首长都不认识他,秘书接待时较冷淡,吃住安排得很差。谈话中,秘书发现他对这个部队的情况非常了解,但始终不愿暴露身份。后来上级领导听说了,亲自来看望,秘书才知道,抗战时这位老同志就在这个部队政治部当领导,工作了相当长时间,现在一些军区的领导都曾是他的战友或下级。

秘书傻眼了,又重新做了安置。这件事的责任不在老同志的谦虚,也不在于首长的不认识,而在于秘书对部队的历史发展缺乏必要的了解。

接待不好,不仅来人有想法,首长不满意,涉及到首长亲戚的来访,首长亲人也可能不高兴。有个小伙子来找首长,说是首长的外甥,首长自己没有外甥,也没听家属说过有外甥,便让秘书接待一下。秘书一打听,小伙子是家属的表外甥,自己也不认识首长全家,是撞运气来认亲的。秘书见小伙子西装革履,不像一般人,而首长家属老家在甘肃山沟里,至今还很穷困,生有怀疑。考虑到首长不认识,家属又出差在外,就打发小伙子过几天再来。后来家属回来了,一见面,才知道是自己失散多年的表哥的儿子,现在全家在澳门,是一家大公司的经理,这次专程来寻亲。家属一听说这几天外甥住在旅馆,很生气,埋怨秘书办事能力差,连个接待也搞不好。

(三)问题难缠

来访者中有不少问题难以解决,又不走,缠着不放,令秘书头疼。

一是碰到不讲理的人。

本来事情的处理是公道的,正确的,秘书的接待也是恰当的,可他就是不听不从,与你吵闹。赵某十年前是军需处副处长,因贪污倒卖粮票油票被开除党籍,处理复员。这时找上门来让部队首长给平反,说现在粮油票都取消了,处分也应该取消。秘书给他讲道理他不但不听,反而躺在沙发上扬言:“不给平反,你每天就别下班,也别吃饭。”

二是与首长沾亲带故的人。

软了不行,硬了也不行;轻了不行,重了也不行。他们中有的与首长家庭关系密切,受欢迎;有的与首长家庭很疏远。不受欢迎。秘书的分寸很难把握。

某部队政治部一位副主任的侄子谢××,当兵不久尿床的老毛病又犯了。一晚上最少往床上尿两次。在卫生队住了大半年也不见效,因为尿得太勤,卫生队的被褥快让他尿完了。无奈,部队将他作复员处理了。可谢××的父亲认为是部队生产劳动任务太重,把儿子累下个尿床的病。部队不能撒手不管,于是带着儿子上访来了。走到哪里都没人接待。只好到部队机关来找他的亲戚——谢副主任。谢副主任下部队去了,他家属只好把他们父子俩接待下来。可住了两个晚上,副主任家属死活不要了,说5个褥子尿完了。并说,她没见过这么个堂哥,也没听说过这么个侄子。就只好安排到招待所,可招待所的被褥也经不住他的尿,就又把谢××送到政治部秘书处。秘书处劝说他们先回老家去,等解决好了再通知他们,可他们父子俩就是不肯走。那么,晚上他们又到哪儿去住呢?秘书作难了。

三是过去受过不公正对待的人。

由于种种原因,当时的领导没有公正对待他们,现在找上门来算老帐。有一年,曾经在部队当过兵的一些老同志要求给子女办入伍的特别多。能闹的就当上了。有些老实的就没当上。该部队为此曾内部规定,凡在本单位当过团以上领导的子女,可以有一人在本部队当兵。由于执行得不严格,有的解决了两个子女,有的一个也没解决。为此,一些感到不公正的人来找首长麻烦。可这几年有关部队干部子女当兵的政策很严格了,对他们的一些要求很难满足。

四是因政策缘故受到过偏重处理的人。

要求给予甄别、平反、恢复名誉,加上其他各种要求,工作、工资、家属子女安置等等,非常难办。有一个团职领导犯了错误,根据当时的政策要求,撤销其职务,开除党籍,复员处理。他在地方干得很好,没几年当了副县长,又重新入了党。他拿着地方党委的证明,回部队要求能高抬贵手,将开除党籍改为留党察看,以便保留较长的党龄。类似这样的问题,接待人员三天两头能碰上一个,该怎么处理呢?

二、接待工作的原则

秘书替首长搞好接待,必须坚持这样几条原则:

(一)一视同仁

所谓一视同仁,不是说吃的一样,住的一样,一切待遇都一样。这里讲的是态度上,对每个来访者,都要以礼相待。不论上、内、下、外的来访者,都一样的热情。哪怕是不受欢迎者,也不要给他们留下冷冰冰的阴影。要改变门难进、人难见、脸难看、话难听、事难办的衙门作风。做到:“一请坐、二倒茶、三问好、四办事、五送客”。

有的秘书品行不正,就出问题。例如:上面来的讨好,下边来的生硬;有权的来了重礼厚待,无权的来了不闻不问;认识的来了,热情,不认识的来了,冷淡;穿着好的来了彬彬有礼,穿着差的来了爱理不理;男的来了三言两语,女的来了滔滔不绝。如此等等,说明不能一视同仁。

(二)用语文明

从心理学的角度来看,每个人都有程度不同的自卑心理,每个人也都有受人尊重的心理需要。来访者表现得就更为明显,不管抱着什么目的来,都希望得到尊重或理解。秘书在接待中讲究谈话的艺术,用语文明,就会使来访者心理上的需要得到某种满足,这就为接待工作奠定了一个良好的基础。

用语文明,首先要富有情感。话不在多,有情则灵。伴之平易近人的神态,和蔼可亲的笑容,谦虚温和的语调,就能产生最佳效应。其次要始终如一。在正常情况下,秘书都能做到文明用语。但在自己受骂、受辱的情况下还能坚持文明用语,就需要很高的个人修养。能做到这一点,不敢说能把“硬汉说哭,忧妇说笑,蛮者说服”,至少也可以气氛融洽,不出现尴尬。再次,还需要正确的体语相配合。体语包括眼部语言、手部语言、躯干语言等等。体语不仅能传递信息,而且会影响人际互动。例如笑脸相迎(面部语言)、热情握手(手部语言)、侧身让座(躯干语言)等等。再如坐的距离不能太远也不能太近。太远了有敬而远之之感,太近了有缺乏敬重之感,特别是异性间更是如此。一边听一边记,不时点头,眼睛不要东张西望等,都会使来访者感到热情而庄重,产生好感和信任感。

(三)认真负责

对来访者的谈话,都要认真听、记。不能敷衍了事,要弄清问题的原委和实质。该上报的上报,该解释的解释,该办理的马上办理。要按正式程序处理接待中的问题。要设身处地为来访人员着想。决不能踢皮球或骗人。

认真负责还表现为实事求是,坚持原则。介绍成绩不夸大,谈到不足不掩饰,汇报情况要有充分的事实做依据。不信口开河,不随便表态,能办到的努力办,办不到的不许愿。对拿不准的问题,重大原则问题一定要经过请示才能答复办理。

(四)勤俭节约

反腐倡廉在接待中表现明显。坚决反对大吃大喝,铺张浪费,讲排场,摆阔气,超标准,搞特殊。一个客人九个陪。来时接风,中间宴请,走时送行。几顿饭就把一年的血汗吃完了。热情不只表现在吃、住、玩上,更主要的是态度的诚恳和尊重。这样才是既礼貌又节俭。

(五)内外有别

来访者代表组织还是代表个人,是部队人员还是地方同志,是老同志还是后来人,是家人还是外人等等,接待时要有区别。要严守纪律,注意保密。能讲还是不能讲,能多讲还是应少讲,要内外有别,这一点上不能一视同仁。

三、接待工作的技巧

替首长搞接待,对不同的人要有不同的方法。大体有五种情况:

(一)对首长亲戚朋友的接待

一当上首长,他的亲戚就多了,有些根本不认识,也找上门来。有的人来时,首长事先知道,有的是突如其来。秘书要先接来,同时汇报给首长或其家属,看如何接待,再去安置。无论如何,都要精心办理,不能马虎。当然,有些首长或其家属很节俭,不大方,礼节上的事只好秘书代办,走时买东西,自己掏腰包。或首长及家属有吩咐,可忘了给钱,秘书不好去要,有点损失这也在所难免。

(二)对下级机关来人的接待

下级来人一般目的有三:一是汇报请示工作;二是反映一些重大问题;三是找首长办些私事。

秘书接待时要详细记录,记准记实。要问清情况。有价值的可以录音,或写成汇报稿、文字材料等。同时尽快给首长汇报,以便答复来访者。下级汇报情况是首长做出决策的重要参考,不能马虎。

来办私事,不便直说的,秘书可转告首长后另行安排见面时间。

(三)对外单位(包括地方)来人的接待

这项接待非常重要,不仅涉及双方的关系,也涉及互通情况、相互学习借鉴的问题。秘书一定要热情周到,千万不要让人感到冷落。可视身份和要求分别介绍给有关首长或部门对口接待。要先问明情况,了解身份,以此来做安置。谈话要有余地,遵守有关规定,不能自以为是,顺口就答“首长可以接见”,结果不符首长意图,后果不良。因为是外单位特别是地方同志来访,在吃、住等安排上可略优于内部的规格,这样做有利于促进相互关系。

(四)对上级机关来人的接待

上级机关来人,主要是了解情况,视察工作,检查指导。秘书应立即向首长报告,由首长出面接待。来人向秘书问起情况时,不要对肯定或否定的问题夸夸其谈,只作简要性的汇报,详细情况由首长和有关部门汇报。

对上级来人的接待,秘书的任务,重点是安排吃、住、行,沟通与首长和有关部门的联系。介绍情况要慎重,对于吃、住、行和有关活动的安排,除按有关规定标准办理外,还应请示首长,看有什么具体交待。不要自作主张。否则,出了问题秘书负不起责任。

(五)对新闻单位来人的接待

新闻单位的来人,主要是报社、电台、电视台或有关刊物的编辑、记者等的采访。秘书在接待中,要尽量多提供方便,少提供新闻。多提供方便主要是住和行,房间要适合写稿,安静舒适,有较好的通讯装置。用车尽量保证,派人随同采访。少提供新闻主要是一些内部情况、新近发生的事情等,不要主动介绍。在介绍有关情况时应防止作假,为了上报纸、上广播,任意拔高、夸大,甚至无中生有。这样做一时痛快,但可能要犯错误。一些反面情况应谨慎介绍,做必要的说明,但还要实事求是,不能故意阻拦、刁难,以免引出相反结果。

四、接待中应注意的问题

接待工作是个政策性、灵活性都很强的工作。必须有较高的政治觉悟和政策水平,有较强的组织纪律观念,同时也必须有丰富的知识和机敏的头脑,以及干练的办事能力。

(一)掌握政策

一定要按有关政策规定来处理来访人员的问题和事项,并通过接待来宣传党的路线、方针、政策。否则就会犯错误,甚至造成不可挽回的影响。例如,某人的子女当年未能入伍,现在要求补办入伍手续。这是搞假军人的行为,违反兵役法,无论情况如何,秘书都不能随意处理。

(二)注意保密

要注意军队的特殊性,对外来人,特别是地方来人,应有必要的警惕性。某些领导机关的工作人员被美女、骗子所害,其中一个原因是警惕性不高。这些人对部队的情况掌握得一清二楚,编制、装备、驻地、甚至领导人姓名都说得准确无误,让人信以为真,结果上当受骗。

(三)风纪良好

保持军人姿态,穿戴整齐,举止大方,表情自然,不卑不亢。站有站相,坐有坐相。不能叼支烟,穿拖鞋,留长发等等。

(四)尊重民俗

了解和掌握少数民族的风俗习惯。对少数民族的来访者要按其本民族的风俗安置,条件达不到的要事先说明。讲话中不要出现忌讳的词语,送东西也不要有忌讳的嫌疑。某地方当局派人来部队学习英雄模范人物的事迹,秘书安排他们听了养猪模范的报告会,还组织他们到养猪场参观,其中有两个地方领导是回族人。秘书忽略了,弄得这两个同志挺不愉快,首长明里暗里作了许多和缓工作,才没出什么不良后果。

跟随首长时回避的艺术

回避,顾名思义,是有意让开、躲开的意思。

秘书是首长的助手和参谋,要时刻跟在首长的身边。可这里为什么又要讲到回避呢?

秘书要紧随首长身边,这是为首长服务的需要。在特定的场合下进行必要的回避,也是为首长服务的需要。

一、为什么要回避

说明这个问题的必要性,我们不准备讲出多少条条,仅举一例为证。

有一位将军到某军队院校视察工作。晚饭后,一位教授前去看望,他们曾是儿时的伙伴,一个部队的老战友,又是多年的邻居,所以无论个人之间还是家庭之间,关系都非同一般。见面时又是握手又是拍打,非常亲热,非常随便。但当他们坐定后,忽然教授看到首长的秘书端端地坐在旁边,于是觉得,这样放肆随便地跟首长开玩笑,实在有些过分,让秘书看到了多不好。于是,双方都觉得有点拘束。十几年过去了,他们在职务上相距甚远,但他们私人之间可以说是没有级别障碍的,旧时的友谊,过去了的风风雨雨,统统涌上心头,有许多往事需要回忆,有许多心绪需要表达。老教授本想说:“你小子怎么这么好的运气,三下五除二就爬上去了!”但看首长身边的秘书,端坐在那,只好把到了嘴边的话又咽了下去,双方的目光都投向了电视。过了一会,教授又想跟首长讲一讲孩童时一块到果园偷果吃的情形,他还想提到刚当干部时找对像弄成单相思的苦熬情形,甚至想摆一摆一起当机关干事时晚饭后海吹神侃的趣事。但秘书在跟前这些话无法出口,如若无拘无束、没上没下地胡吹冒聊,又显然有失首长的尊严和身份。于是,又是一阵沉默,双方目光再次投向电视。时而流出一句:“家里人好吗?”“好。”“孩子都长大了?”“长大了。”“××现在怎么样了?”“已经死了。“噢,挺突然呀!”“人嘛,就那么回事。”“是呀,这人呀,功名利禄,都是身外物……”首长本来还想感叹几句,但一看秘书在身边,再说下去恐怕不妥,也只好咽下去了,于是,又是一阵沉默,双方目光再次投向电视。

很明显,在这种场合下,秘书的存在有碍于他们之间的随便交谈。这种场合,秘书就应该回避,但这位呆板的秘书,端端地坐在那里就是不动弹。这就难免让来访的老教授有些不悦了。

二、回避的时机

秘书跟随首长,在哪些情况下需要回避呢?这里仅提几点供参考。

(一)首长们很严肃而神秘地要讨论一些重大问题

比如传达上级的一个重要通报;研究一些重要的人事安排;互相间开展交心谈心活动;交流一下对某些下级主要领导人员的看法;对某些问题的认识不一致,发生了争执。遇有这种情况,秘书就要主动地退出去。

(二)首长的亲属来找首长

首长的亲属本来经常和首长在一起,而且连很方便的通讯设备也不用,却非要亲自到办公室跑一趟不可,这说明有重要的急事需要和首长当面商量。遇有这种情况,秘书就要主动地退出去。有位首长后续了一位年轻美貌的夫人,关系不和。这位夫人经常到办公室找首长的麻烦,不管谁在跟前,她都不给首长一点面子,大吵大闹,弄得首长常常下不了台。秘书就不能站在那里看笑话,而要赶快回避。

(三)上级领导机关人员找首长谈话

他们找首长很可能不是谈一般的部队建设,而要谈一些重要的、机密的问题。比如传达上级的重要决定,研究某些人事安排,交换对班子中某些人的看法,或者谈一些首长本人的问题。遇有这种情况,秘书就要主动地退出去。

(四)首长找某个人单独谈话

首长找谁谈话,在什么时机进行谈话,都是很慎重的。而且是主动地找,这种谈话内容就带有一定的保密性。首长可能找他要交待个什么工作,或者谈他的一些个人问题。这些都没必要让第三者知道。遇有这种情况,秘书就要主动地退出去。

(五)首长和密友交谈时

首长和密友交谈是和善的、随便的,没有职务等级区别的,甚至是调皮放肆。同时也不排除密友找首长想办一些个人私事,或者想反映一下本单位的问题的,或者想交谈一下对某些重大问题的看法,等等。这时秘书在场就显得多余,应主动地退出去。一次某首长到部队视察工作,这个部队的A同志是这位首长的老战友。A同志就个人的使用问题,实在是想找这位首长谈一谈,但几次到这位首长的住处都没有个单独交谈的机会。一天早晨散步,他俩在公园不期而遇,A同志感到这个机会不能错过,但一瞅首长身边跟着五六个随行人员,A同志想单刀直入地和首长讲几句,但那些随行人员根本没有回避的意思,于是到了嘴边的话又咽下去了。后来这位A同志个人的发展不顺利,后悔那次没把真心话掏给曾经是自己的老战友——现在的大首长,并且经常大骂首长的那些随行人员碍了他的事。

三、回避的注意事项

秘书回避要注意这样几个问题:

第一,要适应首长的习惯。

有的首长独立性较强,一般不依赖秘书,万不得已,才叫秘书办理。这种情况下,秘书的回避就要多一些。有的首长独立性稍差,事事依赖秘书,有些私下里的事,也要秘书出面。这种情况下,秘书的回避就要少一些。所以,根据首长习惯,需要你回避你就回避,不让你回避你就不要回避。

第二,回避之后要适时询问首长有何吩咐安排。

不要一看需要回避,就没自己的事了,撒手不管。或者跑到外边溜达闲逛去了,待首长需要找你办事的时候,却找不见你,这就很可能出问题。

一次,一位首长到部队视察工作,一个偶然的机会,发现了自己30 年前的一位老战友“刘老”。“刘老”就在这个部队的干休所休息,真是喜出望外。闲谈之后,这位首长说:“明天中午我请你吃饭。就在这个部队招待所。”

“刘老”虽然现在没身份了,但仍是个很注重面子的人,也是一个很爱出风头的人。一听当年的老战友现在是部队的大首长要请自己吃饭,感到无比荣幸,就一边推辞一边答应下来。首长把邀请的话讲到这里,接着回头向左右看了一看,——可能是在寻找秘书。他发现身边没有服务人员,于是补充说:“这样吧!明天中午11点半我派人到你家找你。”

“刘老”在等待受请的这半天里快活极了,逢人便说:“××首长过去和我是老战友,……想当年我们两个……嘿!那关系太密切了!明天中午他还请我吃饭!”经“刘老”这么一说,别人这么一传,整个干休所和机关大院都知道大首长要和“刘老”共进午餐。

第二天中午的11点半终于到了,“刘老”的心咚咚地加快了跳动。——怎么没有人来请我呢?周围的许多人见了他就问:“怎么没去和首长共进午餐呀?”“刘老”的脸红到了脖子根。他实在耐不住,就跑到招待所想看个究竟。他远远地隔着玻璃窗户看见,大首长和这个部队的领导已经开宴了。

当首长吃过饭出来时,看到“刘老”木然地站在那里,顿时尴尬不已。

产生这个问题的原因在哪里?主要在于首长讲到要宴请“刘老”时,秘书不在场。也就是说,秘书回避得太遥远。首长把这事说完后,因工作忙就忘记了,而秘书也没有寻问首长有何吩咐和安排,结果使小小的一项工作出了个大漏洞。

第三,注意首长的某种暗示。

在和首长的相处中,什么时候应该回避,什么时候不应该回避;在哪些情况下应该回避,哪些情况下不应该回避。这个“度”有时很难掌握,这就要注意首长对你的某种暗示。聪明的秘书对自己十分熟悉的首长的一举一动,包含一种什么意向,都是十分清楚的,无须别人指教。重要的是需处处留神,从首长的无声语言中,体味出他明确的态度来。

协助首长承办会务的艺术

会议,一般的解释是:三人以上在一起讨论某种事项。现在,党政军的重大问题,往往都采取召开会议的形式讨论决定。会议,体现着党的民主集中制,体现着党的集体领导,也体现着党的群众路线。

会议的类型是很多的,可以数上几十种。主要的有例行工作会议、专题性会议、联席性会议、部署工作性会议、总结性会议、座谈会、代表大会、代表会、表彰会、动员会、现场办公会、经验交流会、电话会、电视会、广播大会、报告会、研讨会、招待会、碰头会、常委会、全委会、恳谈会、团拜会、听证会、小组会,等等。

凡属较为重要的会议,首长都要出席。有时一个首长参加,有时几个首长参加,有时全体首长参加。有时开幕时首长出席,有时会议中间首长接见与会代表,或有时到会做报告或发表谈话,有时会议结束时首长去讲话。

凡首长要参加的会议,秘书就要参与这个会议的某个环节或全过程。

所以,秘书如何为首长办好会务,也是一项经常性的工作。就会议的全过程来看,秘书可能参与承办的主要任务是:(1)收集会议的议题,安排会议的议程;(2)发出会议通知,负责会议报道;(3)准备会议材料,撰写会议文件;(4)对与会人员进行编组,布置会场,安排座次;(5)印发会议证件,负责会场签到;(6)及时发收文件,认真加强管理;(7)做好会议记录,整理文件,立卷归档;(8)做好会议的保密工作。

以上八项,是秘书人员在做好包括大会小会在内的会务工作中,带有共性的工作。至于某一具体会议,某一秘书人员要做哪些工作,需要根据情况决定。下面就秘书为首长办好会务几个共性问题加以探讨。

一、做好会议准备工作

会前准备工作主要包括:

(一)安排议题

这是开会前秘书要做的第一件事情。一般情况下是先有议题后决定开会。其做法有这样几类:一类是主管领导临时确定议题,由会议秘书人员向有关部门搜集文件,准备资料;一类是需要会议讨论的问题很多,先讨论什么,后讨论什么,需要会议秘书人员提出建议;再一类是由会议秘书人员事先向主管方面搜集议题,然后加以安排,列出议题表,提交首长确定。

会议议题的来源一般为:一是首长批示交办的或指定有关部门汇报的问题;二是下级机关提请讨论的问题;三是上级机关或首长下达指示,需要下级召开会议学习、研究、讨论的问题。

(二)拟定与会人员名单

会议由什么人员来参加,有时由首长具体点定,有时首长仅提个框框。其实,什么人应当参加会议,会议的规模及其性质已经有明确的限定。比如首长讲“明天开个常委会”。秘书只管把该级组织的常委委员通知到即可。问题是,有些会议的参加人员常常不明确,不好限定,这就要求秘书会前对参加会议人员提出建议,拟出名单,供首长审定。比如召开一个军一级的党委会,对应到会的缺额人员,由谁来补替?需要哪些人员列席?还有,像座谈会、报告会、传达会、招待会、团拜会、总结会等,秘书人员应根据领导机关的原则指示和要求,经过通盘考虑后提出与会人员名单,请领导审定。

秘书在这里必须清醒地看到:提名与会人员是一项很困难而重要的工作。如果由于秘书人员造成提名差错,如漏提、错提,很可能给领导工作造成不良影响,甚至在政治上犯错误。万万马虎不得。一次某集团军传达中央工作会议精神,传达到师以上干部。在通知参加会议的名单中,忘记了已经离休的6名享受副师待遇的团职干部,会议刚刚结束,这6名老干部就在电话里骂骂咧咧地找到军政委,搞得这位政委很窝火,还得一个劲儿地在电话里做检讨。放下电话他就去找秘书,对秘书的“马虎”狠狠地批评了一顿。

(三)申请报批会议

一旦确定召开某个较大型的会议之后,秘书人员要填写会议申请单,送上级领导机关审批。没有经过批准的会议不准召开。秘书人员要将上级的肯否情况及时报告首长。

(四)拟发会议通知

上级批准召开会议之后,秘书人员就要根据首长的指示,立即草拟和印发召开会议的通知。其方法是:大型会议,要以文件的形式下发会议通知;一些小型的会议,用电话通知有关部门或人员即可;一些紧急性会议,可采用电报的形式快速下达。

无论采用哪种形式,会议的通知都要具体确切,使受文人一目了然。并注意适时发送,既不能过早又不能过迟。特别是对那些离机关较远的单位,交通不便的单位,分散的单位,外出执行任务的单位,都要提前发送通知。不要等会议快开完了,某些与会人员才接到通知。接到了通知也买不到车票、机票。同时,对那些编外单位、新设单位、正在裁减、简编但尚未完毕的单位,都不能忘记通知他们。

二、做好会议文件撰写工作

大型的会议,一般都要起草一批相应的文件,而这项工作秘书是首当其冲的。秘书给首长经常起草的会议文件主要有以下几种:

(一)撰写开幕词

比较大型的隆重的会议,一般由首长致开幕词。撰写开幕词,要写明这次会议召开的背景,出席会议的人员,会议的目的和主要内容,会议有哪些意义,对与会人员的主要要求,对会议有哪些希望。开幕词应简短有力,具有鼓动性,使到会人员听得明确,并能以积极热情的态度参加会议。

(二)撰写讲话稿

这是秘书人员的一项重要任务。撰写首长讲话稿,要写明会议的意义和重要性,对有关工作的适当评价及存在的主要问题,会议应当注意研究讨论的中心问题,提出和解释部属当前存在的疑难课题,并力争有几条新的见解,使到会人能产生新鲜感、解渴感。秘书在给首长撰写讲话稿时,切忌照传照抄,老生常谈,让人听得乏味,听完之后,说这位首长“没水平”,“他讲的还不如我想的”。

(三)撰写大会报告

大会报告是会议的中心文件,通常由主要负责人承担。由于听取大会报告是召开这次会议的主要任务,也是与会人员讨论的重要依据,还是指导会后一个时期工作的重要文件,因此一定要写好。报告的内容一般包括:进一步阐明会议的性质、任务和意义;总结前段时间工作情况,提出会后工作任务;提请会议着重讨论的问题并对此讲些初步意见;对各种不同观点、做法给予评价。

大会报告稿在定稿之前,常常反复讨论,甚至多次推倒重写。秘书人员要耐心谦虚,吃透研讨会上的各种意见,使报告稿写得问题鲜明,层次清楚,内容真实,具有新意。

(四)撰写大会发言

大会发言是会议的一般性文件,应根据发言首长的要求而定,形式不拘一格。秘书有时只给首长几个杠杠,即发言提纲;有时只提供几个典型事例;有时只提供一些数据资料,其他的内容让首长放开讲。这样,首长往往能讲出自己的风格,讲出自己的水平,讲出自己的特色。到会人员也最爱听。与会人员最害怕、最讨厌首长的大会发言,就是念现成的稿子,讲报纸上的话,内容大家都知道,自己还念不通,一头头出冷汗。

(五)撰写大会总结

大会总结也是会议的重要文件。尽管是“这次”大会的总结,但秘书人员也应提前动手,在会议召开之前就应写出提纲,并注意从各方面搜集资料。大会总结主要写出大会所取得的成绩,也写出这次大会的缺点和不足;总结的主体部分即会议解决的主要问题和主要收获,以及对会后的要求。大会总结要从首长讲话、大会报告、大会发言及讨论中概括出几个鲜明的观点和主要精神,使与会人员的思想更加明确,认识更加统一,贯彻更加坚决。也就是说,大会总结要和整个会议精神的调子一致起来,不要让人感到会上好像有几个声音,几个调子。比如,某大单位年初召开了一次大型的“教育训练工作会议”。司令员在大会发言中讲:“我们一定要把训练摆到中心位置上,提到战略的高度来认识。”政委在总结发言中则讲:“我们不仅仅要把训练摆到中心位置,提到战略高度来认识,同时,也要把教育提到同样的高度,摆到同样的位置来认识,不能一条腿走路。”与会人员一听两个一把手的讲话调子不一样,分明认识有分歧。这样,下面贯彻会议精神时就没劲了。

(六)撰写闭幕词

闭幕词是大会的结束语,应概括评述大会议程、基本精神、主要成果及其意义,提出传达贯彻大会精神的要求和希望。闭幕词要写得简洁流畅,富有鼓动性和号召力,使会议达到新的高潮而圆满结束。

三、做好会议服务性工作

秘书人员特别是专职秘书,在会议期间应该是紧跟首长,很好领会首长每一次谈话、发言、讲话的精神,并根据会议要求对首长的活动做出万无一失的安排,从而更好地为首长服务,为大会服务。

秘书在会议当中的服务工作是多方面的,也可以说是不胜枚举的,但要紧的是抓好下列几项:

(一)排好会议座次

安排会议座次的方式很多,在《办公室知识辞典》、《会议词典》、《会务工作与会议文书》等专著中都有许多详细的论述和图表。这里就秘书在排列座次时需要注意的问题,提醒几点:

一是排好首长座次。就军队而言,习惯做法是,凡属行政工作会议,座次按任命的顺序依次排列。党的会议,座次按党内职务依次排列。

二是对上级首长和上级机关工作人员的座次排列。上级首长理所当然地安排在会场主桌的中心位置,上级机关工作人员一般按“增加一职”的地位,与本单位领导混合排列。

三是对来宾的座次排列。如果来宾较多,除少数高级来宾应排在主席台的前排和主席台上之外,其他来宾按职务顺序在台下的前排依次排列。

四是离退休干部的座次排列。有些重要会议或大型会议需要离退休的老首长、老同志参加。如何排列他们的座次是个很大的难题。比如有个单位,住在本院干休所的老政委就有3人,副司令员副政委有十多人,开会时都到了,排座位就是个麻烦事。一般的排法是:依主席台和会场的大小,当排列完现职常委成员之后,按照离退休首长的任职先后顺序依次排列。一般的排法是把那些先任职的、资格老的首长排在前面。

五是座次的排列,应报请有关首长审定。如果有人对座次排定提出意见,应报请首长考虑,秘书人员不要擅作处理。

为了使座次排列省事、简便,不出差错,最好这样做:凡是固定座次,应在会议人员的出席证上或签到证上注明座号。如果证件上不注明座号或不发证件,也可印制“座号票”发给与会人员对号入座。也可以在会议桌上摆置名签,并同时印制“座次表”发给与会人员,以便与会人员寻找自己的座次。首长每次入场,秘书人员应礼貌地把首长引导到座位上。与会其他人员第一次入场时,工作人员也应作必要的引导。

许多与会人员包括某些首长,对座次排列十分敏感,也特别计较。有些个别人因感到排座次不公而拒绝出席会议。会下和会外人员也常常以首长的座次排列来判断人事的调换升降。所以对这个问题,秘书不可掉以轻心。

(二)做好会议记录

这是秘书在会议期间的一项重要工作内容。首长最讨厌那些傻乎乎的只听不记的懒汉秘书。秘书对首长发言的记录通常用两种方法。一种是摘记,即只记要点,不是有言必录。这种记录采用汉字直记。另一种是详记,即有言必录。包括发言中的插话,都要详细记录在案。因为有些首长的新思想、新观点常常是在别人发言的同时闪出来的,也是稍纵即逝的,而这些新思想、新观点很可能逐步成为他开展工作的新思路、新想法。秘书人员无论如何不能忽视。详细记录可采用符号速记,也可根据录音整理。

会议记录要求真实、准确、完整,不得随意增删改动。特别是速记,更要忠于原话、保持风格,段落清楚,文字准确。秘书不能添枝加叶,借机发挥。举一例子:有一年搞运动,有人反映某某首长在一次××会议上曾有过不正确言论,上级机关就要用××会议上的记录加以查证,一查确实说过那样的话。首长哑口无言,就去找记录人。记录人回忆了很久终于想起来了,委屈地说:“那些话在当时是最革命的。由于您当时说得不透彻,我怕下级说您的态度不明朗,就加进了那些话。可我确实没料到过了这些年,这种话又成了反动言论。”看看,由于不忠于原话原意,闹出了大乱子,使得这位首长相当长一段时间翻不过身来。

(三)安排大会发言

秘书人员应提出大会发言的安排意见,供首长审定。安排大会发言要注意:一是注意各单位之间的平衡。不要一个单位工作干好了,光听到他们的声音,让其他人员陪会,这会闹出许多意见的。二是注意各级领导同志、主要领导同志与一般领导同志的平衡。在大会上,不能只听到一个首长的声音,防止让与会人员误认为是一个人说了算。

当然,这些不是秘书所能完全左右得了的。但事先提出建议供首长考虑是可以做得到的。

(四)安排首长的社交活动

在开会期间,一些首长可能还要参加大会内外的社会活动和礼宾活动,如接见和看望与会人员,致词、题词,同代表照相留念,同代表一起观看影视,参加其他文体活动等。这些活动,如果安排恰当,对开好会是有益的;如果安排不当,可能成为首长或会议的负担。

给首长安排会议中的社交活动,秘书要注意三点:一是注意减轻首长的不必要应酬,对各部门、各单位要求首长参加的活动要加以控制。二是凡需要首长参加的社交活动,具体谁参加,要全面考虑,尽可能平衡。不要过多地集中到某个人或某些人身上。三是要会同有关部门考虑首长安全问题。

需要指出的是,安排首长参加社交活动,秘书人员只能提出个初步意见,最后由主管领导确定。

为首长写讲话稿的艺术

为首长写讲话稿,可以说是秘书的一项基本功。首长要讲话,秘书就要写稿;首长讲得多,秘书就写得多。特别在有些单位,首长讲话习惯于念稿,讲两分钟话也要写个稿。自己又不愿动手,也不肯动脑,只好一切由秘书代劳了。写讲话稿,也并不是一件容易的事情。除了应具备一般的写作条件外,还应注意:为哪个首长写讲话稿,就要像哪个首长的讲话。这就是秘书为首长写讲话稿的艺术所在。

一、讲话稿的种类和写法

关于讲话稿的种类和一般写作方法,秘书是比较了解的,有关论著中也有详细具体的介绍,这里只从秘书掌握撰写讲话稿的艺术要求出发,略作介绍。

讲话稿有诸多的划分方法。不同的方法可以划分出不同的种类,不同种类的讲话稿就有不同的内容和不同的写法。

(一)按内容繁简分类

按照讲话稿内容的繁简来划分,有三种:

一是即兴式讲话稿。是指首长事先无准备,但受到环境和某种临时性因素的影响,例如别人发言使首长产生了某种感受或兴趣,会场的气氛或与会者的情绪激发了首长的欲望等等。于是就临时作些简单准备,列出几个纲目,或写上几句关键性的话,依此做即席发言。这种讲话稿常常是现想现说,一吐为快,感情真挚,语言生动。

二是要点式讲话稿。首长事先有所准备,对要讲的内容心中有数,在讲话前只列出一个较详细的提纲,而表达的具体内容则需要临场发挥。这种讲话稿观点鲜明,重点突出,能抓住要害。也很富有讲话人的个性特色。

三是宣读式讲话稿。首长事先有充分准备,在会议或有关场合将写好的稿子原原本本地宣读就是了。这种讲话稿适合大型会议和郑重场合,内容较为丰富,具有指导性和规范性。

(二)按性质用途分类

按照讲话稿的性质用途来划分,有4种。

一是开幕词。

开幕词是指在大型会议上,首长代表领导机关或大会组织者,向会议作提示性、指导性发言所用的讲话稿。

开幕,本来是指剧场演出开始时,拉开大幕。而会议一般是不需要拉幕的,只是用它引伸为会议的开始,开幕词,顾名思义也就是会议开始时的讲话。开幕词一般包括四部分内容:

1.宣布会议开始,介绍出席会议的单位、人员和数量;

2.阐明会议的中心议题,召开会议的背景和意义;

3.提出会议的议程、开法和要求;

4.对会议的期望和祝愿等。

撰写开幕词要注意这样几个问题:

首先,必须对大会全面情况作简明扼要的了解。因为开幕词的内容就是大会全面情况的高度概括。秘书应仔细了解和掌握会议的有关文件以及会议的通盘安排、参加人员、中心议题等等。写好后送有关首长或机构审阅修改。

其次,篇幅要短小。一定要简洁明了,高度概括。不可长篇大论,广征博引,滔滔不绝地作大报告。从时间上限制,一般以十几分钟为宜,少则更好。毛泽东在第一届全国人民代表大会第一次会议上的开幕词,只有六百字。须知这是全国人民代表大会,又是中华人民共和国的首次,六百字足矣,而且影响极大。

再次,对一些敏感性问题要搞准确。例如主席台就座的领导人或来宾的姓名、职务等。台上的人对此很敏感,台下的人对此也很关注。再如,对出席会议的团体、人员以及向大会表示祝贺的单位和内容,也要弄准确,如有遗漏或错误,也会影响不好。

二是闭幕词。

闭幕词是在较大型会议结束时,领导人所作的讲话,也称会议总结发言,或会议结束时的讲话。闭幕词一般也包括四部分内容:

1.回顾会议的主要内容;

2.对会议作出明确评价;

3.简要阐述会议的主要决策;

4.提出贯彻会议精神的意见。

著名的《愚公移山》是毛泽东在中国共产党第七次全国代表大会上的闭幕词。一开始便说;“我们做了三件事:第一,决定了党的路线,这就是放手发动群众,壮大人民力量,在我党的领导下,打败日本侵略者,解放全国人民,建立一个新民主主义的中国。第二,通过了新的党章。第三,选举了党的领导机关——中央委员会。”这就是回顾会议的主要内容。接着说:“我们开了一个胜利的大会,一个团结的大会。”这是对会议做出的明确评价。接下来说:“大会闭幕以后,很多同志将要回到自己的工作岗位上去,将要分赴各个战场。同志们到各地去,要宣传大会的路线,并经过全党同志向人民作广泛的解释。”这是贯彻会议精神的原则意见。再往后:“我们宣传大会的路线,就是要使全党和全国人民建立起一个信心,即革命一定要胜利。首先要使先锋队觉悟……还必须使全国广大人民群众觉悟……”并用愚公移山的寓言加以说明。这就是对会议做出的重要决策的进一步阐述。

撰写闭幕词要注意两点:首先,要与会议的结果相一致,否则与会人员就会产生反感。其次,语言概括力要强,不须详尽具体,特别对会议重要决策的阐述,过于详尽,就有重复感。

三是祝词。

祝词是在较为隆重喜庆的会议或活动上使用的讲话稿。内容是表示庆贺和祝愿。祝词一般包括三部分内容:

1.以组织或个人的名义向会议或活动表示某种祝贺;

2.对会议或活动意义的评价;

3.参加会议或活动的感想及对其良好的祝愿;

如果是在庆功会上的祝词,还应写上向有功者学习的内容。

撰写祝词着重注意语言的热情和语调的轻松。既不要给人以勉强之感,也不要过于庄重严肃。

四是大会讲话稿。

大会讲话稿是指为参加会议的首长在会议的正式场合发表讲话所用的稿件。这类讲话稿秘书写得比较多,可分为两种,一种是会议的主旨讲话稿,即首长的讲话是会议的中心议题或主要内容。一种是会议发言稿,即在会议过程中的有关讲话。大会讲话稿一般包括四部分内容。

1.对会议中心议题的重点阐述;

2.对会议主旨讲话或报告的看法;

3.对会议的评价;

4.对贯彻会议精神的打算、要求等。

大会讲话稿的内容结构根据具体情况来定,不一定都有这四个部分。例如会议主旨讲话稿就无需第二部分内容,而会议发言稿无需第一部分;第四部分有时也只适合提打算,不适合提要求等等。

撰写大会讲话稿有几点应加以注意:首先要有充分的理论阐述,有理有据,例如会议主旨讲话。其次发言要有分寸,例如对会议的评价,对会议主旨讲话或报告的看法,既反对吹捧,也防止苛求。

除上述几种讲话稿,还有会议总结,会议报告等等。可参考有关文件的写作方法。

了解掌握讲话稿的种类和一般写法,只是具备为首长写讲话稿的基础条件,而撰写的艺术性则是更高的进一步的要求。

二、满足首长对讲话稿的期望标准

秘书所写的讲话稿,主要是为首长使用的。那么写出的讲话稿怎样才算成功呢?这就涉及到首长对讲话稿的期望标准和秘书满足这种期望标准的问题了。

(一)首长对讲话稿的期望标准

讲话稿对讲话的首长来说,实际上是他长期积累的思想结果,也是他在公众面前的一种亮相;是他对人对事所持态度的一次公开表态,也是他政治水平、思想修养、工作能力、文化素质等等的综合显示。不管事实上讲话稿的水平与讲话人的水平是否一致(有些讲话稿水平不高,而实际上讲话人的水平并不低。反之也是一样),也不管嘴里讲的与心里想的和实际做的是否一致,但讲话的领导者对讲话稿所期望的标准都是一样的,即一个“好”字。具体有三点:

1.希望讲出自己的最高水平。使自己的思想、语言得到充分的发挥,能力和水平得到完满的表现,心中有一种淋漓尽致的感觉。

2.希望自己的讲话能获得广泛的赞许和好评,讲话过程中能被热烈的掌声所打断。会后群众广泛议论:“首长的讲话确实精彩”,“同样的事情这位首长讲出来就特别吸引人”等等。

3.希望通过自己的讲话能解决有关重要问题,达到预期目的。道理深入浅出,要点准确鲜明。能启发觉悟,提高认识,明确作法,指导行动,并取得圆满的结果。

毫无疑义,在正常情况下,还没有一个领导者希望自己的讲话能产生与上述标准相反的结果。这就是首长对讲话稿的期望标准。

(二)秘书对首长期望标准的满足

首长对讲话稿的期望标准是“好”,秘书如何达到这个标准呢?当然要取决于秘书的政策水平、理论水平、知识水平和写作水平。但这还不是最关键的。作为秘书应该也必须具有这样的水平。问题在于,为什么同一个秘书,为甲首长写讲话稿就达到了“好”的标准,而换了乙首长,讲话稿就达不到“好”的标准了呢?关键是取决于秘书对首长性格、爱好、习惯、经历、年龄、学识等个性特征的了解和掌握,并使自己写的讲话稿与首长的个性特征相吻合。不同的首长有不同的个性特征,不同的个性特征就有不同的期望标准,达到不同的期望标准就需要不同的写法和要求。

秘书在为首长撰写讲活搞时,要特别注意顺应这样一些不同的个性特征:

1.有的首长年龄大、资格老。这类首长在部队有较高的威信和较大的影响,德高望重,受到干部战士的普遍尊敬,人们对这类首长的讲话不加挑剔。讲好讲差无所谓,内容对错不计较,这是一种传统心理的表现。记得前些年,某部队的部队长是抗美援朝的战斗英雄,他的夫人就是他三次进北京出席英模大会,三次为他献花的姑娘。他习惯骂娘,当团长时被送外号“骂娘团长”。说来也怪,被他骂了的人不但不生气,而且挺高兴:“喂,今天团长骂了我。”全团人都知道,他喜欢谁也就爱骂谁,当然谁挨了骂谁也就喜欢。给这类首长写讲话稿,比较轻松,也可以随便一点,有时为了强调某个问题,口气硬一点也没关系。因为他自己讲话时常常是命令的口气:“你必须想法给我完成”,“出了问题老子撤了你的职”。另外,给一些年纪大、记忆差,身体欠佳的领导写讲话稿,注意把稿子写得短一点,字大一些,内容简略概括点。

2.有的首长年纪轻、资历浅。这类首长的群众基础不如资历深的首长,甚至某些人对这类首长还有些议论,什么关系呀、后台呀等等,当然也包括不服气。给这类首长写讲话稿应慎重,语气上注意平和,不是特别需要一般不用强硬词语,特别是指出问题或批评人的时候,更应谨慎,使用宜于部下接受的语言和方式表达。如果秘书认为这些首长职务高,也可以采用前面那种领导的口气和语言:“干不好我处分你”,有些部下可能不买账。

3.有的首长文化不高,学识较浅。“大老粗”出身的首长在战争年代,六、七十年代还不少见,现在已基本上没有了,特别是根据“四化”标准选拔,一般都有较高的文化知识水平。但相对比较起来看,还是有一些学历较低或实际文化水平不算高,特别是学识不够渊博的首长。他们多是原来基础较差,后在实践中学习提高,或参加函授、业大、院校的短期培训的学习,由于种种原因,他们的文化水平和知识结构与另一些人相比还有明显差距。给他们写讲话稿,要朴实、通俗,尽量用常用词汇表达,句子的结构要简单,表达的方式要常见。千万不可咬文嚼字,章法高深。对于引经据典,明移暗喻的表达方式也要慎重使用。他们不习惯这样的讲话,也难适应这样的讲话,弄不好还会闹出一些笑话。文化大革命期间,首长讲话常要引用几句毛主席的诗词,以壮声色。有一个“大老粗”首长的讲话稿最后是这样两句:“战士指看南粤,更加郁郁葱葱。”结果读成了:“战士指着南奥,更加悠悠忽忽。”眼下这样的情况没有了,但念错、念白了的问题还是时有发生,即使是比较通俗的词语,秘书不加斟酌,也难免出现问题。因为有些词平常说起来顺口,但写在稿上读出来就可能走样。某单位欢迎慰问团演出,首长致欢迎词,把“千里迢迢”读成“干里超超”。闹出了大笑话。这一字之差,说明首长文化水平低;也说明秘书不了解首长,写了他不认识的字,给首长作了难。

除词语问题,还有内容的表述问题,不能过于深奥复杂。秘书为某首长写讲话稿时引用了鲁迅关于雷峰塔倒塌的有关论述。这里的雷峰塔是指《白蛇传》中镇压白娘子的塔。首长不了解这一点,秘书也未加注释,读到这里,首长做了一点发挥:“雷峰塔倒了,应该再修起来,我们还是要继续学习雷锋嘛!”引来一阵哄笑。

4.有的首长文化水平高,学识渊博。这类首长知识面宽,学问精深。他们中的不少人经过正规的高等学校教育,理论基础坚实,知识结构系统,并且平时善于学习,博览群书。

给这类首长写讲话稿难度较大,秘书本身要有相当的素质。除了基本的要求外,要特别注意对文字的修饰和润色;对问题的深刻分析和理论阐述;还可以引用名人轶事,箴言警句,成语典故以及古今中外、天文地理等等的有关知识和材料。如此,首长看了特别高兴,因为这些可以充分显示出他的水平和才能。说到音乐,他知道贝多芬的《命运交响曲》,知道《圆舞曲》之父施特劳斯;说到美术他能介绍《最后的晚餐》和《蒙娜丽莎》的微笑;说到历史和地理,他可以追溯出四大文明的发祥地,黄河流域、恒河流域、尼罗河流域和爱琴海;说到未来和科技,他有兴趣描述外星人和超光速宇航,等等。当然,秘书本身对此知之甚少。也就无能为力了。

5.有的首长是老基层,长期在基层和部队工作。从下边一级一级上来,基层经验丰富,对下边情况非常熟悉。给他们写讲话稿要多用下边的事例,多用事实讲话,特别是他最熟悉的基层情况要写得更多争一些,这是他的优势,讲到这里他可以自如地发挥。显得很得体、很内行。相反,一些理论问题,则应写得少而浅为宜,讲多了可能出一头汗,眼睛不敢离稿,很紧张,下边也听不进去。因为这不是他的特长。

6.有的首长是老机关,长期从事机关工作。他们几乎在各级机关都干过,干事、科长、处长都当过。给他们写讲话稿,当然要求很内行。要特别注意观点的鲜明、结构的合理、材料的恰当、事例的典型、语言的准确、文字表达的流畅。秘书在把讲话稿送审之前,一定要反复推敲,仔细斟酌。对他们提出的修改意见,要严格遵照执行,甚至照搬原话。

此外,我们还会发现,有的首长讲话干脆利落,果断坚决,喜欢讲短话、直话、硬话;有的首长讲话细腻周详,喜欢讲长话、软话、照顾情面的话;有的首长宽宏大度,讲话稿容易通过;有的首长特别挑剔,讲话稿很难过关;有的首长很有主见,讲话稿一锤定音;有的首长见异思迁,讲话稿改来改去等等。秘书一定要细加分析,把握准确,方可动笔。这样才能有的放矢,获得成功。一样的内容,不同的首长讲话,写法差异很大,决不能一视同仁,否则就出差错。

某部队李干事为首长写了一份20页的讲话稿,首长哗啦哗啦很快翻到最后一页,便说:“写得还可以,就是简单了一点。”随后,交给王干事做些补充。王干事仔细看了几遍,很为难。稿子确实写得不错,该说的都说了,再说就是废话。而且这位首长本来爱讲长话,短稿子能讲长了,长稿子就更要命了。台下的人一定会骂:“哪个混蛋写的稿,不让我们吃午饭啦!”正在为难之中,忽然见稿纸下边印有“20×20=400”的字样,心中一亮,找来20×15=300的稿纸,重抄一遍,中间还有意空上两页数码,再送给首长。首长翻到最后一页,见标着“第30页”,很满意:“改得不错。”王干事的做法不可取,有骗领导之嫌。不过从中我们可以悟出一点道理。首长爱讲长话,并不是好习惯,秘书又不能正面对着干,想点恰当的办法处理未尝不可。

秘书遇上比较挑剔的首长就很为难。特别是个别首长出于面子、身价等因素,讲话稿怎么写都一定要找出点毛病让你修改,似乎可以表明他比你有水平,比你高明。而他的意见多是不好采纳的,照他说的改了,反而把结构、观点弄乱了。秘书在写稿时,可以有意留下一点较为明显又无关紧要的错误,比如写几个错别字等等。首长一看就提出让你修改,你修改了,他满意了,错别字也没了,皆大欢喜。

某些首长主意多变,上午交待这样写,下午又觉得那样写更好,睡一宿觉又要重新写,改来改去,又回到第一稿上。对此秘书可不急于来回改写,把首长每次的意见记下来,慢慢改,留一点时间让领导反复。待首长下了决心,再最后加把劲,这时也没有大的改动时间了,马上就要开会,首长也就不会推倒重来。其实,有些内容是很确定的,这样写,那样写都不错,只要能把意图表达出来,达到目的就可以。

上述这些情况只是说明,秘书对不同首长的特殊要求应采取不同的方法,不是违背首长的意图,相反,正是适应首长的习惯特征,更好地实现意图。决不可阳奉阴违,求舒服,图省事,有意欺骗首长。

三、必须把握的几个环节

为首长写讲话稿,除了上述关键性的问题外,还有几个环节也是不可忽略的,这里提出来以引起注意:

(一)切实领会首长意图

为首长写讲话稿就是在表达首长意图。首长的意图应该是讲话稿的主题。有关中心内容,基本观点,主要事例等等,都要以贯彻首长的意图为核心。秘书必须事前准确摸清首长的意图,才可下笔。多数首长心中有数,会对秘书仔细交待。但也有的首长心中无数,或想听一下秘书的意见以作参考,让秘书先拿出提纲。对此,秘书可以提供几个方案,列出对一个问题的若干对策,给领导选择。领导选择了哪个方案,也就是领导的意图了。切不可自以为是,和首长强争硬辩。

(二)研究听话对像的特点

注意考察首长的讲话是给什么人听的。不同的听话对像,讲话稿的写法也不同。对听话对像的了解有这样几点要清楚:

1.听话对像的基本情况。是干部还是战士,是机关干部还是基层干部,是直接当事人,还是普遍都包括。他们的思想状况、年龄状况、文化状况等等都要了解清楚。

2.听话对像最关心的问题。即听话人最敏感的问题是什么。最需要迫切解决的问题是什么。最不需要强调的是什么。

搞清楚这些情况,讲话稿就可以有较强的针对性。

(三)做好资料准备

常言说磨刀不误砍柴功。充分的资料准备,更能提高写作效率。

一方面,搜集同首长讲话有关的理论、政策和上级有关规定的材料。也包括首长本人过去有关这方面的讲话、文章等等材料。

另一方面,搜集同首长讲话有关的实际情况。不但有正面的,也要有反面的;不但有概括性的,也要有典型性的;不但有新近的事例,也要有历史背景的事实。只有这样,才能够准确反映首长意图,切实解决实际问题。

同时,注意拟定好撰写提纲。这是对讲话稿的总体设计。较长、较复杂的内容,可拟定书面提纲;较短、较简单的内容,可打“腹稿提纲”。提纲大体包括:标题、开头、主题、结尾几部分。其中的大小观点、层次、事例材料的选用,可根据需要而定,或详或略,或繁或简。

四、撰写的基本要求

首长的讲话必然代表着一级组织的意图,有明确的指导性、指挥性和规范性。因此,不能草率从事,更不能信口开河,否则会贻误工作。所以为首长写讲话稿,有着严格的要求。

(一)要有坚定的原则性

坚定的原则性主要表现在讲话稿中的观点是否正确。一篇讲话稿阐述了怎样的观点,是它的生命所在。结构的合理,事例的生动,文字的流畅等自然也很重要,但灵魂是观点。观点错了,一切都错了。因为其他一切都是为观点服务的。例如希特勒的演讲,语言很精彩,表情也吸引人,确实曾煽动了千万人的狂热。但他宣扬的是暴力、扩张、极端的民族仇恨主义和法西斯主义,因而也是极端反动的。他精彩的语言和表情,都为反动的观点服务了。秘书在撰写讲话稿时,观点一定要正确。怎样才算观点正确呢?

第一,要与党的路线、政策相一致。

第二,要与有关的条令、条例、规定相一致。

第三,要与上级的指示精神相一致。

第四,要与党委的集体意志相一致。

就是说不能与上述各条相偏离,相矛盾,更不允许相对抗。不能用个人的意志代替组织的意志,搞个人说了算,想啥说啥。

有位领导在一次党员大会上讲话,他说:“×××对我们抽几万元经费买辆小汽车始终从中作梗,甚至把我们批的条子一次次扣下。这样不听领导话的会计就应当撤换。一切行动听指挥嘛!特别指出的是,她身为共产党员,目无组织纪律,拒不执行组织的决定,不交账目,不交钥匙,还越级向上打小报告,想踢开党委闹革命,……”这番讲话,不用分析,也可以看出,其观点偏离党的原则,不符合党的政策和财务制度,是完全错误的。

坚定的原则性往往还表现在秘书与首长的观点有分歧时。领导的意见偏离正确的原则,就要设法使之改变。当然这样做不容易,需要具备否定首长错误意见的艺术。但秘书无论如何不可附和,置正确原则于不顾。

坚定的原则性还表现为一种正直、坦诚、出于公心的品德。某种情况下,领导者因个人恩怨而在对人对事的评价、处理上有所偏差,秘书在撰写讲话稿时不应受偏见的影响,不可随意夸大,用过分的词语,甚至攻击性的语言来对待。秘书个人的恩怨更不能带进首长的讲话稿中,借题发挥,攻其一点,不及其余,全盘否定等等。

(二)要有感人的生动性

讲话稿是讲给人听的,必须产生视听效果。不仅要使人听清楚,而且要使人听得进去,听得有味。这就要求写得能抓住人、吸引人、说服人、感动人、鼓舞人。一句话,要有生动性。

第一,要写短话。话太长了,讲起来费劲,听起来也费劲。一句话几十个字还没完,写在纸上反复看才能明白,怎么能听懂。听不懂就说不上吸引人。例如:

亲爱的同志们,同胞们:

祖国人民因为我们中国女子排球队获得第三届世界杯赛的冠军而远隔大海给我们传来最温暖最亲切最真挚的话语和鼓励。……

这一句话五十多个字,中间没有停顿,一口气读下来脸都憋红了,听众是什么感觉?如果换成短话,意思不变,效果却要好多了。

同志们,同胞们:

我们中国女排,获得第三届世界杯赛的冠军后,祖国人民远隔重洋,给我们传来了最温暖的话语,最亲切的鼓励……

第二,趋向口语化。不要故作高深,不文不白,或者用词生疏、偏僻,查《康熙字典》才能找到的老古董。听讲的人不解其意,怎么能有亲切感?例如某首长在英模座谈会上的讲话,有段这样写:

有功并非一劳永逸。古人云:“功成而弗居,夫为弗居,是以不去。任重道远,来日方长。送同志们两句话共勉:‘功名富贵傥来物,目前渺渺暮云浮’。”

我的话完了。

讲话中引用了不少古语,又不加解释,听众只能似懂非懂地加以接受,效果不佳。

第三,避免过分修饰。过多的使用修饰语,显得不够朴实、真诚,与讲话的环境、场合不协调,不宜被人接受。例如一篇在欢迎大会上的讲话稿,这样写道:

今天,我们怀着无比激动、无比崇敬、无比兴奋、无比自豪的心情,在这里举行空前隆重、空前热烈、空前壮观的大会,欢迎从浴血奋战的前线,凯旋而归的最亲密、最可爱、最知心、最真挚的战友。我们热血沸腾,群情激奋。四周人声鼎沸、欢歌笑语……。

这哪像一个首长的欢迎讲话?

(三)要有严密的逻辑性

讲话稿无论长短,都要主题集中,前后呼应,层次清楚,富有逻辑。逻辑思维有四个规律:同一律,不矛盾律,排中律,充足理由律。写讲话稿也要遵循这四个规律,才能概括准确,判断恰当。否则就可能前后矛盾,模棱两可,似是而非,让人无所适从。

某首长在一次干部大会上发表讲话,批评打骂战士的错误倾向。他说:“对战士进行体罚,这是与我军宗旨和性质相违背的。不过现在有些战士欺软怕硬,你讲道理他不听,你踢他一脚他却服了。打人不对,但有些战士还真得给点疼痛才行……。”

听了这样的讲话,让人不明白,打骂战士到底是对还是错,到底是该批评还是该表扬。前边说违背我军性质和宗旨,后边说真得给点疼痛才行,这不是自相矛盾吗?

为首长服务时保密的艺术

秘书在与首长的相处中会发现,由于首长地位、身份赋予的特殊责任,他们的讲话特别注意场合和分寸。也就是说,首长说些什么不说些什么,对谁说对谁不说,说到什么程度,等等,都是非常有讲究的。但是首长在秘书人员、警卫人员以及司机面前,特别是在秘书面前,讲话就随便多了。而且有许多看似不像首长讲的一些话,有些首长也能讲出来。小到个人的事,家属的事,大到国家的事,党的事,都随便讲,甚至于牢骚怪话,骂娘的话,对上级不满的话,对某项政策不满的话,首长在秘书跟前都随便“乱”讲。记得一位首长找一个部下谈关于这位部下调动工作的事,这个部下对上级的决定不服气,并列数了许多别人怎么怎么样,而对他却这个样;说对别人没政策没原则,只对他讲政策讲原则。这位首长仍然按政策按原则把这个干部调动了。可这位首长心里也觉得这个干部讲得是事实,非常同情这个干部。但他在这个部下面前不能流露出这种情绪。等这件事情过后,这位首长在秘书面前非常气愤地数落了当前一些政策不落实,有章不循,有规不办,对这部分人宽对那部分人严的弊病。讲着讲着甚至于骂了几句。类似的事情很多,秘书听见了就当没听见,烂到肚子里。你能对外传吗?这就需要替首长保密。

还有,许多需要高度保密的会议,秘书要参加,某些人员的升迁调换,有时首长仅仅有点想法,也便在秘书跟前随便讲出来了。

还有,许多重要的文件,首长还没有看,秘书就看过了。

还有,首长的家事,首长的某些特殊偏爱,首长向秘书讲一讲自己的辛酸凄苦,等等。

类似的情况还有许多许多。秘书听见了,看到了,你能随便向外传吗?应该说,绝对不可以,只能烂在肚子里。

所以说,秘书的保密是大范围的,是多方面的。

一、明确保密的重要意义

作为秘书,做好保密工作是自己的一项基本职责,也是一种道德要求。

所谓保密,是指政党和国家或某个集团、单位及人员,由于某种需要,把一些不能让其他政党、国家、集团、单位及人员知道的有关秘密加以保守,使之不向外泄露。中国共产党章程规定:共产党员要“严格保守党和国家的秘密。”中华人民共和国宪法规定:“中华人民共和国公民必须保守国家秘密。”

秘书工作是一项特殊的工作,秘书人员是一种特殊的人员,在保密问题上,更有一种特殊的责任。这就要求秘书,一是积极地保守秘密,防止失密、泄密现象的发生。二是采取各种方法和措施,与敌方的窃密活动和内部各种失密、泄密的现象作斗争。三是个人尽职尽责,守口如瓶,防止有意或无意地失密。

二、秘书人员保密工作的主要任务

秘书人员保密工作的主要任务,就是防止失密、泄密和被窃密事件的发生。秘书人员负责管理文件,负责为会议服务,负责承办首长交待的工作,负责承接和受理领导机关和领导人员的电话。这一切,绝大多数都具有保密性质。当然,秘书对首长的一些言论、行踪、意见和分歧也应当保密。

这就要求,秘书人员应遵守如下保密原则:

(一)不该说的机密绝对不说,不该问的机密绝对不问,不该看的机密绝对不看,不该记录的机密绝对不记。

(二)不在非保密本上记录机密事项,不在私人通信中涉及机密事项,不在公共场所和家属、子女、亲友面前谈论机密事项,不将首长的活动、行踪、住所告诉无关人员,不对任何人泄露首长议而未决的事项或已决而未公开的事项。

(三)不用普通电话、明码电报、普通邮局转达机密事项,不携带机密材料游览、参观、探亲、访友和出入公共场所。不在不利于保密的地方存放文件、资料,更不准将机密文件、资料、刊物据为己有。

(四)不在办公室内拍照、录音、录像,不把无关人员带入放有保密文件的办公室和其他保密场所。

(五)不与外国机关、团体和人员进行私人交往,不与了解不深的人交朋友。与港台人员及国外亲友通信需经领导同意。当然更不能谈论涉及保密事项。

(六)外出执行任务时,机密文件交由专门机要人员携带,调动工作要办好机密文件、资料、刊物和笔记的移交,不能将有关机密的东西私自带走。

(七)下班和离开办公室时,要收好文件,关好门窗,锁好抽屉,并仔细检查一遍,直至一切安全可靠时再离开。

(八)敢于同一切失密、泄密的行为作斗争。

三、关于文件的保密

由于秘书人员与各级上传下达的文件打交道最多,而失密、泄密的经验教训告诉我们,文件失密、泄密的机会为最多。所以这里有必要将文件的保密问题强调几句。

秘书在收发、阅读、办理文件过程中,应做好七个环节的保密工作。

(一)登记。凡收文、发文、分送、传递、借阅、移交、销毁等都应健全严格的登记制度,做到事事有手续,件件有着落,使机密文件在收进、发出、处理和运转过程中均有记载和依据。不能因为是老熟人、老首长就省免这个手续。一旦出了问题,秘书会有口说不清。

(二)传阅。秘书应按规定级限执行,不得自行扩大阅读范围,明着给规定范围内的首长看,暗着给规定范围外的首长看,用这种方式讨好某些职小但权大的首长。有个秘书他觉察到政治部的一位副主任很可能近期内当主任或副政委,就经常拿着规定只供常委传阅的文件给这位副主任看,就这点,这位副主任对这位秘书格外偏爱。不久,这位副主任真的当了主任,对这位秘书也委以重任。这种做法是极不正常的。

(三)复制。机密文件不得擅自抄录。需要复制必须履行审批、登记手续,并将复制件与原件同样管理,复制过程中形成的废页必须及时销毁。

(四)印制必须按批准的份数,不得擅自多印多留。印制过程中,秘书人员要亲自监印。印制形成的蜡纸、衬纸、废页、废件等必须及时销毁,对机密文件的草稿应与正式稿件同样对待。文件在印刷前要注明密级,确定发送范围以及是否可以翻印、复制等。

(五)传递。传递必须有保密措施,不能随便放在一个杂乱的公文包里或顺手往口袋一装。在传递过程中,不能交其他人员看管。机密文件应走机要交通,不得通过普通邮局邮寄。跟随首长或自行外出携带密件要经有关领导批准,并采取保密措施。

(六)保管。秘书的办公室如果没有保密设施,不应存放机密文件过夜,随用随借随还,手续清楚。

(七)交接。秘书人员的工作调动时,应将文件清理登记,全部移交,并办理清退手续。

四、关于会议的保密

由于秘书人员经常参加各种会议特别是一些机密性会议,而失密和泄密的经验教训也告诉我们,会议内容失密、泄密的现象也时有发生。所以,有必要对会议保密的问题也强调几句。

(一)召开秘密程度较高的会议,秘书人员在会前应与保卫、保密部门取得联系,共同采用安全保卫措施,并提醒或建议首长对与会人员进行保密教育,严格规定保密纪律。

(二)会前,秘书人员应协同有关部门检查会议场所及设施。不在内、外宾混住的宾馆、饭店召开机密会议,会议人员的居住要相对集中。

(三)秘书人员在会前应对会场的扩音、录音设备进行保密检查,防止扩音设备泄密。对机密会议,严禁使用无线话筒录音扩音。

(四)秘书要经常提醒会场保卫人员和宾馆服务人员,严禁与会议无关的人员进入会场,自己更不能将无关人员带入会场。对需要列席会议的人员名单,秘书应事先过目一遍,然后再将名单报有关领导审定。

(五)秘书人员不能利用工作之便乱印乱发会议文件。会议期间印发的机密文件,应按规定标明密级,统一编号,登记分发。对于与会人员呈送给首长的有关文件,秘书不能私拆偷看,应及时呈送首长。如果对其中的内容略有所知也不能乱说乱传,对只供首长参考、审阅的通报、情况反映、内部快讯,要快送、快传,并统一编号,妥为保存,对其中的内容也要加以保密。

(六)秘书人员不得以任何形式向外泄露会议秘密内容。对某些宣传、新闻单位编写的简报以及对会议的公开报道,秘书人员也应审查把关,防止泄密。会议有关内容需要向外传达时,应划分好范围。

(七)会议结束时,秘书应及时清退文件,并协助有关人员对会址特别是首长住所以及些秘密场所,进行保密检查,防止遗失文件、资料、笔记本等。

五、秘书人员保密观念的特殊品质

保守秘密是秘书工作者极为重要的政治责任和职业纪律。周恩来早就对秘书工作人员提出过三条基本要求,这就是:“第一要保密,第二要准确,第三要迅速。”周恩来把保密放在首位,可见保密工作在秘书工作中的重要地位。

(一)保持高度警惕

有了高度的警惕性,就有了做好保密工作的自觉性。从某种意义上讲,真正的危险不在于境外情报机关的各种势力的窃密活动,而在于我们内部思想麻痹,丧失警惕。秘书部门天天接触秘密,稍有不慎,就可能出问题。从过去秘书部门发生的泄密情况看,多数属于思想麻痹大意而导致文件丢失或被盗。因此,作为一个秘书人员,必须时刻提高警惕,牢固树立敌情观念、组织纪律观念,严格执行保密制度。任何时候都不能放松对敌特和其他不法分子的防范和斗争,特别是在当前改革开放的社会环境中,境外敌对势力和国内一些别有用心的人往往以金钱、物质、色情作为诱饵,拉拢、收买、利用我内部一些意志不坚定、思想不健康的人为其提供秘密情报,而秘书人员又是他们注意的重点对像。因此,秘书人员要时刻保持警惕,自觉抵制各种剥削阶级腐朽思想的侵蚀,清正廉洁,忠于职守,确保党和国家机密的安全。

(二)做到严宽结合

秘书人员要牢记保密宗旨,在制定保密工作的制度、措施,处理保密工作中遇到的矛盾和问题时,都要有利于维护国家和军队的安全,有利于保卫和促进改革开放和社会主义现代化建设。秘书部门贯彻执行保密工作的方针要处理好三个关系:

首先,要正确处理确保秘密与便利工作的关系,对必须保住的秘密要千方百计地保住。但是,在保密的同时,要注意研究怎样保得好,保得适当,在保证有关秘密安全的前提下,尽量方便工作。过去,有人片面强调保密,害怕文件丢失、泄密而将一些应当分发、阅办的秘密文件锁在柜子里,以致妨碍工作。在确保秘密与便利工作之间,秘书部门要善于找到二者的最佳结合点。秘书工作是为领导和领导工作服务的,如何既搞好服务,又符合保密的要求,就要多想办法。

第二,要处理好确保核心秘密与放宽对非核心秘密的限制的关系,把原则性与灵活性结合起来。比如,秘书部门每天收到很多文件、简报、资料,其中载有一些很有利用价值的信息,只要不是涉及国家的核心秘密,可以根据工作的需要,有区别地放宽限制,以充分发挥这些信息的社会效益。秘书人员不要把“保密”搞成“神秘”,好像自己知道的事情,都是高深莫测,密不可传的。

第三,要正确处理保守秘密与政务公开的关系。政务公开一般是指各级领导机关的一些公务活动要让群众知道,使群众有更多的参政议政机会和条件。秘书人员不能借口“保密”把本来应该公开的事情包捂起来。当然,也不能一味强调“透明度”,不讲保密,把什么都向外公开。即使是有些需要公开的事情,也有一个掌握公开的时机和范围的问题。现在有些同志在强调政务公开以后,忽视保密,把一些不宜翻印的秘密文件随便翻印,不该扩大传达范围的文件和会议精神扩大传达了。这是违反保密规定的。

(三)谨防密从口出

秘书人员的保密,其实最为重要的是不要“乱说乱道”。

一是防止随口应付。因为秘书常在首长身边,并大量接触机密文件,大家都觉得你跟常人不一样,知道的事情不仅多,而且准确可靠。对你随便讲的一些话,都是特别信以为真的,对你的作用是格外夸大的,人们常常以你说的一些话为“宗旨”去待人处事。比如,甲问秘书:“最近首长对我怎么样?”秘书曰:“挺好的。”甲高兴极了,其实根本没那回事。乙问秘书:“首长对我怎么样?”秘书曰:“一般化吧!”乙极度扫兴,其实根本没那回事。丙问秘书:“最近研究科长名单有没有我的份?”秘书曰:“你也算一个吧!”丙快活极了,其实根本没那回事。所有这些,秘书都是在一问一答中顺口说的,也没什么泄不泄密的问题,但却引起了对方的思想波动。所以秘书特别在对人的评价和人事安排上,讲话要格外小心,不可信口开河,更不可胡言乱语。

二是要防止冰冷面孔。有些同志一当上秘书,好像自己就是拿大事的,就是高人一头的。脸面是冰冷的,表情是严肃的。走路不和别人同行,吃饭不和别人同桌,见了谁都低个头不说话,生怕别人沾下一层皮。当别人问你个什么事时,你都很神秘地说:“这个事要保密!”“这事我知道,但不能告诉你。”“这事首长研究过了,过几天你听正式传达吧!”这些做法都让人吃不消。秘书保密应使用和善友好的方式,让人听了感到既不伤面子,又能保住秘密。当然也不能一味地说“不知道”。有些文件下面都传达过了,你还哄别人“我不知道”,也未免太过分了,让人看出你的虚伪。

三是要防止以泄密讨好。在生活中我们发现,有些秘书用泄密去交朋友;用泄密去拉关系、办私事;用泄密去讨好某些领导及领导的亲属,特别是别人一吹一捧,自己就晕乎乎,不该说的乱说。因此,秘书人员特别要防止“密从口出”。不能以“消息灵通人士”自居,好像自己就是“露透社”,把知晓的党和国家的秘密作为炫耀自己的资本。不能讲亲疏,讲关系,讲面子,不讲原则和纪律,随意向家属和亲友、熟人透露秘密。

六、做好办公自动化中的保密工作

随着科学技术的发展,现代化的办公设备越来越多地进入了各级机关。秘书部门在使用现代化办公手段进行信息传输和处理中,要建立健全并严格执行保密制度,不能只图工作方便而不顾保密。秘书人员应切实做到:不在未采取保密措施的各种有线、无线通信工具和计算机网络中传输秘密信息;一般秘密内容,如发传真,应当加密传发;拍发密码电报,其内容应限于党和国家的重要秘密事项,或不宜用其他方式传递的事项;在办文中,坚持“明来明复,密来密复”;未经主管领导批准和因特定的工作需要,不能使用本单位的通信工具擅自与境外的机构、人员联络;复印机密文件、资料,要按规定履行批准手续,认真登记,并严格按批准的复制数量和发放范围办理。秘书人员还有责任提醒和督促领导同志做好保密工作,经常向领导尤其是新上来的领导干部宣传保密工作的制度和要求,以引起他们对保密工作的重视。毛泽东说过:告诉首长同志,不要把文件装在口袋里,要知道口袋是会漏的。因此,秘书人员不仅要给首长当好业务工作的参谋助手,也要给首长当好保密工作的参谋助手。

在履行上述保密责任时,秘书部门还要注意做好信访、接待、档案管理中的保密工作。在处理群众来信来访工作中,对检举、揭发、控告材料和情况反映,不得向外扩散,对于检举、揭发人也要保密。做好档案管理中的保密工作,也是秘书部门的一项重要职责。保密档案的管理和利用,密级的变更和解除;以及向社会开放的期限,必须按照国家有关保密法规及《档案法》的规定办理。

为首长挡驾的艺术

挡驾,简言之,是谢绝客人来访、求见的意思。

首长的工作繁忙,需要办理的事情很多。其中接待来访就是一项极平常而又无法避开的工作。许多首长,把接见来访作为了解下情,密切联系群众,倾听群众呼声的重要工作方法。许多群众把上访,争取首长接见,做为解决自己实际问题的最好方式。特别是现在,人们对官甚至是大官,也不那么敬畏了,芝麻大点事也要找首长。

无论是首长接待来访还是来访者求见首长,都可分为主动性和被动性,必要性和非必要性。秘书只有区别情况,为首长适时挡驾,才能使首长避免一些无谓的纠缠,为首长创造一个宁静安定的工作氛围。

一、挡驾的时机和对象

挡驾,不是有人来找首长,秘书就去拦一拦,堵一堵,使秘书成为首长和群众、上级和下级之间一道无影的隔墙。挡驾是有时机有对像的。概括起来有:

1.首长明确告知秘书不愿意接见的人;

2.首长事先未约定接见的人;

3.因鸡毛蒜皮的小事要求首长接见帮助处理的人;

4.为个人某些问题,三番五次找首长纠缠的人;

5.首长正在忙于应付重大事件无空暇接待的人;

6.态度蛮横,出言不逊,想找首长寻衅闹事的人;

7.首长身体不适,要求探视首长或向首长请示、汇报工作的人;

8.对他要求处理的问题,上级或本级机关已有明确、公正的结论,但其对处理不服,要求见首长的人。

遇有上述人员,秘书就要适时挡驾。

二、挡驾的几条原则

挡驾是必要的,但要坚持如下几条原则:

(一)及时请示

一般情况下,首长有预约时,事先会通知秘书的:“今天上午9点钟,××要来见我,他来了后让他进来。”但也有许多不相识的客人未预约而来求见首长。如果首长在家,就要及时报告,秘书不能擅自决定首长接见与否。

某部刘秘书给我们讲了他刚当秘书时的两个事:

其一,一次该部队政委的一位老领导到军队驻地的,一所疗养院疗养,他既不想找部队的麻烦,也不求部队为他办什么个人私事,就是想来看一看这个部队的政治委员。

这位老领导穿得很朴实,着装打扮几乎像老将军孙毅一样。大热的天还戴了一顶解放帽,穿了一双发了白的解放鞋。可能是离开部队时间久的缘故吧,当年首长的那种威风一点也不见了。不论对谁说话,都是满脸的微笑。当他被带入秘书办公室后,简直像山沟里的农民进了县长大人的家里。秘书递上杯杯水,他双手接了过去。秘书把这位客人上下打量了一番,心里就嘀咕开了:这哪儿像我们首长的首长?分明是一个没有什么文化,靠资历熬上去的一个老干部,很可能他和我们政委的关系八竿子也打不着。再说,还不知道他找政委要办什么麻烦事呢!到时还不是我办?于是问:

“您和我们政委是什么关系?”

“战友,战友,过去在一块呆过几天。”

“您找我们政委有什么事吗?”

“没有,没有,就是想看看他。”

“我们政委近日不在家,您看……”

“那好,那好,我改日再来,不麻烦了。”

秘书就这样将这位老人打发走了。

其实,政委并未外出,工作也不太忙。正坐在办公室翻阅文件。

这位着装朴实、态度祥和的老人是这个部队三位现任领导同志的老首长。特别是和该部队政委的关系简直亲密极了。30年前,这位老人当团长的时候,该部队政委是他的警卫员。政委现在手上戴的那块罗马表还是这位老团长送给他的。

刘秘书以貌取人,没有向政委报告就把客人打发走了,理所当然地受到了批评。

其二,有一次,刘秘书听到外边一声低沉悦耳的小汽车喇叭声,已经判断出这是一辆高级轿车,就从办公室迎了出来。他看见一位手提大哥大,腰扎鳄鱼皮带,脚穿登云鞋的壮年胖子从奥迪车上出来。一步三摇直奔首长办公楼。这位阔佬往秘书办公室一坐,随口便说:“我是你们政委的老熟人,有个要紧事想找他通个气。”边说话边用防风打火机将三五牌香烟点燃。刘秘书见状竟然连姓名和职业都没来得及问,便随口答应:“政委在家,可以接待你。”其实,他哪里是什么政委的老相识,只是在某次军民联欢会上有过一面之交。他来找政委的目的是想拉与部队建设毫无关系的赞助费。

刘秘书又以貌取人了,没有向政委报告就说政委可以接见,理所当然地受到了批评。

所以,挡驾时及时向有关首长报告是大有必要的。

(二)热情礼貌

客人见不到首长是非常失望的,再遇上个态度冷淡的秘书,那真是伤心极了。所以,越是没有受到首长接见的客人,秘书越要热情,让他们来时欲望很大,走时也很满足。秘书冷落来访客人是万万不应该的。

热情礼貌很重要的方面是秘书对首长不接见客人的原因能耐心解释清楚。不要讲上几句应付的话,让客人冷在那里,站也不是坐也不是,等也不是走也不是。

某学院两名教员到某部队去函授教学。这个部队的领导,几乎都是该学院的函授学员。教员的意思是想见一见该部队的领导,有些事情想汇报一下。该部队的宣传干事把他们二位接到招待所的值班室以后,说马上就去报告首长,请二位教员稍候。这两位教员也挺高兴,长时间的旅途疲劳也减轻了许多。可是两位教员从下午两点半一直等到五点也没见个人影,更不用说首长接见了。直到开饭了,他们还不知道自己应住在哪个房间。这两位教员一气之下就到地方上找旅馆去了。原来是这位干事中间遇到其他琐事,把两位教员的事忘却了。

类似这种冷落客人的现象,秘书人员必须避免。即使中间遇到特殊情况,比如首长因事不能如期接见,也要向客人打个招呼,至少也应来个电话说明一下情况。

当然,热情礼貌的方式很多。比如为了让客人消磨等候时间,可主动给客人送些画报,最新的报纸;有条件的还可以打开电视,或领上客人到附近的新鲜地方转一转。天冷了,冲杯热茶;天热了,倒杯冷饮。对行动不便的病号、老少、孕妇,最好能派个车送一送。

如果客人想把来访目的跟秘书讲讲,秘书应该耐心地听记,耐心地寻问,耐心地解释。

(三)态度谦和

有的客人要见首长,常常是经过反复思考才下定的决心,真算得上“无事不登三宝殿”。可首长难以接见,他们会感到大失所望。于是,有的沉默不语,有的哭哭啼啼,有的大吵大闹,有的赖着不走。

有的客人,他们自认为是首长的老上级、老同事、老部下,或者是首长的同乡、亲属。他们不把挡驾的秘书看在眼里,认为首长不接见,是秘书故意从中作梗。这些人讲起话来,态度傲慢,口气坚定。秘书想做点解释工作,他们根本不听、不信,甚至认为你在故意编谎、哄骗。

有的客人,是“老上访”,油得很,听到首长不能接见就胡搅蛮缠,软磨硬抗。无论秘书怎样解释,他们都不听不信,甚至对秘书讽刺挖苦,让你下不了台。

有的客人,当秘书寻问他们一些基本情况时,比如“您贵姓?”“您是哪个单位的?”“请问有无证件?”他就特别不耐烦。有的甚至还说:“我又不是特务、坏蛋,假冒伪劣,问这么细干什么?”

有的客人,还可能越过秘书的挡驾,径直往首长的办公室里跑,你拦也拦不住,在走廊上就大吵大嚷开了。

秘书碰到上述情况,都要不急不躁,诚恳耐心。不能脸色难看,表情冷漠,语言生硬。更不能耍态度、发脾气,甚至和客人吵起来。因为有些来访者,需要的正是这个。闹到这种地步,也许首长会出来解决。

当然,对于那些故意寻衅闹事的人,就另当别论了。

(四)区别对待

秘书挡驾,不是把来访者统统拒之门外,而要视情况借机行事,及时向首长报告,看首长是否有新的想法,能否予以接待。

有一些来访者,首长本来是不打算接见的,可一听情由,紧急而重大,必须接见;有一些来访者,首长原计划是准备接见的,但一听讲述,事情细微无关大局,不需要接见;有些来访者,原计划是一名首长接见,但视情况可以两名甚至多名首长参加;有些来访者,原准备低(高)规格接见,但视情况可以高(低)规格接见,等等。所有这些,秘书都要区别情况,灵活掌握,及时向首长汇报,迅速改变计划。比如,某部队驻地人民当局的人事局准备到该部队走访,想了解几名军官就地转业的事情,原计划是来两名普通工作人员,由干部部门的同志接待一下就可以了。结果临时接到通知,地方要来一名副市长和人事局长,秘书就要迅速汇报,提高接待规格。

三、挡驾的几种方式

秘书挡驾的方式很多,这里仅介绍几种:

(一)善意劝告

劝告是挡驾的一种重要方式。主要是针对那些无需首长接见但硬要求首长接见的人。秘书就可以明确告诉他们:“这事儿找首长也没有用,首长也无法帮助你解决这些具体问题。你还得找业务单位,等下边报告上来再说。”“你的这事儿,首长不会点头的。大家都找首长,大事小事都让首长亲自处理,那怎么可以呢?”

大部分来访人员,只要听到秘书耐心而有说服力的劝告,求见首长的迫切心情就会减弱或消失。

(二)不妨说谎

这种方式主要是针对那些胡搅蛮缠、无理取闹的来访者。比如,首长明明就在办公室,但告诉他:“首长外出了,不知道什么时候回来。”或者,“首长正在开会,规定不准会客。”等等。有位同志个人主义特别严重,干工作不卖力气,还最爱沾公家的小便宜,常常因为个人小事动辄找首长。有些时候,本来下级或业务部门对他的要求否定了,可他还是三番五次地找首长,首长觉得也没啥大不了的事,就给他批办了。他便尝到了甜头,觉得官越大越好说话,官越大越给办事,就经常死皮赖脸地这么做。后来,业务部门向首长提醒并希望首长不要给“难缠人开绿灯”。于是,首长发话了:“以后××要见我,我不接见。”

遇有这种情况,秘书只能用假话搪塞了。

(三)如实陈述

就是把首长正在进行的活动如实地告诉来访人,请他们予以谅解。比如对客人说:“很抱歉,首长正在主持一个重要会议,恐怕一时半会完不了,您看能不能改日再来?”或者对客人说:“您找首长如果有急事的话,是否留个条子,我给您转告?”也可对客人说:“如果不保密的话,您先和我谈一谈,我保证转达到。今天晚上我把结果用电话转告您。”或者说:“首长原计划接见您,所以才约您来,可正赶上个应急事,请您稍等。”

把上述情况如实转告来访人,他们即使未被接见或久等一段时间也不会有怨言。

受理首长电话的艺术

秘书替首长打电话、接电话,或替其他部门接转电话,是一天当中最多的一件事。怎样受理这些电话,也体现出秘书的素质修养和业务水平。

一、打电话应注意的问题

秘书为了协助首长工作,打电话简直是家常便饭。有人统计,某位集团军的秘书仅一天时间向外打的电话就有四十多次。在电话里,秘书常常是首长的代言人。因此要特别注意提高用电话办事的效率。

(一)想一想有无必要打电话。在秘书的办公室里,常常有几部电话放在那里,白色的、蓝色的、红色的。军线的、外线的、直拨的。使用起来当然十分方便。但不要用电话代替其他通讯工具,也不要以为电话是进行指挥、传呼的唯一手段。要经常想到非打电话不可时才打电话。我们发现,有些秘书针尖大点的事也拨个电话;两句话说完的事情,扯上老半天;本来已经说清楚的问题,还要反复强调;受话人就在楼上、楼下甚至是隔壁,也要用电话交谈。这些都是文犊主义、官僚主义的一种表现,理应坚决克服。

(二)选择适当的通话时间。就军队性质而言,凡发布、传递上级的命令指示,进行重大的紧急军事行动,寻问部下某个特殊事件,或者向上级汇报一个紧急情况,用电话传递是不需要受时间限制的。

但是,如果不是上述情况,秘书人员向外打电话时就要注意选择打电话时间。除了和值班人员通话外,其他的通话,白天应在上班时间,夜间则在十点以前。以免干扰人家的正常生活。午睡时间也最好不要给别人打电话。特别是在深夜时分,更不要给领导人家里打电话,这样做常常会使受话人大惊一场。因为几乎所有的领导干部都以为,“半夜的电话没好事”,“天不怕地不怕就怕半夜来电话”。

(三)查准对方电话号码,并正确拨号。秘书身边备有市区、军线电话号码薄,对地方和军队更改的电话号码要特别留心,并及时更正过来。另外,随身还应携带常用简易电话号码本,以供首长或自己使用。比如首长出差在外,想给老伴打个电话,你说:“我忘记电话号码了。”那让首长多扫兴。记住了电话号码,就要集中精力正确拨号,不要一边和别人说话,或看书,吃东西,一边拨号。结果老是拨错。拨通以后如没有人接,应耐心等待片刻,不要骂骂咧咧。如果这样,即使对方接电话双方可能也不会有个好态度。

(四)热情进行自我介绍。电话接通以后,可用亲切的口气询问一下对方的单位和姓名,然后再报出自己的姓名。有时,当对方听到你问他时,他不仅不回答,还生硬地问:“你是哪里?”或:“你是谁?”秘书就应迅速告诉对方。加果自己不说,又反问了一个“你是谁?”这就有可能搁下正事而唇枪舌剑了。

(五)对下级要以礼相待。秘书常常用电话对下级发出通知,下达指示,这就要防止口大气粗。讲起来就是“嗯啊,唉呀”。或者老是“你们明白没有?”“你懂不懂呀?”让人听了不舒服,还有什么“我告诉你,这是××首长的意思。用首长的名义压人。”更有甚者,下级接到你的电话后还没有陈述看法,意见,秘书就把电话压了。等等,这是不好的。

二、接电话应注意的问题

(一)秘书应该坚持坐班,即使办事外出也应交待别人接替。当电话铃响后,应尽快接听,而不要拖延。提起话筒后,应主动报出自己的单位及姓名。然后再问对方是谁。切忌自己什么都不说,而以老滋老味的口气反问:“你是谁呀?”这是很不礼貌的。

(二)当对方陈述通话内容时,秘书对听懂了的,应间或地用“嗯嗯”加以回应,以示自己在听,而且听明白了。不要对方说了一大堆,你一声不应。对方还以为断线了,或者是以为你慢待了他。对没有听懂的内容,应很快地询问:“你再说一遍”,“没听清”,“听不清楚”,等等。对一些重大的事情,秘书应该把来话内容很准确地记下来,待对方讲完后,自己应主动地把内容重复一遍,好让对方放心。

(三)无论是接谁的电话,都应热情,温和。不要听到上级的电话就低三下四,听到下级的电话就盛气凌人;不要听熟人的电话就笑语盈盈,听素不相识人的电话就冷冷冰冰;不要听领导的电话就唯唯诺诺,听一般人的电话就口大气粗;当然也不要听到男士的电话就满脸严肃,听到小姐的电话就喜上眉梢;不要心情好的时候有求必应,心情不好的时候态度生硬。

(四)如果碰上了“小事大罗嗦”的电话,秘书就自认倒霉。不过,也有对付的办法。可以向对方说:“您讲的我都明白了,而且也记下了,你还有别的事吗?”或者暗示身边的人帮你解脱,让他大声地说“刘秘书,有人找。”对方就会加快速度。或者告诉对方自己有个急事:“我说老张啊,我现在有个急事,得马上处理,请你过会儿再谈好吗?”或者借机来个顺水推舟。某单位有个陈教授,因个人几件小事,觉得领导上处理得不公平,竟在下班的时间给院办公室的秘书打了两个小时的电话。这位秘书尽管在内心里把这个陈教授讨厌透了,但还是耐心地接听着。这时突然爱人来气了:“电话,电话!你就懂得接电话!饭都凉了。有事到办公室打去,这么长的电话烦不烦人哪!”声很高,陈教授听到了,自讨没趣地放下了电话。这位秘书爱人的做法也不可取,不够婉转。其实,秘书完全可以和气地说:“陈老,您也饿了吧,您老伴等着您吃饭呢,下午上班咱们再说,好吧。”陈教授也不至于太不知趣。

(五)如果接听以后,自己不是受话人,应当负起代为传呼的责任。即使不能代为传呼,也应把理由给对方讲清楚,让对方理解你的困难。不要一听不是找你,便说“错了”,“××不在”。不等对方请求就把电话断了。要知道,有些发话人,可能找某个同志急了,但就是找不到,于是他就想到秘书人员一定在岗,就把电话拨到你这里。在力所能及的情况下,这种电话也应帮助受理。

(六)凡找首长的电话,秘书人员一定要问清来话人的单位、姓名,找哪位首长。如果是下级单位或不熟悉的人找首长,最好能把来话人找首长要讲的话简要打听一下,然后将这些再转告首长,让首长决定是否接这个电话。有些首长常常在接电话前爱问:“哪里来的电话?”“是谁呀?”“有什么事找我?”秘书总是一问一个不知道,或者说一句“你一接就知道了。”就难免有些失职。

三、请别人传呼时应注意的问题

这方面最忌讳的是用命令的口气让接话人去找人。正确的做法是:

(一)你要找的人正好在电话旁,对方会说:“请稍等,我叫去!”你应该说:“谢谢!”

(二)你要找的人不在电话旁而在其他地方,你应该这样说:“我是×××,找他有点急事,能否麻烦您帮我找一下?”如果对方答应去找,你应表示十分感谢;如果对方表示自己无法脱身,你同样应该表示谢意。然后说:“对不起,如果×××回来,请您转告他,请他给我回个电话。”

(三)如果对方已经外出,但这事情又非办不可,就让接话人把电话转到对方的所在单位。如果无法转去,就可以说:“请您给×××留个条子,他回来后,让他很快给我回个电话,首长要找他。”

四、接到打错的电话应注意的问题

打电话时由于跳号、串线,或由于拨错号,电话号码的变动,都可能产生打错电话的问题。

(一)防止发火。当接到打错的电话时,秘书人员决不能冲着话筒大声回击:“错啦!”然后把电话筒一摔骂上几句。没几秒钟,电话铃又响了,你一去接,又是那个打错的电话,于是你的怒气更盛,“告诉你错了,你还胡拨什么?不会打不要打!”叭!把电话放下了。特别是自己正赶写一个材料或办一件燃眉之急的事情时,很容易为此事气急败坏。

其实,跟一个不相识、不见面的人发这么大的火是没有必要的,只能说明你这个秘书修养不好。要设身处地想一想,你难道没有拨错电话的时候吗?人家对你也是这个态度你好受吗?

(二)耐心寻问。接到打错的电话,首先应该仔细听清对方要找什么单位和什么人。如果确实是打错了,你应该询问对方要打的是什么号码。要是号码相同,就告诉对方,自己是什么单位(如果保密也可以不告诉),对方要找的单位电话号码已经改换了。如果碰巧你知道这个单位这个人的电话号码,就应该告诉对方。当对方向你致谢时,你便说:“不客气。”这样处理该多好!

在接到打错的电话时,最要紧的是耐心和细致。即使对方再三询问,你也不要不耐烦,而应该理解和体谅对方的心情,他可能有什么急事要办吧!

五、接听监督电话应注意的问题

许多领导机关为了廉洁自律,接受群众监督,及时解决下边的疾苦与反映的问题,就设立监督电话。秘书人员接听这类电话时,要特别注意:

(一)严守信誉。监督电话号码不保密,所以应利用各种方式进行宣传,使群众知道监督电话的号码,便于随时拨用。群众一旦拨用,就应该立即有人接应。决不能“只听铃声响,没有接话人。”把监督电话变成聋子的耳朵,摆个样子。使领导机关失去群众的信任。

(二)热情接受。因为是接受群众的监督电话,所以当工作人员接话后、不应使用“你是谁”,“你是哪个单位的”之类的话语,而应该先自报“家门”,让对方消除疑虑,一听就有一种亲切感。在对方反映问题时,要认真地听,认真地记,并对反映中的人名、地点、时间、情景,以及产生问题的原因、性质都详细地打听清楚。至于打电话人的单位、姓名,对方愿意告诉就记下来,不愿意告诉也不必打听。

(三)负责办理。就是说,凡能够回答和解决的问题,最好在电话里就回答和解决。不能回答和解决的问题,要做好记录,并告诉对方,“你反映的这个问题很重要,我们要给首长报告。”“你反映的这个问题,我们一定要调查清楚。”“你反映的这个问题,我们一定要转告有关部门,让他们妥善处理。”同时要告诉对方,今后可采取何种方式取得联系,以便把反映的问题的处理结果转告他。

(四)态度冷静。既然是监督电话,打电话的人什么身份都有,反映什么问题也有,即使是一般群众也可能说反话,说难听的话、说领导机关不愿意听的话,甚至是骂娘的话;或者反映的问题与事实有很大的出入,可就是认死理;或者反映的问题并不大,可上纲上线却很玄乎;或者反映的问题并不复杂,可在电话上讲得没完没了。接话人就要做到不急躁,不解释、不反驳;耐心听,热心问,详细记。

对待首长家属参政的艺术

秘书与首长有密切的联系,自然也就与首长的家庭特别是首长的夫人经常有交往。首长掌管军事政务,家属难免参与其中。秘书如何正确对待和处理好首长家属的参政,就是一个无法回避又十分重要的现实问题。这其中的奥秘高深莫测,理论与实践也相当丰富,但公开的论著却极少阐述。我们这里恐也难叙说周正,仅从实际情况和需要出发,讲几点紧要问题。

一、什么是首长家属参政

秘书要正确对待首长家属参政问题,首先要十分明确家属参政的确切含义,即它的内涵和外延,它特有的对像、范围和具体内容。“家属参政”,顾名思义,有“家属”和“参政”两个方面的内容。

(一)家属的特定含义

家属这个概念,一般的解释:家庭内户主本人以外的成员。或者指职工本人以外的家庭成员。广义的家属包含的成员是很多的,妻子或丈夫,子女、兄弟姐妹、父母、(外)祖父母,以及长期共同生活,已属于家庭成员的其他亲属和领、抚养人员。

由于约定俗成,在军队中,家属这个词专指军人的妻子。在习惯上,有时年纪轻的称爱人,年龄大的称老伴。

我们这里所讲的家属,是狭义上的家属,即专指首长的配偶。一般来说就是首长的妻子。

(二)家属参政的含义

如果给首长家属参政下个定义,是否可以这样讲,就是首长的配偶,参与了本应属首长本人处理的工作事项,甚至代行了首长职权的行为。

家属参政,可以说是古今中外概莫能外,大小官员基本如此,正反人物无逃脱。只是作用大小,结果好坏不同而已。

军队首长家属参政也同样不可避免,是一种客观存在的现象。不是有没有的问题,而是承不承认的问题。特别是首长喜爱的家属,表现就更加明显,作用也就更大。有人下保证说,我当了领导就能做到家属不参政,如果这不是吹牛,那就是他对家属参政含义还不清楚。

有一篇小品文叫《首长回家一小时》,写的是一个无权的干部家属到首长家,想请首长家属在首长面前说个情,帮助解决招工指标问题。首长家属说:“老头子的事我从不参与,用一句时髦的话说叫‘家属不参政’。所以这事我没办法。”这时首长回家了,一眼看见茶几上放了些新鲜的苹果和梨,通红、娇黄,便说:“这么好看!”

首长家属接了一句:“好看不好吃,又酸又贵,好几次了,都是这样,你们司令部的管理处怎么搞的?”

“嗯,是有几次了,我们研究研究。”

——看到这里我们不难发现,首长回家不一会儿,说了没有几句话,家属已经开始参政了。首长们之所以要“研究研究”,是由于首长家属提出了“管理处怎么搞的”的问题。

这时,电话铃响了,首长家属去接:“哪一位?”

“是我”

“××副主任啊,”然后把话筒一档问:“你接不接?”

“我接,”首长接过电话:“什么事啊?……那不行,陈处长要去。不少材料得他把关呢!”

听到这句话,首长家属又插话了:“人家陈处长爱人今天刚到,路过咱们这儿才三天时间,你让人家陈处长去开什么会?”

“噢,是这样?”首长口气一转:“那好吧,别让他去了。”

——从接电话,到首长改变主意,这又是家属参政。

接下来首长对夫人说:“今晚不在家吃饭,招待所有客人。”

家属说:“到招待所吃饭,你少喝点马尿水,别再喝多了胡说八道。”

首长说:“我知道了,今晚只喝饮料。”

——这又是参政,怕首长酒喝多了坏事。

首长回家不到一小时,家属参政二三次。

家属参政有时是明显的,有时是隐含的;有时是主动的,有时是不自觉的。这确是一种必然现象。有一幅对联,写旧社会男尊女卑,上联是:严管妻是本。下联是:妇顺夫为实。横批:阳胜阴。尽管如此,上至皇帝下到百官;老婆参政屡见不鲜。在今天,似乎倒过来读更合适,上联是:本是妻管严。下联是:实为夫顺妇。横批:阴胜阳。正因如此,家属常当首长的家,进而也常参首长的政就更不足为奇了。

二、家属参政的特点

首长家属参政一般表现出以下几个特点:

(一)与家属在家庭的地位极有关系

首长家属在家庭的地位与她们的参政常常成正比。地位越高,参政的意识越强,作用越大。大约有三种情况。

一是在家庭成员中有影响,特别是在子女中有威信。某部队陈将军的家属是农村妇女,开始时没有地位,在家里很不平等,全靠丈夫养活。不要说参政,连家里的事也是不敢随意做主,后来生了对男女,精心抚养,长大成人,都很有出息,对母亲格外孝敬。首长也非常喜欢,特别对女儿尤为宠爱。随着儿女的长大,妻子的地位发生了变化,丈夫稍有不平等,儿女便马上出来保驾,父亲再不敢妄为,母亲则锋芒出现,家里的事她全说了算,渐渐地丈夫的事也开始参与了。

二是经济上独立。妻子随军后有了工作,有了固定收入,再不需要开口要钱买菜了。丈夫的钱也都归入她的腰包。经济上的独立,地位自然提高,参政意识也就增强了。

三是对部队有了了解认识。刚来乍到,两眼一抹黑,当然不能随便插话。时间一长,部队的情况都清楚了,人也熟了,也有了发言权。特别是随着首长地位的提高,周围的人对“嫂子”、“阿姨”也越发尊重起来。她们尊严的光环扩大后,参政的意识也逐渐强化起来。有的人年龄比首长家属小不了二岁,一口一个阿姨。她们开始听得有点不自在,渐渐地习惯了,向他们发号施令也就习惯了。

(二)与家属在首长圈内的影响力极有关系

家属在首长圈内的影响力是她们参政的重要制约因素。她们的许多意见、要求、企图都是通过她们在许多首长中的影响力得以实现的。这种影响力大体表现为三种情况:

一是有的家属长期随丈夫在一个单位生活、工作。她们看着丈夫的下属一级一级地上来,一茬一茬地更换。其中一些人当了小首长、中首长、大首长,不少人当了科长、处长、主任等等,老头子仍然是他们的首长。家属在他们当中自然有很大的影响力。

二是一些家属特别和善,总是为首长的部属、同事操心、办事,是他们的贴心人。这些人视她为亲姐、亲嫂、亲姨,十分尊重,甚至是言听计从。参谋、干事们熬夜加班,半夜饿了,食堂没有人,便趁首长不在家时敢跑去找其家属弄吃的。因此,有什么话可以不对首长讲,但能跟她说;有什么事可以不直接找首长办,能够找她办。她当然也就出面找首长通融,就自然地参政了。

三是有些首长在一起长期共事,家属和这些首长也长期在一起相处,首长间称兄道弟,与家属们也称姐道妹,常开玩笑,关系甚好。这也为家属参政提供了条件。有事不跟丈夫讲,找其他首长,一说就办成。比如孩子当兵、提干、找工作,老头子不想管或者不好管。家属就说,“你不管我管!”找另一个首长一讲,果然达到了目的。某部队A首长家属与政治部主任家关系密切,不分你我。一次政治部一个干事的家属来队,她原是部队幼儿园的老师,部队调动时她没来。A首长的家属和她挺熟,问她:“好长时间没见,有什么困难吗?”

“有困难也得受啊,谁让咱嫁给当兵的。”

“怎么,还没随军?”

“唉,条件不够。”

“要什么条件呀,我找你们政治部主任去。”

这位首长家属办事利索,说办就办。

主任爱打篮球,球场上谁也叫不动。她知道有个人能叫动。便把主任女儿找来:“你敢不敢把你爸叫出来?”

“敢。”

“那你马上叫他到阿姨这来。”

果然主任的女儿把主任拖来了。A首长家属说:“你怎么搞的,X干事家属原来就是咱们幼儿园的老师,我们的孩子、孙子都是人家带出来的,到现在还不让随军?”

“我知道,条件不够呀!”

“什么条件不够?本来就是本单位的人。部队调动,人就该随着来。再说条件也是人掌握的,赶快给解决了。”

第二天政治部就开了机关支部会,研究家属随军问题,特殊情况的可以特殊处理。半个月X干事家属随军批下来了。这也可能就是家属参政的结果吧。

(三)与丈夫在班子内的作用极有关系

丈夫在班子内的作用对家属参政有直接影响,或随之加强,或随之减弱。大体有三种情况:

一是首长的职权大,说了算,家属的参政意识越强,作用也大。比如主官、正职、关键性职务、有实权的位置,首长能拍扳定音,能产生实际效果,家属便跃跃欲试,并且能达到目的。

二是首长职权小,说了不算,家属参政的意识就弱,作用也小。比如副职、无关紧要的职务、有名无实的位置,首长只能按别人的意图办事,不能产生直接效果。家属参政的兴趣就淡漠,说了也没用。

三是首长职权消失,家属参政的意识就受阻,作用也随之消失。比如首长离退休了,不在其位不谋其政,人家也不听他的了。家属也就不再想参与,也无法真正参与了。首长调走了,在本单位已无实际作用,家属仍在原单位,借助原来的影响,多少还能参与,但作用已大大削弱。许多人对她们的要求只是敷衍,还可能置之不理。

(四)与首长参与家属单位的“政”是互动的

首长经常参与家属单位的事务,也进一步促使家属参与首长管理的事务。比如家属单位要春游,想用部队的车,首长和有关部门说一说,车就派出来了。再如,家属单位要搞军事训练,要派几个兵去,要打靶用子弹,需要首长点头。再如,军民共建,有关活动的安排,受首长态度的左右或影响。由此,家属单位也要考虑对她的使用。不管她本人有无水平和能力,她丈夫很有用,于是她可以当上副科长、副处长乃至更大的官。反过来,军队的一些事,需要地方协助,家属的作用也便随之显示出来,少不了听取她的意见或安排。你中有我,我中有你,相互参与。

三、家属参政的直接动因

家属参政之所以很难避免,是因为有深刻的历史根源和社会根源。说来话长,这里不加赘述。考察其直接动因,很有现实意义,故这里略加展开。

(一)从首长角度分析

首长家属参政必然与首长本人有直接关系。主要表现在以下几个方面:

第一,首长水平低,需要家属辅佐。首长在其位难于谋其职,很多事情考虑不周,处理不善,缺乏魄力,缺少办法,时有纰漏,常受困挠。家属不能坐视不管,甘为其难,于是就要背后帮助拿主义,出点子,指其明路,拨其暗阻。早时有个笑话,说某县太爷是个花钱买官的大草包,每次办案,他老婆便藏于桌下,以手势助其审理。一次案犯拒不招认,县官低头见其妻伸出五指,恍然大悟,令左右重打五扳。案犯仍不招认,再低头见其妻将手翻转,于是令左右翻过来再打五扳。案犯还是不供,其妻急了,连连摆手示意他打得不对。他赶忙令左右给案犯揉揉肚子。这纯属笑话,如今的首长也不能与那个草包县官同日而语。但为辅佐首长而不得不参政的家属却决非仅有。

第二,首长脾气暴,需要家属提醒。首长遇有不顺,大动肝火,不讲情面,批评训斥,甚至骂人,虽属心直口硬,并无恶意,但却容易伤害感清,影响上下左右关系。家属不得不常吹耳边风,多方关照,时时提醒,有时还须从中周旋,消除误解,挽回影响。某首长性情刚烈,容不得沙子。为整顿军容,规定不经允许,任何人不得在看电影时穿大衣。他一进礼堂就发现正中央有一人穿着大衣,立刻火冒三丈。对军务参谋说:“谁这么大胆,混蛋!马上把他赶出去,把他的领导叫来!”这位首长家属坐在旁边,知道穿大衣者是副主任的父亲刚来部队看望儿子,身体不大好,赶忙过去拦住军务参谋说明情况。回到家里她把老头好顿数落:“你就不能火气小点,问明白了再骂人!叫副主任知道了多不好。”

“我哪知道他是副主任的爹呀!”

第二天,首长家属借故到副主任家,提起了昨晚的事:“你看我家老头子的毛病总改不了,差点没把你家老人当成他的兵了。”

副主任家属说:“首长的脾气谁不清楚?再说他也不知道是我家老爷子,没啥,没啥。”

第三,首长身体不好,需要家属关照。首长身有病患,一旦工作繁忙紧张,操劳过度,便时有发作。家属需要随时提防,出面干预,有时还会自作主张,另有安排。对可能有损首长身体的工作、活动,或者直接向丈夫进言,或者通过其他首长加以劝阻。某部队副政委这两年神经衰弱较重,前半宿工作紧张,后半宿头疼睡不着觉。家属不得不对他晚上的工作加以限制,但常常不起作用。一天下午副政委听取工作组对一项事故的汇报没结束,决定晚上接着干。但到了晚上却没人来,这位副政委很纳闷,就打电话问处长,处长说:“您不是改在明天上午了吗?”首长知道是家属假传旨意,只好说:“对,我给忘了。”从此,副政委晚上能进行哪项工作,工作人员就需要事先与家属商量了。

第四,首长不爱管事,需要家属操心。首长对自己“份外”的事不爱过问,即便是“份内”的,只要是一些无关紧要的小事,也常不理采。家属怕影响工作,又替丈夫前途和为人着想,便自觉不自觉出面应酬、协调,提供参考意见,甚至做出决断。

第五,首长工作太忙,需要家属分担。首长责任心很强,分管些具体事务,大事小事、份内份外,整天被缠得不可开身。无论在办公室还是在家里,也不分工作时间还是休息时间,总有人来找,总有干不完的事。家属心疼自己的老头子,又替他着急,便主动帮助办理,能不惊动首长的事半路便打发了。自己能出面解决的,尽量让首长少费力。渐渐的,人们习惯了找家属处理问题,知道哪些事不用请示首长,家属就能帮助解决。某部队E首长家属是个热心人,机关干部中,家属随军、调动、安排工作、子女参军、考学等等事情,都找她帮助解决,她在机关各部门和地方有关单位中很有点影响,关系熟、路子通,人们都说她没有办不成的事。后来,连E 首长自己遇有难办的事也请她出面,被人称为首长的好助手。

第六,首长过分宠爱妻子,家属乐于参政。古往今来,妻子受宠而参政的事屡见不鲜。妻子在丈夫眼中有权威有地位。疼爱、顺从多于严格、自主,在外事众人之首,在内是一人之下,妻子的耳边风常能影响丈夫的决策。因此,很多人有事不找首长,专找夫人。而首长家属也乐于显示自己的“才能”,经常向首长“进谏”。在不违反大的原则的情况下,妻子执意不肯的事,丈夫也就不过于勉强。妻子想要解决的问题,丈夫也只好顺从去办。政治部决定K 干事去某连任职,K干事家属找到政委家属,哭诉调到外地后,家中生病的母亲无人照料,于是政委家属向政委吹了耳边风,先讲道理,后施压力,政委便“通情达理”地同主任商量了恰当的人选问题。

(二)从家属角度分析

家属的素质和觉悟,是家属参政的内在原因。主要有以下几个方面:

第一,家属熟悉部队情况。多年随丈夫在部队生活、工作,有的几年、十几年呆在一个单位,对部队情况可以说是了如指掌,便于参与。例如,首长家属在部队的医院当护士、医生、领导等,该部队的一些战士住院不守纪律,有的影响很坏。回到家里就对丈夫讲:“你们××单位的病号太差劲了,不少人私自外出,还骂医护人员。最可恨的是××,满嘴脏话,甚至调戏女护理员,你们要好好教育教育。”于是,某个场合,首长点了这个问题,要求有关领导严肃处理。某一天首长的家属又说了:“现在的风气实在不好,医生护士收红包,乱开药方,损公肥私。”没过几天,在廉政建设会议上首长要求后勤部把整顿医德作为主要内容来抓。

第二,家属在地方有职有权。是科长、处长、局长,甚至更大的官。她们在自己单位经常发号施令,作报告、下指示。回到家里也会显出她的权势,口气很硬。某部队副政委在这个位置上一干8年,而这8年间家属却从科长升为处长,又一跃而当上副局长,每天小车接送,工作人员跟在身边,她吃过的宴席副政委连听都没听说过。副政委处理问题时她常是哼一声或者是嗯一声,以表示她的不满意还是满意。如果她明确表示了态度,副政委就得退让三分。

第三,家属确实有水平。看问题准,办事情成,有能力承担领导工作。对首长处理的工作一般不多掺和,一旦发言就是定性,而结果又常常是对的。所以首长在对重要问题作出决策时,有意探听一下家属的口气。某处长负责该部队机关的生产经营,从中获得回扣×千元,私自给本处人员分了。党委讨论对他的处理时意见不一,有的主张给予较重的党内处分,有的主张给予必要的行政处分。A首长的家属是地方某公司的经理兼党委书记,是有名的女强人。A首长回到家里征求一下她的看法,她说:“吃回扣在部队是新形势下出现的新问题,带有受贿的性质。几千元钱用过去的标准已较严重,但现在情况有变化,而且与地方比又是小巫见大巫。目前在建立市场经济过程中,对回扣问题的定性和定量尚无权威的规定,考虑到××处长办企业有开创性的贡献,并且年上缴××万元,×千元回扣也不是他一个独吞,对他的处理可以审慎从事,原则是既要刹住歪风,又要留有余地。”于是,党委第二天宣布,将×千元回扣没收,给××处长行政警告处分,留任公司经理,以观后效。

第四,家属私心重,权势欲较大。她们的信条是“有权不用过期作废”。总想利用丈夫手中的权力谋点私利,甚至背着首长又打着首长旗号搞一些名堂。她们的参政不但丝毫起不到好的作用,而且损害首长形象,妨碍部队工作,影响很坏。比如有些首长家属,利用丈夫的权力调动人员,收受礼品,乱拉关系,在部队造成不良影响,使首长受到上级的严厉批评。

综上所述、首长家属参政的直接动因,有积极的一面,也有消极的一面,可以概括为这样几点:一是为了把部队工作搞好,为部队建设操心费力,二是为了让丈夫安稳度日,少惹麻烦,少犯错误。二是为了让丈夫建立好的人际关系,上下左右都团结。四是为了照顾丈夫的身体,免受苦少遭罪。五是为了满足自己的某种欲望,以权谋私。这一点在文化素质不高的家属身上表现尤为明显。

四、家属参政的方式

家属参政虽然人皆难免,但表现的方式却各有不同。了解这一点对于秘书正确处理这个问题十分重要。

首长家属参政的方式按不同的需要有不同的分类,从秘书便于把握的角度,可以归纳为以下8个方式:

(一)当面参与

所谓当面参与就是家属当着有关人员的面,对某些问题发表自己的意见,不照顾当事人的情面,也不顾忌自己的身份,把问题表面化,让人当时就了解意图。

(二)背后参与

所谓背后参与就是首长处理问题时,家属表面上不在场或者在场也不发表意见,或者有意避开,但实际上她在设法了解情况。一是虽然不在场或者有意避开了,但并未走远,仍在仔细倾听。二是真的避开了,但事后主动从丈夫那里了解。三是丈夫事后主动与她说起。所以表面上看她不发表意见,但背后施加影响,自己决不出头露面,首长的决策却有她的意图。

(三)直接参与

所谓直接参与就是家属可以不通过首长,而由自己亲自出面参与有关事务,直接代表首长决定一些问题。有电话她先接,有人来访她先见面,根据需要,或把丈夫叫来,或把来电来人挡驾回去,或自行决定处理了。

(四)间接参与

所谓间接参与就是一般来说,家属不过问首长任何事,对参与首长的政务没有任何主观愿望,但在客观上却以一种潜移默化的方式向首长溶进了自己的意志。某部队B首长的家属原是农村家庭妇女,不识几个字,随军后在机关幼儿园当保姆,管教孩子是老一套,只要让孩子们吃好、睡好、玩好就行。一个指导员的家属是幼儿园教师,幼师专科毕业,管教孩子是新的一套:“站要站直,老师讲话时不许乱动。”B首长家属认为这是体罚孩子,看不惯,马上对孩子说:“过来,到奶奶这来,随便玩。”两人有分歧。这个家属在家里并无地位,老头子的事从不敢言,也不知道该说什么。但在她与家人或与他人随便唠叨幼儿园的事情中,首长对指导员家属就渐渐地有了不好的印象。进而对这位指导员也另有看法。一次研究这个指导员当股长时,B首长摇了摇头。

(五)决断性参与

所谓决断性参与就是家属的意见具有决定性的作用,比如对某些问题的看法和处置,对还是错,行还是不行,这样办还是那样办,首长家属能发表结论性的看法,有关人员可以按她的意见去办。

(六)建议性参与

所谓建议性参与就是家属的意见或看法,仅供首长决策时参考,是为了开阔首长的思路,避免可能出现的误差,完善首长的决策的一种参与。这种参与不带强制性,也较少感情色彩,具有建设性意义。

(七)抽象参与

所谓抽象参与就是家属一般不对具体问题发表意见,而是对总的趋势施加影响,不过分强调眼前利益,多从长远打算。例如,首长工作太忙,身体出现不适,家属便说:“干工作不要太拼命,晚上不能超过十一点,要不然身体垮了你就什么也干不成了。”

再如,首长已有五、六年没动一动职务了,看来前途不太光明,家属便说:“××到地方没三个月,‘皇冠’坐上了,你总在部队混个啥劲。”

再如,首长管事多,操心费力还得罪人,家属又说:“就你能!不能让别人多干点?”

这些,都属于抽象参与。因为这种参与必然影响到首长的各个方面。

(八)具体参与

所谓具体参与就是家属的意见都是针对实际问题,提出具体的要求、办法等等,主要考虑现实需要,能立竿见影收到效果。比如人事安排呀、工作调动呀、福利待遇呀等等。

五、对首长家属参政的基本对策

通过上述对家属参政的含义、原因和表现方式的分析,秘书应采取的对策也已包含其中了。

总的原则可概括为三点:

第一,首长家属参政是一种客观存在,不必大惊小怪。作为秘书,要有充分的思想准备,坦然对待。

第二,首长家属参政利弊相间,不要全盘否定。作为秘书,要趋利避害,全面看待。首长考虑不周的问题,家属的某些参与也有一定的弥补作用。

第三,对首长家属参政,要尽量避免,不可附炎趋势。作为秘书要时时处处,一言一行从部队的建设出发,为维护首长的威信着想。不要为家属参政创造条件,更不能有意促使首长家属参政。

根据这样的原则,秘书在对待首长家属参政问题上,应做到“三不”:

第一,不主动与首长家属谈论公务。在与首长家属接触中,不涉及与家属无关的部队建设事务。首长家属提起时,多倾听,少插话。首长家属问起时,不能借故回避的,只原则回答,不具体分析讨论。

第二,不直接向首长家属请示或汇报工作。首长在时,不能绕过首长去批家属处理问题。

首长不在时,也不能认为首长的家属有本事有能力,就随便请示或汇报工作。

第三,不直接按首长家属的意见办理公务。家属找秘书办理本应属首长职权范围的有关事宜时,秘书应主动向首长本人汇报,听取首长的处理意见。办理的结果也应先向首长汇报,再向家属反映,或通过首长转达给家属。家属向秘书传达首长的指示时,秘书应该设法再次与首长见面,以确认无误才去办理。

与首长家庭相处的艺术

由于秘书的特殊身份和特定的职责,除了与首长关系极为密切外,与首长家庭的关系也是十分密切的。秘书如何与首长的家庭相处,是一个不容忽视的现实问题。除开正确对待首长家属参政的问题,还有一些其他方面的问题,值得秘书引起注意。

一、怎样对待首长交办的私事

秘书是为首长服务的。为首长办公事是正常的,替首长办私事也是正常的。恰是在替首长办私事上,常使秘书感到为难。一是那些既费时又缠人的事;二是那些首长不便出面的事;三那些是违反有关政策规定的事。遇有这样的情况,秘书既不能轻率地拒绝,又不能轻易地办好,这时,就更显出秘书在替首长办私事上的艺术和水平了。

(一)首长交办私事的方式

不同的首长,对不同的私事,在向秘书交待时,采用的方式是不同的。了解这一点,对于秘书如何去办理是十分必要的。根据实践经验,大体有如下些方式。

第一,有的是明示,有的是暗示。所谓明示就是首长直接向秘书交待办理某件事,要达到什么目的,有些什么要求等等,秘书一听就清楚。所谓暗示就是首长不好明说,秘书只能会意。让秘书从话中悟出要办的私事。“哎,最近小孩毕业了,大学没考上,联系了几个单位也没落实,到底该让他干什么去呀?”这可能是暗示秘书帮助跑一跑孩子的工作问题。“这两年家属上班,体力支持不住,钱是不少拿,可病也不少犯,真叫人挠头。”这可能是暗示秘书帮助跑一跑家属调动的事。“我叔叔的小孩非叫我想办法解决户口问题,再找个工作,真不知怎么办。”这可能是暗示秘书帮助跑跑亲属的户口工作问题。

第二,有的是首长亲自交待,有的是委托家人交待。有些事首长自己能向秘书交待,有些事首长不好向秘书交待,就让家人与秘书讲。例如,孩子结婚,要出去玩一下,150公里,派汽车。用公车去游玩,首长不好出口,就由家属或子女找秘书讲:“×秘书,这事首长不知道,知道了他也不会办,麻烦你悄悄派个车。可别让老头子知道。知道了会骂我们的。”其实首长知道,但装不知道。不出事顺水推舟,出了事就说不知道,也好推卸责任。

第三,有的是首长十分清楚,有的是首长确不知道。首长家中的私事,在遇有不便首长知道的情况下,家中其他人员便避开首长委托秘书去办。某部队C 首长的妻子,老家有许多亲属,常找上门来想借首长的影响找个工作,做点生意等等,首长非常烦。这一次首长家属的外甥又想到部队的煤矿去打工,家属知道首长不会答应,便偷偷地找秘书说:“你给办一办,我保证不让老头子知道。”

第四,有的是非原则小事,有的是原则性大事。对于非原则小事,秘书常办,结果如何关系不大。而原则性大事则要谨慎。例如挪用大量公款,动用部队搞经营,办理假兵等等。

第五,有的是首长在家,有的是首长躲开。有些私事很麻烦,首长有意躲一躲,把原则向秘书一交待,办成了更好,办不成也无所谓;不出事就算了,出了事首长无责任。有个首长,亲戚找他办事的特别多,永远也办不完。特别是征兵的时候,沾点边的人都来了。于是一到这个季节,首长就外出到很远的地方巡视去了。亲戚来了,秘书根据他们与首长的关系程度,酌情处理。事办完了,首长回来了,秘书去汇报,首长说:“好了好了,这些事不用汇报了。”没出什么问题,首长会夸秘书本事大;有了问题,首长会说:“我下部队了,不在家,什么情况也不了解。你们怎么能这么办呢?”

(二)秘书对待首长私事的态度

秘书在办理首长私事问题上,应采取这样一些基本的态度:

第一,积极热情。这是总原则。一般情况下,秘书对首长交办的私事,都要尽力办好,想办法克服困难,让首长满意。经过努力,未达到目的,首长也会体谅。这样做也有助于首长更集中精力搞好工作。

第二,注意原则。既然是私事,就难免有不符合有关规定的情况。就是符合规定的事,在办理中也可能又出问题。因此,秘书在积极热情的同时,还要加以审视,对确实违背原则的问题,要采取恰当的方式回绝,或变通处理。

第三,照顾影响。秘书在为首长办理私事时,应注意首长与首长之间的关系,首长与机关人员的关系,首长与群众的关系。不仅要防止对他们有所损害,而且也不能使他们产生反感。例如,很多随军家属工作长期不能得到安置,而秘书却三番五次为首长家属、子女调动工作,哪好在哪干。其结果必然在群众中造成不好影响,也损害了首长的形象。

第四,注意保密。秘书为首长家庭办私事,不论首长本人知道与否,都不要声张,不要到处乱传。该办的事都办了,首长或家里人知道就够了。随便说给别人听,到处显示自己的功劳,即便没有违背原则的事,首长也不会高兴,群众也有看法,不仅对首长,也包括秘书本人在内。别人会说:“算什么东西,工作干得不怎么样,拍马屁本事倒不小。”或者说:“秘书是为首长工作提供服务的,现在成了首长私事秘书了。”等等。

(三)办理首长私事的禁忌

秘书在为首长办理私事时,要防止这样几种倾向:

第一,热情过头。凡事都有个度,过犹不及。不该办的也办,自作主张,胡办,想讨好却适得其反。家属子女喜欢什么办什么,破坏纪律还要办,首长也会忌讳。

第二,违背政策。超出一定的原则,即使办成了,也难免产生不良后果。不仅秘书要遭殃,连首长也可能倒霉。

第三,不顾影响。不能只考虑把首长的私事办妥,不考虑产生的影响。无论大事小事、难办易办,还是公开私下,都要考虑周详,防止产生不良后果。

二、怎样对待首长的家事纠纷

首长家庭闹纠纷也是正常的。对此秘书比其他人更了解、更清楚,被牵扯进去的可能性也大。遇有这种情况,秘书应做到:

(一)不观察

对首长的家庭纠纷,秘书不去观看,或装没看见。一进门,首长正因老人问题与家属吵架,秘书马上退出去。不要观看事情发展的结果,更不要去探听原委。一进门首长正向家属要钱,而家属正跟他算账,不想给,你装着没听见什么。你一推门,首长正和家属打情骂俏,你用其他动作掩饰下,装着绊了一跤,头碰在门框上,直揉脑袋。让首长感到你没发觉他们,而他们先发觉了你,随之也便正规起来。

(二)不理睬

首长家里闹别扭,你在场,若无其事,转过身干点别的,等着首长招呼你。首长与家属有矛盾,向秘书诉说,秘书可以笑而不答,只听他讲,不跟他掺和。首长说:“她真不讲理,给她妈买什么都行,给我妈买个电视就不高兴。”秘书说:“是吗?”首长说:“她回家看她妈花了三千元,我要回去看我妈,就说花不起钱。”秘书说:“哪能呢?”首长说:“她妈来了,她一个星期不上班陪着玩。我妈要来,她却说没时间领上转一次。”秘书说:“我才不信呢。”接着,还可以摆首长家属的一些优点和长处。说着说着,首长就高兴了。有个秘书看不惯首长家属的厉害劲儿,首长讲到离婚的话题时,他也说:“如果实在过不成,离了也好。您老是这么受委屈也不行。”过了几天,秘书又看到,首长与家属和好如初,秘书就不好意思了。心想,我说的那些话,首长是不是告诉他家属了?

(三)不劝解

清官难断家务事,谁是谁非说不清,也不需要说清。秘书不要从中劝解,给这个开导,给那个疏通。而应顺其自然,让时间和当事人自己去解决。例如,某首长与家属常为给双方的亲戚办事争执,秘书碰到多次,但不需要秘书从中调解。不管谁的亲戚麻烦事多,只要秘书能办的,尽量帮着办。事情办好了,秘书就尽到了责任,首长和家属都不会不高兴。

(四)不外传

首长家庭的矛盾秘书知道了,就到此为止。绝不能从秘书嘴里传给其他人。首长的家事纠纷有时对秘书不太顾忌,秘书就要讲道德,保证首长的隐私权。你能守口如瓶,首长才越信任你。某首长的续弦多次为前妻留下的孩子问题与首长赌气,但在外人看来这位首长的爱人对前妻的孩子是非常关心的。秘书很了解内情,却从来没有说一句不该说的话,首长家属非常感激秘书,为此,她与首长的矛盾也渐渐减少了。

三、怎样对待首长的子女

秘书在与首长家庭相处过程中,如何对待首长的子女是一个很重要的问题。一般应坚持这样三个原则:

第一,不卑不亢。

秘书是首长的秘书,不是子女的秘书。首长才是秘书的首长,而子女却不是秘书的首长。无论首长多么喜欢的子女,也不论子女本人有多大本事,秘书在其子女面前都不是下属,而是长辈(对于年龄小的子女)、同事(对于同是军人、干部的子女)或朋友(对于年龄相仿的子女)。对于他们既礼貌热情,又保持身份。没有义务服从他们的指示命令,也没有必要向他们请示报告。与他们相处是地位和身份平等的相处。对他们有关事情的办理,凡通过首长的,是在按首长的托付办事。他们直接交待秘书办的事,是一种同志和朋友的帮助。他们遇到的困难或合理的要求,秘书能办的应热情地给予帮助,对他们特殊化或非礼要求,秘书应予以拒绝。某部队A首长的儿子是某团的干事,一次上级让他写一份上报材料,第二天要稿子。可他晚上想去看个外国片子,便对他爸爸的秘书说:“今晚你加个班帮我写个材料,不少于三千字,明天早上给我。”秘书当即回答:“对不起,我是为首长服务的。这不,首长刚交待我写一个讲话稿。”无奈,他只好自己加夜班。

第二,自尊自爱。

秘书不要为了讨好首长,也去讨好首长的子女,甚至不惜降低自己的人格,在子女面前低三下四。或者有意迎合,或者任其摆布。秘书在首长子女面前要保持自己的尊严,树立应有的形象,使子女对秘书既感亲切又很尊重。只有这样,秘书与首长子女的关系才是正常和融洽的。否则对己对人对工作都无益。某首长的几个子女节假日聚在一起打牌,玩得很开心,猛然发现缸子里没水喝了,就用脚踹了踹秘书说:“给倒点水嘛!”秘书在一旁不停端茶倒水,削水果皮。后来成了习惯,每到节假日都把秘书叫来侍候,几乎成了子女们的佣人。秘书自己也很乐意这么做。别人见了议论纷纷。

第三,严肃正派。

秘书对待首长的子女,特别是年龄相仿的女儿、儿媳,一定要庄重严肃,不能过于亲热。不要和她们说笑打闹,不要和她们单独相处。旁人不在时,应尽快退出。虽然不是“男女授受不亲”,但要避嫌。有那么个秘书,首长女儿打牌时,总在她身旁传递眼色,虽然女儿赢了很开心,但首长的妻子却很恼火,凡女儿在家时就把秘书拒之门外。还有一个秘书借首长家属工作忙之机,常与首长的儿媳一块下厨房做饭,闲谈。时间一长,首长的儿子见了秘书就给冷眼,弄得秘书很尴尬。




Posted in Military 军事, Politics 政治, Society 社会 | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Fiction Award Prize Joke Reflects Local ‘Little Big Brother’ Corruption

China has a micro-fiction prize. This must have been the inspiration for the joke below. It is circulating online in the PRC.

Imperial China had a rule of avoidance — officials were not allowed to be the top leader in their own hometown. This is observed in China today although like for any rule, “when a measure is imposed from on high, a counter-measure is devised down below”. The Chinese governance system is better understood as a loose coalition of little brothers (but locally big) under a big brother in Beijing who has great difficulty herding thousands of little brothers in line. The Communist Party strives to be the glue that holds a decentralized state together, how effective this works for the Party and the state varies from time to time and from leader to leader. See my blog post here 2002: Wired China: Many Hands on Many Switches.

When asking the question “Whose Hand is on the Switch?” about the Internet in China we need to bear in mind that there are many hands and many switches. Chinese provincial and local governments and indeed various parts of the central government have far greater coordination problems than we experience among the federal, state and local governments in the United States. China might be thought of as a decentralized de facto federal state that lacks federal institutions that facilitate central control and coordination such as the federal court system and regional offices of central government ministries. China is best understood not so much as a Big Brother state but as a loose collection of thousands of provincial and local Party and government little brothers. Many of the provincial little brothers have only nominal allegiance to Big Brother in Beijing. Local officials want to control media not just for Beijing’s purposes but also to prevent Beijing to know about their own shortcomings. Many orders and regulations from the central government are ignored from the outset or forgotten after only a few months.

2002: Wired China: Many Hands on Many Switches

The joke below reminds me of several stories my now-deceased Chengdu writer friend Yin Shuping (aka Yin Ren) told me — he is gone so now I can tell the tale.

With Yin Shuping in his Longquanyi, Chengdu home in 2011

My friend writer Yin Shuping told me ten years ago that his district of Chengdu city, Longquanyi, set up a development project in the Anhui Province hometown of the then Sichuan Province Communist Party Secretary Liu Qibao to help persuade him to support the district’s big industrial zone construction project. Another part of the scheme was to offer the son of then PRC Premier Wen Jiabao, an investment advisor for a company in northeast China, extremely favorable terms for investing in the development zone. For more background, see the 2012 New York Times report “Billions in Hidden Riches for Family of Chinese Leader“. These stories can make one sympathize as many Chinese do with General Secretary Xi’s clampdown on corruption. There is generally a political spin to corruption crackdowns though.

Local government and party officials were also forced to make ‘voluntary loans’ to the district government I heard from both Yin Shuping (himself retired from a long literary life that started as a very young Xinhua war correspondent — a Chinese ‘volunteer’ in a DPRK uniform — covering the War to Resist American and Help Korea in the early 1950s) and from another person who then worked in a local government office.

Another fund-raising tactic of the local government was to invent fake dissidents. The central organs of the Communist Party and government, always worried about maintaining ‘social stability’ paid vast amounts to local governments to support stability maintenance. Around sensitive times the local government would detain people as the guest of the Party and State, not necessarily under bad conditions, at guesthouses to keep them out of circulation. The local government realized that manufacturing fake dissidents and detaining them was a money-maker! Shakedowns of Party members for this and that are not unusual. A Chengdu Party member I knew complained of incessant requsts from the Party organization for voluntary contributions because of this or that disaster somewhere or other, saying it made him want him feel his local party organization was more about shakedowns than anything else. It made him want to leave the Party but “Joining the Party is easy but leaving it is hard. They will always ask you why do you want to leave the Party?! why?! why!”.

Such stories could happen anywhere. In China, with Party and government control of the media and manipulation of the legal system — every level of Communist Party organization has a ‘political and legal affairs’ committee that tells judges how they should rule on sensitive (involving interests of or embarassment to local or national Party leaders and their families) and another that gives guidance to local media so that it does not offend local leaders. The central pattern is reflected layer upon layer all the way down to the urban and rural township level, the lowest level of government administration in the PRC. Nothwithstanding the rapid rise in living standards China has seen with its recovery from Mao’s man-made famine and Cultural Revolution, the totalitarian configuration of the Chinese political system exposes people to more abuses than in some other places.

See some of my previous translations and postings such as:

All this reminds of the classic book Religion and Ritual in Chinese Society that discusses among other things how the practices of the imperials center were mirrored down locally in religious rituals and practices in rural China with many local adaptations and alterations according to local conditions and history. Wondering about the function of the Chinese Communist Party as a sort of religion is intriguing. Secretary Xi Jinping as both sacred text reviser and bible-thumper… See William Nee’s August 17, 2021 article in The Diplomat : In China, ‘Xi Jinping Thought’ Is the Only Accepted Religion — To understand China’s crackdown on religion, we need to look beyond the repression of any single faith.


First Prize of National Micro Fiction Awards“Sickness”

Once again he was admitted to the hospital. He had had this illness many times before and his work unit, neighbors and friends had become accustomed to his many hospital admissions. Not many would come to see him so he would always get very lonely.

This time, he got an ominous feeling, hospitalized only a few days. People came to visit him incessantly. Work unit leaders, colleagues, neighbors, friends, and some people he hardly had anything to do with or even rarely talk to each other came as well. Everyone was carrying big bags, flowers, fruits, and all kinds of beautifully packaged nutrition products piled up in a ward. Everyone said the exact same words of comfort. Even the hospital leadership came over to ask about his condition. The medical staff has never been more warm and thoughtful. All this frightened him.

He muttered to himself, it really does seem like this is the end! The more people visited to comfort him, the colder his heart grew ……

Soon, his son who worked away from home all year in a distant place where travel was difficult rushed home. Wasn’t it obvious what was going on?

He took his son’s hand and asked desperately, “Son, be straight with me, how many days do I have left?”

The son leaned down and said gently, “Dad, what are you talking about? You’re fine! The hospital director has said that you are doing well and you can go home after a few more days.”

This made him feel even worse. He couldn’t control himself. He said, “Son, don’t lie to me again! So many people have come to see me this time, and even though you are so busy, you rushed right back, I must have come to the end of my life, I won’t survive even for a few more days!”

The son smiled and whispered in his ear, “Dad, I was transferred back to the city. I’ll be the next city party secretary.”

Damn it all, I thought I was going to die. This was so scary! ~ Chinese-style social relationships really can scare people to death!


Chinese text follows.

全国微型小说一等奖

          ——《病》

    又住进了医院,病是老毛病,单位、邻居、朋友见惯不惊,没有几个来看望他的,很是落寞。

    这次,他有不祥的预感,住院才不几天,人们就络绎不绝的来看望他。有单位的领导、同事,有邻居、朋友,有些过去从不来往,甚至很少说话的人也来了。大家都是大包小包的拿着,鲜花、水果、各种包装精美的营养品堆了一病房。大家还都说着同样的安慰话,连医院领导也亲自过来问长问短,医护人员从未有过的热情周到,更使他惶恐不安。

    他喃喃自语,看来这回是真的不行了!看望他的人愈是宽慰他,他愈是心冷……

    很快,在外地工作整年很难回家的儿子也都赶了过来,事情不是明摆着的吗?

    他拉着儿子的手,绝望的问:“儿啊,你老实告诉我,我还有多少日子?”

    儿子俯下身,轻轻说:“爸,你说什么呢?没事的!院长都说了,你身体无大碍,再住几天就可以回家了。”

    他情绪更糟,不能自抑:“儿啊,你不要再骗我了!这次这么多人来看我,你那么忙都专程赶回来了,我一定是大限到了,活不了几天了!”

    儿子笑了笑,在他耳边轻轻地说:“爸,我调回本市当市委书记了。”

     妈的,我还以为老子要死了[尴尬][尴尬]~中国式的社会关系能吓死人!

全国微型小说一等奖 ——《病》

谈钢炼铁 股市红红红2018-05-01

全国微型小说一等奖

          ——《病》

    又住进了医院,病是老毛病,单位、邻居、朋友见惯不惊,没有几个来看望他的,很是落寞。

    这次,他有不祥的预感,住院才不几天,人们就络绎不绝的来看望他。有单位的领导、同事,有邻居、朋友,有些过去从不来往,甚至很少说话的人也来了。大家都是大包小包的拿着,鲜花、水果、各种包装精美的营养品堆了一病房。大家还都说着同样的安慰话,连医院领导也亲自过来问长问短,医护人员从未有过的热情周到,更使他惶恐不安。

    他喃喃自语,看来这回是真的不行了!看望他的人愈是宽慰他,他愈是心冷……

    很快,在外地工作整年很难回家的儿子也都赶了过来,事情不是明摆着的吗?

    他拉着儿子的手,绝望的问:“儿啊,你老实告诉我,我还有多少日子?”

    儿子俯下身,轻轻说:“爸,你说什么呢?没事的!院长都说了,你身体无大碍,再住几天就可以回家了。”

    他情绪更糟,不能自抑:“儿啊,你不要再骗我了!这次这么多人来看我,你那么忙都专程赶回来了,我一定是大限到了,活不了几天了!”

    儿子笑了笑,在他耳边轻轻地说:“爸,我调回本市当市委书记了。”

     妈的,我还以为老子要死了[尴尬][尴尬]~中国式的社会关系能吓死人!

Posted in Politics 政治, Society 社会 | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment