Party Honors One Hundred on 40th Anniversary of Reform

One hundred people have been nominated as exemplars of China’s forty-year-old policy of reform and opening up by Chinese Communist organizations throughout China and finally by a special Leading Group of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. The one hundred nominees from all parts of China and many professions were chosen to represent the most important contributors to China’s reform and opening up policy as China prepares to celebrate that profound change away from doctrinaire Maoism and towards a market economy. The preface to the list on nominees ended with a request for comments to the Leading Group during the last week of November 2018 before the list is finalized on December 1.

Reading collections of short biographies helps get a sense of the depth and breadth of the rapid changes China has seen as well as the secular “saints”the Communist Party would hold up as role models and inspirations for the Chinese Communist Party’s 90 million members, as well as for educated people outside the Party, and in particular with some influence in society, who are the special targets of United Front work.

The great majority of the 100 nominees are living. Most who died did so over the past few years with the exception of a Hong Kong business man who died during the mid 1980s.

The preface does not explain the criteria for selection, only making the general statement that “The Party Central Committee decided to recognize a group of individuals who have made outstanding contributions to reform and opening up.”

Many important names are missing – Deng Xiaoping (never party secretary), and the 1980s reformer party secretaries now in bad odors Hu Yaobang and Zhao Ziyang. Other prominent names such as Jiang Zemin, Zhu Rongji and WenJiaobao are also missing so the focus seems not to be on the central or provincial leadership but rather this list of 100 secular saints aims to honor grassroots reformers and other non-political leaders who push forward the 40-year old policy of reform and opening up.

Reformer List Demographics

About 90 of the nominees are Communist Party members, six are listed as non-partisan(wudangpai renshi) and three are listed as belonging to the “masses”(qunzhong) —Liu Yonghao, Lang Ping and Nan Rendong. A young teacher in Fuzhou, Fujian Province told me in 1997 that Party members(she wasn’t) are more likely to be recognized for their work and win promotions. That may explain in part the preponderance of Communist Party members. Also keep in mind that Party members are subject to Party discipline, which can include signing on to, at the discretion of the Party, being kept incognito for months of interrogation. Choosing Party members means that the Party is choosing reliable people.

Non-partisan — having no party affiliation is a defined category – someone who is the target of united front work. United front work among non-party affiliated educated people with some social influence is the responsibility of all Communist Party members as well as the central or their provincial or local party organization’s United Front Work Department or office. The influence on society must be a “positive”one for one to be in the non-affiliated category and a target of united front work.

People with a“negative influence” get “invited for tea” regularly –sometimes for ‘friendly polite talks’ and sometimes not but the National Security Detachment [Guobao] of their local Public Security Bureau office or even of the Ministry of State Security. This happens regularly to Chinese who write on political topics or even those who try to avoid politics such as Chengdu writer RanYunfei the author of “Where Will the Fear End? A Talk that Could Not Be Delivered”. A Party member told me some years ago that one day as he was walking down the street, a black car pulled up, two men jumped out who through  a sack over his head as he was bundled into the car. Then he was subjected to a terrifying full day of interrogation. He was asked about his friendship with a foreign diplomat and how as a Communist Party member he should feel ashamed of himself for having such a friend. He said the Security people took his computer too “I sold my computer the next day! Who knows what they put on it!”.


Non-Partisans, the Focus of United Front Work

The United Front Work Department of the China University of Political Science and Law [Zhongguo Zhengfa Daxue] (universities have party organizations too) explains the criteria for being a “non-party affiliated person” and a target of united front work.

Watching of  non-partisan and other people goes on at all levels. A party member of a provincial academy of social sciences – many provinces have them as a sort of policy think tank for the Party and province – told me one day that his main job was“monitoring the thinking” of the scholars there on behalf of the Chinese Communist Party.

In 2000, the “Opinion on Strengthening the Work on People with No Party Affiliation” issued by the United Front Work Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China officially regulated the title of non-party and non-party people, and clearly stated that non-party and non-party groups arenon-partisan and non-partisan. In 2004, the amendments to the Constitution of the CPPCC, which were reviewed and approved at the Second Session of the Tenth National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, also put non-partisan democrats into the non-partisan sector. On the basis of this, the”Opinions” the category is more clearly defined “a person who has not participated in any party, has a positive contribution to the society and has certain influence, and its subject is an intellectual.”

.According to the “Opinions”, non-party affiliated people in the new stage of the new century should have the following characteristics:

  1. Has not been a member of the Communist Party or any other party he did not participate in any party and had a non-partisan status. This is the primary condition but not the other condition to be considered a non-party affiliated person.
  2. The person has made positive contributions and had some influence in society. has certain social impacts. The activities of non-partisan individuals are political and must have some influence be to some extent typical of the activities of persons like them.
  3. The person is well-educated and excellent in some way determined by their social foundation of non-partisan people. More precisely, non-partisan people are social groups affiliated with no party or political faction, mostly in the fields of science and technology, education, culture and art, medicine and health, enterprises, government agencies, social organizations, or workers in the professions.
  4. Have been identified as an object of united front work. Non-party people are not equal to non-partisan people. The broad masses of non-partisan workers and peasants, although they are a constituent part of the united front, have never been the object of united front work, and certainly cannot be called non-party members in the sense of the united front work. In short, the “Opinion” clearly define the non-party people, provide a policy basis for the effective work of non-party people, and point out the direction of efforts to give full play to the role of non-party people.

The anonymous blogger “Old Kang’s Eight-Legged Essay on the Party” on Weixin in late November goes into some detail into the difference between non-partisans and the masses, who likewise do not belong to a political party.

  • Among the business people among the one hundred, Liu Yonghao belongs to the “masses”, while Ma Huateng, Li Shufu, and Li Yanhong are non-partisan.
  • In the sports world, Lang Ping belongs to the “masses” while Yao Ming is a non-partisan.
  • Among the scientists, Nan Rendong belongs to the “masses” while Chen Jingrun is a non-partisan.

Non-partisans can thus be understood as social elites. It is not enough merely not to have joined  a party to be considered as “non-partisan”.

Old Kang wrote that the distinction non-partisans and the masses can be traced back to the old social classification system that classified people into 99 categories by their family background. China even national standard(guobiao) GB4765-1984 codes for “class origin of family” include codes such as worker 1, people’s commune member 2, peasant 3,businessperson 20 and landlord 28. Family background as a category gradually fell into disuse and was abolished in 2004.

Although “family background” was abolished, political complexion – an individual’s political stance and ideology – remains a live category. See the“Codes for political affiliation” PRC National Standard GB 4762-84.

Many Chinese when they seen this on an application form write, incorrectly, “pure”. Political purity is not one of the choices people get. The official categories are: Chinese Communist Party member, candidate party member, CPC Youth League member, member of the eight recognized parties under the leadership of the CPC, non-partisans and masses.

Who is Missing?

Missing from the list of one hundred reform era exemplars, probably because the Party considers them a bad influence, are many prominent people who pushed for the rule of law and greater democracy for China including,naturally imprisoned Chinese human rights defenders including many lawyers, killed-through-poor-prison-medical-care Nobel Prize winner Liu Xiaobo, and human rights defender Huang Qi. A supplement to this list would be the interesting list of“public intellectuals” [ 公共知识分子] that the Chinese magazine Nanfang Renwu Zhoukan published in 2004 and the subsequent Chinese Communist party crackdown on public intellectuals. See“Chinese Public Intellectuals: An Annotated Bibliography to Published Translations in English” published online by the University of British Columbia Center for Chinese Research.

Some Other Biographical Sources

Perusing short biosand curriculum vitae published online on official websites and elsewhere can help get an impression of the typical paths Chinese people follow to greater influence and even power in their society.Some of these bios can be found in English on academic websites such as China Vitae, Key Chinese Intellectuals from the Australian Center on China in the World, the list of Chinese Writers from The Paper Republic, and elsewhere. There are also many sources official and unofficial in Chinese including the People’s Daily compilation of provincial leader capsule bios in Chinese (you can also try running the leader bios through Google Translate. A CV is full of fairly simple declarative sentences so machine translation handles it fairly well) and other websites in Chinese such as Mingren Jianli [Google Translated Short Biographical Sketches of Famous People]

To the translation below, I added links to other biographical sources for each of the 100 advocates of reform. 

Public Notice on Draft List of People to Be Commended for Outstanding Contributions to Reform and Opening

  People’s Daily (November 26, 2018,  page 13)

URL: http://paper.people.com.cn/rmrb/html/2018-11/26/nw.D110000renmrb_20181126_1-13.htm

This year marks the 40th anniversary of China’s reform and opening up. The Party Central Committee decided to recognize a group of individuals who have made outstanding contributions to reform and opening up. According to the selection and commendation work deployment, on the basis of repeated comparisons, organization inspections, and collective research to recommend candidates in various regions and regions, after reviewing and coordination, 100 candidates for commendation for outstanding contributions to reform and opening up were found.

In order to fully promote democratic working style, listen to public opinion and to accept society’s oversight on this work, the names of the candidates are being released to the public. The release for comment period will run from November 26, 2018 to 17:00 on November 30.

If there are any objections to the nominees, please send them to the Central Committee’s Leading Group on Candidates to be Commended Upon the Fortieth Anniversary of Reform and Opening by telephone, mail, letter, during the comment period (the arrival date of letters will be determined by their postmark).

Tel: (010) 84233403/84233445

Fax: (010) 84233489

Email: ggkf40bz@163.com

Mailing address: No. 3, Hepingli East Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing

Postal code: 100013

Central Committee’s Leading Group on Candidates to be Commended Upon the Fortieth Anniversary of Reform and Opening

[Translator’s note: Candidate names are in a Chinese stroke order list.]

Yu Min

Yu Min, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born August 1926 in Ninghe, Tianjin. Yu Min is the former deputy dean of the Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, researcher, academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. He is a famous Chinese nuclear physicist. Yu has long presided over the research and design of nuclear weapons theory, solved a large number of theoretical problems, and made important contributions to the development of China’s nuclear weapons. Since the 1980s, Yu has contributed to the development of the second generation of nuclear weapons, made breakthroughs in key technologies have brought China’s nuclear weapons technology up to a new level, and made pioneering contributions to the improvement of China’s scientific and technological independent innovation capabilities and the strengthening of national defense capabilities. Yu won the “Two Bombs and One Satellite” medal as well as the State Preeminent Science and Technology Award, the “National May 1st Labor Medal”and the “National Career Contributions Award” title.

[Wiki bio Yu Min (physicist) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yu_Min_(physicist)

Baidu in Chinese https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E4%BA%8E%E6%95%8F/22358

Video 《大家》 核物理学家 于敏 两弹元勋 20180822 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PmAJVY9cHgA&vl=zh-Hans ]

Yu Yu

Yu Yu, female, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born February 1929. Yu Yu is the honorary principal of the Shanghai Yangpu Senior High School, former member of the Board of Directors of the National Linguistic Society and vice president of the National Middle School Chinese Teaching Research Association. She has long dedicated herself to middle school language teaching career, determined to teach and to educate, and insisting that the “humanities”be included in the national “Chinese Language Curriculum Standards”. Advocating simultaneous innovation of educational philosophy and teaching practice, she has promoted experimental Chinese language teaching reforms in Shanghai’s junior high schools, focusing on nearly 2000 exploratory and exemplary open classes at the municipal level, creating over 50 lessons now seen as exemplary in language education reform. She has written many articles on education and many of her views have been adopted by the education sector. She has made outstanding contributions to the promotion of national basic education reform and development. Known as “a model for a generation of teachers who dedicated to educating people and on educational reform”. She won the title of “National March Eight Red Flag Bearer” and “National Advanced Workers”.

[Baidu bio of Yu Yu in Chinese at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E4%BA%8E%E6%BC%AA

http://old.moe.gov.cn//publicfiles/business/htmlfiles/moe/s4730/201010/110384.html ]

Leaders of Xiaogang Village’s “Contract Responsibility System”

In the winter of 1978, eighteen peasants in Xiaogang Village, Fengyang County, Anhui Province, in the spirit of pioneers, pressed their bright red handprints on the “secret contract”, and implemented the “contract responsibility system” in agriculture.Since then, opening a new era China’s rural reform. The red handprints of these eighteen leaders gave birth to the household contract responsibility system, and eventually rose to the basic management system of rural areas in China, completely breaking away from the “bigger and more socialist” people’s commune system.This freed up rural productivity and propelled forward China’s agricultural development. Shortage of food and clothing in the countryside ended. As a valuable cultural relic of reform and opening up, the “Big Bag” contract is displayed in the National Museum of Chinese History, which highlights the historical position of Xiaogang Village as the main source of rural reform in China and the symbol of China’s reform.

[See Wiki article Household responsibility system https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Household_responsibility_system (Comment: Contract system was suggested earlier in 1950s and after Great Leap Forward. According to Lynn White’s new 2018 book Rural Roots of Reform before China’s Conservative Change, Party role in promoting reform has been exaggerated; reform roots go back to early 1970s as breakdown in central power due to Cultural Revolution allowing for local innovation and improvements in mechanization of agriculture led to rapid increases in agricultural productivity. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/9781351247696 )

Baidu https://www.thepaper.cn/newsDetail_forward_2539534

http://ah.people.com.cn/n2/2018/0905/c380305-32015411.html ]

Ma Man-kei

Ma Man-kei 馬萬祺,male, Han nationality, born October 1919, died May 2014, from Nanhai,Guangdong Province.  Ma Man-kei was a member of the Standing Committees of the Sixth and Seventh National People’s Congress, member of the Standing Committee of the Sixth Chinese People’s Political Consultative Congress, Vice Chair of the Eighth, Ninth, Tenth, the Eleventh CPPCCs and former President of the Macau Chinese Chamber of Commerce. Ma proposed that the central government “actively encourage Overseas Chinese to invest in the motherland” and took the lead in investing and building industry in the Mainland. Making good use of his reputation in the overseas Chinese business community, Ma energetically spread word about China’s policy of reform and opening up to the outside world, helped organize Hong Kong and Macao delegations to return home to the mainland to invest. Ma also made outstanding contributions to promoting economic cooperation between Macao and the Mainland and supporting reform and opening up. He resolutely supported the “one country, two systems”policy. Ma served as the deputy director of the Basic Law Drafting Committee of the Macao Special Administrative Region and the Deputy Director of the Macao Special Administrative Region Preparatory Committee. He played an important role in the smooth return and smooth transition of Macao and the maintenance of Macao’s prosperity and stability. Ma Man-kei won the “China Charity Award” and the “Great Lotus Medal of Honor” from the Macao Special Administrative Region Government.

[Ma Man-kei China Vitae http://www.chinavitae.com/biography/Ma_Man%20Kei%7C792 http://www.ejinsight.com/20140527-prominent-macau-entrepreneur-ma-man-kei-dies-at-age-95/

bio on Wiki at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ma_Man-kei ]

Ma Yun (Jack Ma)

Ma Yun, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born September 1964 in Yinzhou, Zhejiang Province. Jack Ma is Chairman of the Board of Directors of Alibaba (China) Co., Ltd. The Alibaba Group that Ma founded has created the world’s largest e-commerce platform,with annual transaction volumes in trillions of yuan, powerfully boosting domestic demand in the Chinese economy; created Internet payment and logistics systems, created commercial infrastructure for small and medium enterprises; established the world-leading mobile Payment network, established a new social credit system using Big Data technologies; created the Apsaracloud computing operating system through independent research and development thereby laying the foundation of China’s cloud computing; promoted the world electronic trading platform (eWTP),which was included in the G20 leaders summit meeting bulletin,becoming an important citizen advocate of the “One Belt, One Road”policy. Under his leadership, Alibaba Group has ranked among the top 10 global companies by market capitalization, making China a leadplayer in international competition in e-commerce, internet finance and cloud computing. He has inspired many entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial-minded young people to work for reform and further innovations. Ma Yun was awarded the title of “Zhejiang Province’s Contributor to Building Socialism with Chinese characteristics”.

[Ma Yun (Jack Ma) biography at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_Ma

Comment: Jack Ma is given credit for establishing the controversial “social credit system” See Wiki article https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_Credit_System the social control implication of the 2014 – 2020 PRC national policy to create a social credit system being still unclear. See translation “State Council Notice concerning Issuance of the Planning Outline for the Construction of a Social Credit System(2014-2020)” at https://chinacopyrightandmedia.wordpress.com/2014/06/14/planning-outline-for-the-construction-of-a-social-credit-system-2014-2020/ and 2018 Business Insider article Chinahas started ranking citizens with a creepy ‘social credit’ systemhttps://www.businessinsider.com/china-social-credit-system-punishments-and-rewards-explained-2018-4  Systemicweaknesses ofChina’s quasi-marketeconomy have included lack of a nation-wide credit check system (taken for granted in the US for example), lack of effective court enforcement of judgments and interference in the courts and economy by the Chinese Communist Party. Credit checks may well be aimed at goingbeyond verifying just consumer creditworthiness.

Baidu bio https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%A9%AC%E4%BA%91/6252 ]

Ma Huateng

Ma Huateng, male, Han nationality, non-partisan, born October 1971 in Shantou, Guangdong Shantou Province. Ma Huateng is the Chairman and CEO of Tencent Technology (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd. Benefiting from business environment arising from reform and opening, Ma founded and led Tencent, growing it from a five-employee small business to one of the world’s most influential Internet companies. Ma proposed the”Internet +”, vigorously promoting Internet applications such as WeChat, QQ, online payment, the digital transformation and upgrading of many aspects of people’s lives including government affairs, consumer consumption, production services, life health, and environmental protection. In both the real economy of traditional industry and in the virtual digital economy, Ma has played an important role in the integration and development of technological innovation. Ma Huateng set up the Tencent Foundation, advocates the concept of universal public welfare, widened public participation and social transparency through communications technologies to the considerable benefit to the public at large. Ma Huateng won the title of “Outstanding businessman of a Chinese privately-run science and technology-based enterprise” and an award as an “Outstanding businessman of Southern Guangdong Province”.

[Ma Hateng bio https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ma_Huateng

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%A9%AC%E5%8C%96%E8%85%BE

http://www.gerenjianli.com/Mingren/02/49g4ce74i4mb64b.html

https://www.bannedbook.org/bnews/tag/%E9%A9%AC%E5%8C%96%E8%85%BE/ ]

Ma Shanxiang

Ma Shanxiang, male, Hui nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born November 1955, in Longchang, Sichuan Province. Ma Shanxiang headed the“Laoma Studio” of the People’s Mediation Committee of Guanyinqiao Street, Jiangbei District, Chongqing. He loves working with the people and has great affection for them. Ma Shanxiang works motivated by his belief in the people and believes that their satisfaction is his goal. Engaged in grassroots mediation and mass ideological and political work for 30 years, summed up the six-word concept of “People Oriented, Reaching Harmony Through Discussion”, follows precepts based on “human feeling,reason, law, and business”, relying on the “3441”social security system, Ma has his one kind of “Thirty-Six Strategies for Success” that came to be known as “Ma’s workmethods”. Ma has successfully resolved dozens of major conflicts and disputes, properly handled many accidents, and conducted over 20,000 interviews, handling over 1,500 letters and visits. Ma achieved a mediation success rate rate of over 98%, maintaining the harmony and stability of his jurisdiction. Ma won various titles including of “National-level Advanced Worker” and “All China Excellent Communist Party Member”.

[Baidu bio in Chinese at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%A9%AC%E5%96%84%E7%A5%A5

http://www.xinhuanet.com/politics/2018-03/08/c_1122503255.htm ]

Wang Daheng

Wang Daheng, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born February 1915, died July 2011, from Wu County, Jiangsu Province. Wang Daheng was the former honorary director of the Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Wang Dazhao was an academician of both the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering.Under his leadership, China’s first ruby laser and the first space camera were developed there. Wang also presided over the development of China’s first large-scale optical measurement equipment. In March 1986, he and other three scientists proposed the “863” science and technology development plan which, after its approval by the central government, became the focus of the development of science and technology in China. The 863 Program strategically promoted high technology development in order to accomplish o realize China’s science and technology modernization. In 1992, he and other members of the Faculty Council initiated and promoted the establishment of the Chinese Academy of Engineering. Wang Daheng was awarded the National Science and Technology Progress Award Special Prize, the “Two Bombs and One Satellite” Meritorious Medal,and the first “Ho Leung Ho Lee Fund Excellence Award”.

[See Wang Daheng’s bio at http://www.astronautix.com/w/wangdaheng.html

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E7%8E%8B%E5%A4%A7%E7%8F%A9/925656

https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E7%8E%8B%E5%A4%A7%E7%8F%A9 ]

Wang Shumao

Wang Shumao, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born December 1956, in Qionghai, Hainan Province, member of the Discipline and Inspection Committee of the Party Branch of TanmenVillage, Tanmen Town, Qionghai City, Hainan Province, and the Deputy Company Commander of the Tanhai Town Maritime Forces, the representative at the 13th National People’s Congress. Wang Shumao has actively participated in the maintenance of the territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests of the South China Sea.He has participated in many major national sea-related work assignments helped develop civilian auxiliaries to preserve order in the South China Sea. A fighter for the maintaining order on South China Sea, he made full use of people power to protects order there. He lead the people as they built a big ship so that people could enrich themselves through deep sea fishing. His work was a classic example of “double enrichment” by taking the lead in enriching Tamen Town and in showing the way for the people to enrich themselves. Wang Shumao won the title of “National Model Worker”.

[Wang Shumao’s bio in Chinese at http://china.cnr.cn/yaowen/20180316/t20180316_524166647.shtml

https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E7%8E%8B%E4%B9%A6%E8%8C%82/17192996?fr=aladdin ]

Wang Yongmin

Wang Yongmin, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born December 1943, in Nanzhao, Henan Province. Wang Yongmin is Chairman of Beijing Wangma Innovation Network Technology Co., Ltd. Wang Yongmin developed the three principles and mathematical models for Chinese character keyboard design. In 1983, he invented the “Wangcode five-stroke type” Chinese character input method, and created the “Chinese character root periodic table”, which effectively solved the Chinese character input problem in the information age. In 1998, the invention of “1998 standard WangCode” was a Chinese character input method that conformed to the People’s Republic of China on the Standard Spoken and Written Chinese Language standard and the Chinese character input method method approved sometime earlier, facilitating the popularization of computers in China. This technology won over 40 patents in China,the United States and the United Kingdom. Wang Yongmin won the titles including “All-China Model Worker” and the “National May First Labor Medal”.

[Wang Yongmin’s bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wang_Yongmin

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E7%8E%8B%E6%B0%B8%E6%B0%91/25359 ]

Wang Youde

Wang Youde, male, Hui nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born September 1953, in Lingwu, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, is the former party secretary and director of the Party Committee of LingwuBaijitan National Nature Reserve Administration of Ningxia. Wang led the staff to strongly control desertification, creating 600,000 mu of wind-proof and sand-retaining forest, and reduced the flow of sand by nearly one million mu, effectively preventing the southward and westward expansion of the Mu Us Desert. The result was a happy scene of people pushing back the desert. Wang working on developing anti-desertification sand control methods including “wide forestbelts, multi-network, multi-species, high-density, combination of different tree species” sand control mode, realizing the goal of“desert green, field work, and workers rich”. Wang experience provided valuable lessons to people in this field throughout China. Wang Youde won the title of “All China Excellent Communist Party Member”, “All China Advanced Worker”, “All ChinaSand Control Hero” and “All China Greening Advanced Worker”.

[Wang Youde bio at http://www.china.org.cn/environment/2013-09/18/content_30066606.htm

CCTV http://people.cctv.com/2018/11/29/ARTIe1VKNiLXH9grx7y7H2fX181129.shtml ]

Wang Boxiang

Wang Boxiang, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born February 1943, in Shouguang, Shandong Province. Wang Boxiang was the former deputy secretary of the Weifang Municipal Committee of Shandong Province and mayor there as well as the former secretary of the Shouguang County Party Committee. During the transition from planned economy to market economy, he insisted on making development the first priority. He made Fuminqiang County his personal responsibility and, making use of its traditional advantages Shouguang in vegetable cultivation, fully supporting and promoting experiments with the Shouguang winter warm vegetable greenhouse, and vigorously developed the Shouguang vegetable wholesale market. Wang created the China’s largest vegetable wholesale market in Jiangbei. The Shouguang vegetable industrialization model was extended to the entire country, generating huge economic and social benefits. The model vigorously promote agricultural industrialization and transition to an industrial shareholding system in Weifang City, the development of individual and private economy, and contributed to Weifang’s economic prosperity. Wang Boxiang won the title of “All China Excellent Communist Party Member”.

[Wang Boxiang’s bio in Chinese is on Baidu at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E7%8E%8B%E4%BC%AF%E7%A5%A5/4789589 ]

Wang Qimin

Wang Qimin, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born September 1937, in Huzhou, Zhejiang Province. Wang Qimin was assistant to the former general manager of Daqing Oilfield Co., Ltd.Wang always relies on the “Daqing spirit” and “the spirit of the Iron Man” as he engaged in scientific research,daring to challenge the limits of oilfield development. Wang believes that “he would rather than all his blood run dry than give up on stabilizing oil field production and then boosting it to obtain higher yields”. Wang overcame technical difficulties to break several world record. He presided over research and advanced the theory that there are “multiple stages of well development and adjustment”. The development and utilization of untabulated oil reservoirs broke the forbidden zone of the “unexploitable” bothat home and abroad. The research on “oil field production stability control” project in the late stage of high water cut in the oilfield was done at the Daqing Oilfield. This made important contributions to achieving high-yield, high-efficiency and sustainable development of the oilfield and more than 50 million tons of petroleum production over the past 27 years. Wang Yongmin is an outstanding representative of his generation of oil workers, giving the “Iron Man Spirit” a real meaning in the new era. Wang Qinmin won the titles of “All China Advanced Workers” and “Heilongjiang Province Model Workers”.

[Wang Qimin bio at https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E7%8E%8B%E5%90%AF%E6%B0%91

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E7%8E%8B%E5%90%AF%E6%B0%91/16666 ]

Wang Xuan

Wang Xuan, male, Han nationality, member of Jiu San Society political party, born February 1937, died February 2006, of Wuxi, Jiangsu Province. Wang Xuan was a Vice Chairman of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, former director of the Institute of Computer Science and Technology of Peking University, and an academician of both the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering. Wang presided over the successful development of the Chinese character laser photo-printing system and of of the large-scale application of the Beijing Founder Electronics Co. color publishing system. This accomplished the revolution of “Away with printing with lead and heat, and onto printing with light and electricity” in China’s publishing and printing industry became a model for Chinese independent innovation and high-tech transformation. Determined to commercialize research results, Wang Xuan and electronic publishing system, brought about four technological innovations in the newspaper industry and printing industry. Today Chinese laser photo-printing technology has a 99% market share of domestic newspapers and 80% of the Overseas Chinese newspaper market. The “Wang Xuan Technology Innovation Fund” was established to support young scientists and technicians in their own innovative research in science and technology. Wang Xuan won China’s State Preeminent Science and Technology Award.

[Wang Xuan bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wang_Xuan

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E7%8E%8B%E9%80%89/4437 ]

Wong Kwan Cheng

Wong Kwan Cheng, male, Han nationality, born June 1907, died December 1986, in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province. Wang founded the Wong Kwan Cheng Educational Foundation, was former president of the Hong Kong Chinese General Chamber of Commerce, and a member of the Standing Committee of the Sixth Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference. Wong was an outstanding representative of a Chinese patriot in the Hong Kong’s industrial and commercial arena. Wong supported the reform and opening up of the Mainland. He promoted the establishment of the Four Modernizations Service Committee of the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce in Hong Kong, publicized the national reform and opening-up policy, built an organization in which Hong Kong business people to participate in the reform and opening up of the mainland, and encouraged the patriotic enthusiasm of Hong Kong and Macao people and Overseas Chinese, and their desire to give back something to the motherland. Wong funded the establishment of the “Wong Kwan Cheng Educational Foundation” to support Chinese state-selected students for study abroad, and the training of talented people in high techfields. Wong Kwan Cheng was a firm supporter of the “One Country, Two Systems” policy. Wang served as the Deputy Director of the Executive Committee of the Basic Law Advisory Committee of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and participated in the drafting of the Basic Law of the Hong Kong SAR. Small asteroid number 4651 asteroid was formally designated “4651Wongkwancheng”.

[Wong Kwan Cheng bio at http://www.china.org.cn/english/China/214214.htm

https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E7%8E%8B%E5%AE%BD%E8%AF%9A/5812507 ]

Wang Jiafu

Wang Jiafu, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born February 1931, in Nanchong, Sichuan Province. Wang was former Director of the Institute of Law of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and member of the Standing Committee of the Ninth National People’s Congress. Wang participated in the drafting and formulation of many important civil and commercial laws, such as the General Principles of Civil Law, Corporate Law, and Property Law, and played an important role in promoting the development of China’s national commercial legislation. Wang proposed basic principles of the socialist market economy legal system, and even earlier promoted the concept of governing the country according to law. This played apositive role in building the rule of law and of the law since the beginning of the policy of reform and opening up. The State Council subsidized his work with a special allowance. Wang received the first”China Law Excellence Award” when China celebrated the thirtieth anniversary of the policy of reform and opening up as well as other awards.

[Wang Jiafu bio in Chinese at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E7%8E%8B%E5%AE%B6%E7%A6%8F/8195352

http://cass.cssn.cn/xuebuweiyuan/xuebuweiyuan/wjf/

Wang Jiafu articles in Chinese http://theory.people.com.cn/GB/40764/204432/207804/index.html ]

Wang Ying

Wang Ying, female, Hui nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born November 1961, died November 2008, was from Baozhong, Sichuan Province. Wang was a former member of the Standing Committee of the Nanjiang County Communist Party Committee of Bazhong City, Sichuan Province, and former Secretary of the Disciplinary Committee. She fought for 20 years in the field of discipline inspection and supervision, and created the “five zero deviations” workingstyle: zero deviation from serving the people, zero deviation from the people, zero deviation from the cadres, zero deviation from supervision of supervision, and zero shelving of cases. Wang demanded strict accountability, resolute safeguarding of the party discipline and the state’s legal authority, and create a good work environment of fairness and integrity. She was loyal to the Party,doing everything to the beset of her abilities. She fought lung cancer to the very end. She was very practical in how she went about serving the people. In 2009, the TV series “The Red Leaves of the Far Mountain” and the large-scale drama “Hongye Journey”, stories adapted from her work made a big impression throughout China. Wang won the title of “All China Discipline Inspection and Supervision System Advanced Model Worker”, and was posthumously awarded the title of “All China Excellent Communist Party Member” and “All China March Eighth Red Flag Bearer”.

[Wang Ying biographical article in Chinese at http://scnews.newssc.org/system/20181126/000925218.html

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E7%8E%8B%E7%91%9B/28251 ]

Wei Changjin

Wei Changjin, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born November 1965, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province. Wei Changjin was political commissar of Zaozhuang Military Division, Shandong Province. During a border self-defense counterattack, Wei was wounded by shrapnel that hit his left eye, penetrating his right chest, suffering injuries in twenty-two places. Ignoring his injuries, he shouted “For the motherland, for victory, fire on my position”,guiding artillery fire to repel the enemy in eight counterattacks. He was alone at his position for eleven hours. Due to his severe injuries, he was unconscious for seven days and seven nights. He lost vision in his left eye. Wei had made great sacrifices to defend the peaceful environment needed for reform and opening. injury, I was seven days and seven nights in a coma, and my left eye was blind. I made great sacrifices to defend the reform, opening and peaceful environment.After returning from the battlefield, he never forgot his initial sense of mission. He volunteered to report on his deeds and has given over 500 talks to inspire and energize others. Wei Changjin won the“August First Medal” and the titles of “Battlefield Hero” and“All China Self-Improvement Model”.

[Wei Changjin was wounded in a July 19, 1985 during a year-long series of skirmishes with Vietnamese forces on the Yunan Province – Vietnam border. See bio in Chinese at https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E9%9F%A6%E6%98%8C%E8%BF%9B and article on the border skirmishes in English at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sino-Vietnamese_conflicts,_1979%E2%80%931991 ]

Wei Huaneng

Wei Huaneng, male, Zhuang, Chinese Communist Party member, born April 1942, in Hechi, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Wei was the former Deputy Director of the village committee of Hezhai Village, PingnanTownship, Yizhou District, Hechi City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. In 1980, he organized villagers of the original Hezhai Bundle– the original villagers – to innovate and directly elect the village committee by secret ballot. They elected the members of the villager committee. This was the first village committee in China.The village committee’s experiments with various management systems,including village regulations, election methods, and deliberation procedures made important contributions to grass roots self-governance. Hezhai Village won the title of “All China Democracy and Rule of Law Model Village”.

[Chinese language news report on Wei Huaneng’s selection at https://www.sohu.com/a/278249234_99989380

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%9F%A6%E7%84%95%E8%83%BD/23174134 ]

Ju Xiaolin

Ju Xiaolin, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born September 1962, Shaoshan, Shaanxi. Ju Xiaolin is a technician of the China Railway Electrification Bureau Group, vice chairman of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (part-time). Since he started working in 1987, he has worked at studying, research and innovation. Ju mastered new knowledge and new skills needed for building overhead electrified rail systems. Ju participated in the construction of more than 10 national key railway projects including the Daqin Line, the Jingzheng Line, the Harbin-Dalian Line and the Beijing-Shanghai High-speed Railway. He developed 114 innovative construction methods,and edited the book “Catenary Rail Construction Experience and Methods” which was distributed as a guide to thousands of workers on electrified rail systems. Ju Xiaolin, who himself moved up from ordinary migrant worker to knowledge worker knowledge worker,exemplified China’s era of reform and opening up — “the glory of work, the lofty heights of knowledge, the treasure of human talent, and the creative works of great genius.” Ju won the title of “All China Model Worker” and “China Skills Award” and “National May First Labor Medal”.

[Ju Xiaolin Chinese-language Baidu bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%B7%A8%E6%99%93%E6%9E%97 ]

Kong Fansen

Kong Fansen, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born July 1944, died November 1994, was from Liaocheng, Shandong Province. Kong Fansen was the former Secretary of the Alidi Committee of the Tibet Autonomous Region and former Chairman of the Political Consultative Conference. Beginning in 1979, he went to Tibet twice to work diligently for the people and promote local economic and social development and national unity. After the end of Kong Fansen’s second assistance mission Kong Fansen in late 1992, he was appointed Secretary of the Ali delegation. In order to understand the situation and explore poverty alleviation methods, the delegation traveled over 80,000 kilometers, visiting 98 of the region’s 106 townships in theregion. Having formed a deep profound friendship with the Tibetan people, they became known as the “Lei Feng of the new era.”and the “Jiao Yulu of the 1990s.” His heroic deeds and lofty spirit have inspired and great number of Chinese men and women to take up the cause of reform and opening up. They went spontaneously to the places where the motherland and the people need them most. They went to the most difficult and difficult places to start a business. Kong was awarded the title of “National Model of National Unity and Progress” and was posthumously awarded the title of “Model Communist Party Member and Outstanding Leading Cadre”.

[Kong Fansen bio http://www.china.org.cn/china/60th_anniversary_people/2009-09/17/content_18547250.htm

Baidu bio in Chinese at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%AD%94%E7%B9%81%E6%A3%AE/76770

IMDb https://www.imdb.com/title/tt6721754/ ]

Li Yining

Li Yining, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,member of the China Democratic League political party, born November 1930, in Yizheng, Jiangsu Province. Li Yining is Emeritus Dean and Professor at the Guanghua School of Management, Peking University, former Vice Chairman of the China Democratic League Central Committee, member of the Seventh, Eighth and Ninth Standing Committees of the National People’s Congress and of the Standing Committee of the 10th,11th and 12th Chinese People’s Political Consultative Congress. Li was one of the earliest scholars in China to propose the theory of shareholding reform. Li participated in the reform of the property rights system of state-owned enterprises in China, presided over the drafting of the securities law and securities investment fund law,and participated in the promotion of 36 laws on non-public economies and 36 new laws on non-public economies which made a big impact on China’s economic reform and development. Moreover, Li Yining has made outstanding contributions to the reform of state-owned forestry rights system, the reform of state-owned agricultural economic system, and to development towards a low-carbon economy. Li Yining was awarded the first prize at the Sixth and the Seventh Award Ceremonies for the Higher Education Scientific Research Outstanding Achievement Award (Humanities and Social Sciences) of the Ministry of Education.

[Li Yining bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Li_Yining and https://www.thechinastory.org/key-intellectual/li-yining-%E5%8E%89%E4%BB%A5%E5%AE%81/

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%8E%89%E4%BB%A5%E5%AE%81 ]

Ye Cong

Ye Cong, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born November 1979, in Huangpu, Hubei Province. Ye Cong is Deputy Director of the Seventh Research Institute of China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation, leads the Underwater Engineering Research and Development Department, and has been chief designer and chief submariner on the “Zhenlong” deep sea submersible. Ye Conghas been engaged in the research, design and research and development of manned submersibles for a long time. Through unremitting efforts,he finally transformed the “Zhenlong” from drawings to reality. For love of manned deep dives, he took on the burdens of test pilot, main diver. Ye Cong has participated in fifty “Zhenlong”deep dives. The maximum dive depth reached was 7062 meters. As are representative figure of deep divers in China’s era since reform and opening, Ye Cong’s worthy deeds and service to the motherland is an example to young people. Ye Cong was awarded the honorary title of “Deep Dive Hero” as well as the “National May First Labor Medal” and “China Youth May Fourth Medal”.

[Ye Cong bio in Chinese at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%8F%B6%E8%81%AA/10854706 ]

 Shen Jilan

Shen Jilan, female, Han nationality, Communist Party member, born December 1929, in Pingshun, Shanxi Province. Shen Jilan was Deputy Secretary of the Party branch of Xigou Village, Pingshun County,Shanxi Province, former Director of the Shanxi Women’s Federation, former Deputy Director of Changzhi Municipal People’s Congress Standing Committee, and Pingshun County Committee Vice Secretary. Ever since the start reform and opening up, Shen Jilan has worked on development of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and sideline production in mountainous areas, led the people in Xigou Village of Pingshun Countyto conquer the mountains and valley, set up enterprises and factories, and to follow the trend towards marketization to build up Xiaokang New Village and Xigou. These villages became models of development for all of Shanxi Province. Shen Jilan is the only NPC deputy ever to be elected to thirteen National People’s Congresses. A determined person, she carries all her projects through to the end. Shen was awarded the titles of “All China National Model Worker”,“All China Excellent Communist Party Member” and “All China Moral Model”.

[Shen Jilan bio at https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E7%94%B3%E7%BA%AA%E5%85%B0

https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E7%94%B3%E7%BA%AA%E5%85%B0/31901

Press: 12-time legislator who never voted ‘no’ https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/world/12time-legislator-who-never-voted-no/article4492039.ece]

Shi Jiuyong

Shi Jiuyong, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born October 1926 in Ningbo, Zhejiang. Shi Juyong was the former legal counsel of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and former president of the United Nations International Court of Justice. Shi Jiuyong has worked in the diplomatic and international law front for many years, making contributions to safeguarding national sovereignty, security,development interests and international equity and justice. Shi participated in the China-UK Hong Kong negotiations as well as in devising a series of groundbreaking legal system provisions that contributed to the smooth transition from UK rule and the resumption of the exercise of Chinese sovereignty there. During his tenure on the United Nations International Law Commission and as a judge of the International Court of Justice, and especially as its head judge, he performed with superb knowledge, authenticity and diligence. Shi Jiuyong won universal praise from the international community and the international legal community, and glory for the Chinese nation.After leaving the post of President of the International Court of Justice, he is still working at the age of 90 and continues to make outstanding contributions in legal matters in China’s foreign relations.

[Shi Jiuyong bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shi_Jiuyong

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%8F%B2%E4%B9%85%E9%95%9B ]

Ran Shaozhi

Ran Shaozhi, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born May 1953 in Fengjie, Chongqing. Ran Shaozhi was former Deputy Director of the Fengjie County Migrants Bureau of Chongqing. A grassroots cadre who worked on migrant issues for many years, Ran was concerned with both the national interest and the interests of migrant. Ran did good ideological and political work among migrants including finding them jobs and resettling them. Ran had a major role in building the Three Gorges reservoir area, creating there a are settlement model of “one road on the riverside, one row of houses along the road behind industrial and commercial buildings in front of the houses, and fruit crops behind the house”. This set the pattern for rural resettlement in in the Three Gorges Reservoir area of Chongqing. Ran’s experiments led to the diversified development pattern of the Three Gorges reservoir area. Ran persuaded the people to support the new irrigation and water storage projects to supply drinking water for people and animals as well as to build drainage systems and roads, develop orchards and cultivate the land and so as to successfully complete the resettlement of the Three Gorges migrants.Ran was awarded the title of “All China Advanced Workers”, “All China Excellent Communist Party Members” and “Civil Servant the People are Pleased With”.

[Ran Shaozhi Baidu Chinese-language bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%86%89%E7%BB%8D%E4%B9%8B ]

Bao Qifan

Bao Qifan, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born in February 1951. Bao is the former vice president of Shanghai International Port (Group) Co., Ltd. and former director of its Technical Center. Bao Qifan exemplifies Chinese workers who grew up with the policy of reform and opening up. Bao developed a new graband process systems that advanced port materials handling and mechanization, and became known as “the Grab King”. Bao was involved in opening the first standard domestic shipping container route at the port of Shanghai. Bao participated in the construction of China’s first automated container unmanned yard as well as the development of China’s first highly-automated mining equipment system. This led to the development of China’s first container-RFID freight labeling system built to international standards. Over the past 40 years, Bao has led a technological innovation team, won three national invention awards, three national science and technology progress awards, and 36 gold medals at international invention exhibitions including Paris and Geneva. For five consecutive years, Bao was awarded the title of “All China Model Worker” and won the title of “All China Excellent Communist Party Member”.

[Bao Qifan “Bao Qifan: The ‘Cargo-Handling King’” http://www.china.org.cn/china/CPC_90_anniversary/2011-06/09/content_22743699.htm

Baidu Chinese-language bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%8C%85%E8%B5%B7%E5%B8%86 ]

Nima Dunzhu

Nima Dunzhu, male, Tibetan, Chinese Communist Party member, born June 1965. Nima was Secretary of the Party branch of Qianggu Village,Shima Township, Gêrzê County, Ali Region, Tibet Autonomous Region.Nima Dunzhu took the role of “lead goose” and “military commander” to promote national unity. He led the people to participate in cooperatives in the “Four Shares” system: a share of livestock, a share of labor, joint grazing, rotation of pastureland. The large-scale development of the collective economy involved the “Six Unified” operation modes of “uniform labor arrangement, unified management of grassland, unified purchase and sale of livestock products, unified distribution of operating income,unified support for the disabled, the widowed and the elderly, and keeping track of the grades of all the students in the school”.Nima promoted a “Joint Venture” between the herdsmen and the village management entity, and strengthened collective consciousness,the awareness of the cooperative to which they belonged and the market awareness of the villagers. He accomplished the transition from extensive management to intensive management. The income of the people became secure and sustainable. Nima Dunzhu’s successful experience was of great significance in promoting the scaling up,organization and market development of the collective economy of pastoral villages.

[Nima Dunzhu Baidu Chinese-language bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%B0%BC%E7%8E%9B%E9%A1%BF%E7%8F%A0/23175361 ]

Ting Bate’er

Ting Bate’er, male, Mongolian, Chinese Communist Party member, born June 1955 in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Ting is the former Secretary of the Party branch of Saru Latuya, Honggegaol Town,Abaqi Banner, Xilin Gol League, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. In 1974, he went to Hohhot from the city of Hohhot to Saru Latuya in the town of Hung’ge’er, and so went from being an urban youth to being a common herder in the countryside. Ting Bartel was always looking for ways to combine grassland ecological protection with economic development. He led the herdsmen to rotate grazing lands,build up the grasslands, actively adjust the age structure of the herd, and carry out refined and scientific farming. The per capita net income of herders has increased from 40 RMB 40 years ago to the present 18,800 RMB. The grassland was properly protected and utilized, getting to a win-win situation for ecological protection and herders’ income. Ting Bate’er won the title of “All China Model Worker”, “All China Excellent Communist Party Member” and“All China Model of National Unity and Progress”.

[Ting Bate’er Baidu Chinese-language bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%BB%B7%C2%B7%E5%B7%B4%E7%89%B9%E5%B0%94 ]

Liu Hanzhang

Liu Hanzhang, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born July 1936, died November 2009 from Gongyin in Henan Province.Liu Hanzhang was the former chairman and general manager of Handan Iron and Steel Group Co., Ltd. As reform and opening began, Liu Hanzhang was keenly aware to the new trend, seized the opportunity to promptly begin reforming the leadership, labor and personnel systemsat Handan Iron and Steel. During the 1990s, market mechanisms were introduced into the internal management of the enterprise, and the focus became cost management in order to “take the bull by its horns”. A mechanism for “simulating market accounting and implementing cost veto” to reverse the passive situation of Handan Iron and Steel in order to achieve leap-forward development. Profits stayed among the top three of other companies in the same industry in the country for four consecutive years, and ranked first in Hebei Province for eight consecutive years. The “Shangang Experience”inspired a revolution in business management throughout China. More  than 20,000 enterprises and institutions have studied and learned from Handan Iron and Steel model. The company has been hailed as “a red flag on the industrial front” in China and the second nationally- promoted model company after Daqing. Liu Hanzhang won the title of “All China Model Worker”.

[Liu Hanzhang Baidu Chinese-language bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%88%98%E6%B1%89%E7%AB%A0/2801261 ]

Liu Yonghao

Liu Yonghao, male, Han nationality, masses, born September 1951 in Xinjin, Sichuan. Liu Yonghao was Chairman and President of New Hope Group Co., Ltd., member of the Standing Committee of the Ninth and Tenth Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, and Vice Chairman of the Seventh and Eighth National Federation of Industry and Commerce. In 1982 Liu began working in agriculture and in 1987 developed the first domestic piglet feed. He persuaded the company not to forget its early ambitions and strive to grow. Today the company’s products include pig feed production, agricultural technology, food processing, financial services and many other fields with more than 600 subsidiaries in more than 30 countries and regions around the world. With nearly 70,000 employees, annual sales income exceed 100 billion yuan. For 14 consecutive years it has ranked among”China’s top 500 enterprises.” The company promotes projects for the benefit of the public and strives to be an”Outstanding Chinese Company.” New Hope initiated the“Precision Poverty Alleviation 1+1” campaign to promote industrial poverty alleviation and poverty alleviation education. Liu Yonghao was awarded the title of “All China Model Worker” and the“All China Poverty Fighter Award”.

[Liu Yonghao Wiki bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liu_Yonghao

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%88%98%E6%B0%B8%E5%A5%BD ]

Xu Lirong

Xu Lirong, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born July 1957 in Yancheng, Jiangsu Province. Xu Lirong is the Party Secretary and chairman of China Ocean Shipping Group Co., Ltd. During his tenure as the first president of the Shanghai Shipping Exchange,Xu built China’s first national-level water transport trading market and became China’s first shipping trading company exchange open to the outside world. In 2016, Xu successfully led the reform and restructuring of the world’s largest shipping company. He personally planned and directed the reform of COSCO container shipping system,led China’s container transportation industry, and advanced China’s foreign trade transportation reform, thereby enabling more Chinese enterprises to “go global.” Xu took a led role in creating the “Maritime Silk Road”, exploring new methods of international cooperation. This accelerated the internationalization of the terminal industry, integrating China’s marine transportation channels and logistics channels into the global economy, providing a strong basis for the “Belt and Road” projects. Xu won the”All China May 1st Labor Medal”.

[Xu Lirong http://en.cosco.com/art/2013/1/19/art_766_20810.html

Baidu Chinese-language bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E8%AE%B8%E7%AB%8B%E8%8D%A3 ]

Xu Zhenchao

Xu Zhenchao, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born January 1950 in Rongcheng, Shandong Province. Xu Zhenzhao is the Senior Manager of Qingdao Qianwan Container Terminal Co., Ltd.,former vice chairman of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions(part-time), member of the Standing Committee of the 11th, 12th National People’s Congress. Xu does his job well, loves the Party,and has excellent self-study skills. Xu has practiced techniques such as “one hook”, “one hook net” and “silent operation”. He has seven times broken the world record for container loading and unloading, winning world fame for his great efficiency. Xu never hesitates to look for an find new methods, leading his research team resolve safety issues, fill gaps in imported technologies, thereby achieving large cost saving for the country. His technique called the“Xu Zhenzhao Work Method” helped speeding up the work pace at Qingdao Port. His example has encouraged workers all across China to learn new skills. Xu won the title of “All China Model Worker”and “All China Excellent Communist Party Member”.

[Xu Zhenzhao Baidu Chinese-language bio at https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E8%AE%B8%E6%8C%AF%E8%B6%85 ]

Xu Haifeng

Xu Haifeng, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born August 1957 in Quanjiao, Anhui Province. Xu Haifeng is the former deputy director of the Bicycle Fencing Sports Management Center of the General Administration of Sport of China. In 1984, hewon the 50-meter men’s pistol competition at the 23rd Olympic Games, becoming the PRC’s first Olympic champion as well as winning world championships, Asian Games championships along with many other honors. After becoming a coach, his innovative training method produced a number of Olympic and world champions. He became known as the “Golden Coach”. Xu won the title of “All China Sports System Advanced Worker” and “Anhui Province Model Worker”.

[Xu Haifeng Wiki bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xu_Haifeng ]

Xu Chongde

Xu Chongde, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born in January 1929, died in March 2014 was from Qingpu, Shanghai.Xu Chongde was a leader in the study of constitutional law and administrative law at Renmin University of China, and a former honorary president of the Chinese Constitutional Research Association. Xu was one of the founders of the New China Constitutional Law. Xu Chongde participated in the drafting of the 1954 Constitution, participated in the revision of the 1982 Constitution, and participated in the revision of the Constitution in 1988, 1993, 1999, and 2003, and in the drafting of many important laws. In his legal drafting and revision work, Xu has made outstanding contributions to the formation of China’s socialist legal system and the promotion of comprehensive rule of the country according to law. In 1985 and 1988, he participated in drafting the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the drafting of the Basic Law of the Macao Special Administrative Region.Xu made important contribution to the return of Hong Kong and Macao to Chinese sovereignty and the implementation of the “One country, Two systems” concept. Xu won the 5th Wu Yuzhang Prize for Humanities and Social Sciences.

[Xu Chongde Wiki bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xu_Chongde

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E8%AE%B8%E5%B4%87%E5%BE%B7 ]

Sun Yongcai

Sun Yongcai, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born November 1964, in Changling, Jilin Province. Sun Yongcai has been the deputy secretary, director and general manager of China State Vehicle Group Co., Ltd., as well as deputy secretary, Executive Director and president of China CRRC Corporation. Sun was the main organizer and academic leader of China’s rail transit equipment technology innovation and upgrading of rolling stock. In 2004, he began to develop high-power locomotives and high-speed electric multiple unit [EMU] trains. Through independent innovation, he mastered nine key technologies and worked on ten projects involving EMUs. Development this technology meant that “high speed trains took the crucial step from catching up with others to taking the leadi n innovation” and made high speed trains a representative Chinese product of the new era. Sun participated in the overall implementation of the reorganization and integration of the northern and southern Chinese railway companies, created a precedent for the reorganization of two domestic A+H listed companies. This created anew model for the restructuring and reform of central government state-owned enterprises. Sun won the first class National Science and Technology Progress Award.

[Sun Yongcai CRRC Unveils their Lightest and New Advanced Energy-efficient Metro Train at InnoTrans 2018 https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/crrc-unveils-their-lightest-and-new-advanced-energy-efficient-metro-train-at-innotrans-2018-300715032.html

Baidu Chinese-language bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%AD%99%E6%B0%B8%E6%89%8D/4699889 ]

Sun Jiadong

Sun Jiadong, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born February 1929 in Fuxian, Liaoning Province. Sun was Senior Technical consultant of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation, chief designer of the Fengyun-2 satellite, Beidou-2 satellite project and China’s second generation satellites. Sun was Senior Special Advisor for Navigation Systems, former Deputy Minister of Aerospace Industry, and an Academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences. Sun Jiadong is one of the pioneers of China’s satellite technology and deep space exploration technology. Sun has been engaged in the development of 45 satellites over the past 60 years.As the chief designer of the first and second generation engineering of Beidou navigation system in China, Sun carried out networking and applications work on the Beidou satellite navigation system. As one of China’s main advocates of lunar exploration engineering, he was the chief designer of the first phase of the lunar exploration project. This set a new milestone in the history of Chinese aerospace. Sun won the “Two bombs and One Satellite” merit medal, the State Preeminent Science and Technology Award, the National Technology Progress Award among other outstanding awards as well as the title of “All China Outstanding Communist Party Member”.

[Sun Jiadong Wiki bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun_Jiadong

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%AD%99%E5%AE%B6%E6%A0%8B ]

Du Runsheng

Du Runsheng, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born July 1913, died in October 2015, from Taigu, Shanxi Province. Du Runsheng was the former director of the Central Rural Policy Research Office, former director of the Rural Development Research Center of the State Council. Du has long been engaged in the research of China’s rural reform and development strategy, stressed investigation and research, and excelled at transforming the practical experience of the people into academic theory. Du led drafting of the five Chinese Communist Party Central Committee”Document No. 1” during the 1980s and had a major role in promoting rural reform including implementing the household contract management responsibility system, abolishing the people’s commune system, reforming the agricultural product circulation system,adjusting the agricultural industrial structure, developing diversified operations and township enterprises, promoting grassroots democratic political construction, encouraging farmers to migrate to the cities to find work and do business, and safeguarding the material interests of farmers. Du Runsheng explored a number of major issues such as legal rights and interests, and made important contributions to both theory and practice.

[Du Runsheng Wiki bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Du_Runsheng

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%9D%9C%E6%B6%A6%E7%94%9F ]

Li Shufu

Li Shufu, male, Han nationality, non-party person, born June 1963, in Taizhou, Zhejiang. Li Shufu is Chairman of Zhejiang Geely Holding Group, vice chairman of the National Federation of Industry and Commerce (part-time). Setting out to “make a good car that ordinary people can afford”, in 1997 he went into the automobile business, founding the first private automobile enterprise in China.Leading Zhejiang Geely to in its successful international strategy,not only revitalizing the Volvo Group and putting it on a sustainable basis, but also became its large shareholder in both the Volvo Group and Daimler, vigorously promoting the internationalization of the Chinese automobile industry. After twenty years of strong growth,the Geely Group now, with over 100,000 employees worldwide, has ranked among the world’s top 500 companies for seven consecutive years and has more than 100,000 employees worldwide. Li Shufu won the title of “Zhejiang Province Private Sector Excellent Builder of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics”.

[Li Shufu Wiki bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Li_Shufu

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%9D%8E%E4%B9%A6%E7%A6%8F ]

Li Dongsheng

Li Dongsheng, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born July 1957 in Jieyang, Guangdong, Province. Li Dongsheng has been Party Secretary, Chairman and CEO of TCL Corporation, and Vice chair of the National Federation of Industry and Commerce (part-time). Li Dongsheng led TCL Corporation in major cross-border mergers and acquisitions thereby creating precedents for the international operation of Chinese enterprises. TCL Corporation has 28 R&D centers and 22 manufacturing bases throughout the world, and markets its televisions in 160 countries and regions. The annual operating income exceeds 100 billion yuan. The sales volume of its color televisions has ranked first in China and the world for many years. TCL manufactured China’s first button speakerphone and the first generation of large-screen color televisions. Li Dongsheng led his team to build an advanced LCD panel line that relies entirely on Chinese domestic innovation, teamwork and construction to accomplish a breakthrough in China’s video industry display technology. After Japan and South Korea, China became the third country to master independent development of high-end display technology. Li won the title of “All China Model Worker”.

[Li Dongsheng Wiki bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Li_Dongsheng

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%9D%8E%E4%B8%9C%E7%94%9F/7086914] 

Li Guyi

Li Guyi, female, Han nationality, member of both the Chinese Communist Party member and the Democratic League political party, born October 1944 in Changsha, Hunan Province. Li Guyi was Party Secretary and first deputy head of the Oriental Song and Dance Troupe. She tied her own artistic work to the process of reform and opening up, bearing witness to heroic feats of reform and opening with her voice. She expressed pride in the motherland, the heroic spirit of the nation, and the voice of the people. Nearly 800 songs were sung, “Hometown Love” was hailed as “the first popular song after the reform and opening”, “Unforgettable Today”sent joy and blessing to thousands of Chinese families, “My Country and My Country” expressed patriotic feelings for the motherland. For 40 years, she has been active on the stage, paying tribute both to tradition and innovation in vocal music, making outstanding contributions to both the development of vocal music in China and its history. She also inspired the Chinese people to enter a new era. Li Guyi was awarded the “Best Singing Award”category Popular Film Hundred Flowers Award and the Outstanding Actor Award of the Ministry of Culture.

[Li Guyi Wiki bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Li_Guyi

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%9D%8E%E8%B0%B7%E4%B8%80

Youtube https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC3rGKIT8NoU–Htyu043x9Q ]

Li Baoguo

Li Baoguo, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born February 1958, died April 2016 from Wuyi, Hebei Province. Li Baoguo was professor of Hebei Agricultural University. Li was a one of the people, a hard worker, selfless who found himself in serving the people. Li Baoguo was always at the front line of science and technology, agriculture, poverty alleviation and education. Li Baoguo published 28 scientific articles, won eighteen provincial and ministerial awards.  His work has affected cultivation in a technology promotion area of 18.26 million mu. Li Baoguo created 16 advanced models for mountain development and management. This has resulted in a series of well-known national brands which boosted the income of 100,000 mountain farmers both inside and outside Hebei Province by 5.85 billion RMB. Li Baoguo helped develop the “Two Convergences Theory of aggregated soil, aggregate run of that made it possible for Xingtai in the former Nanxun to reach a forest coverage rate of 90.7% and a vegetation coverage rate reached 94.6%. Li Baoguo became known as “Taihangshan’s Foolish Old Man Who Moved the Mountain”. Li Baoguo was awarded the title of “All China Advanced Worker” and posthumously awarded the titles of “All China Excellent Communist Party Member” and “All China Model for Poverty Alleviation”.

[Li Baoguo “President Xi calls late forestry professor role model for CPC members” http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/95thcpc/2016-06/16/content_25732062.htm

Baidu bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%9D%8E%E4%BF%9D%E5%9B%BD/657151 ]

Li Yanhong

Li Yanhong, male, Han nationality, non-partisan, born November 1968 in Shanxi, Yangquan. Li Yanhong is Chairman and CEO of Baidu Online Network Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd. Li Yanhong advanced the concept of “making the complex world simpler through technology”. During the 1990s, he was a leader in search engine technology research. He patented a “super-chain analysis” technology. In 2000, he returned to China to establish Baidu which developed into the world’s second largest independent search engine and the largest Chinese search engine. Focusing on artificial intelligence and pioneering science and technology research, Baidu promotes artificial intelligence, Big Data and other technologies with applications in manufacturing, automotive, education, finance, life services and other fields. These technologies are becoming deeply integrated to social governance, thereby promoting the development of China’s economy and smart cities. Li Yanhong founded the Baidu Foundation to promote public welfare. Li Yanhong won the “Beijing Outstanding Talent Award” and among other awards.

[Li Yanhong (Robin Li) Wiki bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robin_Li

Press Baidu’s Robin Li is Helping China Win the 21st Century http://time.com/5107485/baidus-robin-li-helping-china-win-21st-century/

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%9D%8E%E5%BD%A6%E5%AE%8F ]

Yang Shanzhou

Yang Shanzhou, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born January 1927, died in October 2010 from Shidian, Yunnan Province. Yang Shanzhou was the former Secretary of the Yunnan Provincial Party Committee. As reform and opening up began, Yang vigorously promoted the rural household contract responsibility system, transforming the once food-short area of Baoshan into the”Western Granary”. Yang become known as the “Food Secretary.” He was the first to experiment with the construction of small towns, the development of diversified operations, and fostering non-public ownership in the Chinese economy. Yang Shanzhou helped create many local industrial enterprises that processed agricultural and agricultural sideline products, creating thereby new and distinctive flourishing small market towns. Following his retirement, Yang Shanzhou personified the principle that “as long as there is life, there is service to the people” Yang worked in Daliangshan for 22 years, planted a forest of 22 million acres and creating an oasis. Yang operated a forest farm valued at 300 million RMB. Management rights he transferred to the country without compensation. Yang was awarded the title of “Outstanding Contributor to Environmental Protection” and was posthumously awarded the title of “All China Excellent Communist Party Member”.

[Yang Shanzhou Baidu bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%9D%A8%E5%96%84%E6%B4%B2/13873

2012 TV series Yang Shanzhou (in Chinese) http://www.le.com/tv/83398.html ]

Bu Xinsheng

Bu Xinsheng, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born January 1934, died June 2015 from Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province. Buwas the former director of Zhejiang Yuanhaiyan Shirt Factory and Deputy secretary of the Party Branch there and deputy general manager of the former Erqing Company head office in Haiyan County. In the early days of reform and opening up, he freed himself from ideological restraints, and boldly carried out enterprise reforms at Haiyan Shirt Factory head office. He created brands, found ways forward, and worked hard to invigorate his business operations. He imposed tighter controls on internal management, breaking the old customs of the “big pot of rice” and breaking some once-sacrosanct “iron rice bowls”. He transformed the corporate culture and got employees to feel responsibility for the enterprise.Driven by the new reform spirit, the Haiyan Shirt Factory took on a new look. It became the first company in Haiyan County to exceed 10 million RMB in sales which had a big economic impact all over the county. Bu was full of daring, courage and so became a model of”daring to reform and striving for innovation.” The media said that Bu Xinsheng “tailored the curtain of enterprise reform,” and his used cutting scissors were included in the National Museum of Chinese History. Bu Xinsheng won the title of”Zhejiang Advanced Production Worker”.

[Bu Xinsheng Baidu bio in Chinese at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%AD%A5%E9%91%AB%E7%94%9F

Video “Vanguard Reformer Bu Xinshng in 1984 https://www.yicai.com/video/100009905.html ]

Wu Renbao

Wu Renbao, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born in November 1928, died in March 2013 from Jiangyin, Jiangsu Province. Wu was Secretary of the Party Committee of Huaxi Village,Jiangyin City, Jiangsu Province and former chairman of Jiangsu HuaxiGroup. Wu always stood at the forefront of rural reform and development. He led the villagers of Huaxi to “create land in the1970s, build factories in the 1980s, build cities in the 1990s, and make rapid progress in the new century”, accomplishing industrialization first in rural villages, then a broader rural industrialization and finally rural urbanization. Wu led his region through the stage after stage of modernization, making full use of local resources and the comparative advantages of various rural districts to achieve a win-win outcome. This set precedent for creating democratic management systems for very large villages. Wu won the title of “All China Excellent Communist Party Member”,”All China Model Worker” and “All China Model of Dedicated Contributions to Industry”.

[Wu Renbao Baidu bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%90%B4%E4%BB%81%E5%AE%9D/70290

Film Wu Renbao” https://v.qq.com/x/cover/agoyrmcu3uwwr3b/g0026eo2rnp.html ]

Wu Liangyong

Wu Liangyong, male, Han nationality, member of both the Chinese Communist Party and Democratic League political party, born in May 1922 in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province. Wu is a Tsinghua University professor, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering. Considering large-scale, rapid speed and large areas involved in China’s urbanization, Wu founded the human settlement environmental science and established a set of spatial planning design methods and practice models centered around human settlements which won praise from the international architectural community. Wu successfully applied the scientific theory of human settlements to carry out planning and design research and practice in many kinds of urban and rural areas,architecture and gardens both large and small. Wu has participated in many major projects such as the design of the new library building for the Beijing Library, planning and designing the expansion of Tiananmen Square, planning and design of the Central Academy of Fine Arts, and planning and design of the Confucius Institute. Wu Liangyong won many awards including the State Preeminent Science and Technology Award.

[Wu Liangyong Wiki bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wu_Liangyong

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%90%B4%E8%89%AF%E9%95%9B ]

Wu Jinyin

Wu Jinyin, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born July 1942 in Weihui, Henan. Wu was Secretary of Tangzhuang Town Party Committee, Weihui City, Henan Province, former Deputy director of the Standing Committee of Xinxiang Municipal People’s Congress, and alternate member of the 15th Central Committee. For more than 40 years, he served as secretary of the township party committee. He never forgot his purpose or lost his sense of mission. Wu Jinyin treated the common people like his relatives, put down his own root in the rural grassroots, worked hard, led in building irrigation projects, built dam reservoirs, and created good fields. He transformed wild mountains and valleys into good agricultural land. While party secretary of Tangzhuang Town, Wuled the masses to plant forest orchards and vegetable gardens, set uptownship collective enterprises, and transformed the very poor Tangzhuang into one of the best developed and economically diversified towns in the province. He was praised as a “ModelTownship Party Secretary”. Wu won the titles of “All China Excellent Communist Party Member”, “All China Excellent Party Worker” and “All China May 1st Labor Medal”.

[Wu Jinyin https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%90%B4%E9%87%91%E5%8D%B0/6659118

Wu Jinyin page on People’s Daily website http://cpc.people.com.cn/GB/67481/94157/368913/index.html ]

Wu Rongnan

Wu Rongnan, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member  born June 1942 in Xiamen, Fujian Province. Wu is the former Deputy Secretary and general manager of the Xiamen Party Committee. Wu always encouraged reform and innovation at Xiamen Airlines helped ingrow into a prosperous company. Wu was the first to do mergers and acquisitions to restructure China’s civil aviation industry,implement a full-employment labor contract system, and establish a complete and scientific modern enterprise system. Thanks to his efforts, Xiamen Airlines benefited from the civil aviation reform and the opening of the Xiamen Special Economic Zone. The airline pioneered the broad bore integration in the operation of “state-run and private enterprises, seaports and airports”. In 1998, Xiamen Airlines was the only airline awarded the triple crown of the“Jinyuan Cup” in China’s national civil aviation system. Xiamen Airlines became a symbol of reform and opening of both Fujian Province and the Xiamen Special Economic Zone. Wu won the title of“Outstanding Businessman” in Fujian Province.

[Wu Rongnan Baidu bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%90%B4%E8%8D%A3%E5%8D%97 ]

Qiu Eguo

Qiu Eguo, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born May 1946 in Jinxian, Jiangxi Province. Qiu is a former investigator of the special police detachment of the Nanchang Public Security Bureau of Jiangxi Province. Since joining the police force 27 years ago, Qiu adhered to the principle “people’s public security works for the people”, law enforcement is for the people, a bold innovation service model, and the courage to crack down on grassroots governance problems. Qiu Eguo is dedicated to the household registration police putting great efforts into keeping accurate records and “By visiting a hundred households, getting to know one hundred families, understanding their situation, and to help every one to carry out their household affairs successfully”. He created the police-citizen contact cards, and the police-citizen liaison locations spread throughout the country and has been very effective at improving grassroots governance. Qiu gets involved at the outset to fight crime and has been involved in over 500 successful criminal investigations and has helped over 200 people who have returned from reform through labor or re-education through labor as well as juvenile delinquents re-enter society. Qiu Eguo has maintained social stability and become “intimate with the people”. Qiu Eguo was honored with the title of “All China Public Security System First-Class Hero Model”, “All China Moral Model” and “All China Excellent Communist Party Member”.

[Qiu Eguo Baidu bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%82%B1%E5%A8%A5%E5%9B%BD ]

He Xiangjian

He Xiangjian, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born August 1942 in Foshan, Guangdong, Province. He is chairman of Midea Holding Co., Ltd. He Xingjian always adheres to the “constant change is the only constant” concept, and dares to try, to challenge accepted ideas. He reformed the company’s internal shareholding system, making Midea the company in China to be listed on the stock exchange after the reorganization of a township enterprise. He Xiangjian implemented the business model of shareholder, board of directors and management team, and creating a precedent for private enterprise equity restructuring, equity incentives, professional managers and modern enterprise reform.Leading the Midea Group from a street-committee-run plastics production group to a Fortune 500 company with 150,000 employees,nearly 200 subsidiaries, more than 60 overseas branches, and a technology group with a market value of nearly 300 billion RMB. He Xiangjian established a charitable fund and invested more than 10 billion RMB to carry out charitable causes such as poverty alleviation, disaster relief, pension, and education. He Xiangjian won the title of “All China Model Worker”.

[He Xiangjian Wiki bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/He_Xiangjian

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E4%BD%95%E4%BA%AB%E5%81%A5 ]

He Zai

He Zai, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born November 1919 in Baoji, Shaanxi. He Zai joined the revolution in late 1936, serving as former Secretary-General of the Central Organization Department of the Communist Party and Director of the Cadre Review Bureau. In the period of rectification after the end of the “Cultural Revolution”, he resolutely implemented the line, principles and policies of the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, and unswervingly held to the line of the Communist Party Central Committee in his ideological and political actions. Under the leadership of Comrade Hu Yaobang and later Comrade Song Renqian, He Zai with a high degree of professionalism and sense of responsibility, did much hard and meticulous work, playing an important role in comprehensively implementing cadre policies,resolutely redressing false and wrong cases, and properly handling historical issues. He insisted upon being a free thinker and starting with the facts, in-depth investigation and research. He made many opinions and suggestions. He Zai always encouraged people to correct mistakes, be good at grasping the key points, review major crimes and difficult cases, and examine every case thoroughly, create an ideological line for our party of going back to seeking truth from facts. In those educational efforts, He Zai made a great contribution by making it possible for many cadres to become passionately committed to opening and reform.

[He Zai Baidu bio in Chinese athttps://baike.baidu.com/item/%E4%BD%95%E8%BD%BD/23174610 ]

Comment: He Zai helped correct false and mistaken court cases against so-called Rightists, real or alleged political dissidents condemned to long prison sentences in the late 1950s. Nearly all were completely exonerated after the end of the Cultural Revolution through the efforts of people like He Zai and (later Communist Party Secretary) Hu Yaobang. See the Chinese language article He Zai and Xi Zhongxun (Xi Jinping’s father) 何载回忆习仲勋http://www.crt.com.cn/news2007/news/XZXYDDGGKFZTYTHDZHENGWEN/1719164218BC1H9017JEKBGE2EI3D8.html]

Yu Liufen

Yu Liufen, female, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born August 1969 in Panzhou, Guizhou. Yu is Secretary of the Party Committee of Yanbolian Village, Yanbo Township, Panzhou City, Guizhou Province, Party Secretary of Yanbo Village and a delegate to the17th, 18th and 19th Congresses of the Communist Party of China. She takes the development of the economy and the affluent people as her own responsibility, puts down her on roots at the grassroots, reforms and innovates, believes in using party building to alleviate poverty and to make the village stronger. She aims at developing industry to alleviate poverty and industry-led development, and so organizes the people to build roads,buy forest land, and set up vineyards. Promoting the development of collective enterprises, she helped Yanbo Village develop from a poverty-stricken village with a per capita net income of less than 800 yuan with one-third of the villagers below the subsistence line and significant village debt to a per capita net income of 18,600 RMB and a collective assets of 76 million RMB. Yanbo Village became a well known as an “advanced village, educated village, model village, and a well-off village.” Yu Liufen won the title of”All China Excellent Communist Party Member”, “All China March Eighth Red Flag Hand Draft”, “All China Poverty Alleviation Award” and “Guizhou Provincial Model Worker”.

[Yu Liufen “Official Brings Prosperity to Mountainous Ethnic Village” http://www.womenofchina.cn/womenofchina/html1/special/1803/1260-1.htm

Baidu bio in Chinese at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E4%BD%99%E7%95%99%E8%8A%AC ]

Zou Bihua

Zou Bihua, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born January 1967, died December 2014, from Fengxinren, Jiangxi Province. Zou was a former member of the party organization, Vice President, and Senior Judge of the Shanghai Higher People’s Court. Zou insisted that the judiciary be dedicated to the people, to helping the people and serving the people, and demonstrate fairness and justice in the exercise of judicial power according to law. Determined to establish a full awareness of reform and innovation, to applying advanced management concepts and modern technical means to the courts. ZouBihua’s original methods in conducting judicial work are studied nationwide. Zou participated in the trial of the Social Insurance Fund recourse case, the northern securities bankruptcy case, and the housing maintenance fund case, and a large number of major and difficult cases that attracted national attention. The people of Shanghai welcomed the establishment of the 12368 convenience service hotline. Actively promote the scientific management of the court,take the lead in drafting the implementation plan for the judicial reform of the Shanghai court, and promote the reform of the judicial system of the Shanghai court. Unfortunately on December 10, 2014, he died on the job. People came spontaneously to mourn and remember Judge Zou Bihua. People from all walks of life say that “Judges should be like Zou Bihua”. Zou Bihua was posthumously awarded the title of “All China Model Judge” and “All China Excellent Communist Party Member”.

[Zou Bihua Wiki Chinese language bio at https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E9%82%B9%E7%A2%A7%E5%8D%8E and Baidu at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%82%B9%E7%A2%A7%E5%8D%8E/5395870 ]

Ku’erban Niyazi

Ku’erban Niyazi, male, Uyghur, Chinese Communist Party member born May 1964 in Wushi County, Xinjiang. He is the president of the National Common Language Primary School of Yimamu Town, Wushi County,Aksu Prefecture, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. He dared to be the first to break through the shackles of old ideas. In 2003, he took out all the savings of more than 600,000 RMB in his family, founded the National Common Language Primary School in Yimu Town, and mobilized the villagers to send their children to become bilingual and use education to end poverty. He constantly innovating teaching models, exploring teaching methods, improving teaching quality, and continuously expanding enrollment plans. He set up a Chinese language classroom, put up a picture of Confucius in the classroom, organized students to recite ancient poetry, to sing Beijing opera, practice calligraphy, and to vigorously promote Chinese traditional culture.This school changed the destinies of over one thousand minority students and played a leading role in the development of bilingual education in Xinjiang. Ku’erban Niyazi has made positive contributions to promoting Chinese culture and enhancing national unity. He won the title of “Moral Model” in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

[Ku’erban Niyazi – March 2018 People’s Daily article on his work http://xj.people.com.cn/n2/2018/0304/c188514-31306944.html ]

Zhang Yuejiao

Zhang Yuejiao, female, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born October 1944 in Jilin City, Jilin Province. Zhang is an arbitrator of the World Bank Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes, former Director of the Department of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation, former Chairman of the Appeals Body of the World Trade Organization Dispute Settlement Mechanism. She is the first “Chinese judge” of the Chinese nationality in the WTO. She has long fought to build China’s foreign trade legal system. Zhang participated in the negotiation and formulation of important economic and trade rules and agreements, and tried many high profile international investment and trade dispute cases. The handling of these cases enhanced China’s image of standing for the rule of law on the international stage. Participation in the formulation of a series of basic laws and regulations to open up trade with foreign countries, including foreign investment laws and foreign trade laws. Zhang has made important contributions to the establishment and improvement of China’s foreign trade and economic and legal system. Zhang Yuejiao has long participated in foreign trade,investment, and intellectual property rights negotiations in China,Europe and the United States. She has made positive contributions to China’s re-entry into international trade and to its WTO accession.Zhang Yuejiao won the title of “The Rule of Law Person of the Year” in 2007.

[Zhang Yuejiao Wiki article in Chinese at https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%BC%A0%E6%9C%88%E5%A7%A3

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%BC%A0%E6%9C%88%E5%A7%A3 ]

Zhang Ruimin

Zhang Ruimin, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born January 1949 in Laizhou, Shandong Province. Party Secretary, Chairman of the Board of Directors, Chief Executive Officer of Haier Group as well as Alternate Member of the 16th, 17th, 18th Central Committees of the Chinese Communist Party. Zhang responded to reformby exploring business management model, leading Haier from a small collective enterprise on the verge of collapse to becoming a world-renowned multinational group. In 2017, Haier’s global turnover reached 241.9 billion RMB and it has been the world’s top white goods brand for for nine consecutive years. “Complete every day’s task, and do it better day after day” – known as the “Overall Every Control and Clear” management method has won national awards for management modernization and innovation achievements; the “one person in one” model has been created, and enterprise management breakthrough from learning to imitation to leading the world has been achieved. The Haier Group was chosen by The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers(IEEE) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)to take the lead in formulating and researching international standards for mass customization models. Zhang Ruimin was awarded the title of “All China Model Worker” and “All China Excellent Communist Party Member”.

[Zhang Ruimin Wiki bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhang_Ruimin

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%BC%A0%E7%91%9E%E6%95%8F/19495

致敬改革开放40年40人 张瑞敏:教父级老板的企业管理奥秘http://www.eeo.com.cn/2018/1113/341024.shtml ]

Zhang Liming

Zhang Liming, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born August 1969 in Ji County, Hebei Province. Zhang Liming is the Deputy Party Branch Secretary of the Electric Power Supply and Inspection Office of the Binhai Electric Power Supply Company subsidiary of the State Grid Tianjin Electric Power Company and Head of its Electric Power Rapid Restoration Department. As an outstanding representative of industrial workers who grew up with the reform and opening, Zhang was dedicated to his work at the grassroots level and worked to master new technologies. He worked hard and wellin ordinary positions. Zhang worked in electric power repair work for more than 30 years, inspecting a total of 80,000 kilometers of electric power lines with a zero accident safety record. With the courage of someone always looking for ways to improve, determined tomake innovations, Zhang led his team in making over 400 technological innovations, winning 158 national patents. In over twenty projects they filled gaps in smart grid construction, applied innovative results to production practices, and achieved good economic and social benefits. Their adherence to the service pledge”Leaving for work at dawn and lighting up everyone’s home”brings to life the moral sense of industrial workers who are diligent in their work, always determined to do the very best they can. The  people call them affectionately “the ambassadors of light”. Zhang Liming won the title of “All China Model Worker” and”All China Excellent Communist Party Member”.

[Zhang Liming Baidu bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%BC%A0%E9%BB%8E%E6%98%8E/19698310

黎明出发,点亮万家——“蓝领创客”张黎明的电力抢修人生 http://www.xinhuanet.com/politics/2018-05/23/c_1122875750.htm ]

Zhang Biao

Zhang Biao, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born September 1952 in Pucheng, Shaanxi Province. Former Section Chief level examiner of cases of the People’s Procuratorate of Shihezi City, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Zhang Biao always see upholding social fairness and justice as his highest duty, carrying out his duties and handling cases impartially in his work for the procuratorate. As questions arise in a case, he persists,repeatedly verify and assuming responsibility, determined to persist in order to promote justice and promote the legitimate rights and interests of the accused, determined to inspire popular belief in and respect for the law by doing his job well. He promoted the rule that illegally obtained evidence must be excluded in retrials of case. Legal scholars consider this to be a key change in the handling of false and wrongful cases. Zhang participated in the review of more than 7600 cases of prisoners’ commutation and parole, found and corrected 74 people who violated the law but had had their sentences reduced or had been released contrary to law. He handled 21 cases of detainees’ complaints and reports, and reviewed seven cases according to law; and supervised and corrected the calculation errors of the sentence sentences of nine prisoners. Known as “the behind-the-scenes hero in reversals of unjust verdicts”, Zhang won the title of “All China Model Prosecutor”.

[Zhang Biao Baidu bio in Chinese at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%BC%A0%E9%A3%9A/733997 ]

Chen Rixin

Chen Rixin, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born June 1932, died in December 2007, from Datong, Shanxi, former Party Secretary and General Manager of Pingyi Coal Industry Company,former director of the former Datong Mining Bureau, chairman of the Zhangzhou Municipal CPPCC. Chen Rixin dared to take the lead in introducing Western advanced experience and equipment in the first largest Sino-foreign cooperation project at the Pingyi Antaibao open-pit coal mine in the early days of China’s reform and opening up. The project was completed in just one-fourth the time of typical Chinese mine construction projects in that era. This created the“Three Highs and one Fast” [high efficiency, high tech, high profitability and fast] model which raised the open-pit mining capability of China’s coal industry these past 30 years. This was a pioneering effort in Sino-foreign cooperative ventures that played a leading role in introducing large-scale foreign investment andco-founding enterprises. Antaibao Coal Mine was honored as a testbed for China’s reform and opening up.

[Chen Rixin Baidu bio in Chinese at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%99%88%E6%97%A5%E6%96%B0/23174650

山西公示:申纪兰、陈日新为改革开放杰出贡献表彰拟推荐人选 http://finance.sina.com.cn/roll/2018-11-09/doc-ihmutuea8444655.shtml ]

Margaret Chan

Margaret Chan Fung Fu-chun, female, Han nationality, born August 1947. Margaret Chan has long worked for the Hong Kong government.She was a member of the Standing Committee of the 13th Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, is the chief adviser to the State Council Leading Group on Deepening Medical and Health System Reform, and the first Chinese to be the Director-General of the World Health Organization. She advocated reform of the World Health Organization and led the organization and member states to successfully respond to public health emergencies such as Ebola and Zika, and made important contributions to global health and human health. She promoted extensive and in-depth cooperation between the World Health Organization and China, and supported the two emergency medical teams in China to become the first batch of international emergency medical teams certified by the World Health Organization,and advocated the integration of traditional medicines such as traditional Chinese medicine into national medical and health systems, supported the signing of The Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of the People’s Republic of China and the World Health Organization on the “Belt and Road” cooperation in the field of health. She has won wide acclaim from the international community. She won the title of “Director-General of the World Health Organization Emeritus”.

[Margaret Chan Fung Fu-chun bio on WHO website at http://www.who.int/dg/chan/en/ , Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_Chan and Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%99%88%E5%86%AF%E5%AF%8C%E7%8F%8D ]

Chen Jingrun

Chen Jingrun, male, Han nationality, non-partisan, born May 1933, died March 1996, from Fuzhou, Fujian Province. Chen Jingrun was a researcher at the Institute of Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and a member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. He overcame many hardships during his studies made important achievements in the field of analytic number theory. In 1973, “1+2” published in “China Science” made a sensation throughout the world and has been recognized as a major contribution to the study of Goldbach’s conjecture. It is the culmination of sifting theory, which the international mathematics community calls “Chen’s Theorem”and remains important to the study of Goldbach’s conjecture. His achievements and hard work have inspired generations of young people to focus their energies on scaling the peaks of scientific achievement. Chen was awarded the first prize of the National Natural Science Award and the Hua Luogeng Mathematics Prize.

[Chen Jingrun Wiki bio in English at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chen_Jingrun Baidu at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%99%88%E6%99%AF%E6%B6%A6/18067 ]

Mao Yonghong

Mao Yonghong, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born December 1954 in Wuhan, Hubei Province. Mao is Party Secretary of Baibuting Community, Jiang’an District, Wuhan City, Hubei Province and Chairman of the Board of Directors of Baibuting Group Co., Ltd.,. Mao served on the Standing Committee of the 12th Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, and as Vice Chairman of the National Federation of Industry and Commerce. Mao redefined the”community” concept, led in creating “community construction” with Chinese characteristics, broke free of traditional management style, and built the first community without asub-district office in the country. This promoted the gradual elimination of street committees in new communities across China. The first community construction model of “construction, management and service” and the community operation mechanism of “party leadership, government service, resident autonomy, market operation”and “Baibuting Community Party Construction Work Law” have become a banner of party building in communities across China. This has improved the modernization of grassroots governance systems and governance capabilities. Mao won the title of “All China Advanced Worker”.

[Mao Yonghong bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E8%8C%85%E6%B0%B8%E7%BA%A2 ; article on abolition of street committee offices in new communities in Chinese 中国的城市“街道”管理体制改革与社区发展 何海兵 上海行政学院城市社会研究所助理研究员 https://www.modernchinastudies.org/us/issues/past-issues/91-mcs-2006-issue-1/947-2012-01-05-15-35-10.html ]

Lin Yifu

Lin Yifu, male, Han nationality, non-partisan, born October 1952 in Yilan, Taiwan, professor at Peking University, counselor of the State Council, deputy director of the 13th National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, Deputy Director of the Economic Commission, former Vice President of the National Federation of Industry and Commerce, World Bank Former Senior Vice President and Chief Economist. Lin focuses on practical matters connected to reform and opening. He created and applied a structural economics theory that has had significant influence internationally. He has enriched agricultural economics theory. The did considerably rethinking on the institutional arrangements and macroeconomic theory as it applies to developing countries, and made important contributions to economic theory innovation in China. Lin has participated in the formulation of important reform of state-owned enterprises, the financial system, and telecommunications, China’s accession to the World Trade Organization and economic globalization,food and agriculture, rural areas and farmers. Lin advocates a new model of China-Africa cooperation in order to help developing countries to achieve economic restructuring. Lin Yifu participated in the establishment of the School of South-South Cooperation and Development of Peking University, which promoted the transformation and deepening of cooperation. Lin Yifu won the title of “All China Advanced Worker” and “Outstanding Young and Middle-aged Expert”.

[Justin Yifu Lin bio in English on Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Justin_Yifu_Lin and in Chinese on Baidu at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%9E%97%E6%AF%85%E5%A4%AB ]

Sonam Dargye (Jiesang·Suonandajie in PRC standard pinyin romanization)

Sonam Dargye, male, Tibetan, Chinese Communist Party member born in April 1954, died in January 1994, from Zhiduo in Qinghai Province.Sonam Dargye was the former deputy secretary of the Zhidu County Committee of the Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Qinghai Province, and the former secretary of the Western Working Committee of Zhiduo County. Sonam Dargye repeatedly recommended that the county party committee protect the national resources, rationally develop Kekexili, and advocated for the establishment of the Kekexili ecological environmental protection agency known as the – the Western Work Committee of Zhiduo County, and was appointed as the Secretary of the Work Committee. Sonam Dargye conducted in-situ investigations and inspections in the hinterland of Kekexili 12 times and studied first hand considerable material evidence. He established the first armed anti-poaching team in China, capturing eight illegal gangs that were hunting with guns. On January 18, 1994, he died heroically in the anti-poaching struggle. As a result of his heroic deeds, the Kekexili National Nature Reserve was established and Kekexili was included in the World Heritage List. The Sanjiangyuan area was also identified as the first national park system reform pilot project in China. His spirit of environmental protection will be passed down from generation to generation. Sonam Dargye won the title of “Environmental Guardian”.

[Sonam Dargye Wikipedia bio in Chinese at https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E6%9D%B0%E6%A1%91%C2%B7%E7%B4%A2%E5%8D%97%E8%BE%BE%E6%9D%B0 , on Baidu at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%9D%B0%E6%A1%91%C2%B7%E7%B4%A2%E5%8D%97%E8%BE%BE%E6%9D%B0 in English in Tibetan Environmentalists in China: The King of Dzi

By Liu Jianqiang excerpted at Google Books at https://tinyurl.com/sonamdargyewildyak

and the story of Sonam Dargye’s murder by poachers was fictionalized in the film Kekexili: Mountain Patrol https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kekexili:_Mountain_Patrol ]

Luo Yang

Luo Yang, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born June 1961, died November 2012, from Shenyang, Liaoning Province. LuoYang was the former deputy secretary, chairman and general manager of the Party Committee of the aviation industry Shenyang Aircraft Industry (Group) Co., Ltd. As the “helmsman” of the China’s Shenyang Aircraft Industry, he was determined to give back to the motherland by building China’s military strength. He came up with the “Ten Things to Always Keep in Mind” development concept to encourage innovative management, technological development, reform of institutional mechanisms reform etc., transform the business model, enhance enterprises, built overall strength, leading Shenyang Aircraft Industry into the fast lane of continuous development. Under his leadership, main indicators such as operating income and total industrial output value jumped 39.5%, and profit rose 61.8%. Luo Yang served as the chief commander of several model development sites, and led Shenyang Aircraft Industry to develop of several key aircraft such as the Shenyang J-15 carrier aircraft. Shenyang Aircraft achieved the first test flight of design prototypes,promoted the development of military fighters. This was a significant contribution to China’s national aviation weapons and equipment. Luo Yang was awarded the posthumously honorary titles of “Aerospace Industry Model Worker” and the title of “All China Excellent Communist Party Member”.

[Luo Yang Wiki bio https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E7%BD%97%E9%98%B3_(%E8%91%A3%E4%BA%8B%E9%95%BF) Baidu bio https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E7%BD%97%E9%98%B3/7961069

November 25, 2014 People’s Daily memorial article “Remembering the “Father of the Flying Shark” 缅怀“飞鲨之父”罗阳:国之重器以命铸之 at http://military.people.com.cn/n/2014/1125/c1011-26088859.html

Luo Yang management concepts discussed at 他如何管理万名员工的老国企——罗阳语录摘登 http://www.12371.cn/2012/12/12/ARTI1355263138712589.shtml ]

Zhou Mingjin

Zhou Mingjin, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born January 1953, in Laixi, Shandong Province. Zhou Mingjin is the former secretary of the Party Group of the Laixi City Land and Resources Bureau of Shandong Province and former deputy director of the Organization Department of Laixi County Communist Party Committee. While at the Organization Department of Laixi County Communist Party Committee, he actively explored the supporting construction of “village-level organization, democratic politics, and social service” under the leadership of the village party branch, and summarized the formation of the “Three Supports” experiences of Laixi village-level organization. In August 1990, the five ministries and commissions, including the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee’s Organization Department, held a joint national symposium on the construction of village-level organizations in Laixi, summed up and urged widespread sharing of the “Laixi experience” as a model for the leadership of the party branch from the perspectives of theory,policy and village organization system. The construction of village-level organizations originated in Laixi has improved peasant organization, greatly helped reform and development in the rural areas, consolidated the party governance in the countryside, and served as a good model for the entire country.

[Zhou Mingjin bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%91%A8%E6%98%8E%E9%87%91/23177656 ]

Zheng Juxuan

Zheng Juxuan, male, Han nationality, Democratic National Construction Association member, born June 1940 in Wuhan, Hubei. Zheng Juxuan is the Honorary President of Hanzheng Street Market Chamber of Commerce,Wuhan, Hubei Province, Chairman and General Manager of Wuhan Overseas Chinese Friendship Trading Co., Ltd. Zheng dares to take the lead,has a keen business vision. He got permission for self-employed entrepreneurs to operate and promoted the opening of markets for small commodities. In 1979, under his leadership, the Hanzheng Street small commodity market initiated the reform of small commodity distribution. The number of self-employed households grew to over 3,400 households, becoming the largest entrepreneurial group in China at that time. In 1982, Hanzheng Street took the lead in breaking through policy restrictions, allowing wholesale sales, and earned the reputation of “the world’s first street” and “weather vane for the development of the market commodities distribution system”.Zheng Juxuan also became the earliest ten thousand RMB and million RMB household on in Hanzheng Street in the 1980s. Zheng had the highest sales of any merchant on Hanzheng Street at the time as well as being the top taxpayer, and top in donations to charitable causes along with being the first to subscribe to Chinese treasury bonds.Zheng Juxuan was praised as a “business legend” of Hanzheng Street.

[Zheng Juxuan Baidu bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%83%91%E4%B8%BE%E9%80%89 ]

Zheng Derong

Zheng Derong, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born January 1926, died in May 2018 in Yanji, Jilin Province. Zheng Derong was the vice president of Northeast Normal University and atutor to doctoral students. Zheng led the Northeast Normal University to establish the first Mao Zedong Thought Institute and served as its Director. Zheng has long devoted himself to teaching and research on the history of the Chinese Communist Party, Mao Zedong Thought,Marxism in China, and the theoretical system of socialism with Chinese characteristics. Zheng wrote important works such as “DraftHistory of Mao Zedong Thought”, “Mao Zedong Thought and Marxism in China” and “Lectures on the History of the Communist Party of China”. After the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the research direction was further extended to the study of the Xi Jinping’s Thought on the New Era of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics. Zheng always kept his focus on the inheritance of the red gene, something he had followed since the beginning of his research. Zheng was honored with the title of“Red Theoretician”. Zheng Derong was posthumously awarded thetitle of “All China Excellent Communist Party Member”.

[Zheng Derong June 2018 China Daily article “Knowing the Party Line” at Baidu bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%83%91%E5%BE%B7%E8%8D%A3 July 2018 memorial article in the Chinese Communist Party theoretical journal Seeking Truth 郑德荣:生命,为信仰燃烧 http://www.qstheory.cn/2018-07/09/c_1123099473.htm ]

Lang Ping

Lang Ping, female, Han nationality, masses, born December 1960, in Wuqing, Tianjin Municipality. Lang Ping is Chinese women’s volleyball head coach and Vice Chair of the Chinese Volleyball Association. As lead player on Chinese women’s volleyball teams of the 1980s, she and her teammates won five consecutive championships. The “women’s volleyball spirit” has inspired people from all walks of life to devote themselves to the Chinese nation. After the 1990s, she took over as head coach during the Chinese women’s volleyball team’s difficult period. Building on the “spirit of women’s volleyball team”, innovating and making great use of newcomers they built a diverse coaching staff and brought Chinese women’s volleyball team to the top including several Olympic and world championships. The “women’s volleyball spirit” is famous in all Chinese sports, inspiring the a patriotic spirit and so influencing generations of people to participate in the great cause of reform, opening up, and socialism with Chinese characteristics. Lang Ping won the title of “All China March Eighth Red Flag Bearer” and “Beijing Model Worker”.

[Lang Ping Wiki bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lang_Ping Baidu bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%83%8E%E5%B9%B3/58857 ]

Hu Xiaoyan

Hu Xiaoyan, female, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born January 1974 in Wusheng, Sichuan Province. Hu Xiaoyan is Vice Chair of the Sanshui District Federation of Trade Unions in Foshan City, Guangdong Province; former Deputy Director and Sales Director of the finishing workshop of Xinmingzhu Jiantao Industry Co., Ltd.;and a delegate to the National People’s Congress. Hu started working in Foshan, Guangdong Province in 1998. She worked hard to stand out from the other migrant workers and become a member of the front-line management staff. In 2008, she was one of the first migrant worker selected as delegates to the National People’s Congress. She made several suggestions on protecting the rights and interests of migrant workers during the meetings of the NPC and CPPCC. She set up the“Haiyan Mailbox” column to protect the rights of migrant workers, advocated for the “Xiaoyan Upward Mobility” an education plan to help employees move up, and set up several mother assistance centers to help migrant workers. The Pearl River Film Studio used these centers as background in their film prototype of the film “All Dreams Are Flowering”. Hu Xiaoyan won the title of “All China Excellent Migrant Workers” and “All China May First Labor Medal”.

[Hu Xiaoyan bio China Radio International Hu Xiaoyan, NPC Deputy for Migrant Workers http://english.cri.cn/4026/2008/03/14/1481@333780.htm Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E8%83%A1%E5%B0%8F%E7%87%95/563832 ]

Hu Fuming

Hu Fuming, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born July 1935 in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province. Hu, the former Vice Chairman of Jiangsu Province Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, is a professor of Nanjing University. Combining the great courage of a communist with an intellectual’s sense of social responsibility, Hu Fuming, open minded and swimming against the tide of the times, broke through the pitfall of believing that Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party leadership is always right. As the main drafter, on May 11, 1978, of the Guangming Daily commentary,”Practice is the sole criterion for testing truth” was a clap of thunder for Communist Party theoreticians. With the support of Comrade Deng Xiaoping, a large-scale discussion on the issue of the criterion of truth was launched nationwide. This was a prelude to freeing people’s minds and so was historically significant for re-establishing the Marxist ideological line of our party and profoundly changing the course of modern Chinese history. Hu Fuming won the title of “Jiangsu Province’s Master of the Social Sciences”.

[Hu Fuming bio Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E8%83%A1%E7%A6%8F%E6%98%8E , Hu Fuming: The Most Important Articles are Those That Leave a Mark in History 胡福明:最好的文章是能在历史上留下印记的文章 in Chinese at http://www.ccdi.gov.cn/yaowen/201811/t20181129_184178.html

November 2018 interview Hu Fuming Author of Mind-Opening Guangming Daily Commentary “Practice is the Sole Criterion for Testing Truth” https://gaodawei.wordpress.com/2018/11/30/hu-fuming-author-of-mind-opening-guangming-daily-commentary-practice-is-the-only-criterion-of-truth/ ]

Nan Rendong

Nan Rendong, male, Manchu, masses, born February 1945, died September 2017 from Liaoyuan, Jilin Province. Nan Rendong was a former Chief Scientist and Chief Engineer at the Five hundred meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) of the National Astronomical Observatory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. He devoted himself to astronomical research, insisted on independent innovation, and led on the proposal to use China’s Guizhou Province karst depression as a telescope site. The site selection process from comparing different proposals through site selection to construction lasted 22 years. Nan Rendong led his team as they conquered a series of technical problems and played a key role in the engineering design and construction of the FAST. FAST achieves China’s dream of possessing its own world-class telescopes all the while promoting social and economic progress. Nan Rendong’s patriotic sentiments, scientific spirit and courage made him a role model who has inspired a vast number of  scientific and technological workers to redouble their own efforts. Nan Rendong was awarded the National Innovation Award and was posthumously awarded the title of “Model Worker of Our Era”.

[Nan Rendong Wiki bio in English at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nan_Rendong Baidu bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%8D%97%E4%BB%81%E4%B8%9C Wiki article on the Five hundred meter Aperture Spherical Telescope https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five_hundred_meter_Aperture_Spherical_Telescope ]

Nan Cunhui

Nan Cunhui, male, Han nationality, no political affiliation, born July 1963 in Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province. Nan Cunhui is the Chairman of Chint Group Co., Ltd., Vice Chairman of the National Federation of Industry and Commerce (part-time), Member of the Standing Committee of the 12th and 13th Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference. Since the establishment of the Sino-US joint venture Chint (Zhengtai Electric Co.) in 1991, he has insisted on industry,reform and innovations, such as the shareholder equity distribution system, which have enabled the company to grow rapidly into a large modern enterprise group with manufacturing and sales offices in than 70 countries and regions. As China’s largest producer and distributor of low-voltage electrical appliances and leaders in the new energy field, it has transformed itself from traditional manufacturing tosmart, green and service-oriented manufacturing. In 2007, the Chint Group sued a well-known foreign electric company for patent infringement. The other party lost the lawsuit and paid Zhengtai a huge sum of money. This became a classic case of a domestic enterprises obtaining compensation in a foreign intellectual property cases. Nan Cunhui was awarded the title of “Excellent Builder of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics”.

[Nan Cunhui bio at on CHINT website in English http://en.chint.com/index.php/about/index.html Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%8D%97%E5%AD%98%E8%BE%89 ]

Liu Chuanzhi

Liu Chuanzhi, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born April 1944 in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province. Liu Chuanzhi is the Party Secretary and Chairman of the Legend Holdings Co., Ltd. An outstanding representative of the first generation of science and technology entrepreneurs in the reform era, Liu started with the Chinese domestic market, developed national brands through constant innovation. He founded Lenovo in 1984 and won a competition with international PC giants leading to a rapid development of the entire Chinese information technology sector. Liu Chuanzhi devised and implement Lenovo’s international development strategy, leading Lenovo to acquire the personal computer business of the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM). This provided Lenovo with the experience it needed to “go global”. Liu transformed the company’s shareholding structure, pushed forward new innovative technologies to achieve Organize the implementation of the company’s shareholding system transformation which supported the further development of the company as it commercialized new technologies for the consumer market. Liu Chuanzhi won titles such as “All China Model Worker”.

[Liu Chuanzhi Wiki bio in English at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liu_Chuanzhi , https://www.referenceforbusiness.com/biography/F-L/Liu-Chuanzhi-1944.html Baidu in Chinese at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%9F%B3%E4%BC%A0%E5%BF%97/23645 ]

Zhong Nanshan

Zhong Nanshan, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born October 1936 in Xiamen, Fujian Province. Zhong Nanshan was the Director of the National Hospital for Respiratory Illnesses Clinical Medicine Research Center at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, and an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering. During the fight against SARS in 2003, he went to the affected areas to guide medical care at the risk of his own life. Zhong advocated for cooperation with the World Health Organization, presided over the development of guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute infectious diseases such as the SARS epidemic in China and defeated it. Zhong assumed the role of spokesperson during public health emergencies, popularize health knowledge to the public, actively contributed ideas and promoted the construction of a public health emergency response system, playing an important role in successful responses to public health emergencies such as influenza A and H7N9 avian influenza. He was awarded the title of “National Advanced Worker” twice and won the first prize of National Science and Technology Progress Award.

[Zhong Nanshan Wiki bio in English at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhong_Nanshan and Baidu in Chinese at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%92%9F%E5%8D%97%E5%B1%B1/653914 ]

Yu Guogang

Yu Guogang, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born February 1944 in Ankang, Shaanxi Province. Yu is the former Deputy General Manager (legal representative) of the Shenzhen Stock Exchange. Yu participated in the development of China’s capital market from the very beginning from a small, local exchange to a large national one. In 1988, he was in charge of founding the Shenzhen Stock Exchange, learning from the laws, regulations and business rules of overseas securities market, and leading the drafting of important documents such as the “Shenzhen Stock Exchange Regulations”. This laid the foundation for the Shenzhen Stock Exchange and promoted the orderly development of China’s securities market. Yu pushed ahead simultaneously the “Four Modernizations” of the Shenzhen Stock Exchange – computerized transactions, paperless settlements, satellite communications, and notrading floor. It soon became a well-known stock exchange in the Asia-Pacific region and the world. In its bond trading system, the Shenyang Stock Exchange remains a world technology leader.

[Yu Guoguang Baidu bio https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E7%A6%B9%E5%9B%BD%E5%88%9A/6483983? A tribute to the reform figures | Yu Guoguang The main planner of the Shenzhen Stock Exchange in Chinese at http://finance.sina.com.cn/meeting/2018-02-02/doc-ifyrcsrw9188263.shtml ]

Shi Guangnan

Shi Guangnan, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born August 1940, died May 1990, from Jinhua, Zhejiang Province. Shi Guangnan was a musician, composer, and former Vice Chairman of the National Youth Federation, and former Vice Chairman of the Chinese Musicians Association. Shi keeps up with the times, pursues the unity of ideological, art and the popular in his artistic creations. He left behind a great many compositions such as “The Toasting Song”, “On the Field of Hope”, “My Motherland”,”The Phoenix tail under the Moonlight” These works helped build socialist spiritual civilization and have had great influence both in China and abroad. Shi Guangnan keep on writing many songs that took with patriotism, reform and the lives of the people as their themes. He became known as the representative “singer of his era.” His songs are full of longing for a better life, love for the motherland, promotion of Chinese traditional culture and hope for reviving the national spirit. These themes have strongly resonated hundreds of millions of people and inspired generations of young people to strive to advance themselves.

[Shi Guangnan Wiki bio in English https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shi_Guangnan Shi Guangnan in Introduction to Chinese Culture: Cultural History, Arts, Festivals and Rituals https://tinyurl.com/shiguangnan

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%96%BD%E5%85%89%E5%8D%97 ]

Yao Ming

Yao Ming, male, Han nationality, no political affiliation, born September 1980 in Wujiang, Jiangsu Province. Yao Ming is Chairman of the Chinese Basketball Association (CBA), and Chairman of the Board of CBA Corporation. A very hard worker, his team won the CBA Leaguechampionship in 2002 and was selected by the Houston Rockets in the draft that same year. He is the only Chinese player to have been a first overall pick in the US National Basketball Association draft. In 2016, he was selected to the US NBA Basketball Hall of Fame, becoming the first basketball player in Asia to receive this honor. Yao Ming has led the Chinese team to participate in the world-class competitions including the Beijing Olympics and achieved excellent results. His experience and achievements in the NBA have raised the profile of Chinese basketball worldwide and promoted cultural exchanges between China and foreign countries. Yao Ming won the title of “All China Advanced Worker”, “Shanghai ModelWorker” and “National May First Labor Medal”.

[Yao Ming Wiki bio https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yao_Ming Baiu bio https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%A7%9A%E6%98%8E/28 ]

Qin Zhenhua

Qin Zhenhua, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born March 1936, in Zhangjiagang, Jiangsu Province. Qin Zhenhua is the former Deputy Director of the Standing Committee of the People’s Congress of Jiangsu Province, former member of the Standing Committee of the Jiangsu Provincial Political Consultative Conference, former Secretary of the Zhangjiagang Municipal Committee, and former Director of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress. Qin Zhenhua freed himself from ideological bonds, dared to breakthrough barriers, seized the opportunities, worked hard, and launched a series of reform measures to promote the economic and social development of Zhangjiagang City. This and shaped its urban spirit of”unity, hard work, self-improvement, self-improvement, and courage to fight for the first” achieving twenty-eight “National First Rankings” for the city. The National Spiritual Civilization Construction Experience Exchange Conference was held in Zhangjiagang to promote the “Zhangjiagang Experience” and the “Zhangjiagang Spirit”. The rapid rise of Zhangjiagang once reform and opening began was praised by the media as “putting a great theory into practice.” Qin Zhenhua was awarded the title of “All China lExcellent County (City) Party Secretary”, “All China Excellent Party Worker” and “All China Advanced Retired Cadre”.

[Qin Zhenhua bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E7%A7%A6%E6%8C%AF%E5%8D%8E/8983116 ]

Yuan Geng

Yuan Geng, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born April 1917, died in January 2016, from Bao’an, Guangdong Province. Yuan Geng was a former Executive Vice Chairman of China Merchants Group and a former Director of the Shekou Industrial Zone Administrative Committee. Yuan constantly broke through ideological fetters to boldly innovate, putting forward a series of new concepts compatible with the market economy and making a series of changes in institutional mechanisms. Yuan led Shenzhen in firing the first artillery” rounds of the reform era. Yuan proposed the slogan“Time is money and efficiency is our lifeblood” and enthusiastically established China’s first export-oriented industrial park – the Shekou Industrial Zone. This zone was home base to theadvance troops of reform, giving birth to outstanding enterprises such as China Merchants Bank and Ping An Insurance. His courage to experiment, reform and innovate provided valuable experience and made important historical contributions to China’s reform and opening up.Yuan won the “Golden Bauhinia Medal” of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government.

[Yuan Geng Wiki bio in English at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuan_Geng excerpt on Yuan Geng in in Learning from Shenzhen: China’s Post-Mao Experiment from Special Zone to Model City

https://tinyurl.com/yuangeng

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E8%A2%81%E5%BA%9A ]

Yuan Longping

Yuan Longping, male, Han nationality, no party affiliation, born September 1930 in De’an, Jiangxi Province. Yuan Longping is the former Director of the Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center, former Vice Chairman of the Hunan Provincial Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, academician of Chinese Academy of Engineering, Member of the Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth, Ninth, Tenth,Eleventh and Twelfth National Committees of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference. Yuan, a hybrid rice researcher,invented the “three-line method” of breeding indica hybrid rice, successfully produced “second-line” hybrid rice and developed a super hybrid rice technical system which made China a world leader in hybrid rice research. As of 2017, hybrid rice has been grown on over 9 billion mu of fields in China, increasing rice production by over 600 billion kilograms. Yuan traveled to India,Vietnam and other countries to teach hybrid rice technology to help overcome food shortages and hunger. For his outstanding contribution to ensuring China’s food security and to world food supply, Yuan Longping has won many honors such as the State Preeminent Science and Technology Award and the National Science and Technology Progress Award.

[Yuan Longping Wiki English bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuan_Longping A World-Brand Name: Yuan Longping, The Father of Hybrid Rice https://www.worldfoodprize.org/index.cfm/87428/40007/a_worldbrand_name_yuan_longping_the_father_of_hybrid_rice

Yuan Longping’s saltwater rice to become UAE national gift http://en.people.cn/n3/2018/0725/c90000-9484539.html

Baidu bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E8%A2%81%E9%9A%86%E5%B9%B3/43836 ]

Ni Runfeng

Ni Runfeng, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born February 1944 in Rongcheng, Shandong Province. Ni Runfeng is the former Party Secretary and former Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Sichuan Changhong Electronics Group Co., Ltd., Alternate Member of the Fifteenth Chinese Communist Party Central Committee,and member of the Standing Committee of the Tenth Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference. Ni in the spirit of the reformer a dared to experiment and to convert scientific advances into innovation in military technology, technology. He brought the testing and quality control methods learned there to the research and development of products for the civilian market, moving Changhong from military production only to production of a combination of military and civilian products, making the company an industry leader in the“military manufacturer switches to production for the civilian market”. This made Changhong China’s color TV king with annual production valued at 10 billion RMB. This laid the foundation for the Chinese color TV industry to go global. Ni Runfeng was honored with the titles of “All China Model Worker” and enjoys special government allowances from the State Council.

[Ni Runfeng on China Vitae http://www.chinavitae.com/biography/Ni_Runfeng/career Baidu bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%80%AA%E6%B6%A6%E5%B3%B0

Guo Mingyi

Guo Mingyi, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born December 1958 in Anshan, Liaoning Province. Guo Mingyi is the Anshan Iron and Steel Group Mining Co., Ltd. Qi Dashan Iron Ore Production Technology Office (road manager), Vice Chairman of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (part-time), and was Alternate Member of the 18th and 19th Central Committees of the Chinese Communist Party. For over forty years, Guo Mingyi learned from LeiFeng and did good deeds, always staying at the forefront of exemplary of Communist Party members. Guo was praised by the people as “the messenger of love” and “the descendant of Lei Feng.”Guo Mingyi’s love team has operating since 2009. Over one thousand teams have been organized across China and attracted over 1.8 million volunteers. More and more Chinese have decided to “Follow Guo Mingyi in learning from Lei Feng”. In today’s market economy, the”Lei Feng Spirit” remain vigorous, with the wide appeal of showing by good example. Guo Mingyi won the title of “All China Excellent Communist Party Member”, “All China Model of Helping People to Act Morally” and “National May First Medal”.

[Guo Mingyi Wiki bio in English at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guo_Mingyi Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%83%AD%E6%98%8E%E4%B9%89/13123 ]

Tu Youyou

Tu Youyou, female, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born December 1930 in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province. Tu Youyou is Director of the Artemisinin Research Center of the China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences. In their dedicated research into Traditional Chinese Medicine she and her team have overcome many difficulties. Their discovery of artemisinin the new anti-malarial drug artemisinin helped solve the long-standing problem of the failure of other kinds of malaria treatments. Combination therapy based on derivatives such as dihydroartemisinin and artesunate (ACT)have become the most widely used antimalarial drug in the world, saving millions of lives, especially in developing countries. This great scientific and technological innovation produced great social and economic benefits and brought innovation to research on traditional Chinese medicine. Tu Youyou won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine and the National Science and the State Preeminent Science and Technology Award.

[Tu Youyou Wiki bio in English at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tu_Youyou https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/medicine/2015/tu/facts/ Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%B1%A0%E5%91%A6%E5%91%A6/5567206 ]

Jiang Zilong

Jiang Zilong, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party of China born in August 1941 in Jixian County, Hebei Province. Jiang Zilong is the Honorary Chairman of the Tianjin Writers Association, and Vice Chairman of the Fifth, Sixth and Seventh sessions of the Chinese Writers Association. Jiang was the founder and representative writer of “Reform Literature”, and his works have been shaped the image of the reformer. In 1979, he published his short story “Jiao Takes Up His New Position”, which opened the era of “reform literature.” His focus has always been on aspects economic reform close to people’s daily lives. Possessing a strong and healthy style, a reformer’s outlook, a moral sense, and a strong desire for modernization, his attitudes are are extremely infectious. A series of short and medium-length novels, such as”Pioneer”, “Red Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Purple”and “The Pots and Pans Symphony” which depicted factory and urban reforms, made a big impact, changing minds and propelling forward reform. Jiang awakened enthusiasm for reform throughout the country.Many of his works won national outstanding short and novella awards.

[Jiang Zilong Baidu bio in Chinese https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E8%92%8B%E5%AD%90%E9%BE%99/624371 http://www.chinawriter.com.cn/fwzj/writer/132.shtml ]

Jiang Jiayu

Jiang Jiaxuan, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born June 1981 in Chengdu, Sichuan Province. Jiang Jiayu is the Commander of the People’s Liberation Army 95478 and an Air Force special pilot. Jiang is always developing new combat skills and training methods. He has studied over twenty types of tactical tactics. In 2011, he participated in the air force’s first mockcombat test for the first time. He defeated all his “one-on-one”opponents, winning a good score of 42 wins and no losses in one-on-one combat. Jiang Jiayu won the first “Golden Helmet”award the highest honor of the Chinese Air Force pilot. After that,he won two “Golden Helmets” awards and became the first pilot of the Air Force to win three “Golden Helmet” awards.Jiang leads his squadron in tasks such as implementing the East China Sea Air Defense Identification Zone. They have accomplish many PLA Air Force firsts including deployment of the first group of third-generation aircraft into Tibet for training, the first live-fire training, and the first exercise of arriving at a new  airfield and then taking off in formation. Jiang Jiayu won the honorary title of “Model Pilot Determined to Win”.

[Jiang Jiayu Baidu bio https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E8%92%8B%E4%BD%B3%E5%86%80 Video at https://www.bilibili.com/video/av30165495/ https://mil.news.sina.com.cn/china/2018-11-27/doc-ihmutuec4128479.shtml ]

Jing Haipeng

Jing Haipeng, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born October 1966 in Yuncheng, Shanxi Province. Jing Haipeng is a Senior Astronaut of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army astronauts brigade. In 2008, the Shenzhou-7 manned mission accomplished the first Chinese spacewalk. In 2012, Jing carried out manned missions and served as commander, and successfully completed the docking of Shenzhou-9 with the Tiangong 1 space station. In 2016, as Commander he executed the manned missions of Tiangong 2 and Shenzhou 11,successfully completing rendezvous and docking with Tiangong 2 Space Laboratory where he carried out several cutting edge space science and technology tasks. This was the first time that Chinese astronauts made long stays on the space station on three different missions. Jing Haipeng won the “August 1st Medal” and the title of”Hero Astronaut”.

[Jing Haipeng Wiki English bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jing_Haipeng Baidu in Chinese https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%99%AF%E6%B5%B7%E9%B9%8F/45704 Video interview in Chinese https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C-sGWEMHb1A ]

Cheng Kaijia

Cheng Kaijia, male, Han nationality, member of both the Chinese Communist Party and the Jiu San Society political party born August 1918, died in November 2018, from Suzhou, Jiangsu Province. Cheng Kaijia was a member of the Science and Technology Commission of the former Commission of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense, an S&T consultant of the former General Armaments Department, and an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.Cheng’s work, secret for 40 years, was dedicated to building a nuclear shield for our country. Cheng has participated in and presided over the first nuclear bomb and first hydrogen bomb tests.In this and in combining tests of aircraft delivery of atomic and hydrogen bombs, he made outstanding contributions to creating a scientific and technical system for nuclear tests with Chinese characteristics. Cheng is a recipient of the “two bombs and ones satellite” medal. He making a major contribution to the forginga security shield behind which reform and opening could take place and in advocating for strengthening China through science and technology. Cheng Kaijia won the “August 1st Medal”, the”Two Bombs and One Satellite” Merit Medal and the State Preeminent Science and Technology Award.

[Cheng Kaijia Wiki English bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cheng_Kaijia Baidu bio https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E7%A8%8B%E5%BC%80%E7%94%B2 http://www.gerenjianli.com/Mingren/03/nb42lo1mnl5plii.html ]

Lu Guanqiu

Lu Guanqiu, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born December 1944, died October 2017, from Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. Lu was the former Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Wanxiang Group. Lu always obeyed the Party, followed the Party’s guidance, and implemented the Party’s principles and policies in building his company. From the early reform days, he was a pioneer,signing the director’s personal liability contract with the township government. This created a precedent for contract reform of Zhejiang enterprises and created a flexible wage system. Under his leadership,Wanxiang Group grew from a small workshop into the first Chinese auto parts company to enter the US market. Wanxiang Group pioneered the acquisition of overseas listed companies by township enterprises,showing the world that Chinese entrepreneurs really are brave, wise and responsible reformers. Lu won the “All China Model Worker”and “All China May 1st Labor Medal”.

[Lu Guangqiu English Wiki bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lu_Guanqiu Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%B2%81%E5%86%A0%E7%90%83 Video in Chinese https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O3EAuv8HCV0&vl=zh-Hans ]

Tsang Hin-chi

Tsang Hin-chi, male, Han nationality, born February 1934 in Meizhou,Guangdong Province. Tsang Hin-chi founded Goldlion(FarEast)Limited(HongKong Jinlilai Group Co., Ltd.) Tsang served as the Vice Chairman of the National Federation of Industry and Commerce and on the Standing Committee of the 8th, 9th and 10th National People’s Congress. In 1986, he began to invest in the mainland and set up a factory. In 1989, Tsang established a joint venture with China Yinlilai Co.,Ltd., becoming the first Sino-foreign joint venture in China to specialize in making ties. Tsang organized both Chinese and Overseas Chinese to invest in the mainland and in 2001, the 6th World Chinese Business Conference held in Nanjing. Since the late 1970s, Tsang has donated funds to support the national education, aerospace, sports,science and technology, medical and social welfare undertakings. Over the past year, he has donated to more than 1,400 projects with a total amount of more than 1.2 billion Hong Kong dollars. He advocated for the “one country, two systems” policy and served as amember of the Preparatory Committee of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, making important contribution to Hong Kong’s smooth return to the motherland all the while maintaining prosperity and stability. Tsang Hin-chi won the “China Charity Award”and the “Big Bauhinia Medal” of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government. The asteroid 3388 Tsanghinchi was named for him.

[Tsang Hin-chi Wiki bio in English at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsang_Hin-chi Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%9B%BE%E5%AE%AA%E6%A2%93/1181187 Video http://chinese.cri.cn/media/video/hkt/198/20170421/3340.html ]

Xie Jin

Xie Jin, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party of China member born November 1923, died in October 2008, from Shaoxing,Zhejiang Province. Xie was a film director of the Shanghai Film(Group) Co., Ltd., fourth director and member of the fifth board of directors of China Film Association, the fifth and sixth Executive Vice Presidents of the China Federation of Literary and Art Circles,and a member of the Standing Committee of the 8th and 9th Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference. Xie has always following the Party’s literary and artistic guidelines and insists that artistic creation should be in sync with the times. Since reform began, he has made several films that blend the artistic and the ideological including “The Legend of Tianyun Mountain”,”Wrangler”, “Furong Town”, “Garland under the Mountain” and “Opium War”. The blending of ideology and art in these outstanding films help bring order from chaos and free people’s minds. Xie’s works focus on the ideological emancipation process the development of reform. He has made outstanding contributions to both the prosperity and development of China’s socialist literature and art undertakings and building up the ideological and cultural qualities of the people. Xie was awarded the title of “All China Outstanding Contribution FilmArtist” and the 25th China Film Golden Rooster Award for Lifetime Achievement.

[Xie Jin English Wiki bio https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xie_Jin IMDb https://www.imdb.com/name/nm0944527/ ECCC https://contemporary_chinese_culture.academic.ru/888/Xie_Jin https://www.theguardian.com/film/2008/oct/20/china-xie-jin-film

Video https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCV9j0nkWpQqPBHVjX9TeqjA

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E8%B0%A2%E6%99%8B/55882 ]

 Xie Gaohua

Xie Gaohua, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born November 1931 in Quzhou, Zhejiang Province. Xie is the former Deputy Director of the Standing Committee of the People’s Congress of Cangzhou City, Zhejiang Province and former secretary of the YiwuCounty Party Committee. During the early days of reform, Xie thatserving the masses is the first priority and so broke rules and regulations, taking responsibility for reform and innovation, and giving a firm green light to roadside free markets. He advocated the”Four Permissibles” policy and the policy of “Relying on Commercial Development to Build the County” to promote regional economic development. He trained county cadres to be stand up for principle, to be proactive, and to become more educated. He fostered the development of Yiwu, the world’s largest market for small commodities thereby, setting an example for small commodity markets nationwide. His excellent work reflects the reform spirit of Communists dedicated to the people who dare to assume responsibility and have won acclaim from the people.

[Xie Gaohua Baidu bio athttps://baike.baidu.com/item/%E8%B0%A2%E9%AB%98%E5%8D%8E]

Lu Yao

Lu Yao (pen name of Wang Weiguo), male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party members born December 1949, died November 1992, from Qingjian, Shaanxi Province. Lu Yao was a member of the party group and Vice Chairman of the Shaanxi Branch of the Chinese Writers Association. Lu Yao examined daily life among the people, integrated his literary work with the currents of reform. He wrote stories about reform such as “Life”, “Amazing Scene” and”Difficult Days”. Lu strove for reform in the literary world and in his novel “The Ordinary World”, depicted tremendous changes in China’s urban and rural social life and how people thought and felt about them. Lu praised the spirit of the times and strives to be the first to divine the spirit of the times.He inspired generations of young people People to do better and to make themselves better people and to dedicate themselves to joining forces with the reform tide sweeping through China. Lu Yao was awarded the title of “Outstanding Expert of Shaanxi Province” and enjoyed a special allowance from the State Council.

[Lu Yao Wiki bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lu_Yao https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E8%B7%AF%E9%81%A5 Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E8%B7%AF%E9%81%A5/216 http://culture.ifeng.com/huodong/special/luyao1/wenzhang/detail_2012_11/16/19240262_0.shtml ]

Bao Xinmin

Bao Xinmin, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born September 1956 in Anji, Zhejiang Province. Bao Xinmin was the Secretary of the Party branch of Yucun Village, Tianhuangping Town,Anji County, Huzhou City, Zhejiang Province. He put into practice the idea the idea that “Green waters and blue mountains are wealth”, leading villagers to protect the environment, shut down mines and cement plants,  determined to re-greening mining areas, developed tertiary industry, and helped farmers get rich. Bao Xinmin explored new modes of village development to protect ecological resources and promote green development. By strengthening village planning, accelerating land transfers, and developing farms as leisure tourist spots. He was always a proponent enriching village by building green economies brought great benefits to all of society. Under his leadership, Yucun Village won the title of“All China Beautiful Livable Demonstration Village” and “All China Ecological Culture Village”.

[Bao Xinmin Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%B2%8D%E6%96%B0%E6%B0%91/23175383 9/18/2018 People’s Daily interview with Bao Xinmin recalling Xi Jinping’s 2005 visit. http://politics.people.com.cn/n1/2018/0916/c1024-30295513.html ]

Fan Jinshi

Fan Jinshi, female, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born July 1938 in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. Fan is the Honorary Dean of Dunhuang Academy. She has spent her life in the desert,dedicated to preserving the Dunhuang Grottoes and to her archaeological research there. She completed the periodization of the Northern Dynasties, the Sui Dynasty, the Tang Dynasty and the Middle Period of the Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes. Since the reform began, she has led her team in making contributions to preserving world cultural heritage sites and has taken part in international exchanges concerning cultural relics and their conservation. Some of the ideas and technologies she brought back from abroad made possible the construction of “Digital Dunhuang”. She also pioneered anew method for open management of the Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes,considerably reducing conflicts between cultural relic preservation and opening the up to tourism. In China, she took the lead in drafting special regulations on the protection of cultural relics and the drawing up of conservation plans, has explored theories and practical methods for protecting the grottos. She has made  outstanding contributions to the conservation and use of cultural relics and of the large site of Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes, which is known as the daughter of Dunhuang. “. Fan Jinshi won the title of “All China Advanced Workers” and “All China Excellent Communist Party Member”.

[Fan Jinshi English http://www.womenofchina.cn/womenofchina/html1/people/others/1509/545-1.htm https://gbtimes.com/fan-jinshi-lifetime-devotion Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%A8%8A%E9%94%A6%E8%AF%97

Video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fqpayOugY9Y

Pan Jianwei

Pan Jianwei, male, Han nationality, member of the Jiu San Society political party born March 1970, Dongyang, Zhejiang Province. Pan Jianwei is the Executive Vice President of the University of Science and Technology of China, Vice Chairman of the Central Committee of the Jiu San Society, Vice Chairman of the China Association for Science and Technology, and an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. As a world-class pioneer in the field of quantum information experimental, his innovative work has won high praise from the international academic community. He was the first to achieve key breakthroughs in quantum information processing and to solve the security problem of secure quantum communications under realistic conditions. Leading the development of the world’s first quantum science experimental satellite “Mozi”, Pan built the first international quantum security communications backbone –the “Beijing-Shanghai trunk line” – and built the first air-to- ground integrated wide-area quantum secure communication network prototype making China one of the leaders in research and applications in the field of quantum secure communication. Pan won the first prize of the National Natural Science Award and the first prize of the Military Science and Technology Progress Award.

[Pan Jianwei Wiki English bio https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pan_Jianwei

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%BD%98%E5%BB%BA%E4%BC%9F/12245

Discussion on Pan Jianwei and quantum discussion on New Silk Threads in Chinese http://www.xys.org/dajia/panjianwei.html

Video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oJG7ltdVFIA&vl=zh-Hans ]

Huo Yingdong

Henry Fok Ying Tung, male, Han nationality, born May 1923, died October 2006, from Guangzhou, Guangdong Province. Fok founded the Henry Fok Estates, Ltd. Hong Kong and was a member of the Standing Committee of the 7th National People’s Congress and of the Standing Committee of the 5th and 6th Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference and Vice Chairman of the 8th, 9th and 10th Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference. Fok, a reformer determined to help modernize the motherland, became one of the first Hong Kong entrepreneurs to invest in the Mainland. He invested more than 10 billion Hong Kong dollars to support the development of major infrastructure projects in the Mainland along with education, culture and health. The Huo Fok Ying Tung Sports Fund, helped build China’s national sports industry, and helped enable Beijing to host the Asian Games and in its bid for the Olympic Games. Fok, a strong supporter of “One Country, Two Systems” policy, was a member of the Basic Law Drafting Committee of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region anda deputy director of the Preparatory Committee of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Fok made important contributions to the return of Hong Kong to China as well as in ensuring prosperity and stability in Hong Kong during the transition. Fok won the “China Charity Award” and the “Big Bauhinia Medal” of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government.

[Henry Fok Ying Tung Wiki bio https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Fok

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%9C%8D%E8%8B%B1%E4%B8%9C ]

Dai Mingmeng

Dai Mingmeng, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born August 1971 in Jianglin, Chongqing. Dai Mingmeng is the commander of the People’s Liberation Army unit 92853, and a PLA navy senior pilot. Loyal to the Party, and determined to help it build a strong military force, he was selected as the first carrier-based fighter test pilot. He constantly invented challenges for himself,including executing difficult and hazardous maneuvers. Dai was the first to take-off from the Liaoning aircraft carrier and the first to receive an aircraft carrier flight qualification. He led his group to make the transition from flight tests to training duty, forming a team of capable carrier-based fighter pilots and flight instructors thereby making training of the carrier-based fighter pilots, making an important breakthrough and contribution to the country since that made China one of the few countries in the world which with carrier-based aviation. Dai was honored with the title of “Heroic Fighter Plane Test Pilot”.

[Dai Mingmeng Baidu bio https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%88%B4%E6%98%8E%E7%9B%9F https://www.sohu.com/a/231020559_600506

“Dai Mingmeng recalls landing a Shenyang J-15 on the Liaoning aircraft carrier: facing a giant steel wall head on” in Chinese https://mil.news.sina.com.cn/2018-10-15/doc-ifxeuwws4427140.shtml?cre=sinapc&mod=g ]

Source: http://paper.people.com.cn/rmrb/html/2018-11/26/nw.D110000renmrb_20181126_1-13.htm

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Hu Fuming Author of Mind-Opening Guangming Daily Commentary “Practice is the Sole Criterion for Testing Truth”

Nice interview with Hu Fuming, lead drafter of the historic 1978 Guangming Ribao commentary “Practice is the Sole Criterion for Testing Truth” pointing out Mao and Party aren’t necessarily always right. What an heretical thought! One could go to jail for less back then. 

Just posted yesterday on the website of the Discipline and Inspection Commission of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the PRC National Supervisory Commission. 

 http://www.ccdi.gov.cn/yaowen/201811/t20181129_184178.html

Hu Fuming, born in July 1935 in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, was the main author of the 1978 “Guangming Daily” special commentator’s article “Practice is the sole criterion for testing truth.” As an ordinary scholar in the philosophy department of Nanjing University, his article struck a responsive chord in Chinese society of a strength that had never been seen before. It started the process of emancipation from ideological fetters.

In the social history exhibition hall of the Guangming Daily, there are seven drafts of the newspaper article “Practice is the sole criterion for testing truth.” Today, the newspaper has yellowed, but the traces of the red edit circles are still clear.

[Photo – see article below]

Seven drafts of the newspaper article “Practice is the Only Standard for Testing Truth” (Photo courtesy of Guangming Daily)

This commentator article that kicked off China’s ideological liberation and opened the way for reform and opening up came to over 6,200 Chinese characters. It was published on the front page of the Guangming Daily on May 11, 1978. Forty years have passed since then.

Hu Fuming, the main author of the article, is 83 years old, but still sticks to his principle of “practice before speaking” and insists on studying and reading newspapers every day. “People’s Daily” and”Yangtze Evening News” are neatly arranged at the corner of his desk next to a well-worn copy of “Selections from Marx and Engels”. Hu Fuming said, “As long are you are living, you can still think, and so one just goes on thinking.” Just as he had 40 years ago.

Reporter: “When did you start to get concerned about where the country is going?”

Hu Fuming: “It was subtle. I didn’t see it all at once. During the Great Leap Forward and the People’s Commune Movement, I became suspicious. Five or six hundred pounds of rice is already a high yield for one mu of afield. How could it produce thousands of pounds? Or tens of thousands of pounds of rice? This was just nonsense, a deception, fakery. I decided that the Chinese Communist Party had strayed from the ideological precept of seeking truth from facts.”

“Put everything you have into it”

In 1977, the whole of China was thrilled at the smashing the “Gang of Four”. The whole country wanted to restore order and redress unjust, false and wrongly decided cases. Nonetheless, the “leftist”thinking was still mainstream. In February, the central government proposed “two things”, that is, “Every decision made by Chairman Mao will firmly uphold; we will always follow all the instructions of Chairman Mao.”

So what about the “Cultural Revolution” initiated by Chairman Mao? Can’t you reject it?

Hu Fuming, a 42-year-old teacher of the Department of Philosophy at Nanjing University, published four articles in the journal of Nanjing University on “On Zhang Chunqiao’s “On the Comprehensive Dictatorship of the Bourgeoisie” and “Struggling for the Construction of a Modern Socialist Power”. .

Hu Fuming: “The purpose of my article was to push our Party towards bring order out of chaos and to redress unjust, false and wrongly decided cases. As a theoretical worker, what could I do? The only weapon I had was the pen. To apply the truth in Marxist books to solve our current problems, that was the only weapon I had.”

Reporter: “This was your only weapon at the time, but it is also dangerous.”

Hu Fuming: “Of course it was dangerous. But I thought that our Party and people had awakened. China has reached a great turning point in its history.”

[End of translated extract]

Article from the Fangzheng Publishing Co. dated November 29, 2018 and published on the website of the Central Discipline and Inspection Commission of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the PRC Inspection Commission. 

胡福明:最好的文章是能在历史上留下印记的文章

来源:中国方正出版社 发布时间:2018-11-29 16:20 分享

  胡福明,1935年7月出生于江苏无锡,是1978年《光明日报》特约评论员文章《实践是检验真理的唯一标准》的主要作者。作为南京大学哲学系的一名普通学者,他的文章引发了空前共鸣,开启了一个时代思想解放的闸门。

  在光明日报社的社史展厅内,珍藏着《实践是检验真理的唯一标准》一文的7张报纸改样。如今报纸已经泛黄,但上面被红笔圈圈改改过的痕迹依然清晰。

《实践是检验真理的唯一标准》的7张报纸改样(光明日报社供图)

  这篇拉开了中国思想解放和改革开放序幕的评论员文章,全文6200多字,发表于1978年5月11日《光明日报》头版,至今40年整。

  文章的主要作者胡福明已83岁高龄,却依旧秉承着“先实践再发言”的原则,每天坚持学习、读报。《人民日报》《扬子晚报》整齐地摞在书桌一角,旁边的《马克思恩格斯选集》也早已被翻烂。胡福明说,“只要活着还能思考,就会一直思考下去”,一如40年前那样。

  记者:“您是什么时候开始关心‘国家要往何处走’这个问题的?”

  胡福明:“这个是潜移默化的过程,不是一下子明白的。大跃进、人民公社运动时,我产生了怀疑。一亩地打五六百斤稻子已经是高产了,怎么可能一亩地产出几千斤、几万斤的稻子?这是胡说,是骗人的,假的。我认为党已经离开了实事求是的思想作风。”

  “把浑身能量都放进去了”

  1977年,整个中国沉浸在粉碎“四人帮”的喜悦中,全国上下渴望拨乱反正、平反冤假错案。然而“左倾”思想依旧占据主流,2月中央提出“两个凡是”,即“凡是毛主席作出的决策,我们都坚决维护;凡是毛主席的指示,我们都始终不渝地遵循”。

  那么毛主席发动的“文革”呢?也不能否定?

  时年42岁的南京大学哲学系教师胡福明为此先后在南大学报上发表了《评张春桥的〈论对资产阶级的全面专政〉》《为建设现代化的社会主义强国而奋斗》等4篇文章。

  胡福明:“我写文章的目的就是要推动我们党拨乱反正,平反冤假错案。作为一个理论工作者,我能做什么呢?我唯一能用的就是这支笔。用马克思主义书本上的道理,去解决当前面临的问题,我能使用的只有这个武器。”

  记者:“这是您当时唯一的武器,但这样做也是危险的。”

  胡福明:“当然是危险的。但是我觉得我们党、人民已经觉醒了,中国已经到了一个伟大历史的转折关头。”  

  “两个凡是”是全面拨乱反正的主要障碍,必须从根本上打破。但胡福明认为,“不能简单地批它,必须提出一个马克思主义的基础观点和它对立。只要守住马克思主义阵地,就能驳倒它”。1977年夏天,胡福明在医院陪护妻子的过程中,完成了文章《实践是检验真理的标准》的写作。

杨西光在光明日报社期间的办公桌(光明日报社供图)

  记者:“您是花了最大力气去准备和写作这篇文章?”

  胡福明:“对,可以说是把浑身能量都放进去了。晚上我去陪护妻子,就在走廊里拿几张凳子,在楼灯下面把《马克思恩格斯选集》四卷、《列宁选集》四卷、《毛泽东选集》四卷一批一批带过去,靠着灯光查关于真理标准的语录。查出来几十条,然后在凳子上搞提纲。趴在凳子上、坐在地上,就这么干了大概十四五天吧。”

  文章写好后,胡福明把它寄给了《光明日报》。“考虑到影响问题,我要寄给全国性的报刊。这时我想到了王强华,他是《光明日报》哲学组组长。我们有过一面之交,我就寄给了《光明日报》。”当时的胡福明肯定不会想到,他的这个小小的举动将会带给中国怎样的影响。

  一个人的勇气变成了一群人的执着

  从文章寄到北京开始,一个人的勇气就变成了一群人的执着。除了王强华,《光明日报》总编辑杨西光、理论部主任马沛文以及中央党校理论研究室的孙长江,都加入到稿件的研究和修改中。胡福明本人后来也到了北京,在报社住了20多天。一篇6200多字的文章,前前后后,定稿历时8个月。

1978年4月13日晚谈实践检验问题的讨论记录(光明日报社供图)

  记者:“杨西光调整了一下标题?”

  胡福明:“对,调整标题增加了‘唯一’两个字。毛主席说,只有实践才是检验真理的标准。这当然是一个很好的发挥。”

  记者:“他还调了一下作者?”

  胡福明:“杨西光说,你不是我们特约评论员,你是自己投稿投来的。但是从现在开始,我就聘请你为《光明日报》的特约评论员。”

  1978年5月11日,署名为“本报特约评论员”的文章《实践是检验真理的唯一标准》在《光明日报》头版发表。平静的神州大地仿佛响起了一声惊雷,全国范围内开始了轰轰烈烈的真理标准大讨论,思想解放的号角就此吹响。1978年12月13日,在十一届三中全会前的中共中央工作会议闭幕会上,邓小平同志作了《解放思想,实事求是,团结一致向前看》的著名讲话:

  “……实事求是,是无产阶级世界观的基础,是马克思主义的思想基础。过去我们搞革命所取得的一切胜利,是靠实事求是;现在我们要实现四个现代化,同样要靠实事求是……”

  最好的文章是能在历史上留下印记的文章

  改革开放40年,一代代领导人不断解放思想、开拓创新,为中国经济社会发展开启了一扇扇“智慧之门”。胡福明说,发展中国特色社会主义,就是由一系列的解放思想、一系列的实践探索、一系列的总结积累构成的。

 记者:“这是您作为一个学者很骄傲的事情么?”

  胡福明:“我觉得是我应该做的事情。解释真理、修正错误,这是一个学者应该做的。解放思想、实事求是,这是一个理论工作者、一个党的工作者必须坚持的。”

  记者:“当时如果不是您写出来,也早晚有人会写出这篇文章吗?”

  胡福明:“对,早晚会有人写。”

  记者:“这篇文章从学术水平上来讲,我认为,是最高的吗?”

  胡福明:“文章水平高的标准是什么?社会科学领域最好的文章,就是能在历史上留下印记的文章。”

  记者:“解决现实问题的文章。”

  胡福明:“没错!”

北京大学南京校友会赠送给胡福明的书法作品

Posted in History 历史, Ideology 思想, Politics 政治 | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

UFO Over North China

UFO sighting in China!

 

An April 30 video is on YouTube at  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IxVXmLNRY6M

Another version of this video, albeit with many fewer viewers, has the helpful message written in English on the screen “We will achieve unification one way or another”.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3IZ5wFo7Css

A Chinese Academy of Sciences expert attributed UFO sightings to an 80 kilometer night-shining (noctilucent) cloud. https://www.zhihu.com/question/275033617  and a video report on the CAS expert’s explanation. https://v.qq.com/x/page/n07140p7c50.html

Space launch expert James Oberg analyzed a similar July 2017 video of an apparent missile launch over Xinjiang:  http://jamesoberg.com/china/

Or could the recent UFO appearances show ET recognition of China as a rising power?

The article speculates that they might be some high performance military aircraft. We know that is what the aliens would have bribed them to say. It is not just Earthlings who are good at media control.

Then again, maybe foreign spies would say to patriotic Chinese, those are alien spacecraft, not Chinese military aircraft, so there is nothing wrong about a patriotic Chinese telling a fellow Earthling, albeit from a foreign intelligence service, about UFO flight characteristics!

While living in Beijing in the late 1990s, I noticed that the more nervous the Chinese got about politics, the more UFO sightings there were. Not deus ex machina exactly. Maybe ET ex machina though.

I used to read Flying Saucer Investigations 飞碟探索 http://www.zazhipu.com/pub/feidiietansuo.html back then, which boasted of being the highest-circulation UFO magazine in the world. After all, perhaps the Chinese UFO-ologists were and now are on to something.

You can’t be too careful!

201812291624
Translation:

 

Unidentified Flying objects over North China, the White House is Shocked!

November 19, 2018

Editor’s Note: Recently, according to media reports, UFOs have been seen flying over North China.

A bright light not only flew very fast but also maneuvered over North China at very high speed. This incident also attracted much attention in the West. Chinese experts say that this is a mysterious Chinese weapons test. This weapon is most likely the hypersonic warhead now under development in China. The news shocked the West. Afterwards, the White House said that it seems that China has made great progress, and the US anti-missile system will not be effective against it.

So what is a hypersonic weapon? According to the definition, a hypersonic weapon is any weapon that flies at a speed that exceeds Mach 6. That includes both the US US X51A and the Chinese DF-ZF warhead. These are two very different weapons. The X51A is similar to a cruise missile and is generally carried by a fighter. The DF-ZF is similar to a ballistic missile warhead mounted on a ballistic missile. So what does this kind of weapon do? Of course it hits its target. This kind of weapon is distinguished by its long range, high speed and high precision. This kind of weapon does not have the restrictions to which nuclear weapons are subject to and so many countries are racing to develop them. Current anti-missile systems cannot shoot down this kind of weapon. How does it avoid them?

First of all, most current anti-missile system only targets weapons when they are beyond the atmosphere in outer space. In the atmosphere most anti-missile weapons do not work.

Therefore, this weapon flies in the atmosphere to avoid detection and interception by enemy weapons systems. Secondly, even if this weapon is discovered, because of its extremely high speed, it is hard to track. Even if it can be tracked, the weapon can be maneuvered so that the enemy cannot intercept it. That is why it makes existing anti-missile systems obsolete.

The excellent penetration capability, long range and power of this weapon can make it a key weapons system of the future. As can be seen from this test, China has made a major breakthrough in successfully mastering the problem of maneuvering this weapon.

Now that the US has terminated the X51A https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boeing_X-51_Waverider program, China now leads the world in this field.


华北上空现不明飞行物 西方愕然失色 白宫:反(图)

2018-11-19
编者按:近日,据相关媒体报道,最近中国华北上空发现了不明飞行物,一道亮光以极快的速度划过了华北上空,并还进行机动变轨。这件事也引来了西方极大的关注,中国专家表示,这是中国正在进行神秘武器测试,这款武器极有可能就是中国正在研制的高超音速弹头,得知消息后,西方愕然失色。事后,白宫表示,看来中国已经取得了很大的进展,从此美国反导体系形同虚设了。

那么什么是高超音速武器呢?对这款武器的定义是只要飞行速度超过6马赫,都能够称为高超音速武器。目前比较有代表性的就是美国X51A与中国DF-ZF弹头,这也是两款截然不同的武器,X51A类似巡航导弹,一般由战机携带发射。而DF-ZF则类似弹道导弹的弹头,一般由弹道导弹携带发射。

那么这款武器究竟有什么作用呢?最明显的作用就是打击目标,与一般打击方式相比,这种武器射程更远,速度更快,打击精度也更高。而且这款武器在使用时没有核武器那么多限制,已经成为各军事强国争夺的焦点。最关键的是,现有的反导体系在这款武器面前,几乎都失去作用了,那么它是如何实现这一功能的呢?

首先,目前反导体系一般只针对外太空的目标或者大气层内的目标,而在外太空与大气层之间的临界空间,反导武器是无能为力的。所以这款武器就是利用这一特点,主要在这个高度进行飞行,这样就避免了被敌方探测系统发现,自然就能够躲开对方的拦截了。

其次,就算这款武器即使被发现了,由于其速度极快,能不能持续性追踪目标就是一个问题。就算能够持续性跟踪到这个目标,这款武器也能够进行机动变轨,敌方依然无法拦截它,这也是为何这款武器能够令现有防空武器失效的原因了。

也真是因为这款武器突防能力强,射程远,威力大,在未来将成为主流打击武器。而从这次测试中可以看出,中国已经成功掌握这款武器的机动变轨能力,已经取得了重大突破。由于美国已经终止了X51A计划,目前看来,在这块领域,中国已经走在了世界的前列。

Posted in National Security 安全, Society 社会 | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Xu Zhangrun: “Whoever Heard of a Teacher Who Doesn’t Speak”

See Professor Geremie Barmé’s translation of Xu Zhangrun’s article on the China Heritage website at http://chinaheritage.net/journal/and-teachers-then-they-just-do-their-thing/

 

“Whoever Heard of a Teacher Who Doesn’t Speak?”

Xu Zhangrun: Having dedicated myself to a teaching career, I have to repeat what Hu Shih said eighty years ago, “Whoever heard of a teacher who doesn’t speak?”  People must be allowed to hear what is said. This is the only way that we can have dialogue and conversation and be allowed the public spaces that enable us to preserve our humanity. 

Published November 6, 2018 on the Financial Times’s Chinese language website at    http://www.ftchinese.com/story/001080109?full=y

Xu Zhangrun 许章润

Classes for Executive MBA students at the School of Economics and Management have begun. Student had searched on China’s Baidu search engine, hoping to learn something about their instructors and what they had written that related to course topics. Comparing them with the students of a decade ago, today’s executive MBA students average over forty years of age. These men and women are energetic eager to learn.

According my friend Professor Donald Clarke, as of July 29, 2018,  hundreds of thousands of hits that would have come up on a Baidu search on my name had been deleted. Only a dozen or so remained. In the three months since, there have been another bashful twenty or thirty more, mostly incidental mentions in news reports. And so a normal search really wouldn’t come up with anything at all.

What was behind this? The only thing I can come up with is the article I wrote towards the end of July this year entitled “Imminent Fears, Immediate Hopes” [translated in full with commentary on the China Heritage website]  that reflected my concerns about the present and great anxiety about what it means for the future. Emotions come whether we want them or not and our words manifest our feelings and will reveal themselves in the end. I know this well and have the guts to make a stand. I have prepared myself mentally for what may come of it. Therefore I don’t worry about the deleted items and the blocking of searches on my name. “Don’t sweat the small stuff” I say. So I can’t get all worked up about it.

They copy the laws of the tyrannical Qin dynasty: the new aristocrats picking up tricks from the old. Two thousand years have passed since those days. There should be some difference between what went before and what came later, but really there hasn’t been any progress at all. It is all just a matter of making people shut up. No surprise there.

When Economics and Management School students told me about his, I checked Baidu myself and found that there are still thousands of articles about all those high-ranking officials who have “fallen off their horses” in recent years, such as Zhou Yongkang, Bo Xilai, Lu Wei and “Qi Gong Master Wang Lin”. There are more hits on the so-called “Gang of Four”, that evil four-player cabal, than there are droplets on the seas on pebbles on the mountains. There is just all kinds of stuff, both fake and factual, that give the readers something of an opportunity to parse historical truth for themselves.

More important, the articles about these people show from different perspectives, of admiration or of condemnation, the soul-twisting institutionalized evils of our own glorious era. These articles reveal to their countless readers the cruelties and weird paradoxes of history. As tiny driblets of lessons merge from countless stories into a mighty current, they become a moral resource fortifying people who will need the strength to prevent the repetition of these tragedies. Not merely to resist particular instances of arbitrary decisions but all of them, to resist all arbitrary decisions.

The past is never quite over. All these learned facts may crystallize a rational intelligence in individuals that in turn may come to synthesize a rational spirit in the public at large. A rational spirit that spotlights common sense and in particular draws attention to whatever is weak or dark in human nature. A rational spirit that protects human society without which we cannot live even for a short while.

All this matters not only for people who read the Chinese language but for the entire world. This affects first of all the Chinese-speaking world. If this were truly self-evident, then the Internet will open up to all, its waters would not be fouled, and my nation and my people would be invigorated.

 One of the terms applied to the “Gang of Four” echoes the verdict of the Chinese Communist Party that accused them of “bringing calamities on the country and the people” and that their crimes were “countless”.  All this brings to mind some frightening days of my childhood and the scary days that followed of big show trials while millions of people held their collective breaths. One feels joy more intensely for having known great sorrow so I truly do appreciate that we are not living in a time that, like those frantic days, in which the waves of the class struggle swept over us, “each wave higher than the last”.

They “brought calamities upon our country and our people” and committed “countless crimes”. There are still tens of thousands of articles online that depict their lives, lists their actions, and even publishing their writings online. I have been a teacher for the past thirty years, and, although I have striven to make a decent living, I have also been “fighting on the front lines of education”.  Why would there ever be any reason to erase me from the Internet?   What indeed could be the reason unless someone thinks that somehow by doing this I could simply be evaporated out of this world.

The only explanation I can think of is that somehow we who make our career in education, we people who don’t like to fight and have no weapons at all, are even worse than that “Gang of Four” that “brought calamities upon the country and its people.”

Once a secretary wrote a draft speech and an official delivered it. The joke goes that in the draft there was a that was a mistake on the last page. Due to a printing error, an auxiliary particle and question mark “me-?” were printed at the bottom of the page. When the official read that page, looked down at his audience, and after a moment, turned the page and read it with as a question and an emphatic tone that gave his audience the impression that he was saying “Zhou Yongkang / Wu Yongkang / Zheng Yongkang / Wang Yongkang / Sima Yongkang were not bad people???

Inspired by this official’s example, I must too make a sentence for myself.

“Am I not worse than the Gang of Four?”

 Now we are in the windy season.  They want to make everybody shut up. All I can do is go along. What a foolish and idiotic situation! After all, teaching has been my life’s work. Just as that gentleman said over 80 years ago, “Whoever heard of a teacher who doesn’t speak?!” If they speak people must be allowed to hear them. That is the only way to have dialogue and conversation. We need to step out of our solitudes and create public spaces so that we can hold on to our humanity. Moreover, it is the very existence of public spaces, and only the existence of those public spaces, that can make us free. That is why this is so important.

How could we ever pretend ignorance of that monstrous spirit that bans mention of us from the Internet and forces us to have no alternative but to use Baidu?

How can this not leave marks on my heart?!

I do not hate those who, on behalf of the abusers, carry out orders to delete or block information and especially not for those who give orders to implement these policies. I can only sympathize with them.

I would just say to those very talented young people, why not get out of this dirty business and find a better job?

We don’t realize it but we are all of us caught together in the same dark nether-world. There is only one way we’ll be able to get through its many difficult and narrow passages and be rescued.  We will do that by walking together hand-in-hand in sympathy and understanding.

The predicament of our country stirs deep feelings of love for China and worries about its future. Both the sword and the zither are busy these days. The coming of autumn brings a rush of emotions. For myself, I am not greedy – one scoop of water from the many rivers is enough for me.

My friends, what a wonderful world it is that we live in.


 

Hu Shih’s poem remembered 80 years later

The title of the article is inspired by Hu Shih’s doggerel poem. The fashion at the time was to write fancy literary poems that peasants wouldn’t understand. Hu Shih much  preferred writing much closer to popular speech.

At the meeting,  Hu Shih’s friend, the Dongfang Ribao newspaper editor Hu Jianzhong, dashed off doggerel at a 1937 conference at Lushan that poked fun at the speakers at the conference who were repeating the same worn out phrases at that very dangerous time.

The conference was held in 1937 just before the outbreak of war with Japan.

The first there speakers were

  • Republic of China President Chiang Kai-shek
  • Wang Jingwei
  • Hu Shih

In the sweltering heat a grand gathering opened in Lushan,

Famed scholars from the eight points of the compass all struggled upstream to attend.

Our country’s scholars truly have vast knowledge

One after another, they argue passionately their outmoded views!

 

Feeling the same way, Hu Shih wrote his own doggerel in response:

Was there ever cat in heat that did not yowl in the Spring?

Was there ever a cicada that did not chirp in the Summer?

Was there ever a frog that did not croak at night?

Was there ever a teacher who did not speak?

 

Hu Shih’s doggerel was later published shortly thereafter in the official KMT newspaper the Central Daily News.  The story goes that  as Chiang Kai-shek’s secretary told the story,  “the old man just laughed and laughed” even though CKS was not known for his sense of humor.  Later that July when Zhou Enlai came to Lushan as head of a Communist Party delegation for talks with CKS, he ran into Hu Jiangzhong, Hu Shih’s poem came up. Hu Jianzhong said that the poem won a big laugh from Zhou Enlai.

ref http://www.chinanews.com/cul/2014/10-23/6710271.shtml

胡适写白话诗“那有先生不说话” 逗笑蒋介石

2014年10月23日 14:45 来源:人民政协报 参与互动(0)

  一首白话诗逗笑两个大人物

“那有猫儿不叫春,那有蝉儿不鸣夏,那有蛤蟆不夜鸣,那有先生不说话。”胡适写的白话诗,曾经逗得蒋介石与周恩来都一展笑颜。

七七抗战前夕,蒋介石和汪精卫联名,邀请一批社会名流,到庐山来,一面避暑,一面共商抗战大计。出席会议的,几乎全是社会名流,蒋介石的侍从室安排座次时,很动了一番脑筋,最后决定把同姓的人安排坐在一起。当时出席庐山谈话会的有四个姓胡的:胡适、胡安定、胡次威、胡健中。胡健中是《东南日报》的社长,座位刚好紧挨在胡适的右手。谈话会开始后,先是蒋介石讲话,下来汪精卫,第三个是胡适。胡适慷慨激昂地说了一通。胡健中听了,感受颇深,当即在座位上,写了一首诗递给胡适。诗是这样的:“溽暑匡卢盛会开,八方名士溯江来。吾家博士真豪健,慷慨陈辞又一回。”胡适看了,随手写了本文开头的那首白话诗回赠。等于说,国家都到了这个时候了,我这当先生的,怎能不坦陈我的看法呢?

这首白话诗,后来在《中央日报》上刊出。抗战爆发后,蒋介石心情一直很沉重,侍从室人回忆说,很少见到“老头子一笑”。据说蒋介石平素不苟言笑,缺乏幽默感,美国总统罗斯福曾评价蒋介石“古板,极其乏味”。可蒋介石从《中央日报》上读到胡适的这首诗后,不由得笑了起来。1937年7月中下旬,周恩来作为中共代表,到庐山与蒋介石谈判。胡健中在庐山碰到周恩来,交谈中,谈到了胡适的这首诗,念到“哪有先生不说话”时,周恩来也忍不住大笑。

李永军

 

https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/33618050

胡适回应友人打趣:哪有先生不说话?

一友人看胡适演说起来兴致勃发,风头十足,写了一首打油诗揶揄他:

溽暑匡庐胜会开,

八方名士溯江来。

吾家博士真豪健,

慷慨陈词又一回!

胡适也不生气,开心地写了一首打油诗回赠:

那有猫儿不叫春?

那有蝉儿不鸣夏?

那有蛤蟆不夜鸣?

那有先生不说话?

 

 


http://www.ftchinese.com/story/001080109?full=y

言论自由关注

“哪有先生不说话?!”

许章润:身役教书匠,如八十多年前胡适之先生所言,哪能不说话!而说话就得让人听见,才能构成对话与交谈,让我们获得公共存在,保持人性。

在经管学院为EMBA学员上课。他们搜索百度,希望多了解授课教师,阅读与课程相关的教师著述。跟十来年前相比,今天学员年龄多在四十上下,男女搭配,精力充沛,尚存求知问道的热情。据好友郭丹清教授(Donald Clarke)相告,时惟2018年7月29日,我在百度上的词条从数十万被删到仅剩十条,算是悉数除祛。迄而至今,三月已过,犹有二三十条,羞羞答答,多为新闻报道,而牵连在下名字而已。如此,自然搜索不到任何信息。

揣摩原因,当是缘于今年七月下旬,我撰写《我们当下的恐惧与期待》一文,为当下计,作千岁忧。情非得已,情见乎辞,而终究仿佛情见势屈。我对此心知肚明,对于可能的横逆也早有心理准备,故而对于删除词条、屏蔽姓名一类的“和风细雨”,根本不曾留意,更不会往心里去。秦制妙法,新贵旧招,虽两千年往矣,前后有别,却了无进步,总不外钳口二字,何足为奇。

经学员提醒,遂查百度,发现凡近年落马的高官伶优,如周永康、薄熙来、鲁炜与“王林大师”等三教九流,均有数万词条。所谓的“四人帮”,万恶的四人帮,更是词连山海,条接云天,多到数不过来。它们林林总总,虚虚实实,多少给予读者拼联历史真相的机会。更为重要的是,这些有关他们的词条内容,从不同视角,讨伐抑或崇仰,展示了酷烈时代的灵魂扭曲和体制罪恶,等于在向亿万读者时时提示历史的吊诡与无情,从而也就是在为避免悲剧重演,于涓滴汇流中积攒抵抗的精神资源。不只是抵抗某一种专断,而是对于一切专断的提防与抵抗。今昔流连之际,孤单的个体理性方始可能串联并合成公共理性,于烛照人性中遵守常识,特别是明了人性的脆弱与幽暗,而护持我们生息其间、须臾不可离易的人世家园。而且,此非仅只惠及汉语读者,而实具普世意义,但首先沾溉汉语世界,自是不言自明,则网开一面,流水不腐,吾族吾民,生机活现也。

其中关于“四人帮”的一个词条,重述当年中共的表述,指斥其犯行“祸国殃民”,而罪恶“罄竹难书”,令我不禁回想起少年时代的觳觫岁月,以及后来审判大戏登场时的万众屏息,悲喜交加,更加珍惜此刻这个不搞“一浪高过一浪”阶级斗争运动的喘息时光。

他们“祸国殃民”,进至于“罄竹难书”,尚有数万词条展示其生平,罗列其行止,甚至刊布其作品。在下一介教书匠,三十多年里,但求温饱,“奋战在教学第一线”,何至于将我从网上抹掉,或者,似乎认为如此这般就能将我从人间蒸发。

唯一的解释是,我这个底层教书匠,不嗜打架,也不会任何一件兵器,竟然比“祸国殃民”的“四人帮”还坏。

秘书写稿子,官员念稿子。有一个笑话说的是,讲话稿的页末一句是个疑问句,因排版原因,语助词连同疑问号“么?”印在了下一页。这位官员念完这句,环视台下,少顷,庄重翻页,再补充上语助词,音调铿锵,致使现场效果成了“周永康/吴永康/郑永康/王永康/司马永康不是一个坏人﹫#$%&……么?”转借此例,在下接续而来的造句作业是:“我比‘四人帮’还坏﹫#$%&……么?”

只是值此八面来风时节,欲令天下无声,惟剩诺诺,何其愚妄,何其滑稽。毕竟,身役教书匠,如八十多年前适之先生所言:“哪有先生不说话?!”而说话就得让人听见,才能构成对话与交谈,让我们摆脱孤立的私性状态,获得公共存在,保持人性。进而,我们的公共存在状态,也唯有这种公共存在状态,才赋予我们以自由。职是之故,对于网络上的封杀,对于造成我们无奈只能用百度而无所选择的那个巨灵,岂能不留意?!又岂能不往心里去?!

因而,对于助纣为虐而下手删除、屏蔽信息的,特别是做出类此决策下达指令的,我并无仇恨,只有满腔的同情!再说了,年纪轻轻,身怀长技,为何不另找一个干净营生?

我们同处幽冥之中,不见熹微,唯以同情援手,手牵手,才能穿过这重重关隘而获救。

暮云朝雨,琴剑匆匆,秋意烂漫,千江一瓢,朋友,人间是多么的美好。

(注:本文仅为作者个人观点。本文编辑王昉 fang.wang@ftchinese.com)

Posted in History 历史, Literature 文学, Society 社会 | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

My Student Reported on Me!

我被学生举报了!

 凡人钒语 凡人钒语

 

A student reported me on Monday morning!

We were discussing in class whether rich people or poor people made greater contributions to society.  One girl got very angry, and spoke up, saying that I was advocating discrimination against poor people and that she would report me!

first photo from posting

Discussion on Social Media

This semester, I taught “Practical Writing.” I made my “plan” for the chapter on “Business Writing” according to the objectives identified in that chapter. The first objective is to “strengthen the study of policy learning and build global awareness.”

I told the students that policy should be interpreted according to law and common sense. Sometimes some policies go against common sense. For example, the Cultural Revolution campaign to “Smashing the Four Old Things [old customs, cultures, habits, and ideas] and Establishing the Four New Things [new customs, new culture, new habits, new ideas]” was contrary to common sense, damaging both traditional culture and cultural relics.

The villagers in Zhuge Village, Lanxi, Zhejiang Province were very wise. They pasted mud on old buildings to cover up the fine wood carvings. After the reform and opening began, these exquisite wood carvings were uncovered. They preserved a valuable cultural heritage for humanity. There is a precious woodcut long couplet in the Liu Bowen Emperor Temple of Wencheng Nantian. The villagers feared that the couplet would be destroyed. So they painted revolutionary slogans on the back of the woodcut and rehung it. It was saved and now the town treasures it in the town temple.

Therefore, there are some things that are just common sense and don’t require an advanced education to make decisions about. Just as the question as to whether who contributes more to society, the poor or the rich, it is a question we can resolve through our own common sense.

“The poor are barely able to afford their own food and clothing and even sometimes rely on welfare from the state to survive. What about the rich? What do they contribute to society?” I asked the students.

“Do the rich contribute to society?” Some students said that they pay taxes. I said yes, this is just one part of their contribution. The rich can use their wealth to expand production and create more jobs for workers. When people’s material life is satisfied, they will have more time to pursue their hobbies and values. They get involved in and support things like scientific research, literary and artistic creation, engaging in philanthropy, building beautiful buildings, accumulating material and spiritual wealth for society. However, a civilized country must be kind to the poor. We must use public policies to provide welfare for the poor so that they will live in dignity.

I was being straightforward about my views.  Suddenly, a girl stood up and said, “Teacher, you are advocating discrimination against poor people! I will make a public report about you.”

I said: “We can discuss different view. When I finish, you can talk about the contribution of the poor to society.” She blushes and says indignantly: “I don’t want to discuss this with you. You are advocating discrimination against poor people. I will make a public report you!”

photo from posting

“Okay! Making a public report about people is your right. I give you fulsome praise for reporting on me by name! You are glorious and upright.” I gave her two thumbs up and praised her!

Some students report anonymously. I think of that as a secret report. In the university classroom, many problems and ideas can be discussed and argued about. Academic independence and freedom of thought will cultivate innovative talents. Having students act like spies does not foster a positive outlook.

Last year, students reported on me anonymously. In the classroom, I told students that they need to develop their capacity for independent thought. Don’t let anyone tell you that the wind is rain or you will suffer for it. I told that that during the Cultural Revolution there were many Red Guards younger than yourselves who died gloriously while they were still very young. Both fighting Red Guard factions declared that they were fighting for Chairman Mao and swore to fight to the death to defend Chairman Mao. After they died, they are neither heroes nor villains. Their parents are still asking the government to account for the deaths of their children.

Can you imagine how painful this has been for their families? The Cultural Revolution occurred largely due to a cult of personality. The Communist Party learned this lesson and wrote a prohibition against cult of personality into the Party Constitution. I was astonished to see some students blushing and saying: “Teacher, you are saying bad things about Chairman Mao!” I said, “I have reasons for this. The disaster caused by the decade of the Cultural Revolution to our country were discussed in the in the “Resolutions on Certain Historical Issues of the Party since the Founding of the People’s Republic of China”. The prohibition against cult of personality is stipulated in the current party constitution.

I never expected that the next morning I would get a phone call from the school leadership calling me to a meeting in the principal’s office. I had heard that the reporting process goes like this: the student reports to the department head, the department head reports to the school, and the school reports to the Academic Affairs Office, and the Academic Affairs Office reports to the school’s Communist Party Committee.

I don’t hold anything against students who make reports. I don’t ask questions to find out is reporting on me. The practice disgusts me. When as a class teacher working with students, I never relied on used an informant. I often talk with students and learn from what they have to say. I listen to people with various opinions, and am always reading more books in order to expand my horizons, improve my mind and improve my knowledge. However, there will always students who cannot tolerate different views and thoughts. Although the Cultural Revolution took place over 50 years ago, the ideology of the Cultural Revolution is still out there and there is always the danger that it might recur.

That girl even made a report to express her dissatisfaction with me. But she was honest enough to do so openly so I much prefer her to those who report secretly. She may be concerned about the poor due to simple sympathy with people from her own class or out of a feeling of responsibility for the country and worry about the future of the nation. She may be afraid that teachers will say bad things and broadcast bad ideologies in the classroom that poison young people. Therefore, I did feel any anger at all towards her but I do feel sad for her.

What makes me particularly disturbed is that the Party Secretary, who had studied abroad, was also alarmed. Just after class, the Party Secretary called and asked me,

“What happened? Why have you been reported by your students?”

“I said in class, ‘let’s discuss whether the poor or the rich have contributed more to society.'”

The Party Secretary said that reports from all students who file a public report must be investigated.

The next day, many students were called in for a talk. Now many teachers in colleges and universities have been reported by students. Some had to move to a different position. Others were laid off or even fired from public employment. A lot of friends called me on WeChat asking me to be careful and be sure to protect myself. Teachers has become a high-risk occupation. As a teacher, one will always some personal opinions and opinions when one is explaining something. If we just taught to the text, the students would complain that class is very boring. All textbooks need to be enriched with extracurricular content to make class more lively and interesting.

However, as to what should be said or should not be said, I don’t know where that invisible line really lies!

-END-

https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/Jv2haHKMbgxL81gRZhCtrQ

我被学生举报了!

 凡人钒语 凡人钒语 3天前

日瓦戈医生孔祥玉 – 钢琴恋曲2002

周一上午,我被学生举报了!

 

我在上课时讨论穷人对社会贡献大,还是富人对社会贡献大。有个女生很愤怒,说我歧视穷人,要举报我!

本学期,我上《实用文体写作》。教“事务文书”一章的“计划”时,按书本内容讲写作要求。其中的第一点讲写计划要“加强政策学习,树立全局意识”。我跟学生说,解读政策要用法律和常识去解读。有时,有些政策会背离常识,比如“破四旧立四新”运动就背离了常识,致使文化和文物遭受破坏。浙江兰溪诸葛村的村民就很有智慧,他们把古建筑糊上泥巴刷上灰浆,把精美的木雕巧妙地掩藏起来。改革开放后,这些精美的木雕重见天日,为人类遗留了宝贵的文化遗产。文成南田的刘伯温帝师庙,有一副珍贵的木刻长对联。当时村民怕对联被打砸毁坏,在背面刷上革命标语,倒过来挂在墙上,得以保存,如今成为镇庙之宝。

 

因此,有些常识性的东西是无需用高深的知识去判断的。就像穷人对社会有贡献,还是富人对社会有贡献这样的问题,就是常识性问题。

 

穷人,勉强维持温饱,甚至要靠国家的福利保障维持生活。而富人呢?我问学生:富人对社会有啥贡献?有学生说,纳税。我说是的,这仅仅是一个方面。富人可以利用财富扩大生产,为工人提供更多的工作岗位。当人们物质生活满足了,就会有更多的时间追求自己的兴趣爱好和人生价值。他们从事科学研究、文艺创作,从事慈善事业,建造精美建筑等等,为社会积累了物质财物和精神财富。但是,一个文明国家,要善待穷人。要利用公共政策,为穷人提供福利保障,让穷人过体面有尊严的生活。

我侃侃而谈,突然,有个女生站起来说:“老师,你这是歧视穷人!我要实名举报你!

我说:“有不同观点可以讨论,等我说完,你可以说说穷人对社会的贡献。”她涨红着脸,愤愤地说:“我不想讨论,你这是歧视穷人,我要举报你!”

 

“好吧!举报是你的权利。对你的实名举报,我给你点一百个赞!为你的光明磊落。”我伸出大拇指为她点赞!

 

有些学生匿名举报,在我看来就是个告密者。大学课堂,很多问题观点思想都是可以相互交流探讨碰撞的。学术独立思想自由,才会培养出创新型人才。学生搞得像间谍暗探似的,不利于培养学生的阳光型人格。

 

去年,我被学生匿名举报过。在课堂上,我告诉学生要养成独立思考问题的能力,不要听到风就是雨,否则要吃亏的。我说,文革中有不少红卫兵,年纪比你们还小,年纪轻轻地就光荣牺牲了。武斗的两派都宣称自己是毛主席的好战士,要誓死保卫毛主席。他们死后,既不是英雄也不是狗熊。他们的父母至今还希望政府对他们死去的儿女有个交代,这对于一个家庭是多么伤痛的事啊?文革发生的原因很大程度上是因为个人崇拜,所以我们党吸取教训,把禁止个人崇拜写入党章。想不到有好几位学生红着脸:“老师,你说毛主席的坏话!”我说,我讲的都是有依据的。十年文革给我们国家造成的灾难,在《建国以来党的若干历史问题的决议》里有阐述。禁止个人崇拜,在现行党章中就有规定。

 

想不到,第二天一早,校领导就电话通知我到校长室谈话了。从谈话中得知,举报流程是这样的:学生向班主任反映,班主任反映到学院,学院上报到教务处,教务处向校党委报告。

 

我对举报的学生没有任何成见,也不想刨根问底去深究举报者是谁。我非常厌恶这种做法,我担任班主任管理学生工作时,也从不用线人。我常常跟学生讲,兼听则明,要学会倾听不同的声音,要多读好书,拓展视野,训练思维,提高认识。但总有学生容不得不同的观点和思想,文革已经过去了五十多年,文革的思维依然存在,时时有死灰复燃的危险。

 

这位女生,尽管也采取举报的方式来表达对我的不满。但光明磊落,比起告密者要高尚许多。她也许是怀着朴素的阶级感情,为穷人着想,为国家负责,为民族担忧。亦或是怕教师在课堂上散布不良言论和思想,毒害青年。因此,我没有丝毫怨恨她,只是心底里感到悲哀。

 

尤其让我深感不安的是,这事竟然还惊动了在外学习的书记。刚一下课,书记就打来电话,问我怎么回事?你怎么又被学生举报了?我说,就说了穷人和富人谁对社会贡献更大?书记说,凡是学生实名举报的,一律要立案调查。

 

第二天,果然有好几个学生被叫去谈话。现在多所高校的教师被学生举报导致换岗、下岗甚至开除公职。好多朋友发来微信叫我小心,注意保护好自己。看来,教师也是个高危职业。作为教师,讲解时总难免有些个人的见解和观点。照本宣科,又可能会被学生轰下讲坛。所有的教材,都要充实课外的内容,课堂才会生动有趣。但是,到底哪些话该说,哪些话不该说,心里真的没底呢!

-END-

 

Posted in Ideology 思想, Politics 政治, Society 社会 | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

Zhang Weiying: The Future World Order Depends on What China Does

Peking University Economics Professor Zhang Weiying’s early October 2018 (and promptly erased by net censors) article “Understanding the World Economy and China” (excerpted in translation on Andrew Batson’s blog) argued that China’s economic development has occurred in spite of rather than because of the so-called Chinese economic model. Prof Zhang stated that “The China economic model theory doesn’t fit with the facts.  China’s high growth over the past 40 years has come from marketization, entrepreneurship and the technological accumulation of the West for three hundred years, rather than the so-called “Chinese model”.

This June 2018 article by Professor Zhang does argue that the so-called China model does seriously harm China’s international relations but does not directly attempt to discredit the “China model”.

Zhang Weiying is not alone in his concerns.  Another economist, Shen Hong of the currently-being-strangled-by-the-Party Unirule Institute, a private economics think tank, makes similar points in an article translated by Andrew Batson on his blog  in the article The US-China trade war as a conflict of values.

One of Professor Zhang’s arguments is that China needs to built a truly rule-by-law and democratic political economic system if it is ever to displace the United States as the world leader.  This argument, which harnesses nationalism to the cause of promoting democratic reform, may be calculated to win more minds to the cause of reform but may well be true.

Interesting too is Professor Zhang’s article what might be perceived as an overly assertive in-your-face style of US leadership rather than the fact of US leadership is a major part of the problem as seen from China.

It reminds me of an article that Chinese General Liu Yazhou wrote about ten years ago arguing that “China needs to become a much more democratic country — only then can it be a strong country that western powers will not dare try to push around.”  General Liu Yazhou, once a senior commander of the PLA Second Artillery (missile forces) and now an academic at the PLA’s National Defense University has written many intriguing articles, some available online such as an examination of the cultural roots of Chinese politics in “Re-Commemorating 1644: The 360th Anniversary of the Jiashen Year” and Great Critics are Often Great Patriots  and John Garnaut’s 2010 article “Chinese general backs the American dream”.

General Liu Yazhou,  unusually out-spoken, has some protection (what the Chinese call a backstop houtai) as the son-in-law of former PRC President Li Xiannian.  Professor Zhang Weiying perhaps not so much, although the lines of the permissible are often changing and vague, though more tightly drawn over the past few years.

When I lived in China, sometimes people told me that the US was always trying to keep China down.  My answer was that if that were so, the US should encourage Chinese to keep their Communist Party in power and for the Party to take a harder line on dissidents.   If Professor Zhang and General Liu are correct, perhaps the US is not being clever enough (if it really wants to keep China down).

Zhang Weiying: The Future World Order Depends on What China Does

http://finance.qq.com/original/caijingzhiku/zhangweiying.html

June 26, 2018

Sino-US relations are the most important bilateral relationship in the world. This year, the United States launched a trade war. The two countries have been bickering for a long while about economic issues. Many worry how this will affect global stability. These days a big picture perspective on Sino-US relations is especially important to prevent things from descending into chaos.

Famed economist Zhang Weiying in his speech at the Symposium on Sino-US Relations at the Institute of World Politics and Economics of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences discussed the fundamentals of Sino-US relations. This article was published in the International Economic Review. Zhang Weiying revised and authorized its publication here.

[photo]ZhangWeiying

Zhang Weiying, Economist, and Professor in the National Development Research Institute at Peking University

Zhang Weiying: Over the next twenty to thirty years, the United States will not be overthrown in its world leadership role. For the very reason that today China is incapable of assuming world leadership, US global leadership position is in China’s interests. The demands that world leadership responsibility places on a country in various areas are enormous. China is now incapable of assuming them.

Throughout modern world history, the United States is the country that has exercised global leadership the most. This happened because the American society is vigorous and is very capable of correcting its own mistakes. Moreover, the United States attracts the world’s most talented people. This melting pot laid the foundation of American strength.

I have on several occasions suggested to American politicians that they read two books.

The first book is Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations published the same year that the American Revolutionary War broke out. The shape of the world these past two hundred years is basically the extension of the ideas in The Wealth of Nations to the entire world. The reason American politicians should read this book is because the United States is now becoming more protectionist. No country, if it were closed rather than open, could lead the world. A closed United States would lack legitimacy as a world leader.

The second book is Laozi’s Tao Te Ching. The United States is gradually changing from a country with uniform or roughly similar leadership values to a country in which coexist multiple or even differing leadership values. Under these circumstances, the US needs to understand how “the powerful state is inferior”. Assuming a lower profile is the best way for the United States to lead the world. The current US leadership style is to support freedom and democracy at home, autocracy abroad, and is characterized by an overbearing style. No country can challenge the leading role of the United States, but the U.S. does need to changes its leadership style. What China cannot accept is not the world leadership of the United States but the way the United States conducts itself as the world leader.

The last two centuries utterly transformed the entire world as the world went through a Great Divergence and then the current Great Convergence. Demographic and economic data show that up to two hundred years ago, the correlation coefficient between the population and the GDP of a country was essentially one. The correlation between the two fell sharply during the 19th Century (the Great Divergence), reaching its lowest level in the 1970s. Then it gradually rebounded to around 0.55 in the early 21st century (the Great Convergence). Whether this trend towards convergence continues will greatly affect what leadership in international relations will be like in the world to come.

My point is that the structure of international relations and the position of the United States within it largely depend on what China does. If China continues to make mistakes, the status of the United States will be become even stronger. During the past two or three years, my attitude toward China’s development has changed from optimism to cautious optimism. This is first of all because some things that were originally considered irreversible have now been reversed. This includes reversals in the economic system. The government has been intervening more in the economy. There are even new price controls, the return of the economic planning system, and the “advancing of state-owned enterprises and the regression of private enterprises”. In government during the 1980s, everyone competed to take charge and to be a trailblazer. Now, everyone wants to avoid taking responsibility and to keep quiet. The whole spirit of the country has changed fundamentally.

China made its transformation from one type of economy to another a macroeconomic, monetary and fiscal stimulus issue. But what the transformation of the Chinese economy has really meant is opening up the market and relying on the spirit of economic entrepreneurship. In its domestic market, China’s most notable achievement has been a tremendous development of transportation and the accompanying very large drop in transportation costs. Although this has physically unified the Chinese market, the problem remains that transaction costs are still extremely high.

The Chinese system makes market transaction costs very high. High transaction costs constrain entrepreneurship and prevents the transformation of the Chinese economy from being fully realized. Moreover, the influence of statism is very strong. China’s state-owned enterprises have become an important factor in Sino-US relations. Maintaining the state-owned sector which these state-owned enterprises inhabit will not be good over the long term for China from the international strategic perspective and will constrain China’s opening up to the outside world.

China’s future development will depends to a very large extent on the reform of its political system. The big difference between China and India in terms of development is that India first democratized the political system and then liberalized the economy; China first liberalized the economy and has left reform of the political system as an issue for the future. From a sequencing perspective, I think China’s approach is better. However, it does carry huge risks, because reform of the political system will be essential sooner of later. India has already passed this test. China has not.

I believe that over the next three decades, China should, during the first fifteen years, first focus on judicial reform – on the establishment of a society ruled by law – and then, during the next fifteen years, focus on democratization. Justice should come before before democracy, because the rule of law is the foundation of social stability. In the long run, China needs to explore new pathways. These explorations may be inspired by the example of Hong Kong. China should also study the experience of Taiwan and Vietnam. China can start with political reforms in areas such as functional constituencies (professional groups), with democracy within the Chinese Communist Party and perhaps then it may be able to gradually complete the transition to democracy over the next 30 years.

There are many disagreements between the US and China. These are mostly bilateral disagreements. There are conflicts of interest arising from competition over resources and in geopolitics. There are also conflicts of values. Sino-US relations generally revolve around these two kinds of conflicts. For example, the Taiwan issue is a matter of interests. The United States often competes for its interests in the international arena under the pretext of defending values.

Sometimes the United States also faces conflicts in its own interests and values. For example, United States supported people like Mubarak who were dictators and stood for things that were contrary to American values. If a problem arises in those countries, there is certainly too a conflict between US interests and US values. From what I can see, the United States has finally chosen to subordinate its interests to its values in order to solve problems in the Middle East. It will no longer blatantly support those dictators. This conflict within the United States itself disturbs the entire international community and also affects Sino-US relations.

As far as conflicts of interest go, many US entrepreneurs, economists, and leaders all fundamentally believe that the economic benefits that can be attained through mutually beneficial cooperation are much greater than what can be gained by clashing. Our economic interests still largely depend upon cooperation. Therefore, the main differences between the two countries arise from differences in their politics and in their core values. How should these conflicts be resolved? Some solutions might simply resolve conflicts at the level of international relations, but these solutions might be very difficult for people domestically to accept.

From this perspective, many problems in Sino-US relations ultimately come down to the establishment of a democratic government in China and the reform of China’s political system. The path that China takes towards true democratization is both very important and very dangerous. It may move toward the rule of law and democracy as we expect, but then again, it may slip backwards into something ever worse than before.

We now face two major challenges, one is populism (including socialist egalitarianism) and the other is nationalism. By now the legitimacy of China’s leaders, after decades of economic development,can longer be based on its conquest of state power. Continuing economic reforms too are no longer an adequate support for its legitimacy. The only way to legitimate China’s political leadership is by promoting reform of the political system. If sufficient courage, determination and political authority is not put behind political reform, and the leadership instead resorts to populism and nationalism, the situation could become very dangerous. If that happens, major reforms will not be able to be carried out and China may well retrogress. We can well imagine that if lower-level officials feel free to misbehave and commit any crimes they like and higher leaders do not have enough authority to correct them, then a trend that propels China backwards against the tide of history may well prevail. The confluence of the problems of nationalism and populism would make acting rationally much more difficult in China.

Today we often do not address issues neither according to market logic nor in the spirit of the rule of law. Instead, by considering public opinion and other means, we make a moral judgment. Later, we do not consider the legality of the method that we have chosen to handle the issue. In short, reform of the Chinese political system is the critical factor influencing China’s future development.

My conclusion is that the question of whether or not there will be changes in China’s political system over the next decade will have an important effect on China’s future development. As for the United States is concerned, the leadership of the United States will be very difficult to challenge for some years to come. China will very likely economically surpass the United States, but this does not mean that China can challenge the United States and lead the world. The US economy surpassed that of the United Kingdom in 1890, but United States leadership was only established after World War II.

U.S. leaders overly politicize economic issues, making many issues difficult to address. For example, it is still not clear whether the appreciation of the renminbi would benefit the United States. But it would have at least two effects on the United States: first, American consumers would pay higher prices and the United States would face faster price increases; second, it would have a huge impact on the profit structures of large international companies. Especially for multinational companies and companies that have famous brands, because they are in an oligopolistic market, they enjoy relatively high profits. Renminbi appreciation would squeeze out some of the profits that those multinational companies enjoy. This would in turn impact the structure of the entire enterprise.

As to China’s international relations, China has no ally that openly and firmly supports it in the world. Compared this with the United States, which has the open support of many allies in the international community. Thus it would be hard for China to challenge U.S. leadership.

I believe that ideas and ideologies influence history. Therefore my attitude is both pessimistic and optimistic. I am pessimistic because the spread of ideas and ideologies is very slow. I am optimistic because our thinking is changing in subtle ways. The ideas of young people are now already very different from those of their elders.

The connection between the PRC and the United States began with relations between our governments. Now people-to-people ties play a large role, including the roles of private enterprises, scholars, media. The United States attaches great importance to the power of civil society. These forces in civil society all affect the way that the world views China. They affect Sino-United States relations as well. The diplomatic power of people in civil society had become the track two of international exchanges.

If we compare a country to an enterprise, from the perspective of the Theory of Evolution, any country after it evolves to a certain extent will encounter some force that obstructs its development. No big tree can grow all the way up to heaven! I do not believe in the decline of the United States. However, its international status will begin to decline relative to what it was before. If China can continuously promote market-oriented reforms, steadily carry out political reforms, and adopt appropriate strategies in diplomacy, the U.S. dominance in the world may not last long. However, if China goes the wrong way, then whatever changes there may be the relative statuses of the United States and China, they can only be very insignificant ones.

张维迎:未来世界的格局,取决于中国怎么做

中美关系是国际最重要的双边关系。今年美国发动贸易战,两国在经济问题上龃龉不断,更是让许多人忧心世界稳定。从宏观上把握中美关系,好做到乱中不变,就显得尤为重要。著名经济学家张维迎曾在社科院世界政治与经济研究所关于中美关系座谈会发表演讲,谈中美关系的基本面。本文发表在《国际经济评论》上,经张维迎老师修改并授权发表。

张维迎 经济学家、北京大学国家发展研究院教授张维迎 经济学家、北京大学国家发展研究院教授

未来20-30年,美国的领导地位不会发生巨大颠覆性变化。事实上,目前来说,美国在全球的领导地位也符合中国利益,因为中国在各方面尚不具备领导世界的条件,且国际责任等等的成本是巨大的,中国还负担不起。

在近代史上,美国是最具全球领导力的国家。这是因为美国社会活力旺盛,具有很强的自我纠正和修复能力。另一方面,美国吸引了世界上最优秀的人才,这种大熔炉的特性也为美国的强盛奠定了基础。

我曾在几个场合推荐美国的政治家读两本书。

第一本是亚当·斯密的《国富论》,出版于美国独立战争的同一年,近两百多年来的世界基本上就是《国富论》的理念在全球范围的不断扩展。美国政治家之所以应该读这本书,是因为美国现在有走向保护主义的趋势,而世界上没有哪个国家能以封闭而不是开放的姿态来领导整个世界,一个封闭的美国是不具备领导世界的合法性的。

第二本书是老子的《道德经》,美国逐渐要从领导价值观相同或相似的国家转变为领导价值观多元甚至迥异的国家,在这种情况下应该懂得“大邦者下流”,以一种低的姿态来领导整个世界。现在的美国的领导方式是对内自由民主,对外专制,作风霸道。当下它的领导地位虽然没有其他国家可以挑战,但是其领导方式有必要进行改变。中国不能接受的不是美国在全球的领导地位,而是美国的领导方式。

过去200年,世界经历了一个巨大的变革,从大分流(Great Divergence)到大趋同、大融合(Great Convergence)。数据显示,在200年之前的漫长的历史中,一个国家的人口和GDP的相关系数基本是1,19世纪之后两者的相关性剧烈下降(大分流),20世纪70年代达到最低水平,然后又逐渐恢复到21世纪初的0.55左右(大融合)。这种大融合的趋势是不是会继续下去将会对国际关系的领导格局带来巨大的改变。

我的观点是,世界的格局和美国的地位很大程度上取决于中国在做什么。如果中国不断犯错误,美国的地位就将得到稳固。近两三年来我对中国发展的态度从乐观变为了谨慎的乐观。这首先是因为一些原本被认为不可逆转的事情现在出现了逆转。这其中包括经济体制的逆转,比如政府干预越来越多,甚至出现了新的价格管制、计划体制的回归,还有“国进民退”。政府方面,20世纪80年代大家比的是谁干事、谁有闯劲,现在比的是谁不干事、谁沉得住气,整个国家的气质在发生改变。

中国现在把经济转型变成一个宏观问题,货币政策问题,财政刺激问题。但是经济转型真正要做的是开放市场,靠企业家精神。就国内市场而言,中国近些年最好的成就是交通的发展,交通成本大大降低,在物理上创造了统一市场的条件,但是最大的问题是交易成本奇高无比。

中国的体制使得市场的交易成本非常高,而交易成本高了之后企业家精神就不能得到有效发挥,无法真正完成经济转型。此外,中国强大的国家主义倾向的影响力巨大。现在国有企业已经成为了中美关系中的重要因素,继续维护这些国有企业的国有体制,从长远的、国际战略角度看是不好的,对中国走向世界会带来负面影响。

中国的未来发展很大程度上取决于政治体制改革。中国和印度在发展道理上很大的区别在于,印度是先进行政治体制民主化,再进行经济自由化;中国是先进行经济自由化,未来再进行政治体制改革。从时间序列上来看,我认为中国的做法是更好的,但是也有巨大的风险,因为政治体制改革这一关是早晚必须要经历的,印度已经渡过了这一关,而中国还没有。

我认为,中国未来三十年里,前十五年的重点应该放在司法改革,建立法治社会,后十五年重点进行民主化改革。把司法放在民主之前是非常重要的,因为法治是社会稳定的基础。从长远看来,中国需要探索新的道路,这种探索也许可以从香港地区得到启发,包括台湾地区、越南的经验也非常值得中国研究。中国可以从功能团体、党内民主等等开始着手政治改革,也许三十年内能慢慢地完成向民主化的过渡。

中美关系中存在很多冲突,主要是两方面的冲突。一方面是利益冲突。两国在利益方面的争夺,包括地缘政治、资源方面的争夺。 另一方面是价值观念方面的冲突。中美关系往往就围绕着这两个冲突。例如台湾问题就是一个利益问题。美国在国际上经常打着价值观的旗号来争夺利益。

但是有时美国也会面临自己内部的利益诉求和价值观诉求发生冲突的时候。例如美国在中东所支持的人,如穆巴拉克,都是一些独裁者,是和美国的价值观所违背的;一旦这些国家出现了问题,美国这种利益和价值观的冲突就暴露无疑了。就我观察,这几次中东问题美国最后还是选择了利益服从价值观的做法来解决问题,不会明目张胆地支持这些独裁者。美国本身内部的这个冲突就会给整个国际带来麻烦,也会影响中美关系。

利益冲突方面,美国企业家、经济学家、领导人都基本相信,合作共赢的经济利益比互相冲突时大得多。经济方面的利益还是以合作为主的。因此主要的冲突还是来自政治和核心价值观的不同。这种冲突应该怎么解决?有些做法可能可以简单地解决国际层面的冲突,但是这些解决办法国内的百姓可能很难接受认可。

从这个角度来看,中美冲突的很多问题最终都归结到民主政体的建立、中国的政治体制改革。中国真正走向民主化的过程是非常关键也是非常危险的,有可能向预期一样地走向法治和民主,但也有可能滑向比原来更糟糕的境地。

我们现在面临两个很大的挑战,其一是民粹主义(包括社会主义的平均主义),其二是民族主义。国家经过几十年的发展,领导者权威的正当性已经不是靠打江山了,也很难继续靠经济改革来支持,寻求正当性的唯一途径就是推动政治体制改革。但是如果缺乏勇气,没有足够的决断力和权威来推动政治改革,求助于民粹主义和民族主义,这是非常危险的。在这种局面下,大的改革无法进行,倒退就很有可能发生。可以想象,当下层领导胡作非为的时候上层领导却没有足够的权威性能够表态时,倒行逆施就可能盛行。民族主义和民粹主义的问题相结合,就使得在中国,有理性的行为很难进行。

我们现在在处理问题的时候往往不是按照市场的逻辑,不是以法治的精神,而是先通过舆论等手段对事情进行道德定性,然后就不考虑处理方法的合法性了。总之,政治体制改革将是影响中国未来发展的关键因素。

总而言之,未来十年,中国政治体制改变或者不变,都将对中国未来的发展起到重要的影响。就美国而言,美国的领导地位若干年内难以挑战。未来中国在经济上超过美国是非常有可能的,但是这不意味着中国就能挑战美国、领导世界。美国的经济规模1890年就超过英国,但美国的领导地位只是在二战后才得到确立。

在经济问题上,美国领导人太政治化,导致了很多事情难以处理。例如人民币的升值问题,对美国究竟会有什么好处,现在尚且不明朗。但是其可预期的对美国的影响至少有二:第一,美国消费者会支付更高的价格,美国将会面临更快的物价上涨;第二,将对国际大公司的利润结构产生巨大影响,尤其是跨国公司、品牌公司,因为它们所在的市场是一个寡头市场,利润本身比较厚足,人民币的升值将挤出这些跨国公司的一部分利润。这对整个企业的结构都带来影响。

国际关系方面,中国这个国家在世界上没有公开而坚定的盟友,相比在国际社会上有很多公开盟友的美国,中国是很难挑战它的领导地位的。

我相信影响历史的是理念和思想。因此我的态度是既悲观又乐观的。悲观的是,理念和思想的传播是非常缓慢的。乐观的是,思想仍然在潜移默化地改变。现在年轻人的观念已经与老一代很不一样了。

中国和美国的联系原来只是政府与政府之间,而现在有了很多民间的势力,比如企业、学者、媒体等等。美国对这种力量也非常重视。所有这些民间的力量都在影响世界对中国的看法,影响中美关系。未来民众的外交力量会成为国际交流的第二渠道。

如果将国家比作企业,从进化论的角度来看,任何国家进化发展到一定程度,阻碍它的力量就会出现,没有一棵大树能长到天上!我认为,美国不可能衰落,但是它的国际地位,相对自己的历史将开始走下坡路。如果中国能不断地推进市场化改革,平稳地进行政治体制改革,并在外交方面采取合适的战略,美国在世界上的独霸地位可能不能维持太久;但是如果中国走错了道路,那么美国和中国的地位变化会变得十分微妙。

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Wang Jisi: The US Trade War Aimed at Changing Chinese Behavior and Making More Money, Not Disengagement

Some interesting idea to try on for size on what is behind the US- China trade ‘war’ from a Chinese international relations scholar.  Views that are not necessarily influential in China, but intriguing discussion on world trends although the focus is narrowly on the United States since the interview is about the trade ‘war’.

The article appeared on the Chinese language website of the Financial Times, one of the more interesting fora for discussion about China and Chinese relations with other countries given the censorship of China’s domestic media.

Reader comments on the Financial Times Chinese language website (so far not blocked in China) are often as interesting as the articles although there too, the commenters are necessarily from a relatively small slice of Chinese society — the economics, business and trade oriented intellectuals.

This article was picked up by Aisixiang, one of long line of Chinese philosophical and intellectual discussion websites.  Its predecessors flourished for a time, then were closed down by the Party.  So far Aisixiang has been able to keep on.

http://www.ftchinese.com/premium/001079777?exclusive#adchannelID=5000

[also appeared on the Aisixiang website at http://www.aisixiang.com/data/112832.html]

中美贸易战

访王缉思:美国发动贸易战不是为了离开中国

Wang Jisi: Dean of the School of International Studies at Peking University. (Wikipedia)
Born: 1948 (age 70 years), Guangzhou, China
Employer: Peking University
Books: China at the Crossroads: Sustainability, Economy, Security, and Critical Issues for the 21st Century

Interview with Wang Jisi: The United States Launched Trade War with China Not to Disengage But to Change China’s Behavior and Make More Money

Some however are preparing for the worst and that is dangerous

Updated on October 16, 2018 06:18

by Zhao Liangmin Written for FT中文网

Zhao Lingmin: Founder of World Sensitivity

Wang Jisi: Dean of the Institute of International Strategy, Peking University

Entering a New Stage of World Politics: The Future Harder to Predict Than Ever

Zhao Lingmin: Some time ago you wrote an article about how you believe that “world politics has entered a new stage”. You summed up the four characteristics of this new stage:

  • Convergence of nationalism and populism and simultaneous with the rise of authoritarianism;
  • Resurgence of strongmen;
  • More more intense geopolitical competition along with the danger of war; and
  • The double-edged sword of high tech innovation.

Those views aroused widespread concern. Why do you think that we seeing these changes today?

Wang Jisi: Two long-term factors are responsible for the current accentuation of differences and even splits in world politics today. The first is the further growing economic inequality worldwide both between nations and within nations. The poorest countries in the world today have a per capita GDP of 400 to 500 US dollars; the richest countries such as the United States, Switzerland, and Singapore have a per capita GDP of more than 100 times that of the poorest countries.

At the same time, in the United States, where the per capita GDP has exceeded $60,000, the gap between the rich and the poor has been widening. Among the developed countries, the economic gap between emerging countries and the developed countries is narrowing, while the gap between emerging countries and the developing countries is growing, accentuating differences within the developing countries as a group.

The world Gini coefficient has now reached 0.7 or so – higher than the widely recognized 0.6 “danger level”. Some data shows that economic inequality, both between countries and within countries, has reached an unprecedented level.

The second long-term factor aggravating the political divide both between and within countries are rapidly changing and forming social identities throughout the world brought about by the large-scale movement of populations between countries throughout the world. Today over 300 million people are settled permanently in a different country from the one in which they were born.

Moreover, many seasonal workers cross borders and everywhere there are more migrants than before. People are living in a foreign country or, at home, discovering more and more foreigners with different skin colors, cultures and beliefs in their hometowns. This brings with it more homesickness, alienation and xenophobia. Easy low cost global connectivity through the Internet, smart phones and social media has made it easier for people to find virtual communities of compatriots, fellow villagers, or like-minded “friends”. This increasingly divorces social identity from local physical communities where people actually live. This phenomenon has accentuated social identities in terms such as race, ethnicity, sects, culture, values. This has intensified political polarization in many countries.

Economic globalization brings two big problems. First is the widening gap between the rich and the poor; the second is the identity politics steadily becoming much more important. Everyone feels dissatisfied, that society is unfair, and hopes that someone come along to correct this problem. They want a strong government, a political strongman to represent them, who will voice popular dissatisfactions. Donald Trump is such a person, Rodrigo Duterte the Philippines, Recep Erdogan in Turkey, Narendra Modi in India, and Vladimir Putin of Russia are all such people.

The rise of political strongmen changes not only a country’s domestic politics but is also reflected in its values and geopolitics. In the past “political correctness” was about respect for diversity, for unity and harmony in a society which has become more diverse. Now it is “representing me and my group” to fight against an opponent. At the national policy level, “political correctness” means tightening immigration policies and trade protectionism; with respect to the military, it means strengthening national defense forces; and on territorial disputes, standing up for one’s country against foreign countries. In this way, domestic class contradictions, ethnic conflicts, and contradictions among nations in the world become ever more acute; compromises are seen as weakness and betrayal.

Zhao Lingmin: Globalization naturally benefits those powerful elites who can break the bonds of the nation-state, sell things to the whole world, spread ideas to the whole world. The whole world is their marketplace. Ordinary people don’t this capacity and these resources. They can only stay home and listen to the orders coming down to them from the heavens above. Considering this, can the problem of inequality ever be fully resolved?

Wang Jisi: In history, there are mainly three ways to change inequality:

  1. War and war makes everyone poor;
  2. Revolution. After the Russian October Revolution, China’s 1949 Revolution, Iran’s 1979 Revolution, the property of capitalists was confiscated, the lands of local tyrants were divided, the rich were eliminated or forced to emigrate overseas. Then everyone seems more equal but can not get rich;
  3. Plague and natural disasters, such as the 14th century Black Death in Europe.

Current practice regulates the redistribution of wealth in society, the government invests taxation revenues in areas such as infrastructure, public health, and education and has programs to alleviate poverty. These programs bring change only slowly. In any country or kind of society, when productivity rises quickly, some will inevitably get richer earlier. Others will not be as prosperous. That gap will get larger and larger.

If you want to quickly narrow this gap, you might embrace a program of “kill the rich and help the poor.” But this dampens the enthusiasm of those who create wealth. The poor don’t find that much is accomplished and in the end nobody is satisfied.

Therefore, I think there is no way to solve this problem. At least it is difficult to make a real change. This phenomenon may continue for a long time. I still don’t see any good solution emerging. In European countries such as Denmark and Ireland, people are more accustomed to high taxes and high welfare, but even these countries are now experiencing a widening gap between the rich and the poor, especially with the arrival of new immigrants.

Zhao Lingmin: This dilemma is very unsettling. What should be done?

Wang Jisi: The world is entering a new period of historical transition. After the end of the Cold War, we believed that the world had entered a period of peace and development. Everyone was optimistic. In recent years, it seems that we might go back to the bad old days. Trends are hard to predict. We may see all kinds of impossible-to-envisage beforehand “black swan events”.

Today I read an article about the current crisis facing liberalism. According to the article there are three major theories in the 20th century:

  • Liberalism represented by the United States ;
  • Communism/Marxism/socialism represented by the Soviet Union and China; and
  • Fascism.

The Second World War destroyed fascism, the world moved on to a struggle between socialism/communism and capitalism/liberalism. Later, the Soviet Union disintegrated and socialism retreated to a low point. Liberalism nearly became the only kind of political correctness in most parts of the world. That what Fukuyama meant by the “end of history” that he wrote about.

In recent years, liberalism has seemed ineffective. Strongman politics has made a comeback. Many countries, including the United States, are dissatisfied with their own systems and begin to reflect on them.

What is the opposite of liberalism? This is an important question. I think the opposite of liberalism is nationalism. But is nationalism an ideology? It seems not. One might think that a common ideology should lead to mutual cooperation rather than conflict. However, if all countries believe in nationalism, they will instead move towards division and conflict.

Zhao Lingmin: Nationalism can’t solve the problem. It is just an emotional outlet. Some people are dissatisfied with the status quo and believe that the elites cannot represent him. Elites issues have nothing to do with their lives. Political strongmen voice their frustrations whether or not they actually really care about doing anything for them.

Wang Jisi: Going thirty years one way and then the next thirty years going in the reverse direction doesn’t work as a model anymore. Trump will do it for a while, and maybe the American people will feel that his method doesn’t work. They may need to change their tune then.

Zhao Lingmin: That an idealization, like talking about a pendulum effect. If you can really can swing from one side to the other safely, what happens along the way?

Wang Jisi: There are many possibilities. One possibility is to return to the era of war. Historical experience shows that neither conventional war nor nuclear war creates solutions other than killing everybody. Ultimately, cooperating and coordination among governments is needed to find a model for global governance. Maybe after some time, the pendulum swings back, but it is impossible to return to where we were before.

The times have changed. The new times have brought fundamental changes: thirty years ago, the control of the government over people’s freedom was limited. New emerging technologies strengthen those in power. People can, however, also use these same technologies to bypass government control. Many kinds of once fairly effective restrictions have become less effective. Complete information control is no longer possible. Information was once scarce. People could only believe what the government said. Now there are all kinds of gaps. The Chinese can know what is going on overseas. Americans can also know what is happening in China.

Another factor is that what people think about other ethnic groups changing in subtle ways. We used to say that US imperialism was bad but the American people were good; Japanese militarism was bad but the Japanese people were good. But today, many Chinese believe that Americans are bad and not just their government. Journalists, scholars, and businessmen are also very bad. The United States has also changed its view of China. In the past, China was considered an “autocratic government.” The Chinese government was bad by the Chinese people were good.

Now many Chinese and Chinese students have been found to be doing things in the United States to help the Chinese government. So Americans are starting to get unfriendly towards people of Chinese ethnic origin (huaren 华人) and that people of Chinese ethnicity are not good. There are also religious issues. Some have a thoroughly negative view of Islam. That is going on in many parts of the world. These one-sided extreme views are simplistic giving them the advantage of being very easy to understand. There are creating vast gulfs between different ethnic groups and even different subgroups of the same ethnic group.

“I am disillusioned with the United States”

Zhao Lingmin: Everyone said that the reason why Trump was elected was very important because he was supported by the “rust zone” of the Midwestern United States. Has this judgment been widely accepted?

Wang Jisi: I think it is generally accepted. Whether it is the “rust zone” or something else, some people in the American society have always felt that they are being exploited and deprived of opportunity by an unfair society. One cause is the industrial shift caused by globalization and rising insecurity caused by the arrival of new immigrants. These groups are found in big cities such as New York and Chicago. Many are disgusted with globalization and its beneficiaries, and Trump has voiced their dissatisfactions. But in any case, that the United States chose Trump gave me a great and unimaginable sense of loss.

Zhao Lingmin: Do you think this was accidental or inevitable? Of course, now that it has happened, you may find many reasons to prove that it is inevitable.

Wang Jisi: I think there must be some accidental factors but it is an inevitable that people like Trump can get a lot of support. The split in American society is an objective fact. Trump’s problem is that he not only needs to use social division to maximize his own interests, but that he spares no effort to deepen this split. This is a terrible place to be in.

Liberal criticism of Trump often turns into personal attacks. They say that he is worthless. He also attacks the liberals saying that they are worthless. This cause more confrontation, dislike and hate in society. I feel very disillusioned with the United States. When I first went to the United States in 1984, the political struggle in the United States was fairly rational and civilized. Now it is just cursing and nastiness wherever you turn.

Zhao Lingmin: When did you think the divisions in American society arose? Most people noticed this change when Trump was elected. It feels very sudden, but there must be a development process behind it. It couldn’t have happened all at once.

Wang Jisi: The divisions in American society appeared many years ago, but people didn’t pay too much attention to it. There was a racial riot in Los Angeles in 1992 but it wasn’t between blacks and whites, but between blacks and Korean immigrants. Now the gap among the American ethnic groups is getting deeper as is xenophobia.

On the one hand, many blacks and women represented by Obama and Hillary, people who have had the experience of being oppressed have a need to establish the political correctness of multiculturalism. Some are just the opposite. Some are even naked white racists. These two processes are occurring at the same time. We tend to notice multiculturalism despise the rebound of right-wing nationalism and racism. When I was teaching in the United States in 1991, I was very careful not to violate “political correctness” and not to discriminate against blacks and women. In fact, the opposite tendency also exists. For example, a white girl said to me privately, “A black girl in the same class as me is no worse than me. I don’t work as hard as I am, but she enjoys a scholarship. It’s too unfair!” She was very disgusted about this. This is reverse racial discrimination. This means both sides of American feel discriminated against. The contradiction between the two has not been fully noticed.

Emotion probably has a more profound effect on politics than reason. Trump and his hardcore are emotional in that way – no matter whether he does this or that, he is still our man. The more you attack him, the more I support him. This is what disappoints me about the United States. In the past, I have overestimated the rationality, political consciousness, and level of knowledge of the American people.

Zhao Lingmin: Trump’s first cabinet meeting after taking office, most of the cabinet members including Vice President Pence are vying to show his loyalty to him. That is very feminine. This is very surprising: Can things happen in the United States?

Wang Jisi: Humanity is similar in every place, regardless of party and people. Trump also likes to use obedient, loyal people who want to keep their power and vote for it.

Zhao Lingmin: How do your peers in the United States, professors of Sino-US relations universities, view the current state of relations between China and the United States?

Wang Jisi: Some of them think that Trump has screwed things up, but when I ask, “If Clinton had been elected, would Sino-US relations be better than now,” they can’t give me an answer. Those who support the Democratic Party are very frustrated with the Trump phenomenon. Republicans do not accept Trump emotionally, but they have no choice; they have to give priority to party interests. At the same time, both parties have nationalist feelings. They believe that no matter what Trump is like, we Americans can criticize him but not you foreigners.

Zhao Lingmin: After the Sino-US trade war broke out, the general view was that the American elite’s understanding of China was completely reversed. Before they that China could be influenced by the United States. Now they see that China’s path is taking it further and further away from the United States. So they gave up their illusions and began to find ways to deal with China. In the future, even if the United States changes presidents, the current confrontation will continue. Do you agree?

Wang Jisi: I basically agree. However, there are still some American elites who believe that China may change. They can’t speak out in the current political atmosphere. If they say something about China, they will be regarded as a “panda hugger”. People will think that they have sold out to the Chinese. That wouldn’t be good for them so they prefer not to say anything. There are also some think tanks get some government funding. If they take a different position from that of the government, and speak up for China, that may affect their access to government funding. At present, the atmosphere of the United States is described by more than one person as a kind of “McCarthyism.”

Zhao Lingmin: How representative are Peter Navarro’s views?

Wang Jisi: Not many people agree but his views are very powerful because they mesh well with the current trend towards nationalism and populism. Navarro’s view can be refuted by citing facts, but his views have a kind of political correctness based on an emotion so refuting him and debating with him is difficult in the same way that debating with someone whether you Trump or not is difficult.

Why is the United States launching a trade war?

Zhao Lingmin: Why does Trump want to launch a trade war against China? Is it to hurt China?

Wang Jisi: My understanding is that American entrepreneurs still do not want to withdraw from China. They think they can make a lot of money in China. After all, the Chinese market is big, and in the past 30 or 40 years, some very strong path dependencies have been created – how can such a big and complex supply chain simply move somewhere else? There are not many places to choose from. For the present, these enterprises are opportunistic. They say that they want to exert pressure on China on the US government. On the other hand, they say to China that if you give me preferential policies, I will not leave. I think there are still many American companies see things that way. They have a wait-and-see attitude.

Their feelings about China are complex. On the one hand, they are very dissatisfied with various restrictive policies. On the other hand, they also realize that China is not the only country with these restrictions. Many many developing countries have similar restrictions. If you move your company to Egypt, don’t you think that the Egyptian government will regulate you? When they think about it, China is still good a good place to be. They can make money here. Therefore, they think that they should exert pressure on the Chinese government to continue with reform and open up some more industrial sectors to foreign investment.

Therefore, the reason the United States launched a trade war against China was not to pull out of China or to completely “decouple” from China, but to change China’s behavior so that it can make more money. This conclusion I have drawn from decades of involvement in Sino-US economic and trade relations. Some people in the US government and others in some American companies, however, are also preparing for the worst: decoupling of many of the economic links between China and the United States. This is dangerous.

Zhao Lingmin: Eliminate some things that are not to the advantage of the United States so that their companies will enjoy a better investment climate when they come to invest in China. After all, there are not many better places in the world worth investing.

Wang Jisi: Right. In the past, because of China’s low cost of manufacturing in China, US manufacturing was gradually attracted to and moved to China. Although the United States has been unhappy about this process of manufacturing moving to China, Sino-US economic and trade relations have continued to get stronger. As China has gotten stronger and now that it has been developing its own high tech industries, and is able to compete with the United States, the US has gotten worried.

Zhao Lingmin: In addition to the trade imbalance, what other causes of US dissatisfaction in the US – China relationship?

Wang Jisi: The US military is unhappy. The military is a big interest group. A few year ago, it did not believe that China was strong enough to pose a threat to the United States, and that China did not mean to truly exclude the United States from the Asia-Pacific region. During the past two years, China has taken a very firm position on the South China Sea issue. The United States has begun to feel that that the Chinese military is much stronger than before. They feel that if the US does not exert pressure on China, it will not have a foothold in the Western Pacific. The military, including the military-industrial complex, are hardliners on China policy. Formerly, when terrorism was the top concern, there was a lot of military spending and a great many companies and others forming a huge chain of interests linked to the manufacture and sale of weapons. Now, by pointing to China, contradictions with China on military security issues can be used to argue for more military spending.

In addition, the Confucius Institutes in the United States have made Americans feel that China’s values are different from those of the United States. China’s promotion of Chinese values in the United States is very difficult for Americans to accept. The ideological contradictions between China and the United States are also reflected their attitudes towards Chinese students and scholars studying in the United States.

Zhao Lingmin: What does the United States want? Do they really need to overthrow the Chinese system?

Wang Jisi: Some people say that if China does not make fundamental changes in its political system, good relations with the United States will be impossible. I do not agree with this. There are indeed people in the United States who want to change China’s fundamental political system, but the government and the political mainstream know that this is unrealistic and cannot be accomplished. However, the Americans do have demands in some specific areas. For example, the want China to become more required to be more internationalized and market-oriented, increase transparency in various fields, reduce government subsidies to state-owned enterprises, reduce the requirements for transfer of the proprietary technology transfer of foreign enterprises, and to make changes in the “Made in China 2025″ program and other policies. If these change, the United States will still be hopeful that they are at least making progress. Sino-US relations have been like this for a long time. The US asking price has always been very high. We have never accepted it in full. The two sides are always bargaining.

Zhao Lingmin: Some say that the pressure that the United States has put on China was to a great extent the cause of the firm line of Chinese foreign policy over the past several years.

Wang Jisi: I am not here to make political and moral judgments. If we are looking for the cause, it was the change in Chinese policy that led to adjustments in US policy towards China. In recent years, China’s strength has been increasing rapidly along with its international influence. China has increased its operations maintain protect China’s territorial sovereignty and maritime rights. China has put increased pressure on “Taiwan independence” and other splittist forces. China has strengthened the leadership of the Communist Party. The United States has become increasingly uncomfortable with China’s actions and has begun to react strongly. We can expect that these US reactions to Chinese actions will become ever more intense. The US may switch from the defensive to the the offensive.

The cause-and-effect relationship we see today also applies to 1949 and 1979. In those two years, changes in Chinese internal affairs led to big changes in Sino-US relations. Changes in US internal affairs have always had relatively little impact on Sino-US relations despite the many different presidents since then and many different political currents swept the US during those decades. The financial crisis broke out in 2008. That was major event for the United States. Did it cause a major change in Sino-US relations? Not at all.

I very much agree with my colleague Professor Tao Wenzhao that for over 200 years, the United States has never changed its strategic goals for its relationship with China:

  • Free flow of goods and capital, and
  • Free free flow of information and values.

Chinese have always had reservations or imposed boycotts to oppose two goals. We should criticize and have reason to criticize the United States but we should realize that China’s own actions have changed Sino-US relations and US perceptions of China.

Zhao Lingmin: Since the outbreak of the trade war, we have always insisted that we do not want to fight but are not afraid to fight. We accuse the United States of ruining our bilateral relations. We believe that we have institutional advantages that makes us less vulnerable to the fallout of a trade conflict than is the United States.

Wang Jisi: The trade war is an omen and a manifestation of the deterioration of Sino-US relations. It is not the cause. The Trump administration’s trade war is a tactic for mobilizing public support along a desire to make certain demands to further US interests. However continuing with the trade war serves the interests of neither country. It will solve nothing. As to which country could hold out better during a trade war, that is a strategic game between the two governments and an economic calculation of corporate interests. In the end, the government must calculate the gains and losses of their various interests and then rationally reach some compromises in order to stabilize the relationship. We need to cut our losses and to prevent trade wars or local disagreements from expanding into other areas that might lead to an overall direct confrontation between China and the United States.

Once emotions have won out over reason, there is the danger of a direct confrontation. That is something we need to be psychologically prepared for.

(I only represent the author’s point of view, editor: Yan Man.yan@ftchinese.com)

 


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赵灵敏:世界灵敏度创始人

王缉思:北京大学国际战略研究院院长

世界政治进入新阶段,未来难以预料

赵灵敏:前一段时间您有一篇文章认为“世界政治进入新阶段”,并总结出这个新阶段的四个特征:民族主义和民粹主义合流并同时上升,威权主义和强人政治回潮,地缘政治竞争加剧、战争危险冒头,技术创新是双刃剑,这些观点引发了广泛的关注。您认为产生这些变化的根本原因是什么?

王缉思:目前世界政治中的分化和分裂,是由两方面的长期因素造成的。第一个因素是经济不平等在全球范围的进一步扩大。当今世界上最贫穷的若干非洲国家,其人均国内生产总值为400至500美元;最富裕的国家如美国、瑞士、新加坡等,其人均国内生产总值是最贫穷国家的100多倍。同时,在人均国内生产总值已经超过60000美元的美国,近年来内部的贫富差距也在日益扩大。而在发展中国家内部,新兴大国同发达国家的经济差距在缩小,但新兴国家同后进的发展中国家之间的差距却在拉大,造成发展中国家内部的分化。

据有关统计,现在世界基尼系数已经达到0.7左右,超过了公认的0.6“危险线”。一些资料显示,无论是国与国之间,还是国家内部,现阶段全球范围的经济不平等,达到了世界近现代历史上前所未有的程度。

加剧世界各国政治分化、分裂的第二个长期因素,是全球范围人口流动所带来的社会认同的重新组合。当今世界上有3亿以上人口长年生活在出生地以外的国家,另外还有很多跨越国界的季节性劳工,各国国内的流动人口就更多了。人们生活在异国他乡,或者在自己生活的地域发现越来越多的肤色、文化、信仰不同的外来人口,会带来更大程度的乡恋、疏离感和排外情绪。网络、智能手机和社交媒体的广泛应用,方便了人们找到同胞、同乡,或者结成价值观上志同道合的“知音”和“朋友圈”。这种现象,实际上割裂了种族、族群、教派、文化、价值观等方面的社会认同,加剧了许多国家政治的极化。

可以看出,经济全球化主要带来两个问题,一是贫富差距拉大,二是认同政治突出。大家觉得不满意、不平等,希望有人来纠正这些情况,那就需要有强政府,需要有政治强人来代表,说出民众心里不满意的地方——特朗普就是这样的人,菲律宾的杜特尔特、土耳其的埃尔多安、印度的莫迪、俄罗斯的普京等,都是这样的人。政治强人的崛起不仅改变了一国的国内政治,也会反映在价值观、地缘政治等层面。过去的“政治正确性”是多元化趋势下的团结、和谐,现在则是“代表我和我的群体”去强硬地打击对立面。在国家政策层面,“政治正确”是收紧移民政策、贸易保护主义;在军事方面就要增强国防力量;领土方面是代表国家与外国寸土必争。这样一来,国内的阶级矛盾、族群矛盾,世界上的国家间矛盾,都越来越尖锐,妥协则被视为软弱和背叛。

赵灵敏:全球化进程天然有利于那些能力高强的精英,他们可以突破民族国家的界限,把东西卖到全世界,把思想传播到全世界,全世界都是他们的市场;而普通人不掌握这方面的能力和资源,只能蜗居在原来的地方听天由命。从这个角度看,不平等的问题是否是很难得到根本纠正?

王缉思:历史上主要通过三种方式来改变不平等:第一种是战争,战争之后大家都穷;第二种是革命,在俄国十月革命、中国1949年革命、伊朗1979年革命之后,没收资本家财产,打土豪分田地,富人被消灭了,或者被迫移居海外,然后大家似乎比较平等,都富不起来,;第三种是瘟疫和天灾,例如欧洲14世纪的黑死病(鼠疫)。

现在通常的做法是,通过调节社会再分配,政府将税收投入到基础设施、公共卫生、教育等领域,通过扶贫让穷人生活好起来。这种方式的见效过程是比较慢的。在任何国家、任何社会形态下,只要发展生产力,就必然是一部分人先富起来,另一部分人富裕程度比较低,差距会越来越大;想要迅速缩小这种差距,就得“杀富济贫”,这会挫伤创造财富者的积极性,穷人往往还觉得得到的帮助不够多,最终大家都不满意。

所以这个问题,我觉得是没有办法根本纠正的,至少是很难纠正的,这个现象可能会持续很长时间,目前还不想不出什么好的解决办法。丹麦、爱尔兰等欧洲国家,人们比较习惯于高税收、高福利,但连这些国家现在也出现了贫富差距拉大的趋势,特别是在移民增加之后。

赵灵敏:这个无解状态让人很担心,不知道该么办?

王缉思:世界现在正处于一个新的历史转换期。冷战结束后的很长时间里,我们认为世界进入到和平与发展时期,大家都比较乐观,最近几年感觉有可能开倒车,未来走势难以预测,可能有各种各样的黑天鹅事件出来。

今天我看了一篇文章,谈目前自由主义面临的危机:20世纪有三大主义,一是以美国为代表的自由主义,二是以苏联中国为代表的共产主义/马克思主义/社会主义,三是法西斯主义。二战把法西斯主义灭掉,世界演变为社会主义/共产主义和资本主义/自由主义之间的争夺,后来苏联解体,社会主义退到低潮,自由主义在世界大部分地区几乎变成唯一的政治正确,即福山所说的“历史的终结”。而近几年,自由主义又似乎不灵了,强人政治开始回潮,包括美国在内的很多国家,都对自己的制度有所不满,开始进行反思。

自由主义的对立面是什么?这是一个很大的问题。我觉得自由主义现在的对立面是民族主义。但民族主义是一个意识形态吗?好像又不是。共同的意识形态应该会导致相互合作而不是冲突,但如果各国都信奉民族主义,就会走向分裂和相互冲突的。

赵灵敏:民族主义也解决不了问题,只是给大家宣泄的出口,有些人对现状不满,认为现在的精英不能代表他,精英所关心的问题也和他们没有关系,只要政治强人说出了他们的心声就可以,至于管不管用再说。

王缉思:三十年河东三十年河西,原来那套模式现在不管用了。特朗普再做一段时间,可能美国民众又会觉得他的方法不管用,到时候可能又需要改弦更张。

赵灵敏:这是比较理想的情况,类似于钟摆效应,如果可以比较平安地从一边摆到另一边也就罢了,但这个过程中会发生什么事?

王缉思:所以有很多种可能,有一种可能是回到战争的时代,但是过去那种常规战争或核战争除了导致大家都死亡之外,解决不了问题。最终还是需要政府之间的合作和协调,在全球治理中找出一个模式来。也许再过一段时间,钟摆又摆回来了,但不可能真正回归原点。这里面要考虑的因素包括:30年前政府对人们自由的控制还是比较有限的,近年来涌现的新技术更有利于掌权者,但与此同时,民众也在通过新技术千方百计绕过政府强加的各种限制,完完全全的信息控制已经不可能了。过去信息匮乏,人们只能相信政府说的那一套,现在有了各种各样的缺口,中国人可以知道海外发生的事情,美国人也可以知道中国国内发生了什么。

另外一个因素是,各个族群彼此之间的认识正在发生微妙的变化。以往我们说美帝国主义坏,美国人民是好的;日本军国主义坏,日本人民是好的。但现在,很多中国人认为美国人就是坏的,不光政府坏,记者、学者、商人也很坏。美国对中国的看法也变了,过去认为中国是“专制政府”,政府不好老百姓好,现在发现很多华人和中国留学生在美国帮中国政府做事,于是对华人也开始不友好,认为这个民族的人都不是好人。另外还有宗教的问题,比如对伊斯兰教彻底负面的评价,这在全世界很多地方都很盛行。这些一边倒的看法,从认识层面是简单了,却在各个族群之间甚至同一族群的不同组成部分之间埋下了巨大的鸿沟。

“我对美国感到幻灭”

赵灵敏:大家都说特朗普能当选很重要的原因是得到美国中西部“铁锈地带”人们的支持,这个判断成立吗?

王缉思:我觉得大体上成立。不管是“铁锈地带”还是别的什么,美国社会一直有一些人感觉自己被剥夺了,在社会上吃不开了。产生这种现象的一个重要原因是全球化引发的产业转移,以及新移民的到来让人产生的不安全感。这些群体在纽约、芝加哥等大城市也都有,他们对全球化及其受益者感到反感,特朗普则说出了他们的心声。但无论如何,美国选出特朗普让我产生很大的失落感,无法想象。

赵灵敏:您觉得这个事情是偶然还是必然?当然现在它已经发生了,大家可能会找很多理由来证明它是必然的。

王缉思:我觉得肯定有一定的偶然性,但像特朗普这样的人能得到很多支持是一个必然现象,因为美国社会的分裂是已经存在的事实。特朗普的问题是,他不仅要借助社会分裂实现自己利益的最大化,而且还在不遗余力地加深这种分裂,这是比较可怕的地方。

自由主义者对特朗普的指责往往变成人身攻击,把他说得一文不值,他也把反对派骂得一文不值,这个社会就开始出现对立、厌恶和仇恨。我对美国的幻灭感很强,我在1984年第一次去美国时,美国政治斗争是相对理性、文明的,不是现在这样子动不动就破口大骂。

赵灵敏:您觉得美国社会的分化是什么时候发生的?大部分人因为特朗普当选才注意到这一变化,觉得很突然,但肯定有一个发展过程,不是一下子就这样了。

王缉思:美国社会的分化,其实很多年前就出现了,只是人们没有太注意。1992年美国洛杉矶就发生过一起种族骚乱,而且不是在黑人和白人之间,而是在黑人和韩国移民之间。现在美国族群的隔阂是逐渐加深的,排外情绪亦然。

一方面是奥巴马和希拉里所代表的许多黑人和妇女,这些曾经受过压迫的人要树立多元文化主义的政治正确性;另外一些人则正好完全相反,有人甚至是赤裸裸的白人种族主义者。这两个进程是同时发生的,我们往往注意到的是多元文化主义,而轻视了右翼民族主义、种族主义的反弹。1991年我在美国教课时,很注意不要违背“政治正确”,不能对黑人和妇女有歧视性的言论。其实,相反的倾向也同时存在。比如有一个白人女生私下跟我说,“和我同班的一个黑人女孩并不比我穷,也不像我这样勤工俭学,但她却享受优惠奖学金,这太不公平了!”她很反感这种“反向种族歧视”的情况。在此之下,仿佛有两个美国社会,都感到自己受歧视。这两者之间的矛盾,我们一直没有充分注意到。

对政治影响最深的东西可能不是理性而是情感,特朗普及其铁杆支持者就更多地代表了一种情感——他再这样不好那样不好,也还是我们的人,你们越攻击,我就越支持。我对美国的失望也在这里,过去多少高估了美国人民的理性、政治觉悟或者知识水平。

赵灵敏:特朗普上任后的第一次开内阁会议,包括副总统彭斯在内的大部分阁员都争相向他表忠心,极尽谄媚之能事,这让人非常惊讶:这样的事居然能发生在美国?

王缉思:人性在每个地方都差不多,不分党派和人群。特朗普本来也喜欢用听话、忠诚度高的人,这些人为了保住权位,也就投其所好。

赵灵敏:您在美国的同行,大学里研究中美关系的教授,他们怎么看待中美之间的现状?

王缉思:其中有些人认为是特朗普把事情搞砸了,但当我反问,“如果是希拉里•克林顿当选,中美关系会不会比现在好”,他们也回答不出来。支持民主党的人对特朗普现象非常沮丧;共和党人感情上不接受特朗普,但也无可奈何,党派利益优先。同时两党都有一种民族主义情感,认为再怎么样特朗普也是我们美国人的总统,我可以去骂,你去骂就不行。

赵灵敏:中美贸易战爆发后,普遍的看法是美国精英阶层对中国的认识发生了逆转,以前他们认为中国是可以被影响的,现在发现中国所走的道路离美国期待的越来越远,所以放弃了幻想,开始想方设法对付中国,将来即使美国换了总统,也会继续目前这一套对抗的做法。您同意这些看法吗?

王缉思:我基本同意。但还是有一些美国精英认为中国还是有改变的希望的,只是在当下的政治气氛之下,他们不能出来说话,因为一出来说中国好话就会被认为是“熊猫拥抱者”,被怀疑是否收了中国人的钱,这样对自己没有好处,所以宁愿不吭声。还有一些智库是拿政府资金的,如果现在和政府立场不同,替中国说话,会影响它们从政府那里获得资助。当下美国的氛围,不止一个人用“麦卡锡主义”来形容。

赵灵敏:纳瓦罗的观点,到底有多少代表性?

王缉思:不多,但很强有力。因为这种观点迎合了民族主义和民粹主义的风向,真的要从道理上反驳他并不难,但他的观点是基于一种政治正确性,基于一种情绪,去反驳他就和去辩论是否喜欢特朗普一样困难,因为情绪已经形成,正确与否反而不是那么重要了。

美国为什么要发动贸易战?

赵灵敏:特朗普为什么要对中国发动贸易战?是为了打垮中国吗?

王缉思:我所知道的情况是,美国企业家目前还是不想撤出中国,觉得在中国还是可以赚不少钱的。毕竟中国市场大,过去三四十年也已经产生某种路径依赖,况且这么庞大的产业链能转去哪里?可选择的地方并不多。目前这些企业是机会主义的做法,一边对美国政府说要对中国施加压力,另一方面对中国说如果你给了什么优惠政策我就不走了,我觉得还是有很多美国企业是这样的心态,想再等等看。

他们对中国的心情是复杂的,一方面对各种限制政策很不满意,另一方面他们也意识到,这些限制不是只有中国有,很多发展中国家也有类似的限制。你把企业转移到埃及,难道埃及政府就不管你了?想来想去,中国还是不错的,是能赚到钱的,所以要向中国政府施加压力,要求进行改革,开放一些行业允许外资进入。

因此,美国之所以发动贸易战打击中国,并不是想彻底离开中国,完全跟中国“脱钩”,而是想要改变中国的行为,从而赚更多的钱。这是几十年来我观察中美经贸关系得出的结论。不过,美国政府中一些人和一些美国企业,也在做中美脱钩的最坏准备,这是危险的。

赵灵敏:消除一些对美国不利的东西,方便他们更有利地进来,毕竟世界上也没有多少更好的地方值得投资。

王缉思:对。过去因为中国成本低,慢慢把美国的制造业吸引过来了,尽管在这个过程中美国有很多不满,但中美经贸关系还是在不断加强。等到中国积累了经济实力,要发展高技术产业、和美国正面竞争时,美国人才急了。

赵灵敏:除了贸易不平衡之外,美国对中国还有什么不满?

王缉思:还有美国军方的不满。军方是很大的利益集团,前些年它认为中国的军事力量还不足以对美国造成威胁,而且中国也没有想要真正把美国排挤出亚太地区。这两年中国在南海问题上态度很强势,美国开始感觉中国军队的力量已经比以前大了很多,再不对中国施加压力,美国在西太平洋就没有立足点,这部分人是对华政策强硬的重要推手,其中也包括军工利益集团。过去拿恐怖主义说事可以拿到很多军费,还有武器制造和销售的巨大利益链条,现在矛头指向中国之后,安全问题上的矛盾都可以拿来当借口。

此外,在美国的孔子学院使美国人感觉到,中国的价值观和美国不一样,中国在美国宣传中国的价值观,美国人很难接受。中美意识形态矛盾,也表现在中国留美学生、学者身上。

赵灵敏:那美国到底想要什么?是要颠覆中国的制度吗?

王缉思:有人说,中国不进行根本的政治体制改造就不能和美国搞好关系,我不同意这种说法。美国确实有人想要改变中国的根本政治制度,但它的政府和政治主流知道这不现实,做不到。但在一些具体领域,美国人是有诉求的,比如要求中国更加国际化、市场化,增加各个领域的透明度,减少政府对国有企业的补贴,降低对外企技术转让的要求,改变诸如“中国制造2025”等项政策。如果这些方面有所改变的话,美国还是会感觉有希望,至少在朝它希望的方向走。其实中美关系长期以来就是这样,美国要价一直是很高的,我们从来不会全盘接受,双方是要讨价还价的。

赵灵敏:所以有一种说法认为,美国对中国的打压跟我们这几年强势的外交政策有很大关系。

王缉思:我在这里先不做政治道德判断。如果只从因果关系来说,主要是中国的变化引起了美国对华政策的调整。这些年中国实力迅速增强,国际影响拓展很快,强化了领土和海洋上的维权行动,加强了对“台独”等分裂势力的打压,国内加强了共产党的领导。美国对中国的所作所为感到越来越不适应,开始做出强烈的反应。可以预料,美国的反应会越来越激烈,可能由守势转向攻势。

这个因果关系可以往前延伸到1949年和1979年。在这两个时间点,都是中国内政的变化导致了中美关系的巨变。而美国内政的变化向来对中美关系的影响相对比较小。美国换了那么多届总统,国内有那么多次政治风潮,2008年爆发了金融危机,这都是美国的大事,中美关系因此有重大变化吗?并没有。

我十分同意我的同事陶文钊教授的说法,即200多年来,美国对中国的战略目标从来没有变过:一个是商品与资本的自由流动,另一个是信息与价值观的自由流动。中国对这两个目标一直是有保留或者抵制的。我们应该、也有理由批评美国,制约美国,但应当认识到,中国所做的事情改变了中美关系,改变了美国对中国的看法。

赵灵敏:贸易战爆发至今,我们一直说不想战不怕战,指责美国破坏了两国关系,认为我们有体制上的优势,比美国更能扛得住。

王缉思:贸易战是中美关系恶化的征兆和表现,而不是原因。特朗普政府打贸易战是取得民意支持的一种手段,也有一些利益诉求,但是接着打下去对双方都是没有前途的,解决不了什么问题。至于谁更能扛得住,是两国政府间的战略博弈问题,企业算的是经济账。政府最终要是要计算利益得失,用理性方式使双方达成一些妥协,把关系稳定下来。当务之急是止损,防止贸易战或局部矛盾扩大到其他领域,造成中美全面对抗。一旦情感压住了理性,就会出现全面对抗的危险,对此要有心理准备。

进入 王缉思 的专栏     进入专题: 中美贸易战   中美关系

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