2009: Censored — Tang Xiyang’s A Green World Tour

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Tang Xiyang
唐锡阳

It can be so very hard to imagine what it could have been like to live in a totalitarian state. While I worked in the S&T section at U.S. Embassy Beijing in China, I knew the Chinese environmentalist Tang Xiyang.   Tang (pictured at left) had been condemned for his “rightist views” during the Great Leap Forward.  Later his wife Zheng Zhaonan ,  then a middle school teacher, was murdered by her own students because she refused to divorce her husband.  Tang wrote about the oppression many Chinese suffered in a section that was censored from one of his books.  

The material I am sharing here I posted previously on the website of the Environment, Science and Technology Section of U.S. Embassy Beijing while I was working there during 2007 – 2012. The old U.S. Embassy Beijing website is available on the Internet Archive. One archival capture from 2001 is available at https://web.archive.org/web/20010805141239/http://www.usembassy-china.org.cn/english/sandt/index.html

Some of the passages Chinese environmentalist Tang Xiyang wrote for “A Green World Tour” were censored. Tang would like his friends overseas to have them.

The censored passages are reflections on the relationship of democracy and environmentalism and on his own career as a journalist condemned as a rightist and the sufferings that brought him and his family Tang co-authored “A Green World Tour” with his late wife Marcia Marks. The book reports on their experiences visiting environmental parks in Europe and in the United States in the mid-1980s as well as the student “Green Camp” trips to the Golden Monkey habitat in Deqin Prefecture in Yunnan Province in 1996 and to the Tibetan Autonomous Region in 1997 to learn about the situation of the endangered forests of eastern Tibet. [See Tang Xiyang’s Letter About Green Camp Trip to Yunnan and Loss of His Wife on the Internet Archive link to http://www.usembassy-china.org.cn/english/sandt/tang2.htm ]

The book is not a particularly political one. Tang’s reflections are not only interesting in themselves but also as a indication of what the authorities (or at least editors scared of the authorities) think had best be left out of books these days. The sections below were censored and so left out of the 1993 Chinese language edition and the subsequent English language translation published in 1999.

[Context of censored section on p. 221 — in a chapter discussing a trip to German nature parks, Tang mentions his correspondence with an American friend named Kitty. Kitty had written to Tang, “It is hard for me to accept the explanation that much of China is worn out and damaged beyond repair because of thousand of years of overuse by a people who did not traditionally have reverence for nature, the land and living things. :” I do not believe that there is such a thing as an entire people whose cultural tradition sanctions destruction of the natural environment. There has to be another explanation.” Tang replied, “Kitty, my dear friend thank you for your letter. … A difference in living conditions, historical backgrounds and cultural levels has naturally given us different understandings of nature. Questions that mean nothing to you could be very serious to us.

“As you have noticed, a disregard for nature is widespread in China. Two types of people notice this: Chinese who go abroad and then return and foreigners who come to China. Why is there such disregard? Apart from pressures of a large population, there are many reasons which relate to political, economic and cultural factors. You raised a very important questions when you said : “I do not believe that there is such a thing as an entire people whose cultural tradition sanctions destruction of the natural environment.” You question left me sleepless for several nights. I continue to ponder the question. Is the Chinese cultural tradition entirely without any nature-loving element?

I have not enough learning to answer this question, so I am just expressing my feeling instead of my knowledge. Observing the present is helpful in better understanding history, and reviewing history is helpful in better understanding the present.

Begin censored section

The Tiananmen Square incident has left a very deep impression on me. All the newspapers, journals, radio and TV programs changed to uniform words and tone almost overnight, as if the happening involving a million people that had taken place the night before was unreal. A downright lie became 100 percent truth. In an instant intelligent men devoting themselves to the cause of democracy became criminals, while those engaged in repressing the masses were honored as “Defenders of the Republic” Beijing University, with its long history and international fame, was allowed to enroll only eight hundred new students this year, and all of them must leave Beijing to receive one year of military training. The bitter and suffocating yesterday that parted us not long ago has returned suddenly. Some people said, “This is because of the intimidation of guns.” I said, “It’s not entirely the power of guns but more the pernicious influence of thousands of years of traditional culture.” This can be seen from the articles published following the incident, for these took a 180 degree turn — but how plausible and emotional they sounded! If you think these writings were the outcome of political and military pressure, then why did a certain Professor Chen, living in the United States, also speak against his own conscience? (His essay was published by the overseas edition of Liaowang magazine.)

Let’s compare conditions in Eastern Europe. When the peoples of Poland, Hungary and East Germany awakened to the necessity for reform, reform became an irresistible tide. However, when the Chinese people awakened and began to act, they induced bloody suppression. That reminds me of various farmers’ rebellions in former eras. Even if some of the rebellions were successful, the result was simply a shift in rulers, the fruits of success never passed into the hands of the common people. I’m also reminded of the burning of books and burying alive of scholars by the Emperor Qinshihuang, the state examination system started in the Tang Dynasty, and the various political movements started by Mao Zedong aimed at punishing intellectuals, which I experienced myself.

[End Censored Section In such a cultural environment — [Censored “prolonged, closed, dictatorial, lacking in democracy, domestically and in interflow internationally ]

[Censor inserts “closed to the outside world” — it was very difficult to develop science and technology as well as a tradition of loving nature.

[After this section Tang names several nature loving writers and poets — Tao Yuanming, Li Bai/Li Po, and Xu Xiake, and then remarks, “However, their nature-loving spirit failed to penetrate traditional Chinese culture. Even though their writings were popular among intellectuals and their activities did evoke some response from intellectuals who were political escapists, it was impossible to transform their love of nature into a cultural philosophy for mass consumption under conditions prevailing at the time.”]

Here are some other censored sections from Tang’s A Green World Tour in which he reflects on the Great Leap Forward (1957) and the Cultural Revolution (1966 – 1976) :

Begin censored section (p. 408):

What was the people’s greatest agony during the ‘cultural revolution’?

    “They had no freedom to commit suicide.”

     “ My listeners looked shocked, so I tried to explain, “Intellectuals have strong self-respect, so to avoid suffering, they felt the best thing to do was to take one’s own life.  Even some very famous people chose this way out: the editor-in-chief of People’s Daily, Deng Tuo, the writer Lao She,  the Peking Opera performer Ma Lianliang, the world champion Ping-Pong player Yong Guotan, the renowned Ping-Pong coach Fu Qifang and many others.   The authorities, however, decided such a great number of suicides were giving a bad impression, so they began to take measures to prevent suicide.  They started with what were called negative methods, taking away anything that might be used such as knives, scissors,  light cords.  

Where I was interned, nothing of metal remained.  They also took the latches off the toilet doors and always had someone accompany us to the toilet.  Still people found means. They hid razor blades and used them to slit their throats; they opened the vein in their wrist at night with their own fingers to let the blood out.; an animal expert who had a hypodermic syringe he had been using on his animals injected air into his bloodstream.  One night I heard Liu Qin, associate editor of Beijing Daily, in the room next to mine crying out as he was beaten.  The next day he asked the guard to give him some sneaker since he wanted to exercise; that night he used the shoestrings to hang himself.   Since these negative measures weren’t working, the authorities tried what were termed positive methods: If someone attempted suicide but failed – such as jumping off a high building, but not killing oneself – both he and his family would be maltreated.  For instance, if he were badly injured in the fall or paralyzed, he would not be given medical treatment. 

A high official,  Luo Ruiqiang, jumped from a high window, but didn’t die.  Since he was unable to move, he was stuffed into a shoulder-pole basket and taken to a meeting to be criticized.  Another suicide died, but he was stripped of his clothes and hung with a placard saying, ‘Counterrevolutionary death.’  His family was also labeled counterrevolutionary. It’s perhaps hard for foreigners to realize the severity of this. It was just as if the label had been printed on his face for all to see. In China, it was a very powerful method, like Hawthorne’s scarlet letter.  Since people were not willing to have their families suffer, they refrained from committing suicide.  However, a university professor who didn’t want his family to suffer, chose instead to burn down his house with all his family inside.  An Army officer used dynamite to blow up his entire family. “

   “These were all ‘cultural revolution’ matters.  My thoughts then turned to the earlier anti-Rightist campaign and I told me listeners about that too.  “In June 1957 the staff of the Beijing Daily was called to the fourth-floor auditorium to attend a general meeting criticizing Liu Binyan, then with China Youth News.   A colleague of his, Qi Xueyi, opposed the meeting, so to show his support for Liu, he jumped from the auditorium window into the hutong below and was killed.

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    “Since I had already been labeled a Rightist, I was not allowed to attend this meeting, but my wife, Zheng Zhaonan (photo below), who also at that time worked for Beijing Daily, did attend.  Like everyone else, she looked out the window where Qi had jumped, and perhaps thinking of me and our situation, stayed there for a long moment.  This was noticed and reported to the newspaper’s leaders, who immediately called another meeting, at which Qi was first criticized.  His deed was called counterrevolutionary; he had substituted for a Rightist; it was a bad act to try to stop the meeting;  if he could kill himself, he could kill anyone, so he was the worst kind of class enemy.  Then Zheng was criticized for feeling sorry for him;  she was the same sort of ‘raccoon dog’, the epigram about the fox that was sorry after the rabbit died because now it had nothing to eat was used to describe her;  she was criticized for even thinking about her husband.

    “That night Zheng cried bitterly and said that she was afraid.  It would never have occurred to me that ten years later it would be she who was killed and not I.  She was only one of many.  The statistics were later printed in a book.:  In Beijing, between August 19 and September 30, 1966, over 1,700 people were killed; 33,600 houses were searched and the residents’ property was confiscated; 85,000 people belonging to  ‘bad’ categories were exiled to distant parts of the country.  My wife was killed during those forty days too. Human nature, human sympathy, human rights, human dignity, human value – the most essential human qualities – were all suppressed during the ‘cultural revolution’.  It was the twentieth century’s greatest world tragedy. I have tried to forget but I cannot.

   “Did you think of committing suicide, especially after your wife was killed?”

“ How could I?  I had two daughters, the elder one twelve years old, the younger one only six. How could they bear losing their father just after losing their mother?  Yes, if it hadn’t been for them, I would have committed suicide ten times over. “

“You were imprisoned, weren’t you?”

   “Yes, but in the beginning I was permitted to go home at night.  I had to write out my ‘confessions’ under ten at night and be out sweeping the streets by five in the morning, so it was about ten-thirty when I got home and only 4:30 when I left.  The children had already fallen asleep when I arrived and had not yet awakened when I left, so my eldest daughter and I had to write notes to each other in a diary. I told them to diligently study Chairman Mao’s quotations, to struggle against selfish motives, to criticize revisionism, and to save their small change and to keep on good terms with the neighbor’s children.  When my house was later searched  and all my possessions seized and broken, only the diary survived, which I now keep as a treasured document. “

End of one of the censored sections of A Green World Tour.

Here are some others:

After p. 240 at the conclusion of a chapter on the visit of Tang Xiyang and Marcia Marks to Switzerland, Tang wrote:

Begin censored passage

“In my society, the word “people” is both infinitely great and infinitely small.  It is great because it is an inseparable part of such weighty terms as “people’s republic,”  “people’s congress,”  “the dictatorship of the people,”  and “Long live the people!”.  It is small because people are so insignificant. One day a person may be a State Chairman; the next day a jail inmate; on day a famous general,  the next day a victim in a dunce cap being paraded through the streets;  one day a famous writer, the next day a body drowned in a lake; one day a world champion, the next day a figure hanging from a tree. There are well-known cases out of hundreds of thousands of frame-ups that caused loss of life, family separations, the denunciations of fathers by sons.  Most people have had their names cleared by so called rehabilitation, but what does that mean to people who are already dead? And what about those whose cases have been mishandled and not yet redressed, for whatever reason?  This is a human tragedy.  Yet the chief perpetrators of these political crimes feel no regret, utter no word of apology. Instead they expect their victims to be deeply grateful and hail them as heroes. Isn’t this the typical mentality of a despotic monarch?  Yet they call themselves communists. The victims in this power game as not just I or the other hundreds of thousands of wronged persons, but the destiny of our country, for which countless martyrs died, and the sincere, revolutionary aspirations of the early Mao Zedong.

    “If only history had taken a different road, one along which people enjoyed true democracy.  If only people had been allowed to speak their  minds, and the government had put itself under the people’s supervision.  All this could have been avoided.  At first I did not know what democracy meant.  Life and the fate of our nation taught me its importance, and I felt it was all the more important after I had been abroad.  Citizen should have the right to shout out that the emperor has no clothes on whether they are right or not.  Without democracy there can be no way to approach truth. History without clear conclusions will only repeat its blind and restless past. Only when people are the real masters of their own destiny can they speak, discuss, criticize and select able persons. All this must be practiced, not mere form. Only true democracy can create a stable society. I don’t think this contradicts the principles of socialism. Only anti-socialists are afraid of democracy.  Nowadays some communists are advancing the slogan of “democratic and humane socialism,” showing that they have had their fill of sham socialism and seek a genuine socialism.

   “I am still ignorant about politics and do not wish to digress too far, simple to discuss what has to do with my job and impresses me most strongly.  If my trips abroad can be compared to the Journey to the West of the Tang Dynasty priest Sanzang, whose mission was to bring back Buddhist sutras, then which I am after is the “green sutra”.  I found the chief guarantee of nature protection to be the practice of democracy. Without real democracy there can be no everlasting green hills and clear waters.  I am convinced that nature conservation is a cause for the whole nation.  It won’t do to depend upon a wise emperor or president.  Hundreds of millions of people must realize and show concern for this problem.  When they all dare speak and act, the emperor or president has to do somethings; otherwise he cannot continue in office.  After visiting many countries and observing others’ attitudes, I believe democracy is necessary to the protection of nature.”

End censored passage.

On pp. 304  – 314 of A Green World Tour, Tang Xiyang and his wife Marcia Marks visit an Oneida Community at Kenwood in upstate New York since one of Maria’s relatives’s on her father side had been involved in the religious utopian socialist society there.  Marcia had lived there several times.  The Oneida Community was formed by the charismatic leader John H. Noyes.  The community aimed at living in common and eliminating selfishness.

Tang wrote:

“Ever since Sir Thomas More wrote Utopia in 1516, an ideal society that renounced private property has become the aspiration of many people, especially in the 19th Century, when socialism and communism became fashionable. China’s Kang Youwei expressed similar views in his “Book of Great Harmony”, published in 1913…..

“One of the guides told me that that the community was founded chiefly upon two elements: First, all members deeply worshipped the leader, as though he were a second Jesus. She added, smiling, “Just the way you worshipped Mao Zedong.”  Second, they practiced mutual criticism and self-criticism.  No selfish motive was permitted..” Tang notes that particular attachments were not allowed and Noyes set up a system in which all people were married to one another but the pairings were strictly controlled by Noyes. The community lasted thirty years.

Begin censored passage from p. 308

Tang writes::

I am reminded of how powerful a spiritual force can be by the case of Mao Zdong and his “cultural revolution”. What an absurdity!   People all over China gathered in the morning and the evening to pledge their loyalty to the great leader.  Whenever a new directive was issued by Mao night or day, people poured out into the streets to cheer, beating drums and gongs.  Everyone from the premier on down kept a little red book at hand to quote from it for whatever they did.  Mao badges as big as saucers were pinned to naked flesh to show devotion.  Teenagers turned into mobs overnight to beat, loot, destroy and kill.  My first wife died at their hands, beaten by her students.  If Mao had issued a directive to strip and dance in the streets, people would have obeyed. I do not mean to belittle either Mao or Noyes by comparing them;  I merely want to show that just as humans cannot go against natural law, they also cannot go against social law. I also want to make it clear that my comments  on Noyes’s subjectivism don’t mean that the concept of private ownership is to be opposed.”

End censored passage.

Tang praised the tolerance of American society that allowed the Oneida experiment to take place.  Tang commented that in their several day’s stay at Mansion House they ate at a common table with other people, buffet style. Tang wrote, “It smacked of the communist “to each according to his needs”  although the Chinese have changed this to “be allocated according to need,” according to the Chinese reality and mentality.  One is at the mercy of the leadership, even under communism!” ….

Tang continued: “… thus I have experienced two socialistic experiments. One was Marcia’s old home,  which was so thorough as to socialize property and family.  This experiment witnessed no bloodshed, sacrifice of lives, interference from society at large or damage to the greater society.  It was free to pursue its own course. Although it failed, it left a rich heritage, spiritual and physical, which still benefits the descendants.  The other experiment was my home, which was a micro part of the macro experiment that once involved the Soviet Union, eastern European countries and China. It exacted a heavy price. It cause the economy to lag far behind other countries.

The lives of numerous Marxists were lost under the accusation of revisionism, including two-thirds of the Central Committee members of the Soviet Communist Party.  China has been saddled with problems of overpopulation, destruction of nature, economic chaos and moral degradation. I can’t say that it has been a failure, but it has not been a success. Fore 58 years, I have had to endure. I feel as if I had been a frog at the bottom of a well. Now I have leaped out and seen the world. The past seems like a bad dream. ….

On our return to New York City, we again stayed with Annette Rubinstein, a writer friend of Marcia’s. …A Marxist, she is no longer a member of the Communist Party, but she keeps the faith……As for me, I have lost all interest in politics after all these years of involvement.  Being an intellectual in China is a mixed blessing of experience and suffering.  I am certain of one thing now, however.  Nature has its natural law and society has its social law. If the nature law is destroyed, nature will seek revenge. The same is true of society.

Censored passage (p. 312):

… As a scientific study, it was a good thing for Marx to probe the nature of capitalism and where it would lead and to develop the theory of socialism and communism. For Lenin to try to realize this theory in poor and backward Russia was a subjectivistic move. For Stalin and Mao Zedong and their followers to to combine this with feudalism, autocracy and violence was bound to lead history onto a dangerous path.  My friends, relatives, people, country, world and I myself have paid heavily and may possibly still have to pay.  In the course of history this may not be a bad thing.  I have no regrets.  I don’t blame anyone and I don’t curse the past.  Whatever happened, good or bad, success or failure, is human experience, a spiritual wealth.  Although I have suffered, I still aspire to socialism.  Plato’s Republic, More’s Utopia, Fourierism, Noyes’ Oneida Community, especially Marxism and socialism in the fifties in China have all held great attraction for me.  I even now retain this ideal. But I want a true socialism that does not contradict social law, not the socialism of Stalin and Mao.  I wanted to discuss this issue of communism with Dr. Rubinstein, to find out if a non-Stalinist, non-Maoist democratic type of communism exists, but the language barrier prevented communication. …I cannot foretell how society will develop, but I can warn people  never to go against the law, whether social or natural.

End censored passage.

When Tang visited the Joshua Tree National Monument 140 miles east of Los Angeles in the Mojave Desert,  he was greatly impressed with the struggle of plants and animals  to survive in the desert. His thoughts turned to his own struggle to survive morally and physically after being branded a rightist during the Hundred Flowers  campaign of 1957.

Begin censored passage (p. 401):

    “Adversity can temper plants, animals and humans as well. What my past life impressed on me is that adversity is a  furnace, nutrient and catalyst.  I am in no way different from ordinary men.  Perhaps I am even a bit more mediocre than they.  If there is a difference between me and them, it is that I have experienced more frustrations  in life.   Frustration came on June 24, 1957, when I was a provisional Communist Party member,  a Marxist and a leftist through and through.  In the twinkling of an eye, I was declared guilty of being an anti-Party and anti-socialist Rightist. 

The reason  was that I had written a letter to the editorial committee of Beijing Daily when the Party called on me to air my views freely and fully.  The letter, if read now, is not treasonable, putting forth only a few genuine, frank and constructive suggestions,  and mentioning that the municipal Party committee’s leadership over the paper was ineffective.  Apparently someone asked Liu Ren, the second secretary of the municipal Party Committee, for instructions and his ambiguous, “Making suggestions to the Municipal Party Committee is a political problem” and settled my fate. 

I was then very young, crystal pure, with a boundless loyalty to the Communist Party and communism and unable to understand such a social phenomenon.  I felt terribly wronged, wept bitterly, but finally decided it was reasonable for the Party to thus brand me.  I examined my mistakes thoroughly, hoping the Party would forgive me, but not of some political need the Party did not forgive, but instead took severest disciplinary actions against me: pinned a Rightist label on me, dismissed me from all my posts, and reduced my salary by three grades.  Later Liu Shaoqi (state chairman before the “Cultural Revolution”) issued a theory that Communist Party members were useful tools.  

Only then did I realize that I was not a useful tool.  I tried hard to transform myself through labor and be meeting all kinds of tests.   The goal I set for myself was ‘one model and two stages’.  The “one model” was to make myself a model communist, and the ‘two stages’ were my return to the people’s ranks, followed by a return to the Party’s ranks.   But I have never returned to the Party’s ranks.  I underwent a thirty-year process of cognition and historical change.  The result is that the Party does not need me, nor am I willing to return to its ranks, although I still believe that public ownership throughout society is a beautiful future for mankind.  The process of cognition is long, tortuous and bloody, in which the mind and soul are refined.  It can’t be expressed clearly in a few words.

   “During this process, I paid a high price. I lost my personality, my human feelings, my job, my wife, and the most precious twenty and more years of my life, but I also gained a lot.  Most important is that I have learned how to suffer.  By bearing hardship I  learned about many things – people, society, nature and history.  ‘Only by enduring untold suffering can one become somebody.’   I still remember when I was assigned to the Lugu Production Brigade for reform through labor at a place on Beijing’s outskirts near Mount Babao.  The mountain’s name comes from its having eight (ba) kinds of economically valuable stone and earth (bao, ‘treasure’). 

I first labored with some young peasants, carrying stones on my shoulders.  We broke up rocks with hammers, drill rods, and black dynamite, then put the rocks in baskets. My task was simple:  to put a felt pad around my neck and squat down while two peasants lifted a basket and placed it on the felt pad. Then I carried one basket after another from the bottom of the pit to the earth’s surface. …..   Mencius, one of the main successors to Confucius, said, “Heaven intends first to temper your will and body in difficulties so that you can enhance your ability for the great mission with which it entrusts you. ‘

End censored passage.

Near the end of the book, Tang writes about a conversation at supper during his last night of his visit to the United States.

       “Mari first asked how how we (Tang and his wife Marcia Marks) had got acquainted with one another.  I told her about our meeting in Xishuangbanna in Yunnan Province, where Marcia had gone to see birds and I to observe elephants in the wild.  “Later on I wrote a book, she helped me to find a publisher and polished the English translation.  After that we visited a number of nature reserves in China and now we’re visiting reserves and parks in various countries, preparing  to write a book together.”

   “Mari’s second question was: “How is it you love nature?”

     “I repeated what I had said at Sally’s home, mentioning the anti-Rightist campaign and the “cultural revolution”, since it was those political struggles that had driven me out of society and forced me into nature.

      “Mari persisted: “Why did China have a ‘cultural revolution’?”

      “I replied, “It was indeed a rare phenomenon, something unique in the world., but that it happened was by no means fortuitous.  Its embryo was buried deep in China’s thousands of years of history as well as in its more modern history.  It’s unfair to blame Mao Zedong alone, but he must assume great responsibility. “

During the ten years I spent in China as a U.S. diplomat, I heard many, similar stories from other Chinese wronged by the Chinese regime during the Great Leap Forward. These people include Kong Lingping of Chongqing [author of a moving memoir Blood Chronicles excerpted in translation on this translation blog whom I met while I was assigned to the U.S. Consulate General in Chengdu. Another was Yin Shuping who like Kong, lost twenty years of his life to unjust imprisonment as a “Rightist”. The Cultural Revolution and more recent persecution campaign added more.  

Attacks against teacher even by middle school students were common during the Cultural Revolution — see the article by University of Chicago Prof. Youqin Wang  “Student Attacks Against Teachers: The Revolution of 1966“. A scholar in Chengdu told me about an attack on his teacher during the Cultural Revolution.

Prof. Wang’s article mentions Tang Xiyang’s murdered wife:  “At Beijing Fifty-second Middle School, Zheng Zhaonan (鄭兆南), a Chinese teacher, was tortured and jailed in her school and died on September 8, 1966. “

Reference:  Open Magazine (Hong Kong) 〈反右五十年專題〉環保活動家唐錫陽妻子之死 ◎ 柳孚三

I’ll append here the note I sent around in 2009 when I was helping Tang Xiyang publicize the English-language edition of A Green World Tour

“A Green World Tour” is Published in English

Chinese Environmentalist TANG Xiyang in Beijing. Tang edited Great Nature magazine during the 1980s and led college students and environmentalists on Green Camp trips to Yunnan in 1996 and then to Tibetan virgin forests (1997) and wetlands (1998). Tang is in good health and living in Beijing.

Tang said in December 1999 that he is planning another Green Camp trip, this time to Xinjiang to study desertification. All of the Green Camp trips study environemental and wildlife conservation problems in the context of social issues such as poverty and culture.

Tang just published two books in English. The first is an English translation of “A Green World Tour” which Tang wrote with his wife Marcia Marks. Some new materials describing the Green Camp trips to Yunnan and Tibet are also included in this book. The second half of “A Green World Tour” describes the trip Tang and Marks took through parks in the Soviet Union, Germany, France, England and the United States. I took the liberty of copying out the preface to “A Green World Tour” which expresses very well the dedication out of which this book emerged.

Tang’s open letter to Marcia Marks’ family after her death in 1999 is available at http://www.usembassy-china.org.cn/english/sandt/tang2.htm along with a 1996 U.S. Embassy Beijing report on the Yunnan trip at http://www.usembassy-china.org.cn/english/sandt/webmonk.htm

Tang has an email address. It is tangxiyang@china.com He would enjoy hearing from his friends around the world.

On Monday my wife and I visited TANG Xiyang in Beijing. Tang edited Great Nature magazine during the 1980s and led college students and environmentalists on Green Camp trips to Yunnan in 1996 and then to Tibetan virgin forests (1997) and wetlands (1998). Tang is in good health and living in Beijing.

Tang told me that he is planning another Green Camp trip, this time to Xinjiang to study desertification. All of the Green Camp trips study environemental and wildlife conservation problems in the context of social issues such as poverty and culture.

Tang just published two books in English. The first is an English translation of “A Green World Tour” which Tang wrote with his wife Marcia Marks. Some new materials describing the Green Camp trips to Yunnan and Tibet are also included in this book. The second half of “A Green World Tour” describes the trip Tang and Marks took through parks in the Soviet Union, Germany, France, England and the United States. I took the liberty of copying out the preface to “A Green World Tour” which expresses very well the dedication out of which this book emerged.

Tang’s open letter to Marcia Marks’ family after her death in 1999 is available at http://www.usembassy-china.org.cn/english/sandt/tang2.htm along with a 1996 U.S. Embassy Beijing report on the Yunnan trip at http://www.usembassy-china.org.cn/english/sandt/webmonk.htm

Tang has an email address tangxiyang@china.com He would enjoy hearing from his friends around the world.


Tang would like to present copies of the book to friends who helped Marcia Marks and himself on their world tour. He is also selling extra copies to raise more money for environmental work. He left me an open letter to his friends, which I will copy below:

Kewei Sushe 245, Huayuan Road 3, Beijing 100083,China. E-mail:tangxiyang@china.com


December 20, 1999

Dear friend: Best wishes for Christmas, New Year and New Century. Thank you for all your help.

If your friends or your organization would like to buy additional copies of “A Green World Tour”, I am selling them for US$ 30 (includng postage to anywhere in the world). Payment by personal check is fine. The publishing company is doing very little to market the book, so I am doing it myself! I have 1000 copies to sell.

Income from the sale of the book will be used in the cause of natural protection in China.

I edited another book about the 1997 and 1998 Green Camps in Tibet. The book which has many color photos, published in 1999 by New Asia Publishing House of Hong Kong, is entitled “Tibet -The Roof of the World to the Three River Plains”;. The book has commentary in both Chinese and English. I can sell this book for US$30 including postage.

Thank you,

Tang Xiyang

——— Preface

You may wonder how this book came about. I would say that I “walked it” instead of writing it. I have walked a total of 18 years starting from 1980, the year I was exonerated after years of political persecution. The same year I was asked to establish the “Great Nature” [Da Ziran] journal. In 1988, when I to Tibet as leader of Green Camp for college students. Perhaps because I was a journalist before becoming a popular science writer, I investigate and study my topic and where possible gain first hand information or rely on personal experience. In Xishuangbanna I insisted on seeing the wild elephants before I left. On Fanjing Mountain I would not leave without seeing the snub-nosed golden monkeys, a species that is native to Guizhou Province. At Tangjiahe, I refused to go home before I could take a look at the gnu. At Shennongjia I asked a man who collected medicinal herbs to take me to a sheer cliff where I could pick the stem of the noble dendrobium (Dendrobium nobile). Through my encounters with these exotic animals and plants were brief and, on occasions, fleeting, achieving my purpose was a meaningful, dynamic and beautiful process which entailed hardship and such dangers as beasts of prey, poisonous snakes, mountain floods, and injuries from accidental falls.

I continued living this way when I traveled to foreign countries at the age of sixty. In a Byelorussian swamp, I climbed a 20-meter high tree to shoot pictures of black storks. In France, I put on a rubber suit and dived into the Mediterranean to meet the fish. Only by doing these things myself can I convey to readers what it is actually like and allow the details to strike a chord in their hearts.

In the beginning I walked all alone. In 1981, during my excursion to Xishuangbanna I met Marcia, an American who worked in China. The two of us, an ordinary Chinese man and an ordinary American woman, kept each other company as we traveled together. Despite the differences in our cultural backgrounds, experiences, personalities and languages, nature brought us together. One thing led to another, and we finally became husband and wife. In 1986, with Marcia’s help I was able to publish my book, “Living Treasures”, in New York. We also had the opportunity of visiting natural parks and nature reserves in Europe, North America and Asia. I devoted myself to writing for three years after these trips and came up with “A Green World Tour”. It was published at an opportune time, as it reflected China’s awakening to the greenness of our living environment and made many people aware that it needed protection.

In 1996, Marcia and I launched Green Camp for college students, thus beginning our journey afresh in the company of young people. Unfortunately, her life ended and she died the day Green Camp embarked on its journey. She died suddenly but her influence lasts. The fact that she “chose” the day, neither too early or too late, rendered a sad yet legendary touch to the journey that we had shared in life. It was remarkable that she lived to see off our Green Camp; we both regarded it as the pioneer Green Movement in China. In some sense she has always been with us on our long and arduous journeys.

It’s been three years since Marcia died and I still have a feeling that she is with me. It is not sadness or nostalgia that makes me think of her. Rather I am always imitating her outlook on life and way of thinking. In a philosophical and natural sense she has had a lasting influence on me. I wrote a pamphlet in her memory and said, “In my earlier life I experienced much trauma yet I did not die. I expect that I was affected mentally, but I was still alive and able to get up and to do something for China’s Green Movement. For this I feel much indebted to Marcia and nature. They did not tell me what to do, what not to do, or how to do something. What I gained from them goes far beyond this.” I wanted to make a good job of this book and to double my efforts in environmental protection, because they represent my yearnings for Marcia and my gratitude to nature. According to Chinese customs, a man should retire when he reaches seventy, but I still camp in the wilderness. On the Tanggula Mountains, more than 5000 meters above sea level, I found myself in tears while talking to the local people about the need for environmental protection. As a matter of fact, I talk about environmental protection with friends from all walks of life. I feel lucky and proud whenever I compare my present life and career with my traumatic past and this makes me miss Marcia and love nature all the more.

Many readers have told me that they cried when they read the chapter, “Marcia Travels with Us”. That is why I say this book “walked” through a life of ups and downs. I “walked” this book not with my legs, but with my heart, my emotions and my life.

The fact that this book has been reprinted many times shows that it has made an impact on people’s lives. It could be said that it has become an integral part of the environmental movement in China. That is, because it merged with the “Green Wave” of China, it became a force that awakened many people to the need for environmental protection.

Many readers wrote, called, or phoned to say that they loved it. They praised it as a classic and a harbinger of a Chinese green spring. After reading it, Chang Zhongming, a member of the staff of the Jianguo Hotel, spent his savings to rent a piece of wasteland in Changping County and started his own nature preserve. Things like this may not appear extraordinary to a Westerner, but in China they are as incredible as tales from the “Arabian Nights”. Uding this book as a guide, Zhang Peihua, a young teacher from the Guilin Polytechnic Institute, arranged for his Xie Xiake Club to organize young people from China and abroad to tour the wilderness in northwest China. A number of well-known experts went as far as to suggest that copies of my book be donated to each of the 1000 nature preserves in China.

It was the information from one of my readers that prompted Marcia and me to launch and organize the Green Camp for college students. In 1996, the camp journeyed to northwest Yunnan to protect snub-nosed monkeys. We went to southeast Tibet in 1997 for the protection of primitive forests. In 1998 we went to the Sanjiang Plain to protect the wetlands. Practice over the past three years has shown that the Green Camp is a way of life that instills new values, looks to the future and promotes dedication to a great cause. For this reason the camp is a special school, a crucible for forging new talents to serve the Green Movement, and sow the seeds of greenness. Today, Beijing is not the only center with a Green Camp. Shanghai and Nanning have also established them and more camps are being set up in other cities. With mutual encouragement and support, we are creating a green culture.

New World Press decided to publish the English edition of “A Green World Tour”. After reading my manuscripts, Mr. Chen Yousheng, my editor, wrote to me and said, “Recently there has been much talk in the United States about the Cold War and the clashes in the 21st century between Western Christian culture and the cultures of the East such as Islam and Confucianism. One only needs to read your book to see that there is more common ground than conflict between Eastern and Western cultures, and that even Western ideas have persuaded people in China. In environmental protection, in particular, the entire global village is pursuing a common goal.” These lines made me see clearly why New World Press wanted to publish an English edition of my book. It is my hope that this book will not only be popular in China in the next century but that is will also find its way to the outside world. The song “The Internationale” says “Internationale will be realized”. I hope this book will become part of what I call the “Green Internationale”. This is because China needs to know the world, and the world needs to know China. The aim of this book is to view the world from China’s perspective and to give the world a view of China.

Marcia and I would not have finished his book without the participation, help, support, and encouragement of many friends. It is only reasonable to say that the book crystallizes the wisdom of a collective that loves and protects nature.

Marcia once said, “All those who love nature are good people.” We have met countless good people on our tours of China and other countries and many good people have helped in translating and getting this book published. In the process of organizing Green Camp, we came to know hundreds of people who wrote to us to show their warm support. During the eight months of our visits abroad, we met so many nature lovers that we felt that we were living in an “ocean or greenness and friendship”. They treated us so well because they knew we loved nature and wanted to do something to protect it. That was why after my return to China I want to do so many things to do something to protect it. I wanted to establish a popular organization to protect nature, sponsor an international exhibition on environmental protection, establish a publishing house, specializing in books on environmental protection and found a nature reserve that is typically Chinese yet containing many foreign elements. And I wanted to mobilize the masses by delivering speeches on the protection of nature everywhere. I wanted to do so much, but given the actual conditions in China, I could accomplish so little. So I took the realistic course of writing this book and was determined to make it succeed. By doing this I was responding to nature, my own conscience and the support and good wishes of my friends and colleagues at home and abroad.

When the English edition of this book is published, I hope that all the relatives and friends of Marcia, as well as those who have helped us one way or another, or , who have been mentioned in it, will be able to read it. Because Marcia is no longer alive, and because I know little English, I have lost contact with most of my foreign friends. It is my hope that all those who knew Marcia and me will pass this message on and help us get in touch with each other. As a token of gratitude to those friends who had helped us, I want to present a copy of this book to each of you. My address is, Kewei Sushe 245, Huayuan Road 3, Beijing 100083, China.

Tang Xiyang

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Posted in Environment 环境, History 历史, Politics 政治 | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Chinese Party Notice on Conversation Discipline During Spring Festival

Chinese expat websites report that the Chinese Communist Party (according to a joint notice put by the Social Stability Office, Party Propaganda Department and Public Security Office of Mushan County, Leshan City, Sichuan Province) is asking Communist Party members and cadres to ensure conversation discipline during the Spring Festival holidays. “Party secretaries, assert your authority”, permit no talk of topics such as Huawei, US – China trade friction! This seems to be the Chinese version of no arguments about Trump over turkey albeit with the serious enforcement powers of the Party and PRC state behind it.


Chinese dissident websites share the journalistic standards of Xinhua (many dissident journalists and writers used to work for Xinhua).. A long list of topics. I usually read the dissident websites like I read science fiction — fun and it helps expand the imagination. Some or even much of the information there is true to a certain extent, mixed in the gossip. Some of the information is leaked out of China at considerable personal risk by people outraged by the abuses of the party-state. This information is plausible though. One should never underestimate Party paranoia. During my ten years in mainland China, I got the impression that the Chinese Communist Party often seems much less complacent about the party’s future prospects than do many western analysts.


There is a surprising part that people shouldn’t be reading websites that teach them how to make Molotov Cocktails or improvised explosive devices! Reminds me of the student Molotov Cocktails hurled at US Embassy Beijing in 1999 — many of the Chinese “students” (didn’t do a demographic study at the time) put gasoline in plastic soft drink bottles or didn’t leave and empty space at the top of a glass bottle to allow the gasoline to ignite so many of the Molotov Cocktails. So many were duds. Perhaps the Party is counting on blocking progress in that area!

Worries about mad bombers or terrorist attacks are not that unusual in China. I remember during my five years in Chengdu there were several alerts about bombers on the loose and police checkpoint was set up on a major highways coming out of the mountains in Chengdu. The back story seems to have been that with the large amount of illegal wildcat mining in Sichuan Province, miners needed explosives so they would steal or bribe them out of state warehouses. When the warehouses took inventory some explosive (gasp) would be missing and so the search for wild bombers would begin.


There is another part about “don’t believe those rumors about democracy. Party members and cadres shouldn’t believe promises that only people at the provincial level and above will be purged or that good deeds can cancel out previous crimes.

I imagine that a notice (if it is an actual notice) like this would be internal confidential to a certain level and then relevant parts would be conveyed orally for further distribution. If it is real, then it is an interesting reflection on the current state of party paranoa. Then again, just because you are paranoid, it doesn’t mean that they aren’t out to get you!

I found this article posted on the expat website Wenxue City at http://www.wenxuecity.com/news/2019/01/22/8023093.html


Posted in National Security 安全, Politics 政治 | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Canadian Embassy Beijing Blog: Remember Liu Xiaobo and Charter ’08

Canadian Embassy Beijing microblog social media posting to December 18th post to Chinese followers:

“This month we celebrate the 70th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. But that wasn’t the only important human rights documents issued on December 10th. There was another one that was issued ten years ago. It was drafted by a famous Chinese writer, a writer who later won the Nobel Prize. Can you guess who that was? (Hint: He was inspired by the works of the man in the photograph, Vaclav Havel) Photo credit: The Guardian (UK)

See press report on this “A defiant Canada is trolling China with Liu Xiaobo’s legacy” by Isabella Steger.

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US Senate Hearing: China’s Non-Traditional Espionage Against the United States: The Threat and Potential Policy Responses

I watched the full December 12 U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee hearing “China’s Non-Traditional Espionage Against the United States: The Threat and Potential Policy Responses”     this past weekend.  Interesting stuff although the term non-traditional espionage is problematic. It runs the gamut from the totally legal research and open data information collection, though the questionable to the certainly illegal.  Looking at the whole spectrum makes the issue clearer although it does tend to taint normal activities with an association with the illegal.


The U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee website has the video and transcripts of most of the statements. https://www.judiciary.senate.gov/meetings/chinas-non-traditional-espionage-against-the-united-states-the-threat-and-potential-policy-responses


The C-SPAN video of the same hearing is especially useful since it lets you to searches on automatic transcriptions of the testimony.  C-SPAN link https://www.c-span.org/video/?455665-1/judiciary-fbi-homeland-officials-testify-chinese-espionage
Senator Feinstein’s statement is not on the Committee website for some reason.  I found it especially interesting so I made a clip from the C-SPAN video

Senator Feinstein Statement at Senate Hearing on Chinese Non-Traditional Espionagehttps://www.c-span.org/video/?c4768297/senator-feinstein-statement-senate-hearing-chinese-espionage

Dr, James Mulvenon’s testimony I also made a clip of from the C-SPAN website   https://www.c-span.org/video/?c4768282/james-mulvenon-testimony

James Mulvenon Testimony

[Topics: Huawei, Chinese all-of-society tech collection efforts which shade into illegality, many Thousand Talents hires also USG employees (illegal if in same field as gov’t work if USG permission not obtained), some academics hold dual appointments funded in China by Thousand Talents program with frequent PRC-paid flights to China to debrief scholars on work in US labs (DC comment: intriguing if funded by both USG and Thousand Talents for same work but not illegal), comments on Confucius Institutes funded by PRC Communist Party United Front Work Department. ]

There was also some discussion of the Confucius Institutes and their actual and potential affect on academic freedom in the statements and Q&A at the end of the hearing. 

Copied from the US Senate Judiciary Committee website:

  1. Senator Chuck Grassley (R – IA)

WITNESSES


Panel I

  1. The Honorable John DemersAssistant Attorney GeneralNational Security Division
    Department of JusticeWashington, DC
  2. The Honorable Christopher KrebsDirectorCybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency
    Department of Homeland SecurityWashington, DC
  3. Mr. E.W. “Bill” PriestapAssistant Director, Counterintelligence DivisionFederal Bureau of InvestigationWashington , DC

Panel II

  1. Mr. Dean ChengSenior Research Fellow
    Asian Studies Center
    Davis Institute for National Security and Foreign PolicyHeritage FoundationWashington, DC
  2. Mr. Peter HarrellAdjunct Senior Fellow Energy
    Economics and Security ProgramCenter for a New American SecurityWashington, DC
  3. Dr. James Mulvenon, Ph.D.General Manager
    Special Programs DivisionSOS InternationalVienna, VA
Posted in Foreign Relations 外交, Science, Technology and Academic 科技学术 | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Party Honors One Hundred on 40th Anniversary of Reform

One hundred people have been nominated as exemplars of China’s forty-year-old policy of reform and opening up by Chinese Communist organizations throughout China and finally by a special Leading Group of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. The one hundred nominees from all parts of China and many professions were chosen to represent the most important contributors to China’s reform and opening up policy as China prepares to celebrate that profound change away from doctrinaire Maoism and towards a market economy. The preface to the list on nominees ended with a request for comments to the Leading Group during the last week of November 2018 before the list is finalized on December 1.

Reading collections of short biographies helps get a sense of the depth and breadth of the rapid changes China has seen as well as the secular “saints”the Communist Party would hold up as role models and inspirations for the Chinese Communist Party’s 90 million members, as well as for educated people outside the Party, and in particular with some influence in society, who are the special targets of United Front work.

The great majority of the 100 nominees are living. Most who died did so over the past few years with the exception of a Hong Kong business man who died during the mid 1980s.

The preface does not explain the criteria for selection, only making the general statement that “The Party Central Committee decided to recognize a group of individuals who have made outstanding contributions to reform and opening up.”

Many important names are missing – Deng Xiaoping (never party secretary), and the 1980s reformer party secretaries now in bad odors Hu Yaobang and Zhao Ziyang. Other prominent names such as Jiang Zemin, Zhu Rongji and WenJiaobao are also missing so the focus seems not to be on the central or provincial leadership but rather this list of 100 secular saints aims to honor grassroots reformers and other non-political leaders who push forward the 40-year old policy of reform and opening up.

Reformer List Demographics

About 90 of the nominees are Communist Party members, six are listed as non-partisan(wudangpai renshi) and three are listed as belonging to the “masses”(qunzhong) —Liu Yonghao, Lang Ping and Nan Rendong. A young teacher in Fuzhou, Fujian Province told me in 1997 that Party members(she wasn’t) are more likely to be recognized for their work and win promotions. That may explain in part the preponderance of Communist Party members. Also keep in mind that Party members are subject to Party discipline, which can include signing on to, at the discretion of the Party, being kept incognito for months of interrogation. Choosing Party members means that the Party is choosing reliable people.

Non-partisan — having no party affiliation is a defined category – someone who is the target of united front work. United front work among non-party affiliated educated people with some social influence is the responsibility of all Communist Party members as well as the central or their provincial or local party organization’s United Front Work Department or office. The influence on society must be a “positive”one for one to be in the non-affiliated category and a target of united front work.

People with a“negative influence” get “invited for tea” regularly –sometimes for ‘friendly polite talks’ and sometimes not but the National Security Detachment [Guobao] of their local Public Security Bureau office or even of the Ministry of State Security. This happens regularly to Chinese who write on political topics or even those who try to avoid politics such as Chengdu writer RanYunfei the author of “Where Will the Fear End? A Talk that Could Not Be Delivered”. A Party member told me some years ago that one day as he was walking down the street, a black car pulled up, two men jumped out who through  a sack over his head as he was bundled into the car. Then he was subjected to a terrifying full day of interrogation. He was asked about his friendship with a foreign diplomat and how as a Communist Party member he should feel ashamed of himself for having such a friend. He said the Security people took his computer too “I sold my computer the next day! Who knows what they put on it!”.


Non-Partisans, the Focus of United Front Work

The United Front Work Department of the China University of Political Science and Law [Zhongguo Zhengfa Daxue] (universities have party organizations too) explains the criteria for being a “non-party affiliated person” and a target of united front work.

Watching of  non-partisan and other people goes on at all levels. A party member of a provincial academy of social sciences – many provinces have them as a sort of policy think tank for the Party and province – told me one day that his main job was“monitoring the thinking” of the scholars there on behalf of the Chinese Communist Party.

In 2000, the “Opinion on Strengthening the Work on People with No Party Affiliation” issued by the United Front Work Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China officially regulated the title of non-party and non-party people, and clearly stated that non-party and non-party groups arenon-partisan and non-partisan. In 2004, the amendments to the Constitution of the CPPCC, which were reviewed and approved at the Second Session of the Tenth National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, also put non-partisan democrats into the non-partisan sector. On the basis of this, the”Opinions” the category is more clearly defined “a person who has not participated in any party, has a positive contribution to the society and has certain influence, and its subject is an intellectual.”

.According to the “Opinions”, non-party affiliated people in the new stage of the new century should have the following characteristics:

  1. Has not been a member of the Communist Party or any other party he did not participate in any party and had a non-partisan status. This is the primary condition but not the other condition to be considered a non-party affiliated person.
  2. The person has made positive contributions and had some influence in society. has certain social impacts. The activities of non-partisan individuals are political and must have some influence be to some extent typical of the activities of persons like them.
  3. The person is well-educated and excellent in some way determined by their social foundation of non-partisan people. More precisely, non-partisan people are social groups affiliated with no party or political faction, mostly in the fields of science and technology, education, culture and art, medicine and health, enterprises, government agencies, social organizations, or workers in the professions.
  4. Have been identified as an object of united front work. Non-party people are not equal to non-partisan people. The broad masses of non-partisan workers and peasants, although they are a constituent part of the united front, have never been the object of united front work, and certainly cannot be called non-party members in the sense of the united front work. In short, the “Opinion” clearly define the non-party people, provide a policy basis for the effective work of non-party people, and point out the direction of efforts to give full play to the role of non-party people.

The anonymous blogger “Old Kang’s Eight-Legged Essay on the Party” on Weixin in late November goes into some detail into the difference between non-partisans and the masses, who likewise do not belong to a political party.

  • Among the business people among the one hundred, Liu Yonghao belongs to the “masses”, while Ma Huateng, Li Shufu, and Li Yanhong are non-partisan.
  • In the sports world, Lang Ping belongs to the “masses” while Yao Ming is a non-partisan.
  • Among the scientists, Nan Rendong belongs to the “masses” while Chen Jingrun is a non-partisan.

Non-partisans can thus be understood as social elites. It is not enough merely not to have joined  a party to be considered as “non-partisan”.

Old Kang wrote that the distinction non-partisans and the masses can be traced back to the old social classification system that classified people into 99 categories by their family background. China even national standard(guobiao) GB4765-1984 codes for “class origin of family” include codes such as worker 1, people’s commune member 2, peasant 3,businessperson 20 and landlord 28. Family background as a category gradually fell into disuse and was abolished in 2004.

Although “family background” was abolished, political complexion – an individual’s political stance and ideology – remains a live category. See the“Codes for political affiliation” PRC National Standard GB 4762-84.

Many Chinese when they seen this on an application form write, incorrectly, “pure”. Political purity is not one of the choices people get. The official categories are: Chinese Communist Party member, candidate party member, CPC Youth League member, member of the eight recognized parties under the leadership of the CPC, non-partisans and masses.

Who is Missing?

Missing from the list of one hundred reform era exemplars, probably because the Party considers them a bad influence, are many prominent people who pushed for the rule of law and greater democracy for China including,naturally imprisoned Chinese human rights defenders including many lawyers, killed-through-poor-prison-medical-care Nobel Prize winner Liu Xiaobo, and human rights defender Huang Qi. A supplement to this list would be the interesting list of“public intellectuals” [ 公共知识分子] that the Chinese magazine Nanfang Renwu Zhoukan published in 2004 and the subsequent Chinese Communist party crackdown on public intellectuals. See“Chinese Public Intellectuals: An Annotated Bibliography to Published Translations in English” published online by the University of British Columbia Center for Chinese Research.

Some Other Biographical Sources

Perusing short biosand curriculum vitae published online on official websites and elsewhere can help get an impression of the typical paths Chinese people follow to greater influence and even power in their society.Some of these bios can be found in English on academic websites such as China Vitae, Key Chinese Intellectuals from the Australian Center on China in the World, the list of Chinese Writers from The Paper Republic, and elsewhere. There are also many sources official and unofficial in Chinese including the People’s Daily compilation of provincial leader capsule bios in Chinese (you can also try running the leader bios through Google Translate. A CV is full of fairly simple declarative sentences so machine translation handles it fairly well) and other websites in Chinese such as Mingren Jianli [Google Translated Short Biographical Sketches of Famous People]

To the translation below, I added links to other biographical sources for each of the 100 advocates of reform. 

Public Notice on Draft List of People to Be Commended for Outstanding Contributions to Reform and Opening

  People’s Daily (November 26, 2018,  page 13)

URL: http://paper.people.com.cn/rmrb/html/2018-11/26/nw.D110000renmrb_20181126_1-13.htm

This year marks the 40th anniversary of China’s reform and opening up. The Party Central Committee decided to recognize a group of individuals who have made outstanding contributions to reform and opening up. According to the selection and commendation work deployment, on the basis of repeated comparisons, organization inspections, and collective research to recommend candidates in various regions and regions, after reviewing and coordination, 100 candidates for commendation for outstanding contributions to reform and opening up were found.

In order to fully promote democratic working style, listen to public opinion and to accept society’s oversight on this work, the names of the candidates are being released to the public. The release for comment period will run from November 26, 2018 to 17:00 on November 30.

If there are any objections to the nominees, please send them to the Central Committee’s Leading Group on Candidates to be Commended Upon the Fortieth Anniversary of Reform and Opening by telephone, mail, letter, during the comment period (the arrival date of letters will be determined by their postmark).

Tel: (010) 84233403/84233445

Fax: (010) 84233489

Email: ggkf40bz@163.com

Mailing address: No. 3, Hepingli East Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing

Postal code: 100013

Central Committee’s Leading Group on Candidates to be Commended Upon the Fortieth Anniversary of Reform and Opening

[Translator’s note: Candidate names are in a Chinese stroke order list.]

Yu Min

Yu Min, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born August 1926 in Ninghe, Tianjin. Yu Min is the former deputy dean of the Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, researcher, academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. He is a famous Chinese nuclear physicist. Yu has long presided over the research and design of nuclear weapons theory, solved a large number of theoretical problems, and made important contributions to the development of China’s nuclear weapons. Since the 1980s, Yu has contributed to the development of the second generation of nuclear weapons, made breakthroughs in key technologies have brought China’s nuclear weapons technology up to a new level, and made pioneering contributions to the improvement of China’s scientific and technological independent innovation capabilities and the strengthening of national defense capabilities. Yu won the “Two Bombs and One Satellite” medal as well as the State Preeminent Science and Technology Award, the “National May 1st Labor Medal”and the “National Career Contributions Award” title.

[Wiki bio Yu Min (physicist) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yu_Min_(physicist)

Baidu in Chinese https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E4%BA%8E%E6%95%8F/22358

Video 《大家》 核物理学家 于敏 两弹元勋 20180822 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PmAJVY9cHgA&vl=zh-Hans ]

Yu Yu

Yu Yu, female, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born February 1929. Yu Yu is the honorary principal of the Shanghai Yangpu Senior High School, former member of the Board of Directors of the National Linguistic Society and vice president of the National Middle School Chinese Teaching Research Association. She has long dedicated herself to middle school language teaching career, determined to teach and to educate, and insisting that the “humanities”be included in the national “Chinese Language Curriculum Standards”. Advocating simultaneous innovation of educational philosophy and teaching practice, she has promoted experimental Chinese language teaching reforms in Shanghai’s junior high schools, focusing on nearly 2000 exploratory and exemplary open classes at the municipal level, creating over 50 lessons now seen as exemplary in language education reform. She has written many articles on education and many of her views have been adopted by the education sector. She has made outstanding contributions to the promotion of national basic education reform and development. Known as “a model for a generation of teachers who dedicated to educating people and on educational reform”. She won the title of “National March Eight Red Flag Bearer” and “National Advanced Workers”.

[Baidu bio of Yu Yu in Chinese at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E4%BA%8E%E6%BC%AA

http://old.moe.gov.cn//publicfiles/business/htmlfiles/moe/s4730/201010/110384.html ]

Leaders of Xiaogang Village’s “Contract Responsibility System”

In the winter of 1978, eighteen peasants in Xiaogang Village, Fengyang County, Anhui Province, in the spirit of pioneers, pressed their bright red handprints on the “secret contract”, and implemented the “contract responsibility system” in agriculture.Since then, opening a new era China’s rural reform. The red handprints of these eighteen leaders gave birth to the household contract responsibility system, and eventually rose to the basic management system of rural areas in China, completely breaking away from the “bigger and more socialist” people’s commune system.This freed up rural productivity and propelled forward China’s agricultural development. Shortage of food and clothing in the countryside ended. As a valuable cultural relic of reform and opening up, the “Big Bag” contract is displayed in the National Museum of Chinese History, which highlights the historical position of Xiaogang Village as the main source of rural reform in China and the symbol of China’s reform.

[See Wiki article Household responsibility system https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Household_responsibility_system (Comment: Contract system was suggested earlier in 1950s and after Great Leap Forward. According to Lynn White’s new 2018 book Rural Roots of Reform before China’s Conservative Change, Party role in promoting reform has been exaggerated; reform roots go back to early 1970s as breakdown in central power due to Cultural Revolution allowing for local innovation and improvements in mechanization of agriculture led to rapid increases in agricultural productivity. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/9781351247696 )

Baidu https://www.thepaper.cn/newsDetail_forward_2539534

http://ah.people.com.cn/n2/2018/0905/c380305-32015411.html ]

Ma Man-kei

Ma Man-kei 馬萬祺,male, Han nationality, born October 1919, died May 2014, from Nanhai,Guangdong Province.  Ma Man-kei was a member of the Standing Committees of the Sixth and Seventh National People’s Congress, member of the Standing Committee of the Sixth Chinese People’s Political Consultative Congress, Vice Chair of the Eighth, Ninth, Tenth, the Eleventh CPPCCs and former President of the Macau Chinese Chamber of Commerce. Ma proposed that the central government “actively encourage Overseas Chinese to invest in the motherland” and took the lead in investing and building industry in the Mainland. Making good use of his reputation in the overseas Chinese business community, Ma energetically spread word about China’s policy of reform and opening up to the outside world, helped organize Hong Kong and Macao delegations to return home to the mainland to invest. Ma also made outstanding contributions to promoting economic cooperation between Macao and the Mainland and supporting reform and opening up. He resolutely supported the “one country, two systems”policy. Ma served as the deputy director of the Basic Law Drafting Committee of the Macao Special Administrative Region and the Deputy Director of the Macao Special Administrative Region Preparatory Committee. He played an important role in the smooth return and smooth transition of Macao and the maintenance of Macao’s prosperity and stability. Ma Man-kei won the “China Charity Award” and the “Great Lotus Medal of Honor” from the Macao Special Administrative Region Government.

[Ma Man-kei China Vitae http://www.chinavitae.com/biography/Ma_Man%20Kei%7C792 http://www.ejinsight.com/20140527-prominent-macau-entrepreneur-ma-man-kei-dies-at-age-95/

bio on Wiki at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ma_Man-kei ]

Ma Yun (Jack Ma)

Ma Yun, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born September 1964 in Yinzhou, Zhejiang Province. Jack Ma is Chairman of the Board of Directors of Alibaba (China) Co., Ltd. The Alibaba Group that Ma founded has created the world’s largest e-commerce platform,with annual transaction volumes in trillions of yuan, powerfully boosting domestic demand in the Chinese economy; created Internet payment and logistics systems, created commercial infrastructure for small and medium enterprises; established the world-leading mobile Payment network, established a new social credit system using Big Data technologies; created the Apsaracloud computing operating system through independent research and development thereby laying the foundation of China’s cloud computing; promoted the world electronic trading platform (eWTP),which was included in the G20 leaders summit meeting bulletin,becoming an important citizen advocate of the “One Belt, One Road”policy. Under his leadership, Alibaba Group has ranked among the top 10 global companies by market capitalization, making China a leadplayer in international competition in e-commerce, internet finance and cloud computing. He has inspired many entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial-minded young people to work for reform and further innovations. Ma Yun was awarded the title of “Zhejiang Province’s Contributor to Building Socialism with Chinese characteristics”.

[Ma Yun (Jack Ma) biography at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_Ma

Comment: Jack Ma is given credit for establishing the controversial “social credit system” See Wiki article https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_Credit_System the social control implication of the 2014 – 2020 PRC national policy to create a social credit system being still unclear. See translation “State Council Notice concerning Issuance of the Planning Outline for the Construction of a Social Credit System(2014-2020)” at https://chinacopyrightandmedia.wordpress.com/2014/06/14/planning-outline-for-the-construction-of-a-social-credit-system-2014-2020/ and 2018 Business Insider article Chinahas started ranking citizens with a creepy ‘social credit’ systemhttps://www.businessinsider.com/china-social-credit-system-punishments-and-rewards-explained-2018-4  Systemicweaknesses ofChina’s quasi-marketeconomy have included lack of a nation-wide credit check system (taken for granted in the US for example), lack of effective court enforcement of judgments and interference in the courts and economy by the Chinese Communist Party. Credit checks may well be aimed at goingbeyond verifying just consumer creditworthiness.

Baidu bio https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%A9%AC%E4%BA%91/6252 ]

Ma Huateng

Ma Huateng, male, Han nationality, non-partisan, born October 1971 in Shantou, Guangdong Shantou Province. Ma Huateng is the Chairman and CEO of Tencent Technology (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd. Benefiting from business environment arising from reform and opening, Ma founded and led Tencent, growing it from a five-employee small business to one of the world’s most influential Internet companies. Ma proposed the”Internet +”, vigorously promoting Internet applications such as WeChat, QQ, online payment, the digital transformation and upgrading of many aspects of people’s lives including government affairs, consumer consumption, production services, life health, and environmental protection. In both the real economy of traditional industry and in the virtual digital economy, Ma has played an important role in the integration and development of technological innovation. Ma Huateng set up the Tencent Foundation, advocates the concept of universal public welfare, widened public participation and social transparency through communications technologies to the considerable benefit to the public at large. Ma Huateng won the title of “Outstanding businessman of a Chinese privately-run science and technology-based enterprise” and an award as an “Outstanding businessman of Southern Guangdong Province”.

[Ma Hateng bio https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ma_Huateng

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%A9%AC%E5%8C%96%E8%85%BE

http://www.gerenjianli.com/Mingren/02/49g4ce74i4mb64b.html

https://www.bannedbook.org/bnews/tag/%E9%A9%AC%E5%8C%96%E8%85%BE/ ]

Ma Shanxiang

Ma Shanxiang, male, Hui nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born November 1955, in Longchang, Sichuan Province. Ma Shanxiang headed the“Laoma Studio” of the People’s Mediation Committee of Guanyinqiao Street, Jiangbei District, Chongqing. He loves working with the people and has great affection for them. Ma Shanxiang works motivated by his belief in the people and believes that their satisfaction is his goal. Engaged in grassroots mediation and mass ideological and political work for 30 years, summed up the six-word concept of “People Oriented, Reaching Harmony Through Discussion”, follows precepts based on “human feeling,reason, law, and business”, relying on the “3441”social security system, Ma has his one kind of “Thirty-Six Strategies for Success” that came to be known as “Ma’s workmethods”. Ma has successfully resolved dozens of major conflicts and disputes, properly handled many accidents, and conducted over 20,000 interviews, handling over 1,500 letters and visits. Ma achieved a mediation success rate rate of over 98%, maintaining the harmony and stability of his jurisdiction. Ma won various titles including of “National-level Advanced Worker” and “All China Excellent Communist Party Member”.

[Baidu bio in Chinese at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%A9%AC%E5%96%84%E7%A5%A5

http://www.xinhuanet.com/politics/2018-03/08/c_1122503255.htm ]

Wang Daheng

Wang Daheng, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born February 1915, died July 2011, from Wu County, Jiangsu Province. Wang Daheng was the former honorary director of the Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Wang Dazhao was an academician of both the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering.Under his leadership, China’s first ruby laser and the first space camera were developed there. Wang also presided over the development of China’s first large-scale optical measurement equipment. In March 1986, he and other three scientists proposed the “863” science and technology development plan which, after its approval by the central government, became the focus of the development of science and technology in China. The 863 Program strategically promoted high technology development in order to accomplish o realize China’s science and technology modernization. In 1992, he and other members of the Faculty Council initiated and promoted the establishment of the Chinese Academy of Engineering. Wang Daheng was awarded the National Science and Technology Progress Award Special Prize, the “Two Bombs and One Satellite” Meritorious Medal,and the first “Ho Leung Ho Lee Fund Excellence Award”.

[See Wang Daheng’s bio at http://www.astronautix.com/w/wangdaheng.html

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E7%8E%8B%E5%A4%A7%E7%8F%A9/925656

https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E7%8E%8B%E5%A4%A7%E7%8F%A9 ]

Wang Shumao

Wang Shumao, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born December 1956, in Qionghai, Hainan Province, member of the Discipline and Inspection Committee of the Party Branch of TanmenVillage, Tanmen Town, Qionghai City, Hainan Province, and the Deputy Company Commander of the Tanhai Town Maritime Forces, the representative at the 13th National People’s Congress. Wang Shumao has actively participated in the maintenance of the territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests of the South China Sea.He has participated in many major national sea-related work assignments helped develop civilian auxiliaries to preserve order in the South China Sea. A fighter for the maintaining order on South China Sea, he made full use of people power to protects order there. He lead the people as they built a big ship so that people could enrich themselves through deep sea fishing. His work was a classic example of “double enrichment” by taking the lead in enriching Tamen Town and in showing the way for the people to enrich themselves. Wang Shumao won the title of “National Model Worker”.

[Wang Shumao’s bio in Chinese at http://china.cnr.cn/yaowen/20180316/t20180316_524166647.shtml

https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E7%8E%8B%E4%B9%A6%E8%8C%82/17192996?fr=aladdin ]

Wang Yongmin

Wang Yongmin, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born December 1943, in Nanzhao, Henan Province. Wang Yongmin is Chairman of Beijing Wangma Innovation Network Technology Co., Ltd. Wang Yongmin developed the three principles and mathematical models for Chinese character keyboard design. In 1983, he invented the “Wangcode five-stroke type” Chinese character input method, and created the “Chinese character root periodic table”, which effectively solved the Chinese character input problem in the information age. In 1998, the invention of “1998 standard WangCode” was a Chinese character input method that conformed to the People’s Republic of China on the Standard Spoken and Written Chinese Language standard and the Chinese character input method method approved sometime earlier, facilitating the popularization of computers in China. This technology won over 40 patents in China,the United States and the United Kingdom. Wang Yongmin won the titles including “All-China Model Worker” and the “National May First Labor Medal”.

[Wang Yongmin’s bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wang_Yongmin

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E7%8E%8B%E6%B0%B8%E6%B0%91/25359 ]

Wang Youde

Wang Youde, male, Hui nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born September 1953, in Lingwu, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, is the former party secretary and director of the Party Committee of LingwuBaijitan National Nature Reserve Administration of Ningxia. Wang led the staff to strongly control desertification, creating 600,000 mu of wind-proof and sand-retaining forest, and reduced the flow of sand by nearly one million mu, effectively preventing the southward and westward expansion of the Mu Us Desert. The result was a happy scene of people pushing back the desert. Wang working on developing anti-desertification sand control methods including “wide forestbelts, multi-network, multi-species, high-density, combination of different tree species” sand control mode, realizing the goal of“desert green, field work, and workers rich”. Wang experience provided valuable lessons to people in this field throughout China. Wang Youde won the title of “All China Excellent Communist Party Member”, “All China Advanced Worker”, “All ChinaSand Control Hero” and “All China Greening Advanced Worker”.

[Wang Youde bio at http://www.china.org.cn/environment/2013-09/18/content_30066606.htm

CCTV http://people.cctv.com/2018/11/29/ARTIe1VKNiLXH9grx7y7H2fX181129.shtml ]

Wang Boxiang

Wang Boxiang, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born February 1943, in Shouguang, Shandong Province. Wang Boxiang was the former deputy secretary of the Weifang Municipal Committee of Shandong Province and mayor there as well as the former secretary of the Shouguang County Party Committee. During the transition from planned economy to market economy, he insisted on making development the first priority. He made Fuminqiang County his personal responsibility and, making use of its traditional advantages Shouguang in vegetable cultivation, fully supporting and promoting experiments with the Shouguang winter warm vegetable greenhouse, and vigorously developed the Shouguang vegetable wholesale market. Wang created the China’s largest vegetable wholesale market in Jiangbei. The Shouguang vegetable industrialization model was extended to the entire country, generating huge economic and social benefits. The model vigorously promote agricultural industrialization and transition to an industrial shareholding system in Weifang City, the development of individual and private economy, and contributed to Weifang’s economic prosperity. Wang Boxiang won the title of “All China Excellent Communist Party Member”.

[Wang Boxiang’s bio in Chinese is on Baidu at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E7%8E%8B%E4%BC%AF%E7%A5%A5/4789589 ]

Wang Qimin

Wang Qimin, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born September 1937, in Huzhou, Zhejiang Province. Wang Qimin was assistant to the former general manager of Daqing Oilfield Co., Ltd.Wang always relies on the “Daqing spirit” and “the spirit of the Iron Man” as he engaged in scientific research,daring to challenge the limits of oilfield development. Wang believes that “he would rather than all his blood run dry than give up on stabilizing oil field production and then boosting it to obtain higher yields”. Wang overcame technical difficulties to break several world record. He presided over research and advanced the theory that there are “multiple stages of well development and adjustment”. The development and utilization of untabulated oil reservoirs broke the forbidden zone of the “unexploitable” bothat home and abroad. The research on “oil field production stability control” project in the late stage of high water cut in the oilfield was done at the Daqing Oilfield. This made important contributions to achieving high-yield, high-efficiency and sustainable development of the oilfield and more than 50 million tons of petroleum production over the past 27 years. Wang Yongmin is an outstanding representative of his generation of oil workers, giving the “Iron Man Spirit” a real meaning in the new era. Wang Qinmin won the titles of “All China Advanced Workers” and “Heilongjiang Province Model Workers”.

[Wang Qimin bio at https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E7%8E%8B%E5%90%AF%E6%B0%91

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E7%8E%8B%E5%90%AF%E6%B0%91/16666 ]

Wang Xuan

Wang Xuan, male, Han nationality, member of Jiu San Society political party, born February 1937, died February 2006, of Wuxi, Jiangsu Province. Wang Xuan was a Vice Chairman of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, former director of the Institute of Computer Science and Technology of Peking University, and an academician of both the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering. Wang presided over the successful development of the Chinese character laser photo-printing system and of of the large-scale application of the Beijing Founder Electronics Co. color publishing system. This accomplished the revolution of “Away with printing with lead and heat, and onto printing with light and electricity” in China’s publishing and printing industry became a model for Chinese independent innovation and high-tech transformation. Determined to commercialize research results, Wang Xuan and electronic publishing system, brought about four technological innovations in the newspaper industry and printing industry. Today Chinese laser photo-printing technology has a 99% market share of domestic newspapers and 80% of the Overseas Chinese newspaper market. The “Wang Xuan Technology Innovation Fund” was established to support young scientists and technicians in their own innovative research in science and technology. Wang Xuan won China’s State Preeminent Science and Technology Award.

[Wang Xuan bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wang_Xuan

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E7%8E%8B%E9%80%89/4437 ]

Wong Kwan Cheng

Wong Kwan Cheng, male, Han nationality, born June 1907, died December 1986, in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province. Wang founded the Wong Kwan Cheng Educational Foundation, was former president of the Hong Kong Chinese General Chamber of Commerce, and a member of the Standing Committee of the Sixth Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference. Wong was an outstanding representative of a Chinese patriot in the Hong Kong’s industrial and commercial arena. Wong supported the reform and opening up of the Mainland. He promoted the establishment of the Four Modernizations Service Committee of the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce in Hong Kong, publicized the national reform and opening-up policy, built an organization in which Hong Kong business people to participate in the reform and opening up of the mainland, and encouraged the patriotic enthusiasm of Hong Kong and Macao people and Overseas Chinese, and their desire to give back something to the motherland. Wong funded the establishment of the “Wong Kwan Cheng Educational Foundation” to support Chinese state-selected students for study abroad, and the training of talented people in high techfields. Wong Kwan Cheng was a firm supporter of the “One Country, Two Systems” policy. Wang served as the Deputy Director of the Executive Committee of the Basic Law Advisory Committee of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and participated in the drafting of the Basic Law of the Hong Kong SAR. Small asteroid number 4651 asteroid was formally designated “4651Wongkwancheng”.

[Wong Kwan Cheng bio at http://www.china.org.cn/english/China/214214.htm

https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E7%8E%8B%E5%AE%BD%E8%AF%9A/5812507 ]

Wang Jiafu

Wang Jiafu, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born February 1931, in Nanchong, Sichuan Province. Wang was former Director of the Institute of Law of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and member of the Standing Committee of the Ninth National People’s Congress. Wang participated in the drafting and formulation of many important civil and commercial laws, such as the General Principles of Civil Law, Corporate Law, and Property Law, and played an important role in promoting the development of China’s national commercial legislation. Wang proposed basic principles of the socialist market economy legal system, and even earlier promoted the concept of governing the country according to law. This played apositive role in building the rule of law and of the law since the beginning of the policy of reform and opening up. The State Council subsidized his work with a special allowance. Wang received the first”China Law Excellence Award” when China celebrated the thirtieth anniversary of the policy of reform and opening up as well as other awards.

[Wang Jiafu bio in Chinese at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E7%8E%8B%E5%AE%B6%E7%A6%8F/8195352

http://cass.cssn.cn/xuebuweiyuan/xuebuweiyuan/wjf/

Wang Jiafu articles in Chinese http://theory.people.com.cn/GB/40764/204432/207804/index.html ]

Wang Ying

Wang Ying, female, Hui nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born November 1961, died November 2008, was from Baozhong, Sichuan Province. Wang was a former member of the Standing Committee of the Nanjiang County Communist Party Committee of Bazhong City, Sichuan Province, and former Secretary of the Disciplinary Committee. She fought for 20 years in the field of discipline inspection and supervision, and created the “five zero deviations” workingstyle: zero deviation from serving the people, zero deviation from the people, zero deviation from the cadres, zero deviation from supervision of supervision, and zero shelving of cases. Wang demanded strict accountability, resolute safeguarding of the party discipline and the state’s legal authority, and create a good work environment of fairness and integrity. She was loyal to the Party,doing everything to the beset of her abilities. She fought lung cancer to the very end. She was very practical in how she went about serving the people. In 2009, the TV series “The Red Leaves of the Far Mountain” and the large-scale drama “Hongye Journey”, stories adapted from her work made a big impression throughout China. Wang won the title of “All China Discipline Inspection and Supervision System Advanced Model Worker”, and was posthumously awarded the title of “All China Excellent Communist Party Member” and “All China March Eighth Red Flag Bearer”.

[Wang Ying biographical article in Chinese at http://scnews.newssc.org/system/20181126/000925218.html

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E7%8E%8B%E7%91%9B/28251 ]

Wei Changjin

Wei Changjin, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born November 1965, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province. Wei Changjin was political commissar of Zaozhuang Military Division, Shandong Province. During a border self-defense counterattack, Wei was wounded by shrapnel that hit his left eye, penetrating his right chest, suffering injuries in twenty-two places. Ignoring his injuries, he shouted “For the motherland, for victory, fire on my position”,guiding artillery fire to repel the enemy in eight counterattacks. He was alone at his position for eleven hours. Due to his severe injuries, he was unconscious for seven days and seven nights. He lost vision in his left eye. Wei had made great sacrifices to defend the peaceful environment needed for reform and opening. injury, I was seven days and seven nights in a coma, and my left eye was blind. I made great sacrifices to defend the reform, opening and peaceful environment.After returning from the battlefield, he never forgot his initial sense of mission. He volunteered to report on his deeds and has given over 500 talks to inspire and energize others. Wei Changjin won the“August First Medal” and the titles of “Battlefield Hero” and“All China Self-Improvement Model”.

[Wei Changjin was wounded in a July 19, 1985 during a year-long series of skirmishes with Vietnamese forces on the Yunan Province – Vietnam border. See bio in Chinese at https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E9%9F%A6%E6%98%8C%E8%BF%9B and article on the border skirmishes in English at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sino-Vietnamese_conflicts,_1979%E2%80%931991 ]

Wei Huaneng

Wei Huaneng, male, Zhuang, Chinese Communist Party member, born April 1942, in Hechi, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Wei was the former Deputy Director of the village committee of Hezhai Village, PingnanTownship, Yizhou District, Hechi City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. In 1980, he organized villagers of the original Hezhai Bundle– the original villagers – to innovate and directly elect the village committee by secret ballot. They elected the members of the villager committee. This was the first village committee in China.The village committee’s experiments with various management systems,including village regulations, election methods, and deliberation procedures made important contributions to grass roots self-governance. Hezhai Village won the title of “All China Democracy and Rule of Law Model Village”.

[Chinese language news report on Wei Huaneng’s selection at https://www.sohu.com/a/278249234_99989380

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%9F%A6%E7%84%95%E8%83%BD/23174134 ]

Ju Xiaolin

Ju Xiaolin, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born September 1962, Shaoshan, Shaanxi. Ju Xiaolin is a technician of the China Railway Electrification Bureau Group, vice chairman of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (part-time). Since he started working in 1987, he has worked at studying, research and innovation. Ju mastered new knowledge and new skills needed for building overhead electrified rail systems. Ju participated in the construction of more than 10 national key railway projects including the Daqin Line, the Jingzheng Line, the Harbin-Dalian Line and the Beijing-Shanghai High-speed Railway. He developed 114 innovative construction methods,and edited the book “Catenary Rail Construction Experience and Methods” which was distributed as a guide to thousands of workers on electrified rail systems. Ju Xiaolin, who himself moved up from ordinary migrant worker to knowledge worker knowledge worker,exemplified China’s era of reform and opening up — “the glory of work, the lofty heights of knowledge, the treasure of human talent, and the creative works of great genius.” Ju won the title of “All China Model Worker” and “China Skills Award” and “National May First Labor Medal”.

[Ju Xiaolin Chinese-language Baidu bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%B7%A8%E6%99%93%E6%9E%97 ]

Kong Fansen

Kong Fansen, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born July 1944, died November 1994, was from Liaocheng, Shandong Province. Kong Fansen was the former Secretary of the Alidi Committee of the Tibet Autonomous Region and former Chairman of the Political Consultative Conference. Beginning in 1979, he went to Tibet twice to work diligently for the people and promote local economic and social development and national unity. After the end of Kong Fansen’s second assistance mission Kong Fansen in late 1992, he was appointed Secretary of the Ali delegation. In order to understand the situation and explore poverty alleviation methods, the delegation traveled over 80,000 kilometers, visiting 98 of the region’s 106 townships in theregion. Having formed a deep profound friendship with the Tibetan people, they became known as the “Lei Feng of the new era.”and the “Jiao Yulu of the 1990s.” His heroic deeds and lofty spirit have inspired and great number of Chinese men and women to take up the cause of reform and opening up. They went spontaneously to the places where the motherland and the people need them most. They went to the most difficult and difficult places to start a business. Kong was awarded the title of “National Model of National Unity and Progress” and was posthumously awarded the title of “Model Communist Party Member and Outstanding Leading Cadre”.

[Kong Fansen bio http://www.china.org.cn/china/60th_anniversary_people/2009-09/17/content_18547250.htm

Baidu bio in Chinese at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%AD%94%E7%B9%81%E6%A3%AE/76770

IMDb https://www.imdb.com/title/tt6721754/ ]

Li Yining

Li Yining, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,member of the China Democratic League political party, born November 1930, in Yizheng, Jiangsu Province. Li Yining is Emeritus Dean and Professor at the Guanghua School of Management, Peking University, former Vice Chairman of the China Democratic League Central Committee, member of the Seventh, Eighth and Ninth Standing Committees of the National People’s Congress and of the Standing Committee of the 10th,11th and 12th Chinese People’s Political Consultative Congress. Li was one of the earliest scholars in China to propose the theory of shareholding reform. Li participated in the reform of the property rights system of state-owned enterprises in China, presided over the drafting of the securities law and securities investment fund law,and participated in the promotion of 36 laws on non-public economies and 36 new laws on non-public economies which made a big impact on China’s economic reform and development. Moreover, Li Yining has made outstanding contributions to the reform of state-owned forestry rights system, the reform of state-owned agricultural economic system, and to development towards a low-carbon economy. Li Yining was awarded the first prize at the Sixth and the Seventh Award Ceremonies for the Higher Education Scientific Research Outstanding Achievement Award (Humanities and Social Sciences) of the Ministry of Education.

[Li Yining bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Li_Yining and https://www.thechinastory.org/key-intellectual/li-yining-%E5%8E%89%E4%BB%A5%E5%AE%81/

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%8E%89%E4%BB%A5%E5%AE%81 ]

Ye Cong

Ye Cong, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born November 1979, in Huangpu, Hubei Province. Ye Cong is Deputy Director of the Seventh Research Institute of China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation, leads the Underwater Engineering Research and Development Department, and has been chief designer and chief submariner on the “Zhenlong” deep sea submersible. Ye Conghas been engaged in the research, design and research and development of manned submersibles for a long time. Through unremitting efforts,he finally transformed the “Zhenlong” from drawings to reality. For love of manned deep dives, he took on the burdens of test pilot, main diver. Ye Cong has participated in fifty “Zhenlong”deep dives. The maximum dive depth reached was 7062 meters. As are representative figure of deep divers in China’s era since reform and opening, Ye Cong’s worthy deeds and service to the motherland is an example to young people. Ye Cong was awarded the honorary title of “Deep Dive Hero” as well as the “National May First Labor Medal” and “China Youth May Fourth Medal”.

[Ye Cong bio in Chinese at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%8F%B6%E8%81%AA/10854706 ]

 Shen Jilan

Shen Jilan, female, Han nationality, Communist Party member, born December 1929, in Pingshun, Shanxi Province. Shen Jilan was Deputy Secretary of the Party branch of Xigou Village, Pingshun County,Shanxi Province, former Director of the Shanxi Women’s Federation, former Deputy Director of Changzhi Municipal People’s Congress Standing Committee, and Pingshun County Committee Vice Secretary. Ever since the start reform and opening up, Shen Jilan has worked on development of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and sideline production in mountainous areas, led the people in Xigou Village of Pingshun Countyto conquer the mountains and valley, set up enterprises and factories, and to follow the trend towards marketization to build up Xiaokang New Village and Xigou. These villages became models of development for all of Shanxi Province. Shen Jilan is the only NPC deputy ever to be elected to thirteen National People’s Congresses. A determined person, she carries all her projects through to the end. Shen was awarded the titles of “All China National Model Worker”,“All China Excellent Communist Party Member” and “All China Moral Model”.

[Shen Jilan bio at https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E7%94%B3%E7%BA%AA%E5%85%B0

https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E7%94%B3%E7%BA%AA%E5%85%B0/31901

Press: 12-time legislator who never voted ‘no’ https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/world/12time-legislator-who-never-voted-no/article4492039.ece]

Shi Jiuyong

Shi Jiuyong, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born October 1926 in Ningbo, Zhejiang. Shi Juyong was the former legal counsel of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and former president of the United Nations International Court of Justice. Shi Jiuyong has worked in the diplomatic and international law front for many years, making contributions to safeguarding national sovereignty, security,development interests and international equity and justice. Shi participated in the China-UK Hong Kong negotiations as well as in devising a series of groundbreaking legal system provisions that contributed to the smooth transition from UK rule and the resumption of the exercise of Chinese sovereignty there. During his tenure on the United Nations International Law Commission and as a judge of the International Court of Justice, and especially as its head judge, he performed with superb knowledge, authenticity and diligence. Shi Jiuyong won universal praise from the international community and the international legal community, and glory for the Chinese nation.After leaving the post of President of the International Court of Justice, he is still working at the age of 90 and continues to make outstanding contributions in legal matters in China’s foreign relations.

[Shi Jiuyong bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shi_Jiuyong

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%8F%B2%E4%B9%85%E9%95%9B ]

Ran Shaozhi

Ran Shaozhi, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born May 1953 in Fengjie, Chongqing. Ran Shaozhi was former Deputy Director of the Fengjie County Migrants Bureau of Chongqing. A grassroots cadre who worked on migrant issues for many years, Ran was concerned with both the national interest and the interests of migrant. Ran did good ideological and political work among migrants including finding them jobs and resettling them. Ran had a major role in building the Three Gorges reservoir area, creating there a are settlement model of “one road on the riverside, one row of houses along the road behind industrial and commercial buildings in front of the houses, and fruit crops behind the house”. This set the pattern for rural resettlement in in the Three Gorges Reservoir area of Chongqing. Ran’s experiments led to the diversified development pattern of the Three Gorges reservoir area. Ran persuaded the people to support the new irrigation and water storage projects to supply drinking water for people and animals as well as to build drainage systems and roads, develop orchards and cultivate the land and so as to successfully complete the resettlement of the Three Gorges migrants.Ran was awarded the title of “All China Advanced Workers”, “All China Excellent Communist Party Members” and “Civil Servant the People are Pleased With”.

[Ran Shaozhi Baidu Chinese-language bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%86%89%E7%BB%8D%E4%B9%8B ]

Bao Qifan

Bao Qifan, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born in February 1951. Bao is the former vice president of Shanghai International Port (Group) Co., Ltd. and former director of its Technical Center. Bao Qifan exemplifies Chinese workers who grew up with the policy of reform and opening up. Bao developed a new graband process systems that advanced port materials handling and mechanization, and became known as “the Grab King”. Bao was involved in opening the first standard domestic shipping container route at the port of Shanghai. Bao participated in the construction of China’s first automated container unmanned yard as well as the development of China’s first highly-automated mining equipment system. This led to the development of China’s first container-RFID freight labeling system built to international standards. Over the past 40 years, Bao has led a technological innovation team, won three national invention awards, three national science and technology progress awards, and 36 gold medals at international invention exhibitions including Paris and Geneva. For five consecutive years, Bao was awarded the title of “All China Model Worker” and won the title of “All China Excellent Communist Party Member”.

[Bao Qifan “Bao Qifan: The ‘Cargo-Handling King’” http://www.china.org.cn/china/CPC_90_anniversary/2011-06/09/content_22743699.htm

Baidu Chinese-language bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%8C%85%E8%B5%B7%E5%B8%86 ]

Nima Dunzhu

Nima Dunzhu, male, Tibetan, Chinese Communist Party member, born June 1965. Nima was Secretary of the Party branch of Qianggu Village,Shima Township, Gêrzê County, Ali Region, Tibet Autonomous Region.Nima Dunzhu took the role of “lead goose” and “military commander” to promote national unity. He led the people to participate in cooperatives in the “Four Shares” system: a share of livestock, a share of labor, joint grazing, rotation of pastureland. The large-scale development of the collective economy involved the “Six Unified” operation modes of “uniform labor arrangement, unified management of grassland, unified purchase and sale of livestock products, unified distribution of operating income,unified support for the disabled, the widowed and the elderly, and keeping track of the grades of all the students in the school”.Nima promoted a “Joint Venture” between the herdsmen and the village management entity, and strengthened collective consciousness,the awareness of the cooperative to which they belonged and the market awareness of the villagers. He accomplished the transition from extensive management to intensive management. The income of the people became secure and sustainable. Nima Dunzhu’s successful experience was of great significance in promoting the scaling up,organization and market development of the collective economy of pastoral villages.

[Nima Dunzhu Baidu Chinese-language bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%B0%BC%E7%8E%9B%E9%A1%BF%E7%8F%A0/23175361 ]

Ting Bate’er

Ting Bate’er, male, Mongolian, Chinese Communist Party member, born June 1955 in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Ting is the former Secretary of the Party branch of Saru Latuya, Honggegaol Town,Abaqi Banner, Xilin Gol League, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. In 1974, he went to Hohhot from the city of Hohhot to Saru Latuya in the town of Hung’ge’er, and so went from being an urban youth to being a common herder in the countryside. Ting Bartel was always looking for ways to combine grassland ecological protection with economic development. He led the herdsmen to rotate grazing lands,build up the grasslands, actively adjust the age structure of the herd, and carry out refined and scientific farming. The per capita net income of herders has increased from 40 RMB 40 years ago to the present 18,800 RMB. The grassland was properly protected and utilized, getting to a win-win situation for ecological protection and herders’ income. Ting Bate’er won the title of “All China Model Worker”, “All China Excellent Communist Party Member” and“All China Model of National Unity and Progress”.

[Ting Bate’er Baidu Chinese-language bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%BB%B7%C2%B7%E5%B7%B4%E7%89%B9%E5%B0%94 ]

Liu Hanzhang

Liu Hanzhang, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born July 1936, died November 2009 from Gongyin in Henan Province.Liu Hanzhang was the former chairman and general manager of Handan Iron and Steel Group Co., Ltd. As reform and opening began, Liu Hanzhang was keenly aware to the new trend, seized the opportunity to promptly begin reforming the leadership, labor and personnel systemsat Handan Iron and Steel. During the 1990s, market mechanisms were introduced into the internal management of the enterprise, and the focus became cost management in order to “take the bull by its horns”. A mechanism for “simulating market accounting and implementing cost veto” to reverse the passive situation of Handan Iron and Steel in order to achieve leap-forward development. Profits stayed among the top three of other companies in the same industry in the country for four consecutive years, and ranked first in Hebei Province for eight consecutive years. The “Shangang Experience”inspired a revolution in business management throughout China. More  than 20,000 enterprises and institutions have studied and learned from Handan Iron and Steel model. The company has been hailed as “a red flag on the industrial front” in China and the second nationally- promoted model company after Daqing. Liu Hanzhang won the title of “All China Model Worker”.

[Liu Hanzhang Baidu Chinese-language bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%88%98%E6%B1%89%E7%AB%A0/2801261 ]

Liu Yonghao

Liu Yonghao, male, Han nationality, masses, born September 1951 in Xinjin, Sichuan. Liu Yonghao was Chairman and President of New Hope Group Co., Ltd., member of the Standing Committee of the Ninth and Tenth Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, and Vice Chairman of the Seventh and Eighth National Federation of Industry and Commerce. In 1982 Liu began working in agriculture and in 1987 developed the first domestic piglet feed. He persuaded the company not to forget its early ambitions and strive to grow. Today the company’s products include pig feed production, agricultural technology, food processing, financial services and many other fields with more than 600 subsidiaries in more than 30 countries and regions around the world. With nearly 70,000 employees, annual sales income exceed 100 billion yuan. For 14 consecutive years it has ranked among”China’s top 500 enterprises.” The company promotes projects for the benefit of the public and strives to be an”Outstanding Chinese Company.” New Hope initiated the“Precision Poverty Alleviation 1+1” campaign to promote industrial poverty alleviation and poverty alleviation education. Liu Yonghao was awarded the title of “All China Model Worker” and the“All China Poverty Fighter Award”.

[Liu Yonghao Wiki bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liu_Yonghao

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%88%98%E6%B0%B8%E5%A5%BD ]

Xu Lirong

Xu Lirong, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born July 1957 in Yancheng, Jiangsu Province. Xu Lirong is the Party Secretary and chairman of China Ocean Shipping Group Co., Ltd. During his tenure as the first president of the Shanghai Shipping Exchange,Xu built China’s first national-level water transport trading market and became China’s first shipping trading company exchange open to the outside world. In 2016, Xu successfully led the reform and restructuring of the world’s largest shipping company. He personally planned and directed the reform of COSCO container shipping system,led China’s container transportation industry, and advanced China’s foreign trade transportation reform, thereby enabling more Chinese enterprises to “go global.” Xu took a led role in creating the “Maritime Silk Road”, exploring new methods of international cooperation. This accelerated the internationalization of the terminal industry, integrating China’s marine transportation channels and logistics channels into the global economy, providing a strong basis for the “Belt and Road” projects. Xu won the”All China May 1st Labor Medal”.

[Xu Lirong http://en.cosco.com/art/2013/1/19/art_766_20810.html

Baidu Chinese-language bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E8%AE%B8%E7%AB%8B%E8%8D%A3 ]

Xu Zhenchao

Xu Zhenchao, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born January 1950 in Rongcheng, Shandong Province. Xu Zhenzhao is the Senior Manager of Qingdao Qianwan Container Terminal Co., Ltd.,former vice chairman of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions(part-time), member of the Standing Committee of the 11th, 12th National People’s Congress. Xu does his job well, loves the Party,and has excellent self-study skills. Xu has practiced techniques such as “one hook”, “one hook net” and “silent operation”. He has seven times broken the world record for container loading and unloading, winning world fame for his great efficiency. Xu never hesitates to look for an find new methods, leading his research team resolve safety issues, fill gaps in imported technologies, thereby achieving large cost saving for the country. His technique called the“Xu Zhenzhao Work Method” helped speeding up the work pace at Qingdao Port. His example has encouraged workers all across China to learn new skills. Xu won the title of “All China Model Worker”and “All China Excellent Communist Party Member”.

[Xu Zhenzhao Baidu Chinese-language bio at https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E8%AE%B8%E6%8C%AF%E8%B6%85 ]

Xu Haifeng

Xu Haifeng, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born August 1957 in Quanjiao, Anhui Province. Xu Haifeng is the former deputy director of the Bicycle Fencing Sports Management Center of the General Administration of Sport of China. In 1984, hewon the 50-meter men’s pistol competition at the 23rd Olympic Games, becoming the PRC’s first Olympic champion as well as winning world championships, Asian Games championships along with many other honors. After becoming a coach, his innovative training method produced a number of Olympic and world champions. He became known as the “Golden Coach”. Xu won the title of “All China Sports System Advanced Worker” and “Anhui Province Model Worker”.

[Xu Haifeng Wiki bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xu_Haifeng ]

Xu Chongde

Xu Chongde, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born in January 1929, died in March 2014 was from Qingpu, Shanghai.Xu Chongde was a leader in the study of constitutional law and administrative law at Renmin University of China, and a former honorary president of the Chinese Constitutional Research Association. Xu was one of the founders of the New China Constitutional Law. Xu Chongde participated in the drafting of the 1954 Constitution, participated in the revision of the 1982 Constitution, and participated in the revision of the Constitution in 1988, 1993, 1999, and 2003, and in the drafting of many important laws. In his legal drafting and revision work, Xu has made outstanding contributions to the formation of China’s socialist legal system and the promotion of comprehensive rule of the country according to law. In 1985 and 1988, he participated in drafting the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the drafting of the Basic Law of the Macao Special Administrative Region.Xu made important contribution to the return of Hong Kong and Macao to Chinese sovereignty and the implementation of the “One country, Two systems” concept. Xu won the 5th Wu Yuzhang Prize for Humanities and Social Sciences.

[Xu Chongde Wiki bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xu_Chongde

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E8%AE%B8%E5%B4%87%E5%BE%B7 ]

Sun Yongcai

Sun Yongcai, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born November 1964, in Changling, Jilin Province. Sun Yongcai has been the deputy secretary, director and general manager of China State Vehicle Group Co., Ltd., as well as deputy secretary, Executive Director and president of China CRRC Corporation. Sun was the main organizer and academic leader of China’s rail transit equipment technology innovation and upgrading of rolling stock. In 2004, he began to develop high-power locomotives and high-speed electric multiple unit [EMU] trains. Through independent innovation, he mastered nine key technologies and worked on ten projects involving EMUs. Development this technology meant that “high speed trains took the crucial step from catching up with others to taking the leadi n innovation” and made high speed trains a representative Chinese product of the new era. Sun participated in the overall implementation of the reorganization and integration of the northern and southern Chinese railway companies, created a precedent for the reorganization of two domestic A+H listed companies. This created anew model for the restructuring and reform of central government state-owned enterprises. Sun won the first class National Science and Technology Progress Award.

[Sun Yongcai CRRC Unveils their Lightest and New Advanced Energy-efficient Metro Train at InnoTrans 2018 https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/crrc-unveils-their-lightest-and-new-advanced-energy-efficient-metro-train-at-innotrans-2018-300715032.html

Baidu Chinese-language bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%AD%99%E6%B0%B8%E6%89%8D/4699889 ]

Sun Jiadong

Sun Jiadong, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born February 1929 in Fuxian, Liaoning Province. Sun was Senior Technical consultant of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation, chief designer of the Fengyun-2 satellite, Beidou-2 satellite project and China’s second generation satellites. Sun was Senior Special Advisor for Navigation Systems, former Deputy Minister of Aerospace Industry, and an Academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences. Sun Jiadong is one of the pioneers of China’s satellite technology and deep space exploration technology. Sun has been engaged in the development of 45 satellites over the past 60 years.As the chief designer of the first and second generation engineering of Beidou navigation system in China, Sun carried out networking and applications work on the Beidou satellite navigation system. As one of China’s main advocates of lunar exploration engineering, he was the chief designer of the first phase of the lunar exploration project. This set a new milestone in the history of Chinese aerospace. Sun won the “Two bombs and One Satellite” merit medal, the State Preeminent Science and Technology Award, the National Technology Progress Award among other outstanding awards as well as the title of “All China Outstanding Communist Party Member”.

[Sun Jiadong Wiki bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun_Jiadong

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%AD%99%E5%AE%B6%E6%A0%8B ]

Du Runsheng

Du Runsheng, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born July 1913, died in October 2015, from Taigu, Shanxi Province. Du Runsheng was the former director of the Central Rural Policy Research Office, former director of the Rural Development Research Center of the State Council. Du has long been engaged in the research of China’s rural reform and development strategy, stressed investigation and research, and excelled at transforming the practical experience of the people into academic theory. Du led drafting of the five Chinese Communist Party Central Committee”Document No. 1” during the 1980s and had a major role in promoting rural reform including implementing the household contract management responsibility system, abolishing the people’s commune system, reforming the agricultural product circulation system,adjusting the agricultural industrial structure, developing diversified operations and township enterprises, promoting grassroots democratic political construction, encouraging farmers to migrate to the cities to find work and do business, and safeguarding the material interests of farmers. Du Runsheng explored a number of major issues such as legal rights and interests, and made important contributions to both theory and practice.

[Du Runsheng Wiki bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Du_Runsheng

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%9D%9C%E6%B6%A6%E7%94%9F ]

Li Shufu

Li Shufu, male, Han nationality, non-party person, born June 1963, in Taizhou, Zhejiang. Li Shufu is Chairman of Zhejiang Geely Holding Group, vice chairman of the National Federation of Industry and Commerce (part-time). Setting out to “make a good car that ordinary people can afford”, in 1997 he went into the automobile business, founding the first private automobile enterprise in China.Leading Zhejiang Geely to in its successful international strategy,not only revitalizing the Volvo Group and putting it on a sustainable basis, but also became its large shareholder in both the Volvo Group and Daimler, vigorously promoting the internationalization of the Chinese automobile industry. After twenty years of strong growth,the Geely Group now, with over 100,000 employees worldwide, has ranked among the world’s top 500 companies for seven consecutive years and has more than 100,000 employees worldwide. Li Shufu won the title of “Zhejiang Province Private Sector Excellent Builder of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics”.

[Li Shufu Wiki bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Li_Shufu

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%9D%8E%E4%B9%A6%E7%A6%8F ]

Li Dongsheng

Li Dongsheng, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born July 1957 in Jieyang, Guangdong, Province. Li Dongsheng has been Party Secretary, Chairman and CEO of TCL Corporation, and Vice chair of the National Federation of Industry and Commerce (part-time). Li Dongsheng led TCL Corporation in major cross-border mergers and acquisitions thereby creating precedents for the international operation of Chinese enterprises. TCL Corporation has 28 R&D centers and 22 manufacturing bases throughout the world, and markets its televisions in 160 countries and regions. The annual operating income exceeds 100 billion yuan. The sales volume of its color televisions has ranked first in China and the world for many years. TCL manufactured China’s first button speakerphone and the first generation of large-screen color televisions. Li Dongsheng led his team to build an advanced LCD panel line that relies entirely on Chinese domestic innovation, teamwork and construction to accomplish a breakthrough in China’s video industry display technology. After Japan and South Korea, China became the third country to master independent development of high-end display technology. Li won the title of “All China Model Worker”.

[Li Dongsheng Wiki bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Li_Dongsheng

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%9D%8E%E4%B8%9C%E7%94%9F/7086914] 

Li Guyi

Li Guyi, female, Han nationality, member of both the Chinese Communist Party member and the Democratic League political party, born October 1944 in Changsha, Hunan Province. Li Guyi was Party Secretary and first deputy head of the Oriental Song and Dance Troupe. She tied her own artistic work to the process of reform and opening up, bearing witness to heroic feats of reform and opening with her voice. She expressed pride in the motherland, the heroic spirit of the nation, and the voice of the people. Nearly 800 songs were sung, “Hometown Love” was hailed as “the first popular song after the reform and opening”, “Unforgettable Today”sent joy and blessing to thousands of Chinese families, “My Country and My Country” expressed patriotic feelings for the motherland. For 40 years, she has been active on the stage, paying tribute both to tradition and innovation in vocal music, making outstanding contributions to both the development of vocal music in China and its history. She also inspired the Chinese people to enter a new era. Li Guyi was awarded the “Best Singing Award”category Popular Film Hundred Flowers Award and the Outstanding Actor Award of the Ministry of Culture.

[Li Guyi Wiki bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Li_Guyi

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%9D%8E%E8%B0%B7%E4%B8%80

Youtube https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC3rGKIT8NoU–Htyu043x9Q ]

Li Baoguo

Li Baoguo, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born February 1958, died April 2016 from Wuyi, Hebei Province. Li Baoguo was professor of Hebei Agricultural University. Li was a one of the people, a hard worker, selfless who found himself in serving the people. Li Baoguo was always at the front line of science and technology, agriculture, poverty alleviation and education. Li Baoguo published 28 scientific articles, won eighteen provincial and ministerial awards.  His work has affected cultivation in a technology promotion area of 18.26 million mu. Li Baoguo created 16 advanced models for mountain development and management. This has resulted in a series of well-known national brands which boosted the income of 100,000 mountain farmers both inside and outside Hebei Province by 5.85 billion RMB. Li Baoguo helped develop the “Two Convergences Theory of aggregated soil, aggregate run of that made it possible for Xingtai in the former Nanxun to reach a forest coverage rate of 90.7% and a vegetation coverage rate reached 94.6%. Li Baoguo became known as “Taihangshan’s Foolish Old Man Who Moved the Mountain”. Li Baoguo was awarded the title of “All China Advanced Worker” and posthumously awarded the titles of “All China Excellent Communist Party Member” and “All China Model for Poverty Alleviation”.

[Li Baoguo “President Xi calls late forestry professor role model for CPC members” http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/95thcpc/2016-06/16/content_25732062.htm

Baidu bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%9D%8E%E4%BF%9D%E5%9B%BD/657151 ]

Li Yanhong

Li Yanhong, male, Han nationality, non-partisan, born November 1968 in Shanxi, Yangquan. Li Yanhong is Chairman and CEO of Baidu Online Network Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd. Li Yanhong advanced the concept of “making the complex world simpler through technology”. During the 1990s, he was a leader in search engine technology research. He patented a “super-chain analysis” technology. In 2000, he returned to China to establish Baidu which developed into the world’s second largest independent search engine and the largest Chinese search engine. Focusing on artificial intelligence and pioneering science and technology research, Baidu promotes artificial intelligence, Big Data and other technologies with applications in manufacturing, automotive, education, finance, life services and other fields. These technologies are becoming deeply integrated to social governance, thereby promoting the development of China’s economy and smart cities. Li Yanhong founded the Baidu Foundation to promote public welfare. Li Yanhong won the “Beijing Outstanding Talent Award” and among other awards.

[Li Yanhong (Robin Li) Wiki bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robin_Li

Press Baidu’s Robin Li is Helping China Win the 21st Century http://time.com/5107485/baidus-robin-li-helping-china-win-21st-century/

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%9D%8E%E5%BD%A6%E5%AE%8F ]

Yang Shanzhou

Yang Shanzhou, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born January 1927, died in October 2010 from Shidian, Yunnan Province. Yang Shanzhou was the former Secretary of the Yunnan Provincial Party Committee. As reform and opening up began, Yang vigorously promoted the rural household contract responsibility system, transforming the once food-short area of Baoshan into the”Western Granary”. Yang become known as the “Food Secretary.” He was the first to experiment with the construction of small towns, the development of diversified operations, and fostering non-public ownership in the Chinese economy. Yang Shanzhou helped create many local industrial enterprises that processed agricultural and agricultural sideline products, creating thereby new and distinctive flourishing small market towns. Following his retirement, Yang Shanzhou personified the principle that “as long as there is life, there is service to the people” Yang worked in Daliangshan for 22 years, planted a forest of 22 million acres and creating an oasis. Yang operated a forest farm valued at 300 million RMB. Management rights he transferred to the country without compensation. Yang was awarded the title of “Outstanding Contributor to Environmental Protection” and was posthumously awarded the title of “All China Excellent Communist Party Member”.

[Yang Shanzhou Baidu bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%9D%A8%E5%96%84%E6%B4%B2/13873

2012 TV series Yang Shanzhou (in Chinese) http://www.le.com/tv/83398.html ]

Bu Xinsheng

Bu Xinsheng, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born January 1934, died June 2015 from Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province. Buwas the former director of Zhejiang Yuanhaiyan Shirt Factory and Deputy secretary of the Party Branch there and deputy general manager of the former Erqing Company head office in Haiyan County. In the early days of reform and opening up, he freed himself from ideological restraints, and boldly carried out enterprise reforms at Haiyan Shirt Factory head office. He created brands, found ways forward, and worked hard to invigorate his business operations. He imposed tighter controls on internal management, breaking the old customs of the “big pot of rice” and breaking some once-sacrosanct “iron rice bowls”. He transformed the corporate culture and got employees to feel responsibility for the enterprise.Driven by the new reform spirit, the Haiyan Shirt Factory took on a new look. It became the first company in Haiyan County to exceed 10 million RMB in sales which had a big economic impact all over the county. Bu was full of daring, courage and so became a model of”daring to reform and striving for innovation.” The media said that Bu Xinsheng “tailored the curtain of enterprise reform,” and his used cutting scissors were included in the National Museum of Chinese History. Bu Xinsheng won the title of”Zhejiang Advanced Production Worker”.

[Bu Xinsheng Baidu bio in Chinese at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%AD%A5%E9%91%AB%E7%94%9F

Video “Vanguard Reformer Bu Xinshng in 1984 https://www.yicai.com/video/100009905.html ]

Wu Renbao

Wu Renbao, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born in November 1928, died in March 2013 from Jiangyin, Jiangsu Province. Wu was Secretary of the Party Committee of Huaxi Village,Jiangyin City, Jiangsu Province and former chairman of Jiangsu HuaxiGroup. Wu always stood at the forefront of rural reform and development. He led the villagers of Huaxi to “create land in the1970s, build factories in the 1980s, build cities in the 1990s, and make rapid progress in the new century”, accomplishing industrialization first in rural villages, then a broader rural industrialization and finally rural urbanization. Wu led his region through the stage after stage of modernization, making full use of local resources and the comparative advantages of various rural districts to achieve a win-win outcome. This set precedent for creating democratic management systems for very large villages. Wu won the title of “All China Excellent Communist Party Member”,”All China Model Worker” and “All China Model of Dedicated Contributions to Industry”.

[Wu Renbao Baidu bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%90%B4%E4%BB%81%E5%AE%9D/70290

Film Wu Renbao” https://v.qq.com/x/cover/agoyrmcu3uwwr3b/g0026eo2rnp.html ]

Wu Liangyong

Wu Liangyong, male, Han nationality, member of both the Chinese Communist Party and Democratic League political party, born in May 1922 in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province. Wu is a Tsinghua University professor, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering. Considering large-scale, rapid speed and large areas involved in China’s urbanization, Wu founded the human settlement environmental science and established a set of spatial planning design methods and practice models centered around human settlements which won praise from the international architectural community. Wu successfully applied the scientific theory of human settlements to carry out planning and design research and practice in many kinds of urban and rural areas,architecture and gardens both large and small. Wu has participated in many major projects such as the design of the new library building for the Beijing Library, planning and designing the expansion of Tiananmen Square, planning and design of the Central Academy of Fine Arts, and planning and design of the Confucius Institute. Wu Liangyong won many awards including the State Preeminent Science and Technology Award.

[Wu Liangyong Wiki bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wu_Liangyong

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%90%B4%E8%89%AF%E9%95%9B ]

Wu Jinyin

Wu Jinyin, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born July 1942 in Weihui, Henan. Wu was Secretary of Tangzhuang Town Party Committee, Weihui City, Henan Province, former Deputy director of the Standing Committee of Xinxiang Municipal People’s Congress, and alternate member of the 15th Central Committee. For more than 40 years, he served as secretary of the township party committee. He never forgot his purpose or lost his sense of mission. Wu Jinyin treated the common people like his relatives, put down his own root in the rural grassroots, worked hard, led in building irrigation projects, built dam reservoirs, and created good fields. He transformed wild mountains and valleys into good agricultural land. While party secretary of Tangzhuang Town, Wuled the masses to plant forest orchards and vegetable gardens, set uptownship collective enterprises, and transformed the very poor Tangzhuang into one of the best developed and economically diversified towns in the province. He was praised as a “ModelTownship Party Secretary”. Wu won the titles of “All China Excellent Communist Party Member”, “All China Excellent Party Worker” and “All China May 1st Labor Medal”.

[Wu Jinyin https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%90%B4%E9%87%91%E5%8D%B0/6659118

Wu Jinyin page on People’s Daily website http://cpc.people.com.cn/GB/67481/94157/368913/index.html ]

Wu Rongnan

Wu Rongnan, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member  born June 1942 in Xiamen, Fujian Province. Wu is the former Deputy Secretary and general manager of the Xiamen Party Committee. Wu always encouraged reform and innovation at Xiamen Airlines helped ingrow into a prosperous company. Wu was the first to do mergers and acquisitions to restructure China’s civil aviation industry,implement a full-employment labor contract system, and establish a complete and scientific modern enterprise system. Thanks to his efforts, Xiamen Airlines benefited from the civil aviation reform and the opening of the Xiamen Special Economic Zone. The airline pioneered the broad bore integration in the operation of “state-run and private enterprises, seaports and airports”. In 1998, Xiamen Airlines was the only airline awarded the triple crown of the“Jinyuan Cup” in China’s national civil aviation system. Xiamen Airlines became a symbol of reform and opening of both Fujian Province and the Xiamen Special Economic Zone. Wu won the title of“Outstanding Businessman” in Fujian Province.

[Wu Rongnan Baidu bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%90%B4%E8%8D%A3%E5%8D%97 ]

Qiu Eguo

Qiu Eguo, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born May 1946 in Jinxian, Jiangxi Province. Qiu is a former investigator of the special police detachment of the Nanchang Public Security Bureau of Jiangxi Province. Since joining the police force 27 years ago, Qiu adhered to the principle “people’s public security works for the people”, law enforcement is for the people, a bold innovation service model, and the courage to crack down on grassroots governance problems. Qiu Eguo is dedicated to the household registration police putting great efforts into keeping accurate records and “By visiting a hundred households, getting to know one hundred families, understanding their situation, and to help every one to carry out their household affairs successfully”. He created the police-citizen contact cards, and the police-citizen liaison locations spread throughout the country and has been very effective at improving grassroots governance. Qiu gets involved at the outset to fight crime and has been involved in over 500 successful criminal investigations and has helped over 200 people who have returned from reform through labor or re-education through labor as well as juvenile delinquents re-enter society. Qiu Eguo has maintained social stability and become “intimate with the people”. Qiu Eguo was honored with the title of “All China Public Security System First-Class Hero Model”, “All China Moral Model” and “All China Excellent Communist Party Member”.

[Qiu Eguo Baidu bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%82%B1%E5%A8%A5%E5%9B%BD ]

He Xiangjian

He Xiangjian, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born August 1942 in Foshan, Guangdong, Province. He is chairman of Midea Holding Co., Ltd. He Xingjian always adheres to the “constant change is the only constant” concept, and dares to try, to challenge accepted ideas. He reformed the company’s internal shareholding system, making Midea the company in China to be listed on the stock exchange after the reorganization of a township enterprise. He Xiangjian implemented the business model of shareholder, board of directors and management team, and creating a precedent for private enterprise equity restructuring, equity incentives, professional managers and modern enterprise reform.Leading the Midea Group from a street-committee-run plastics production group to a Fortune 500 company with 150,000 employees,nearly 200 subsidiaries, more than 60 overseas branches, and a technology group with a market value of nearly 300 billion RMB. He Xiangjian established a charitable fund and invested more than 10 billion RMB to carry out charitable causes such as poverty alleviation, disaster relief, pension, and education. He Xiangjian won the title of “All China Model Worker”.

[He Xiangjian Wiki bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/He_Xiangjian

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E4%BD%95%E4%BA%AB%E5%81%A5 ]

He Zai

He Zai, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born November 1919 in Baoji, Shaanxi. He Zai joined the revolution in late 1936, serving as former Secretary-General of the Central Organization Department of the Communist Party and Director of the Cadre Review Bureau. In the period of rectification after the end of the “Cultural Revolution”, he resolutely implemented the line, principles and policies of the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, and unswervingly held to the line of the Communist Party Central Committee in his ideological and political actions. Under the leadership of Comrade Hu Yaobang and later Comrade Song Renqian, He Zai with a high degree of professionalism and sense of responsibility, did much hard and meticulous work, playing an important role in comprehensively implementing cadre policies,resolutely redressing false and wrong cases, and properly handling historical issues. He insisted upon being a free thinker and starting with the facts, in-depth investigation and research. He made many opinions and suggestions. He Zai always encouraged people to correct mistakes, be good at grasping the key points, review major crimes and difficult cases, and examine every case thoroughly, create an ideological line for our party of going back to seeking truth from facts. In those educational efforts, He Zai made a great contribution by making it possible for many cadres to become passionately committed to opening and reform.

[He Zai Baidu bio in Chinese athttps://baike.baidu.com/item/%E4%BD%95%E8%BD%BD/23174610 ]

Comment: He Zai helped correct false and mistaken court cases against so-called Rightists, real or alleged political dissidents condemned to long prison sentences in the late 1950s. Nearly all were completely exonerated after the end of the Cultural Revolution through the efforts of people like He Zai and (later Communist Party Secretary) Hu Yaobang. See the Chinese language article He Zai and Xi Zhongxun (Xi Jinping’s father) 何载回忆习仲勋http://www.crt.com.cn/news2007/news/XZXYDDGGKFZTYTHDZHENGWEN/1719164218BC1H9017JEKBGE2EI3D8.html]

Yu Liufen

Yu Liufen, female, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born August 1969 in Panzhou, Guizhou. Yu is Secretary of the Party Committee of Yanbolian Village, Yanbo Township, Panzhou City, Guizhou Province, Party Secretary of Yanbo Village and a delegate to the17th, 18th and 19th Congresses of the Communist Party of China. She takes the development of the economy and the affluent people as her own responsibility, puts down her on roots at the grassroots, reforms and innovates, believes in using party building to alleviate poverty and to make the village stronger. She aims at developing industry to alleviate poverty and industry-led development, and so organizes the people to build roads,buy forest land, and set up vineyards. Promoting the development of collective enterprises, she helped Yanbo Village develop from a poverty-stricken village with a per capita net income of less than 800 yuan with one-third of the villagers below the subsistence line and significant village debt to a per capita net income of 18,600 RMB and a collective assets of 76 million RMB. Yanbo Village became a well known as an “advanced village, educated village, model village, and a well-off village.” Yu Liufen won the title of”All China Excellent Communist Party Member”, “All China March Eighth Red Flag Hand Draft”, “All China Poverty Alleviation Award” and “Guizhou Provincial Model Worker”.

[Yu Liufen “Official Brings Prosperity to Mountainous Ethnic Village” http://www.womenofchina.cn/womenofchina/html1/special/1803/1260-1.htm

Baidu bio in Chinese at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E4%BD%99%E7%95%99%E8%8A%AC ]

Zou Bihua

Zou Bihua, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born January 1967, died December 2014, from Fengxinren, Jiangxi Province. Zou was a former member of the party organization, Vice President, and Senior Judge of the Shanghai Higher People’s Court. Zou insisted that the judiciary be dedicated to the people, to helping the people and serving the people, and demonstrate fairness and justice in the exercise of judicial power according to law. Determined to establish a full awareness of reform and innovation, to applying advanced management concepts and modern technical means to the courts. ZouBihua’s original methods in conducting judicial work are studied nationwide. Zou participated in the trial of the Social Insurance Fund recourse case, the northern securities bankruptcy case, and the housing maintenance fund case, and a large number of major and difficult cases that attracted national attention. The people of Shanghai welcomed the establishment of the 12368 convenience service hotline. Actively promote the scientific management of the court,take the lead in drafting the implementation plan for the judicial reform of the Shanghai court, and promote the reform of the judicial system of the Shanghai court. Unfortunately on December 10, 2014, he died on the job. People came spontaneously to mourn and remember Judge Zou Bihua. People from all walks of life say that “Judges should be like Zou Bihua”. Zou Bihua was posthumously awarded the title of “All China Model Judge” and “All China Excellent Communist Party Member”.

[Zou Bihua Wiki Chinese language bio at https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E9%82%B9%E7%A2%A7%E5%8D%8E and Baidu at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%82%B9%E7%A2%A7%E5%8D%8E/5395870 ]

Ku’erban Niyazi

Ku’erban Niyazi, male, Uyghur, Chinese Communist Party member born May 1964 in Wushi County, Xinjiang. He is the president of the National Common Language Primary School of Yimamu Town, Wushi County,Aksu Prefecture, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. He dared to be the first to break through the shackles of old ideas. In 2003, he took out all the savings of more than 600,000 RMB in his family, founded the National Common Language Primary School in Yimu Town, and mobilized the villagers to send their children to become bilingual and use education to end poverty. He constantly innovating teaching models, exploring teaching methods, improving teaching quality, and continuously expanding enrollment plans. He set up a Chinese language classroom, put up a picture of Confucius in the classroom, organized students to recite ancient poetry, to sing Beijing opera, practice calligraphy, and to vigorously promote Chinese traditional culture.This school changed the destinies of over one thousand minority students and played a leading role in the development of bilingual education in Xinjiang. Ku’erban Niyazi has made positive contributions to promoting Chinese culture and enhancing national unity. He won the title of “Moral Model” in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

[Ku’erban Niyazi – March 2018 People’s Daily article on his work http://xj.people.com.cn/n2/2018/0304/c188514-31306944.html ]

Zhang Yuejiao

Zhang Yuejiao, female, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born October 1944 in Jilin City, Jilin Province. Zhang is an arbitrator of the World Bank Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes, former Director of the Department of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation, former Chairman of the Appeals Body of the World Trade Organization Dispute Settlement Mechanism. She is the first “Chinese judge” of the Chinese nationality in the WTO. She has long fought to build China’s foreign trade legal system. Zhang participated in the negotiation and formulation of important economic and trade rules and agreements, and tried many high profile international investment and trade dispute cases. The handling of these cases enhanced China’s image of standing for the rule of law on the international stage. Participation in the formulation of a series of basic laws and regulations to open up trade with foreign countries, including foreign investment laws and foreign trade laws. Zhang has made important contributions to the establishment and improvement of China’s foreign trade and economic and legal system. Zhang Yuejiao has long participated in foreign trade,investment, and intellectual property rights negotiations in China,Europe and the United States. She has made positive contributions to China’s re-entry into international trade and to its WTO accession.Zhang Yuejiao won the title of “The Rule of Law Person of the Year” in 2007.

[Zhang Yuejiao Wiki article in Chinese at https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%BC%A0%E6%9C%88%E5%A7%A3

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%BC%A0%E6%9C%88%E5%A7%A3 ]

Zhang Ruimin

Zhang Ruimin, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born January 1949 in Laizhou, Shandong Province. Party Secretary, Chairman of the Board of Directors, Chief Executive Officer of Haier Group as well as Alternate Member of the 16th, 17th, 18th Central Committees of the Chinese Communist Party. Zhang responded to reformby exploring business management model, leading Haier from a small collective enterprise on the verge of collapse to becoming a world-renowned multinational group. In 2017, Haier’s global turnover reached 241.9 billion RMB and it has been the world’s top white goods brand for for nine consecutive years. “Complete every day’s task, and do it better day after day” – known as the “Overall Every Control and Clear” management method has won national awards for management modernization and innovation achievements; the “one person in one” model has been created, and enterprise management breakthrough from learning to imitation to leading the world has been achieved. The Haier Group was chosen by The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers(IEEE) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)to take the lead in formulating and researching international standards for mass customization models. Zhang Ruimin was awarded the title of “All China Model Worker” and “All China Excellent Communist Party Member”.

[Zhang Ruimin Wiki bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhang_Ruimin

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%BC%A0%E7%91%9E%E6%95%8F/19495

致敬改革开放40年40人 张瑞敏:教父级老板的企业管理奥秘http://www.eeo.com.cn/2018/1113/341024.shtml ]

Zhang Liming

Zhang Liming, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born August 1969 in Ji County, Hebei Province. Zhang Liming is the Deputy Party Branch Secretary of the Electric Power Supply and Inspection Office of the Binhai Electric Power Supply Company subsidiary of the State Grid Tianjin Electric Power Company and Head of its Electric Power Rapid Restoration Department. As an outstanding representative of industrial workers who grew up with the reform and opening, Zhang was dedicated to his work at the grassroots level and worked to master new technologies. He worked hard and wellin ordinary positions. Zhang worked in electric power repair work for more than 30 years, inspecting a total of 80,000 kilometers of electric power lines with a zero accident safety record. With the courage of someone always looking for ways to improve, determined tomake innovations, Zhang led his team in making over 400 technological innovations, winning 158 national patents. In over twenty projects they filled gaps in smart grid construction, applied innovative results to production practices, and achieved good economic and social benefits. Their adherence to the service pledge”Leaving for work at dawn and lighting up everyone’s home”brings to life the moral sense of industrial workers who are diligent in their work, always determined to do the very best they can. The  people call them affectionately “the ambassadors of light”. Zhang Liming won the title of “All China Model Worker” and”All China Excellent Communist Party Member”.

[Zhang Liming Baidu bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%BC%A0%E9%BB%8E%E6%98%8E/19698310

黎明出发,点亮万家——“蓝领创客”张黎明的电力抢修人生 http://www.xinhuanet.com/politics/2018-05/23/c_1122875750.htm ]

Zhang Biao

Zhang Biao, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born September 1952 in Pucheng, Shaanxi Province. Former Section Chief level examiner of cases of the People’s Procuratorate of Shihezi City, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Zhang Biao always see upholding social fairness and justice as his highest duty, carrying out his duties and handling cases impartially in his work for the procuratorate. As questions arise in a case, he persists,repeatedly verify and assuming responsibility, determined to persist in order to promote justice and promote the legitimate rights and interests of the accused, determined to inspire popular belief in and respect for the law by doing his job well. He promoted the rule that illegally obtained evidence must be excluded in retrials of case. Legal scholars consider this to be a key change in the handling of false and wrongful cases. Zhang participated in the review of more than 7600 cases of prisoners’ commutation and parole, found and corrected 74 people who violated the law but had had their sentences reduced or had been released contrary to law. He handled 21 cases of detainees’ complaints and reports, and reviewed seven cases according to law; and supervised and corrected the calculation errors of the sentence sentences of nine prisoners. Known as “the behind-the-scenes hero in reversals of unjust verdicts”, Zhang won the title of “All China Model Prosecutor”.

[Zhang Biao Baidu bio in Chinese at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%BC%A0%E9%A3%9A/733997 ]

Chen Rixin

Chen Rixin, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born June 1932, died in December 2007, from Datong, Shanxi, former Party Secretary and General Manager of Pingyi Coal Industry Company,former director of the former Datong Mining Bureau, chairman of the Zhangzhou Municipal CPPCC. Chen Rixin dared to take the lead in introducing Western advanced experience and equipment in the first largest Sino-foreign cooperation project at the Pingyi Antaibao open-pit coal mine in the early days of China’s reform and opening up. The project was completed in just one-fourth the time of typical Chinese mine construction projects in that era. This created the“Three Highs and one Fast” [high efficiency, high tech, high profitability and fast] model which raised the open-pit mining capability of China’s coal industry these past 30 years. This was a pioneering effort in Sino-foreign cooperative ventures that played a leading role in introducing large-scale foreign investment andco-founding enterprises. Antaibao Coal Mine was honored as a testbed for China’s reform and opening up.

[Chen Rixin Baidu bio in Chinese at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%99%88%E6%97%A5%E6%96%B0/23174650

山西公示:申纪兰、陈日新为改革开放杰出贡献表彰拟推荐人选 http://finance.sina.com.cn/roll/2018-11-09/doc-ihmutuea8444655.shtml ]

Margaret Chan

Margaret Chan Fung Fu-chun, female, Han nationality, born August 1947. Margaret Chan has long worked for the Hong Kong government.She was a member of the Standing Committee of the 13th Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, is the chief adviser to the State Council Leading Group on Deepening Medical and Health System Reform, and the first Chinese to be the Director-General of the World Health Organization. She advocated reform of the World Health Organization and led the organization and member states to successfully respond to public health emergencies such as Ebola and Zika, and made important contributions to global health and human health. She promoted extensive and in-depth cooperation between the World Health Organization and China, and supported the two emergency medical teams in China to become the first batch of international emergency medical teams certified by the World Health Organization,and advocated the integration of traditional medicines such as traditional Chinese medicine into national medical and health systems, supported the signing of The Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of the People’s Republic of China and the World Health Organization on the “Belt and Road” cooperation in the field of health. She has won wide acclaim from the international community. She won the title of “Director-General of the World Health Organization Emeritus”.

[Margaret Chan Fung Fu-chun bio on WHO website at http://www.who.int/dg/chan/en/ , Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_Chan and Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%99%88%E5%86%AF%E5%AF%8C%E7%8F%8D ]

Chen Jingrun

Chen Jingrun, male, Han nationality, non-partisan, born May 1933, died March 1996, from Fuzhou, Fujian Province. Chen Jingrun was a researcher at the Institute of Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and a member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. He overcame many hardships during his studies made important achievements in the field of analytic number theory. In 1973, “1+2” published in “China Science” made a sensation throughout the world and has been recognized as a major contribution to the study of Goldbach’s conjecture. It is the culmination of sifting theory, which the international mathematics community calls “Chen’s Theorem”and remains important to the study of Goldbach’s conjecture. His achievements and hard work have inspired generations of young people to focus their energies on scaling the peaks of scientific achievement. Chen was awarded the first prize of the National Natural Science Award and the Hua Luogeng Mathematics Prize.

[Chen Jingrun Wiki bio in English at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chen_Jingrun Baidu at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%99%88%E6%99%AF%E6%B6%A6/18067 ]

Mao Yonghong

Mao Yonghong, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born December 1954 in Wuhan, Hubei Province. Mao is Party Secretary of Baibuting Community, Jiang’an District, Wuhan City, Hubei Province and Chairman of the Board of Directors of Baibuting Group Co., Ltd.,. Mao served on the Standing Committee of the 12th Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, and as Vice Chairman of the National Federation of Industry and Commerce. Mao redefined the”community” concept, led in creating “community construction” with Chinese characteristics, broke free of traditional management style, and built the first community without asub-district office in the country. This promoted the gradual elimination of street committees in new communities across China. The first community construction model of “construction, management and service” and the community operation mechanism of “party leadership, government service, resident autonomy, market operation”and “Baibuting Community Party Construction Work Law” have become a banner of party building in communities across China. This has improved the modernization of grassroots governance systems and governance capabilities. Mao won the title of “All China Advanced Worker”.

[Mao Yonghong bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E8%8C%85%E6%B0%B8%E7%BA%A2 ; article on abolition of street committee offices in new communities in Chinese 中国的城市“街道”管理体制改革与社区发展 何海兵 上海行政学院城市社会研究所助理研究员 https://www.modernchinastudies.org/us/issues/past-issues/91-mcs-2006-issue-1/947-2012-01-05-15-35-10.html ]

Lin Yifu

Lin Yifu, male, Han nationality, non-partisan, born October 1952 in Yilan, Taiwan, professor at Peking University, counselor of the State Council, deputy director of the 13th National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, Deputy Director of the Economic Commission, former Vice President of the National Federation of Industry and Commerce, World Bank Former Senior Vice President and Chief Economist. Lin focuses on practical matters connected to reform and opening. He created and applied a structural economics theory that has had significant influence internationally. He has enriched agricultural economics theory. The did considerably rethinking on the institutional arrangements and macroeconomic theory as it applies to developing countries, and made important contributions to economic theory innovation in China. Lin has participated in the formulation of important reform of state-owned enterprises, the financial system, and telecommunications, China’s accession to the World Trade Organization and economic globalization,food and agriculture, rural areas and farmers. Lin advocates a new model of China-Africa cooperation in order to help developing countries to achieve economic restructuring. Lin Yifu participated in the establishment of the School of South-South Cooperation and Development of Peking University, which promoted the transformation and deepening of cooperation. Lin Yifu won the title of “All China Advanced Worker” and “Outstanding Young and Middle-aged Expert”.

[Justin Yifu Lin bio in English on Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Justin_Yifu_Lin and in Chinese on Baidu at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%9E%97%E6%AF%85%E5%A4%AB ]

Sonam Dargye (Jiesang·Suonandajie in PRC standard pinyin romanization)

Sonam Dargye, male, Tibetan, Chinese Communist Party member born in April 1954, died in January 1994, from Zhiduo in Qinghai Province.Sonam Dargye was the former deputy secretary of the Zhidu County Committee of the Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Qinghai Province, and the former secretary of the Western Working Committee of Zhiduo County. Sonam Dargye repeatedly recommended that the county party committee protect the national resources, rationally develop Kekexili, and advocated for the establishment of the Kekexili ecological environmental protection agency known as the – the Western Work Committee of Zhiduo County, and was appointed as the Secretary of the Work Committee. Sonam Dargye conducted in-situ investigations and inspections in the hinterland of Kekexili 12 times and studied first hand considerable material evidence. He established the first armed anti-poaching team in China, capturing eight illegal gangs that were hunting with guns. On January 18, 1994, he died heroically in the anti-poaching struggle. As a result of his heroic deeds, the Kekexili National Nature Reserve was established and Kekexili was included in the World Heritage List. The Sanjiangyuan area was also identified as the first national park system reform pilot project in China. His spirit of environmental protection will be passed down from generation to generation. Sonam Dargye won the title of “Environmental Guardian”.

[Sonam Dargye Wikipedia bio in Chinese at https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E6%9D%B0%E6%A1%91%C2%B7%E7%B4%A2%E5%8D%97%E8%BE%BE%E6%9D%B0 , on Baidu at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%9D%B0%E6%A1%91%C2%B7%E7%B4%A2%E5%8D%97%E8%BE%BE%E6%9D%B0 in English in Tibetan Environmentalists in China: The King of Dzi

By Liu Jianqiang excerpted at Google Books at https://tinyurl.com/sonamdargyewildyak

and the story of Sonam Dargye’s murder by poachers was fictionalized in the film Kekexili: Mountain Patrol https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kekexili:_Mountain_Patrol ]

Luo Yang

Luo Yang, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born June 1961, died November 2012, from Shenyang, Liaoning Province. LuoYang was the former deputy secretary, chairman and general manager of the Party Committee of the aviation industry Shenyang Aircraft Industry (Group) Co., Ltd. As the “helmsman” of the China’s Shenyang Aircraft Industry, he was determined to give back to the motherland by building China’s military strength. He came up with the “Ten Things to Always Keep in Mind” development concept to encourage innovative management, technological development, reform of institutional mechanisms reform etc., transform the business model, enhance enterprises, built overall strength, leading Shenyang Aircraft Industry into the fast lane of continuous development. Under his leadership, main indicators such as operating income and total industrial output value jumped 39.5%, and profit rose 61.8%. Luo Yang served as the chief commander of several model development sites, and led Shenyang Aircraft Industry to develop of several key aircraft such as the Shenyang J-15 carrier aircraft. Shenyang Aircraft achieved the first test flight of design prototypes,promoted the development of military fighters. This was a significant contribution to China’s national aviation weapons and equipment. Luo Yang was awarded the posthumously honorary titles of “Aerospace Industry Model Worker” and the title of “All China Excellent Communist Party Member”.

[Luo Yang Wiki bio https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E7%BD%97%E9%98%B3_(%E8%91%A3%E4%BA%8B%E9%95%BF) Baidu bio https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E7%BD%97%E9%98%B3/7961069

November 25, 2014 People’s Daily memorial article “Remembering the “Father of the Flying Shark” 缅怀“飞鲨之父”罗阳:国之重器以命铸之 at http://military.people.com.cn/n/2014/1125/c1011-26088859.html

Luo Yang management concepts discussed at 他如何管理万名员工的老国企——罗阳语录摘登 http://www.12371.cn/2012/12/12/ARTI1355263138712589.shtml ]

Zhou Mingjin

Zhou Mingjin, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born January 1953, in Laixi, Shandong Province. Zhou Mingjin is the former secretary of the Party Group of the Laixi City Land and Resources Bureau of Shandong Province and former deputy director of the Organization Department of Laixi County Communist Party Committee. While at the Organization Department of Laixi County Communist Party Committee, he actively explored the supporting construction of “village-level organization, democratic politics, and social service” under the leadership of the village party branch, and summarized the formation of the “Three Supports” experiences of Laixi village-level organization. In August 1990, the five ministries and commissions, including the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee’s Organization Department, held a joint national symposium on the construction of village-level organizations in Laixi, summed up and urged widespread sharing of the “Laixi experience” as a model for the leadership of the party branch from the perspectives of theory,policy and village organization system. The construction of village-level organizations originated in Laixi has improved peasant organization, greatly helped reform and development in the rural areas, consolidated the party governance in the countryside, and served as a good model for the entire country.

[Zhou Mingjin bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%91%A8%E6%98%8E%E9%87%91/23177656 ]

Zheng Juxuan

Zheng Juxuan, male, Han nationality, Democratic National Construction Association member, born June 1940 in Wuhan, Hubei. Zheng Juxuan is the Honorary President of Hanzheng Street Market Chamber of Commerce,Wuhan, Hubei Province, Chairman and General Manager of Wuhan Overseas Chinese Friendship Trading Co., Ltd. Zheng dares to take the lead,has a keen business vision. He got permission for self-employed entrepreneurs to operate and promoted the opening of markets for small commodities. In 1979, under his leadership, the Hanzheng Street small commodity market initiated the reform of small commodity distribution. The number of self-employed households grew to over 3,400 households, becoming the largest entrepreneurial group in China at that time. In 1982, Hanzheng Street took the lead in breaking through policy restrictions, allowing wholesale sales, and earned the reputation of “the world’s first street” and “weather vane for the development of the market commodities distribution system”.Zheng Juxuan also became the earliest ten thousand RMB and million RMB household on in Hanzheng Street in the 1980s. Zheng had the highest sales of any merchant on Hanzheng Street at the time as well as being the top taxpayer, and top in donations to charitable causes along with being the first to subscribe to Chinese treasury bonds.Zheng Juxuan was praised as a “business legend” of Hanzheng Street.

[Zheng Juxuan Baidu bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%83%91%E4%B8%BE%E9%80%89 ]

Zheng Derong

Zheng Derong, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member, born January 1926, died in May 2018 in Yanji, Jilin Province. Zheng Derong was the vice president of Northeast Normal University and atutor to doctoral students. Zheng led the Northeast Normal University to establish the first Mao Zedong Thought Institute and served as its Director. Zheng has long devoted himself to teaching and research on the history of the Chinese Communist Party, Mao Zedong Thought,Marxism in China, and the theoretical system of socialism with Chinese characteristics. Zheng wrote important works such as “DraftHistory of Mao Zedong Thought”, “Mao Zedong Thought and Marxism in China” and “Lectures on the History of the Communist Party of China”. After the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the research direction was further extended to the study of the Xi Jinping’s Thought on the New Era of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics. Zheng always kept his focus on the inheritance of the red gene, something he had followed since the beginning of his research. Zheng was honored with the title of“Red Theoretician”. Zheng Derong was posthumously awarded thetitle of “All China Excellent Communist Party Member”.

[Zheng Derong June 2018 China Daily article “Knowing the Party Line” at Baidu bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%83%91%E5%BE%B7%E8%8D%A3 July 2018 memorial article in the Chinese Communist Party theoretical journal Seeking Truth 郑德荣:生命,为信仰燃烧 http://www.qstheory.cn/2018-07/09/c_1123099473.htm ]

Lang Ping

Lang Ping, female, Han nationality, masses, born December 1960, in Wuqing, Tianjin Municipality. Lang Ping is Chinese women’s volleyball head coach and Vice Chair of the Chinese Volleyball Association. As lead player on Chinese women’s volleyball teams of the 1980s, she and her teammates won five consecutive championships. The “women’s volleyball spirit” has inspired people from all walks of life to devote themselves to the Chinese nation. After the 1990s, she took over as head coach during the Chinese women’s volleyball team’s difficult period. Building on the “spirit of women’s volleyball team”, innovating and making great use of newcomers they built a diverse coaching staff and brought Chinese women’s volleyball team to the top including several Olympic and world championships. The “women’s volleyball spirit” is famous in all Chinese sports, inspiring the a patriotic spirit and so influencing generations of people to participate in the great cause of reform, opening up, and socialism with Chinese characteristics. Lang Ping won the title of “All China March Eighth Red Flag Bearer” and “Beijing Model Worker”.

[Lang Ping Wiki bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lang_Ping Baidu bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%83%8E%E5%B9%B3/58857 ]

Hu Xiaoyan

Hu Xiaoyan, female, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born January 1974 in Wusheng, Sichuan Province. Hu Xiaoyan is Vice Chair of the Sanshui District Federation of Trade Unions in Foshan City, Guangdong Province; former Deputy Director and Sales Director of the finishing workshop of Xinmingzhu Jiantao Industry Co., Ltd.;and a delegate to the National People’s Congress. Hu started working in Foshan, Guangdong Province in 1998. She worked hard to stand out from the other migrant workers and become a member of the front-line management staff. In 2008, she was one of the first migrant worker selected as delegates to the National People’s Congress. She made several suggestions on protecting the rights and interests of migrant workers during the meetings of the NPC and CPPCC. She set up the“Haiyan Mailbox” column to protect the rights of migrant workers, advocated for the “Xiaoyan Upward Mobility” an education plan to help employees move up, and set up several mother assistance centers to help migrant workers. The Pearl River Film Studio used these centers as background in their film prototype of the film “All Dreams Are Flowering”. Hu Xiaoyan won the title of “All China Excellent Migrant Workers” and “All China May First Labor Medal”.

[Hu Xiaoyan bio China Radio International Hu Xiaoyan, NPC Deputy for Migrant Workers http://english.cri.cn/4026/2008/03/14/1481@333780.htm Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E8%83%A1%E5%B0%8F%E7%87%95/563832 ]

Hu Fuming

Hu Fuming, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born July 1935 in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province. Hu, the former Vice Chairman of Jiangsu Province Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, is a professor of Nanjing University. Combining the great courage of a communist with an intellectual’s sense of social responsibility, Hu Fuming, open minded and swimming against the tide of the times, broke through the pitfall of believing that Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party leadership is always right. As the main drafter, on May 11, 1978, of the Guangming Daily commentary,”Practice is the sole criterion for testing truth” was a clap of thunder for Communist Party theoreticians. With the support of Comrade Deng Xiaoping, a large-scale discussion on the issue of the criterion of truth was launched nationwide. This was a prelude to freeing people’s minds and so was historically significant for re-establishing the Marxist ideological line of our party and profoundly changing the course of modern Chinese history. Hu Fuming won the title of “Jiangsu Province’s Master of the Social Sciences”.

[Hu Fuming bio Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E8%83%A1%E7%A6%8F%E6%98%8E , Hu Fuming: The Most Important Articles are Those That Leave a Mark in History 胡福明:最好的文章是能在历史上留下印记的文章 in Chinese at http://www.ccdi.gov.cn/yaowen/201811/t20181129_184178.html

November 2018 interview Hu Fuming Author of Mind-Opening Guangming Daily Commentary “Practice is the Sole Criterion for Testing Truth” https://gaodawei.wordpress.com/2018/11/30/hu-fuming-author-of-mind-opening-guangming-daily-commentary-practice-is-the-only-criterion-of-truth/ ]

Nan Rendong

Nan Rendong, male, Manchu, masses, born February 1945, died September 2017 from Liaoyuan, Jilin Province. Nan Rendong was a former Chief Scientist and Chief Engineer at the Five hundred meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) of the National Astronomical Observatory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. He devoted himself to astronomical research, insisted on independent innovation, and led on the proposal to use China’s Guizhou Province karst depression as a telescope site. The site selection process from comparing different proposals through site selection to construction lasted 22 years. Nan Rendong led his team as they conquered a series of technical problems and played a key role in the engineering design and construction of the FAST. FAST achieves China’s dream of possessing its own world-class telescopes all the while promoting social and economic progress. Nan Rendong’s patriotic sentiments, scientific spirit and courage made him a role model who has inspired a vast number of  scientific and technological workers to redouble their own efforts. Nan Rendong was awarded the National Innovation Award and was posthumously awarded the title of “Model Worker of Our Era”.

[Nan Rendong Wiki bio in English at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nan_Rendong Baidu bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%8D%97%E4%BB%81%E4%B8%9C Wiki article on the Five hundred meter Aperture Spherical Telescope https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five_hundred_meter_Aperture_Spherical_Telescope ]

Nan Cunhui

Nan Cunhui, male, Han nationality, no political affiliation, born July 1963 in Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province. Nan Cunhui is the Chairman of Chint Group Co., Ltd., Vice Chairman of the National Federation of Industry and Commerce (part-time), Member of the Standing Committee of the 12th and 13th Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference. Since the establishment of the Sino-US joint venture Chint (Zhengtai Electric Co.) in 1991, he has insisted on industry,reform and innovations, such as the shareholder equity distribution system, which have enabled the company to grow rapidly into a large modern enterprise group with manufacturing and sales offices in than 70 countries and regions. As China’s largest producer and distributor of low-voltage electrical appliances and leaders in the new energy field, it has transformed itself from traditional manufacturing tosmart, green and service-oriented manufacturing. In 2007, the Chint Group sued a well-known foreign electric company for patent infringement. The other party lost the lawsuit and paid Zhengtai a huge sum of money. This became a classic case of a domestic enterprises obtaining compensation in a foreign intellectual property cases. Nan Cunhui was awarded the title of “Excellent Builder of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics”.

[Nan Cunhui bio at on CHINT website in English http://en.chint.com/index.php/about/index.html Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%8D%97%E5%AD%98%E8%BE%89 ]

Liu Chuanzhi

Liu Chuanzhi, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born April 1944 in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province. Liu Chuanzhi is the Party Secretary and Chairman of the Legend Holdings Co., Ltd. An outstanding representative of the first generation of science and technology entrepreneurs in the reform era, Liu started with the Chinese domestic market, developed national brands through constant innovation. He founded Lenovo in 1984 and won a competition with international PC giants leading to a rapid development of the entire Chinese information technology sector. Liu Chuanzhi devised and implement Lenovo’s international development strategy, leading Lenovo to acquire the personal computer business of the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM). This provided Lenovo with the experience it needed to “go global”. Liu transformed the company’s shareholding structure, pushed forward new innovative technologies to achieve Organize the implementation of the company’s shareholding system transformation which supported the further development of the company as it commercialized new technologies for the consumer market. Liu Chuanzhi won titles such as “All China Model Worker”.

[Liu Chuanzhi Wiki bio in English at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liu_Chuanzhi , https://www.referenceforbusiness.com/biography/F-L/Liu-Chuanzhi-1944.html Baidu in Chinese at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%9F%B3%E4%BC%A0%E5%BF%97/23645 ]

Zhong Nanshan

Zhong Nanshan, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born October 1936 in Xiamen, Fujian Province. Zhong Nanshan was the Director of the National Hospital for Respiratory Illnesses Clinical Medicine Research Center at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, and an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering. During the fight against SARS in 2003, he went to the affected areas to guide medical care at the risk of his own life. Zhong advocated for cooperation with the World Health Organization, presided over the development of guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute infectious diseases such as the SARS epidemic in China and defeated it. Zhong assumed the role of spokesperson during public health emergencies, popularize health knowledge to the public, actively contributed ideas and promoted the construction of a public health emergency response system, playing an important role in successful responses to public health emergencies such as influenza A and H7N9 avian influenza. He was awarded the title of “National Advanced Worker” twice and won the first prize of National Science and Technology Progress Award.

[Zhong Nanshan Wiki bio in English at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhong_Nanshan and Baidu in Chinese at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%92%9F%E5%8D%97%E5%B1%B1/653914 ]

Yu Guogang

Yu Guogang, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born February 1944 in Ankang, Shaanxi Province. Yu is the former Deputy General Manager (legal representative) of the Shenzhen Stock Exchange. Yu participated in the development of China’s capital market from the very beginning from a small, local exchange to a large national one. In 1988, he was in charge of founding the Shenzhen Stock Exchange, learning from the laws, regulations and business rules of overseas securities market, and leading the drafting of important documents such as the “Shenzhen Stock Exchange Regulations”. This laid the foundation for the Shenzhen Stock Exchange and promoted the orderly development of China’s securities market. Yu pushed ahead simultaneously the “Four Modernizations” of the Shenzhen Stock Exchange – computerized transactions, paperless settlements, satellite communications, and notrading floor. It soon became a well-known stock exchange in the Asia-Pacific region and the world. In its bond trading system, the Shenyang Stock Exchange remains a world technology leader.

[Yu Guoguang Baidu bio https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E7%A6%B9%E5%9B%BD%E5%88%9A/6483983? A tribute to the reform figures | Yu Guoguang The main planner of the Shenzhen Stock Exchange in Chinese at http://finance.sina.com.cn/meeting/2018-02-02/doc-ifyrcsrw9188263.shtml ]

Shi Guangnan

Shi Guangnan, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born August 1940, died May 1990, from Jinhua, Zhejiang Province. Shi Guangnan was a musician, composer, and former Vice Chairman of the National Youth Federation, and former Vice Chairman of the Chinese Musicians Association. Shi keeps up with the times, pursues the unity of ideological, art and the popular in his artistic creations. He left behind a great many compositions such as “The Toasting Song”, “On the Field of Hope”, “My Motherland”,”The Phoenix tail under the Moonlight” These works helped build socialist spiritual civilization and have had great influence both in China and abroad. Shi Guangnan keep on writing many songs that took with patriotism, reform and the lives of the people as their themes. He became known as the representative “singer of his era.” His songs are full of longing for a better life, love for the motherland, promotion of Chinese traditional culture and hope for reviving the national spirit. These themes have strongly resonated hundreds of millions of people and inspired generations of young people to strive to advance themselves.

[Shi Guangnan Wiki bio in English https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shi_Guangnan Shi Guangnan in Introduction to Chinese Culture: Cultural History, Arts, Festivals and Rituals https://tinyurl.com/shiguangnan

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%96%BD%E5%85%89%E5%8D%97 ]

Yao Ming

Yao Ming, male, Han nationality, no political affiliation, born September 1980 in Wujiang, Jiangsu Province. Yao Ming is Chairman of the Chinese Basketball Association (CBA), and Chairman of the Board of CBA Corporation. A very hard worker, his team won the CBA Leaguechampionship in 2002 and was selected by the Houston Rockets in the draft that same year. He is the only Chinese player to have been a first overall pick in the US National Basketball Association draft. In 2016, he was selected to the US NBA Basketball Hall of Fame, becoming the first basketball player in Asia to receive this honor. Yao Ming has led the Chinese team to participate in the world-class competitions including the Beijing Olympics and achieved excellent results. His experience and achievements in the NBA have raised the profile of Chinese basketball worldwide and promoted cultural exchanges between China and foreign countries. Yao Ming won the title of “All China Advanced Worker”, “Shanghai ModelWorker” and “National May First Labor Medal”.

[Yao Ming Wiki bio https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yao_Ming Baiu bio https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%A7%9A%E6%98%8E/28 ]

Qin Zhenhua

Qin Zhenhua, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born March 1936, in Zhangjiagang, Jiangsu Province. Qin Zhenhua is the former Deputy Director of the Standing Committee of the People’s Congress of Jiangsu Province, former member of the Standing Committee of the Jiangsu Provincial Political Consultative Conference, former Secretary of the Zhangjiagang Municipal Committee, and former Director of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress. Qin Zhenhua freed himself from ideological bonds, dared to breakthrough barriers, seized the opportunities, worked hard, and launched a series of reform measures to promote the economic and social development of Zhangjiagang City. This and shaped its urban spirit of”unity, hard work, self-improvement, self-improvement, and courage to fight for the first” achieving twenty-eight “National First Rankings” for the city. The National Spiritual Civilization Construction Experience Exchange Conference was held in Zhangjiagang to promote the “Zhangjiagang Experience” and the “Zhangjiagang Spirit”. The rapid rise of Zhangjiagang once reform and opening began was praised by the media as “putting a great theory into practice.” Qin Zhenhua was awarded the title of “All China lExcellent County (City) Party Secretary”, “All China Excellent Party Worker” and “All China Advanced Retired Cadre”.

[Qin Zhenhua bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E7%A7%A6%E6%8C%AF%E5%8D%8E/8983116 ]

Yuan Geng

Yuan Geng, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born April 1917, died in January 2016, from Bao’an, Guangdong Province. Yuan Geng was a former Executive Vice Chairman of China Merchants Group and a former Director of the Shekou Industrial Zone Administrative Committee. Yuan constantly broke through ideological fetters to boldly innovate, putting forward a series of new concepts compatible with the market economy and making a series of changes in institutional mechanisms. Yuan led Shenzhen in firing the first artillery” rounds of the reform era. Yuan proposed the slogan“Time is money and efficiency is our lifeblood” and enthusiastically established China’s first export-oriented industrial park – the Shekou Industrial Zone. This zone was home base to theadvance troops of reform, giving birth to outstanding enterprises such as China Merchants Bank and Ping An Insurance. His courage to experiment, reform and innovate provided valuable experience and made important historical contributions to China’s reform and opening up.Yuan won the “Golden Bauhinia Medal” of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government.

[Yuan Geng Wiki bio in English at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuan_Geng excerpt on Yuan Geng in in Learning from Shenzhen: China’s Post-Mao Experiment from Special Zone to Model City

https://tinyurl.com/yuangeng

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E8%A2%81%E5%BA%9A ]

Yuan Longping

Yuan Longping, male, Han nationality, no party affiliation, born September 1930 in De’an, Jiangxi Province. Yuan Longping is the former Director of the Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center, former Vice Chairman of the Hunan Provincial Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, academician of Chinese Academy of Engineering, Member of the Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth, Ninth, Tenth,Eleventh and Twelfth National Committees of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference. Yuan, a hybrid rice researcher,invented the “three-line method” of breeding indica hybrid rice, successfully produced “second-line” hybrid rice and developed a super hybrid rice technical system which made China a world leader in hybrid rice research. As of 2017, hybrid rice has been grown on over 9 billion mu of fields in China, increasing rice production by over 600 billion kilograms. Yuan traveled to India,Vietnam and other countries to teach hybrid rice technology to help overcome food shortages and hunger. For his outstanding contribution to ensuring China’s food security and to world food supply, Yuan Longping has won many honors such as the State Preeminent Science and Technology Award and the National Science and Technology Progress Award.

[Yuan Longping Wiki English bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuan_Longping A World-Brand Name: Yuan Longping, The Father of Hybrid Rice https://www.worldfoodprize.org/index.cfm/87428/40007/a_worldbrand_name_yuan_longping_the_father_of_hybrid_rice

Yuan Longping’s saltwater rice to become UAE national gift http://en.people.cn/n3/2018/0725/c90000-9484539.html

Baidu bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E8%A2%81%E9%9A%86%E5%B9%B3/43836 ]

Ni Runfeng

Ni Runfeng, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born February 1944 in Rongcheng, Shandong Province. Ni Runfeng is the former Party Secretary and former Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Sichuan Changhong Electronics Group Co., Ltd., Alternate Member of the Fifteenth Chinese Communist Party Central Committee,and member of the Standing Committee of the Tenth Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference. Ni in the spirit of the reformer a dared to experiment and to convert scientific advances into innovation in military technology, technology. He brought the testing and quality control methods learned there to the research and development of products for the civilian market, moving Changhong from military production only to production of a combination of military and civilian products, making the company an industry leader in the“military manufacturer switches to production for the civilian market”. This made Changhong China’s color TV king with annual production valued at 10 billion RMB. This laid the foundation for the Chinese color TV industry to go global. Ni Runfeng was honored with the titles of “All China Model Worker” and enjoys special government allowances from the State Council.

[Ni Runfeng on China Vitae http://www.chinavitae.com/biography/Ni_Runfeng/career Baidu bio at https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%80%AA%E6%B6%A6%E5%B3%B0

Guo Mingyi

Guo Mingyi, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born December 1958 in Anshan, Liaoning Province. Guo Mingyi is the Anshan Iron and Steel Group Mining Co., Ltd. Qi Dashan Iron Ore Production Technology Office (road manager), Vice Chairman of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (part-time), and was Alternate Member of the 18th and 19th Central Committees of the Chinese Communist Party. For over forty years, Guo Mingyi learned from LeiFeng and did good deeds, always staying at the forefront of exemplary of Communist Party members. Guo was praised by the people as “the messenger of love” and “the descendant of Lei Feng.”Guo Mingyi’s love team has operating since 2009. Over one thousand teams have been organized across China and attracted over 1.8 million volunteers. More and more Chinese have decided to “Follow Guo Mingyi in learning from Lei Feng”. In today’s market economy, the”Lei Feng Spirit” remain vigorous, with the wide appeal of showing by good example. Guo Mingyi won the title of “All China Excellent Communist Party Member”, “All China Model of Helping People to Act Morally” and “National May First Medal”.

[Guo Mingyi Wiki bio in English at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guo_Mingyi Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%83%AD%E6%98%8E%E4%B9%89/13123 ]

Tu Youyou

Tu Youyou, female, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born December 1930 in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province. Tu Youyou is Director of the Artemisinin Research Center of the China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences. In their dedicated research into Traditional Chinese Medicine she and her team have overcome many difficulties. Their discovery of artemisinin the new anti-malarial drug artemisinin helped solve the long-standing problem of the failure of other kinds of malaria treatments. Combination therapy based on derivatives such as dihydroartemisinin and artesunate (ACT)have become the most widely used antimalarial drug in the world, saving millions of lives, especially in developing countries. This great scientific and technological innovation produced great social and economic benefits and brought innovation to research on traditional Chinese medicine. Tu Youyou won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine and the National Science and the State Preeminent Science and Technology Award.

[Tu Youyou Wiki bio in English at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tu_Youyou https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/medicine/2015/tu/facts/ Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%B1%A0%E5%91%A6%E5%91%A6/5567206 ]

Jiang Zilong

Jiang Zilong, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party of China born in August 1941 in Jixian County, Hebei Province. Jiang Zilong is the Honorary Chairman of the Tianjin Writers Association, and Vice Chairman of the Fifth, Sixth and Seventh sessions of the Chinese Writers Association. Jiang was the founder and representative writer of “Reform Literature”, and his works have been shaped the image of the reformer. In 1979, he published his short story “Jiao Takes Up His New Position”, which opened the era of “reform literature.” His focus has always been on aspects economic reform close to people’s daily lives. Possessing a strong and healthy style, a reformer’s outlook, a moral sense, and a strong desire for modernization, his attitudes are are extremely infectious. A series of short and medium-length novels, such as”Pioneer”, “Red Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Purple”and “The Pots and Pans Symphony” which depicted factory and urban reforms, made a big impact, changing minds and propelling forward reform. Jiang awakened enthusiasm for reform throughout the country.Many of his works won national outstanding short and novella awards.

[Jiang Zilong Baidu bio in Chinese https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E8%92%8B%E5%AD%90%E9%BE%99/624371 http://www.chinawriter.com.cn/fwzj/writer/132.shtml ]

Jiang Jiayu

Jiang Jiaxuan, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born June 1981 in Chengdu, Sichuan Province. Jiang Jiayu is the Commander of the People’s Liberation Army 95478 and an Air Force special pilot. Jiang is always developing new combat skills and training methods. He has studied over twenty types of tactical tactics. In 2011, he participated in the air force’s first mockcombat test for the first time. He defeated all his “one-on-one”opponents, winning a good score of 42 wins and no losses in one-on-one combat. Jiang Jiayu won the first “Golden Helmet”award the highest honor of the Chinese Air Force pilot. After that,he won two “Golden Helmets” awards and became the first pilot of the Air Force to win three “Golden Helmet” awards.Jiang leads his squadron in tasks such as implementing the East China Sea Air Defense Identification Zone. They have accomplish many PLA Air Force firsts including deployment of the first group of third-generation aircraft into Tibet for training, the first live-fire training, and the first exercise of arriving at a new  airfield and then taking off in formation. Jiang Jiayu won the honorary title of “Model Pilot Determined to Win”.

[Jiang Jiayu Baidu bio https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E8%92%8B%E4%BD%B3%E5%86%80 Video at https://www.bilibili.com/video/av30165495/ https://mil.news.sina.com.cn/china/2018-11-27/doc-ihmutuec4128479.shtml ]

Jing Haipeng

Jing Haipeng, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born October 1966 in Yuncheng, Shanxi Province. Jing Haipeng is a Senior Astronaut of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army astronauts brigade. In 2008, the Shenzhou-7 manned mission accomplished the first Chinese spacewalk. In 2012, Jing carried out manned missions and served as commander, and successfully completed the docking of Shenzhou-9 with the Tiangong 1 space station. In 2016, as Commander he executed the manned missions of Tiangong 2 and Shenzhou 11,successfully completing rendezvous and docking with Tiangong 2 Space Laboratory where he carried out several cutting edge space science and technology tasks. This was the first time that Chinese astronauts made long stays on the space station on three different missions. Jing Haipeng won the “August 1st Medal” and the title of”Hero Astronaut”.

[Jing Haipeng Wiki English bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jing_Haipeng Baidu in Chinese https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%99%AF%E6%B5%B7%E9%B9%8F/45704 Video interview in Chinese https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C-sGWEMHb1A ]

Cheng Kaijia

Cheng Kaijia, male, Han nationality, member of both the Chinese Communist Party and the Jiu San Society political party born August 1918, died in November 2018, from Suzhou, Jiangsu Province. Cheng Kaijia was a member of the Science and Technology Commission of the former Commission of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense, an S&T consultant of the former General Armaments Department, and an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.Cheng’s work, secret for 40 years, was dedicated to building a nuclear shield for our country. Cheng has participated in and presided over the first nuclear bomb and first hydrogen bomb tests.In this and in combining tests of aircraft delivery of atomic and hydrogen bombs, he made outstanding contributions to creating a scientific and technical system for nuclear tests with Chinese characteristics. Cheng is a recipient of the “two bombs and ones satellite” medal. He making a major contribution to the forginga security shield behind which reform and opening could take place and in advocating for strengthening China through science and technology. Cheng Kaijia won the “August 1st Medal”, the”Two Bombs and One Satellite” Merit Medal and the State Preeminent Science and Technology Award.

[Cheng Kaijia Wiki English bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cheng_Kaijia Baidu bio https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E7%A8%8B%E5%BC%80%E7%94%B2 http://www.gerenjianli.com/Mingren/03/nb42lo1mnl5plii.html ]

Lu Guanqiu

Lu Guanqiu, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member,born December 1944, died October 2017, from Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. Lu was the former Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Wanxiang Group. Lu always obeyed the Party, followed the Party’s guidance, and implemented the Party’s principles and policies in building his company. From the early reform days, he was a pioneer,signing the director’s personal liability contract with the township government. This created a precedent for contract reform of Zhejiang enterprises and created a flexible wage system. Under his leadership,Wanxiang Group grew from a small workshop into the first Chinese auto parts company to enter the US market. Wanxiang Group pioneered the acquisition of overseas listed companies by township enterprises,showing the world that Chinese entrepreneurs really are brave, wise and responsible reformers. Lu won the “All China Model Worker”and “All China May 1st Labor Medal”.

[Lu Guangqiu English Wiki bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lu_Guanqiu Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%B2%81%E5%86%A0%E7%90%83 Video in Chinese https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O3EAuv8HCV0&vl=zh-Hans ]

Tsang Hin-chi

Tsang Hin-chi, male, Han nationality, born February 1934 in Meizhou,Guangdong Province. Tsang Hin-chi founded Goldlion(FarEast)Limited(HongKong Jinlilai Group Co., Ltd.) Tsang served as the Vice Chairman of the National Federation of Industry and Commerce and on the Standing Committee of the 8th, 9th and 10th National People’s Congress. In 1986, he began to invest in the mainland and set up a factory. In 1989, Tsang established a joint venture with China Yinlilai Co.,Ltd., becoming the first Sino-foreign joint venture in China to specialize in making ties. Tsang organized both Chinese and Overseas Chinese to invest in the mainland and in 2001, the 6th World Chinese Business Conference held in Nanjing. Since the late 1970s, Tsang has donated funds to support the national education, aerospace, sports,science and technology, medical and social welfare undertakings. Over the past year, he has donated to more than 1,400 projects with a total amount of more than 1.2 billion Hong Kong dollars. He advocated for the “one country, two systems” policy and served as amember of the Preparatory Committee of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, making important contribution to Hong Kong’s smooth return to the motherland all the while maintaining prosperity and stability. Tsang Hin-chi won the “China Charity Award”and the “Big Bauhinia Medal” of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government. The asteroid 3388 Tsanghinchi was named for him.

[Tsang Hin-chi Wiki bio in English at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsang_Hin-chi Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%9B%BE%E5%AE%AA%E6%A2%93/1181187 Video http://chinese.cri.cn/media/video/hkt/198/20170421/3340.html ]

Xie Jin

Xie Jin, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party of China member born November 1923, died in October 2008, from Shaoxing,Zhejiang Province. Xie was a film director of the Shanghai Film(Group) Co., Ltd., fourth director and member of the fifth board of directors of China Film Association, the fifth and sixth Executive Vice Presidents of the China Federation of Literary and Art Circles,and a member of the Standing Committee of the 8th and 9th Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference. Xie has always following the Party’s literary and artistic guidelines and insists that artistic creation should be in sync with the times. Since reform began, he has made several films that blend the artistic and the ideological including “The Legend of Tianyun Mountain”,”Wrangler”, “Furong Town”, “Garland under the Mountain” and “Opium War”. The blending of ideology and art in these outstanding films help bring order from chaos and free people’s minds. Xie’s works focus on the ideological emancipation process the development of reform. He has made outstanding contributions to both the prosperity and development of China’s socialist literature and art undertakings and building up the ideological and cultural qualities of the people. Xie was awarded the title of “All China Outstanding Contribution FilmArtist” and the 25th China Film Golden Rooster Award for Lifetime Achievement.

[Xie Jin English Wiki bio https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xie_Jin IMDb https://www.imdb.com/name/nm0944527/ ECCC https://contemporary_chinese_culture.academic.ru/888/Xie_Jin https://www.theguardian.com/film/2008/oct/20/china-xie-jin-film

Video https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCV9j0nkWpQqPBHVjX9TeqjA

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E8%B0%A2%E6%99%8B/55882 ]

 Xie Gaohua

Xie Gaohua, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born November 1931 in Quzhou, Zhejiang Province. Xie is the former Deputy Director of the Standing Committee of the People’s Congress of Cangzhou City, Zhejiang Province and former secretary of the YiwuCounty Party Committee. During the early days of reform, Xie thatserving the masses is the first priority and so broke rules and regulations, taking responsibility for reform and innovation, and giving a firm green light to roadside free markets. He advocated the”Four Permissibles” policy and the policy of “Relying on Commercial Development to Build the County” to promote regional economic development. He trained county cadres to be stand up for principle, to be proactive, and to become more educated. He fostered the development of Yiwu, the world’s largest market for small commodities thereby, setting an example for small commodity markets nationwide. His excellent work reflects the reform spirit of Communists dedicated to the people who dare to assume responsibility and have won acclaim from the people.

[Xie Gaohua Baidu bio athttps://baike.baidu.com/item/%E8%B0%A2%E9%AB%98%E5%8D%8E]

Lu Yao

Lu Yao (pen name of Wang Weiguo), male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party members born December 1949, died November 1992, from Qingjian, Shaanxi Province. Lu Yao was a member of the party group and Vice Chairman of the Shaanxi Branch of the Chinese Writers Association. Lu Yao examined daily life among the people, integrated his literary work with the currents of reform. He wrote stories about reform such as “Life”, “Amazing Scene” and”Difficult Days”. Lu strove for reform in the literary world and in his novel “The Ordinary World”, depicted tremendous changes in China’s urban and rural social life and how people thought and felt about them. Lu praised the spirit of the times and strives to be the first to divine the spirit of the times.He inspired generations of young people People to do better and to make themselves better people and to dedicate themselves to joining forces with the reform tide sweeping through China. Lu Yao was awarded the title of “Outstanding Expert of Shaanxi Province” and enjoyed a special allowance from the State Council.

[Lu Yao Wiki bio at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lu_Yao https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E8%B7%AF%E9%81%A5 Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E8%B7%AF%E9%81%A5/216 http://culture.ifeng.com/huodong/special/luyao1/wenzhang/detail_2012_11/16/19240262_0.shtml ]

Bao Xinmin

Bao Xinmin, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born September 1956 in Anji, Zhejiang Province. Bao Xinmin was the Secretary of the Party branch of Yucun Village, Tianhuangping Town,Anji County, Huzhou City, Zhejiang Province. He put into practice the idea the idea that “Green waters and blue mountains are wealth”, leading villagers to protect the environment, shut down mines and cement plants,  determined to re-greening mining areas, developed tertiary industry, and helped farmers get rich. Bao Xinmin explored new modes of village development to protect ecological resources and promote green development. By strengthening village planning, accelerating land transfers, and developing farms as leisure tourist spots. He was always a proponent enriching village by building green economies brought great benefits to all of society. Under his leadership, Yucun Village won the title of“All China Beautiful Livable Demonstration Village” and “All China Ecological Culture Village”.

[Bao Xinmin Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%B2%8D%E6%96%B0%E6%B0%91/23175383 9/18/2018 People’s Daily interview with Bao Xinmin recalling Xi Jinping’s 2005 visit. http://politics.people.com.cn/n1/2018/0916/c1024-30295513.html ]

Fan Jinshi

Fan Jinshi, female, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born July 1938 in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. Fan is the Honorary Dean of Dunhuang Academy. She has spent her life in the desert,dedicated to preserving the Dunhuang Grottoes and to her archaeological research there. She completed the periodization of the Northern Dynasties, the Sui Dynasty, the Tang Dynasty and the Middle Period of the Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes. Since the reform began, she has led her team in making contributions to preserving world cultural heritage sites and has taken part in international exchanges concerning cultural relics and their conservation. Some of the ideas and technologies she brought back from abroad made possible the construction of “Digital Dunhuang”. She also pioneered anew method for open management of the Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes,considerably reducing conflicts between cultural relic preservation and opening the up to tourism. In China, she took the lead in drafting special regulations on the protection of cultural relics and the drawing up of conservation plans, has explored theories and practical methods for protecting the grottos. She has made  outstanding contributions to the conservation and use of cultural relics and of the large site of Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes, which is known as the daughter of Dunhuang. “. Fan Jinshi won the title of “All China Advanced Workers” and “All China Excellent Communist Party Member”.

[Fan Jinshi English http://www.womenofchina.cn/womenofchina/html1/people/others/1509/545-1.htm https://gbtimes.com/fan-jinshi-lifetime-devotion Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%A8%8A%E9%94%A6%E8%AF%97

Video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fqpayOugY9Y

Pan Jianwei

Pan Jianwei, male, Han nationality, member of the Jiu San Society political party born March 1970, Dongyang, Zhejiang Province. Pan Jianwei is the Executive Vice President of the University of Science and Technology of China, Vice Chairman of the Central Committee of the Jiu San Society, Vice Chairman of the China Association for Science and Technology, and an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. As a world-class pioneer in the field of quantum information experimental, his innovative work has won high praise from the international academic community. He was the first to achieve key breakthroughs in quantum information processing and to solve the security problem of secure quantum communications under realistic conditions. Leading the development of the world’s first quantum science experimental satellite “Mozi”, Pan built the first international quantum security communications backbone –the “Beijing-Shanghai trunk line” – and built the first air-to- ground integrated wide-area quantum secure communication network prototype making China one of the leaders in research and applications in the field of quantum secure communication. Pan won the first prize of the National Natural Science Award and the first prize of the Military Science and Technology Progress Award.

[Pan Jianwei Wiki English bio https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pan_Jianwei

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%BD%98%E5%BB%BA%E4%BC%9F/12245

Discussion on Pan Jianwei and quantum discussion on New Silk Threads in Chinese http://www.xys.org/dajia/panjianwei.html

Video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oJG7ltdVFIA&vl=zh-Hans ]

Huo Yingdong

Henry Fok Ying Tung, male, Han nationality, born May 1923, died October 2006, from Guangzhou, Guangdong Province. Fok founded the Henry Fok Estates, Ltd. Hong Kong and was a member of the Standing Committee of the 7th National People’s Congress and of the Standing Committee of the 5th and 6th Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference and Vice Chairman of the 8th, 9th and 10th Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference. Fok, a reformer determined to help modernize the motherland, became one of the first Hong Kong entrepreneurs to invest in the Mainland. He invested more than 10 billion Hong Kong dollars to support the development of major infrastructure projects in the Mainland along with education, culture and health. The Huo Fok Ying Tung Sports Fund, helped build China’s national sports industry, and helped enable Beijing to host the Asian Games and in its bid for the Olympic Games. Fok, a strong supporter of “One Country, Two Systems” policy, was a member of the Basic Law Drafting Committee of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region anda deputy director of the Preparatory Committee of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Fok made important contributions to the return of Hong Kong to China as well as in ensuring prosperity and stability in Hong Kong during the transition. Fok won the “China Charity Award” and the “Big Bauhinia Medal” of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government.

[Henry Fok Ying Tung Wiki bio https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Fok

Baidu https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E9%9C%8D%E8%8B%B1%E4%B8%9C ]

Dai Mingmeng

Dai Mingmeng, male, Han nationality, Chinese Communist Party member born August 1971 in Jianglin, Chongqing. Dai Mingmeng is the commander of the People’s Liberation Army unit 92853, and a PLA navy senior pilot. Loyal to the Party, and determined to help it build a strong military force, he was selected as the first carrier-based fighter test pilot. He constantly invented challenges for himself,including executing difficult and hazardous maneuvers. Dai was the first to take-off from the Liaoning aircraft carrier and the first to receive an aircraft carrier flight qualification. He led his group to make the transition from flight tests to training duty, forming a team of capable carrier-based fighter pilots and flight instructors thereby making training of the carrier-based fighter pilots, making an important breakthrough and contribution to the country since that made China one of the few countries in the world which with carrier-based aviation. Dai was honored with the title of “Heroic Fighter Plane Test Pilot”.

[Dai Mingmeng Baidu bio https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%88%B4%E6%98%8E%E7%9B%9F https://www.sohu.com/a/231020559_600506

“Dai Mingmeng recalls landing a Shenyang J-15 on the Liaoning aircraft carrier: facing a giant steel wall head on” in Chinese https://mil.news.sina.com.cn/2018-10-15/doc-ifxeuwws4427140.shtml?cre=sinapc&mod=g ]

Source: http://paper.people.com.cn/rmrb/html/2018-11/26/nw.D110000renmrb_20181126_1-13.htm

Posted in History 历史, Ideology 思想, Politics 政治 | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Hu Fuming Author of Mind-Opening Guangming Daily Commentary “Practice is the Sole Criterion for Testing Truth”

Nice interview with Hu Fuming, lead drafter of the historic 1978 Guangming Ribao commentary “Practice is the Sole Criterion for Testing Truth” pointing out Mao and Party aren’t necessarily always right. What an heretical thought! One could go to jail for less back then. 

Just posted yesterday on the website of the Discipline and Inspection Commission of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the PRC National Supervisory Commission. 

 http://www.ccdi.gov.cn/yaowen/201811/t20181129_184178.html

Hu Fuming, born in July 1935 in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, was the main author of the 1978 “Guangming Daily” special commentator’s article “Practice is the sole criterion for testing truth.” As an ordinary scholar in the philosophy department of Nanjing University, his article struck a responsive chord in Chinese society of a strength that had never been seen before. It started the process of emancipation from ideological fetters.

In the social history exhibition hall of the Guangming Daily, there are seven drafts of the newspaper article “Practice is the sole criterion for testing truth.” Today, the newspaper has yellowed, but the traces of the red edit circles are still clear.

[Photo – see article below]

Seven drafts of the newspaper article “Practice is the Only Standard for Testing Truth” (Photo courtesy of Guangming Daily)

This commentator article that kicked off China’s ideological liberation and opened the way for reform and opening up came to over 6,200 Chinese characters. It was published on the front page of the Guangming Daily on May 11, 1978. Forty years have passed since then.

Hu Fuming, the main author of the article, is 83 years old, but still sticks to his principle of “practice before speaking” and insists on studying and reading newspapers every day. “People’s Daily” and”Yangtze Evening News” are neatly arranged at the corner of his desk next to a well-worn copy of “Selections from Marx and Engels”. Hu Fuming said, “As long are you are living, you can still think, and so one just goes on thinking.” Just as he had 40 years ago.

Reporter: “When did you start to get concerned about where the country is going?”

Hu Fuming: “It was subtle. I didn’t see it all at once. During the Great Leap Forward and the People’s Commune Movement, I became suspicious. Five or six hundred pounds of rice is already a high yield for one mu of afield. How could it produce thousands of pounds? Or tens of thousands of pounds of rice? This was just nonsense, a deception, fakery. I decided that the Chinese Communist Party had strayed from the ideological precept of seeking truth from facts.”

“Put everything you have into it”

In 1977, the whole of China was thrilled at the smashing the “Gang of Four”. The whole country wanted to restore order and redress unjust, false and wrongly decided cases. Nonetheless, the “leftist”thinking was still mainstream. In February, the central government proposed “two things”, that is, “Every decision made by Chairman Mao will firmly uphold; we will always follow all the instructions of Chairman Mao.”

So what about the “Cultural Revolution” initiated by Chairman Mao? Can’t you reject it?

Hu Fuming, a 42-year-old teacher of the Department of Philosophy at Nanjing University, published four articles in the journal of Nanjing University on “On Zhang Chunqiao’s “On the Comprehensive Dictatorship of the Bourgeoisie” and “Struggling for the Construction of a Modern Socialist Power”. .

Hu Fuming: “The purpose of my article was to push our Party towards bring order out of chaos and to redress unjust, false and wrongly decided cases. As a theoretical worker, what could I do? The only weapon I had was the pen. To apply the truth in Marxist books to solve our current problems, that was the only weapon I had.”

Reporter: “This was your only weapon at the time, but it is also dangerous.”

Hu Fuming: “Of course it was dangerous. But I thought that our Party and people had awakened. China has reached a great turning point in its history.”

[End of translated extract]

Article from the Fangzheng Publishing Co. dated November 29, 2018 and published on the website of the Central Discipline and Inspection Commission of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the PRC Inspection Commission. 

胡福明:最好的文章是能在历史上留下印记的文章

来源:中国方正出版社 发布时间:2018-11-29 16:20 分享

  胡福明,1935年7月出生于江苏无锡,是1978年《光明日报》特约评论员文章《实践是检验真理的唯一标准》的主要作者。作为南京大学哲学系的一名普通学者,他的文章引发了空前共鸣,开启了一个时代思想解放的闸门。

  在光明日报社的社史展厅内,珍藏着《实践是检验真理的唯一标准》一文的7张报纸改样。如今报纸已经泛黄,但上面被红笔圈圈改改过的痕迹依然清晰。

《实践是检验真理的唯一标准》的7张报纸改样(光明日报社供图)

  这篇拉开了中国思想解放和改革开放序幕的评论员文章,全文6200多字,发表于1978年5月11日《光明日报》头版,至今40年整。

  文章的主要作者胡福明已83岁高龄,却依旧秉承着“先实践再发言”的原则,每天坚持学习、读报。《人民日报》《扬子晚报》整齐地摞在书桌一角,旁边的《马克思恩格斯选集》也早已被翻烂。胡福明说,“只要活着还能思考,就会一直思考下去”,一如40年前那样。

  记者:“您是什么时候开始关心‘国家要往何处走’这个问题的?”

  胡福明:“这个是潜移默化的过程,不是一下子明白的。大跃进、人民公社运动时,我产生了怀疑。一亩地打五六百斤稻子已经是高产了,怎么可能一亩地产出几千斤、几万斤的稻子?这是胡说,是骗人的,假的。我认为党已经离开了实事求是的思想作风。”

  “把浑身能量都放进去了”

  1977年,整个中国沉浸在粉碎“四人帮”的喜悦中,全国上下渴望拨乱反正、平反冤假错案。然而“左倾”思想依旧占据主流,2月中央提出“两个凡是”,即“凡是毛主席作出的决策,我们都坚决维护;凡是毛主席的指示,我们都始终不渝地遵循”。

  那么毛主席发动的“文革”呢?也不能否定?

  时年42岁的南京大学哲学系教师胡福明为此先后在南大学报上发表了《评张春桥的〈论对资产阶级的全面专政〉》《为建设现代化的社会主义强国而奋斗》等4篇文章。

  胡福明:“我写文章的目的就是要推动我们党拨乱反正,平反冤假错案。作为一个理论工作者,我能做什么呢?我唯一能用的就是这支笔。用马克思主义书本上的道理,去解决当前面临的问题,我能使用的只有这个武器。”

  记者:“这是您当时唯一的武器,但这样做也是危险的。”

  胡福明:“当然是危险的。但是我觉得我们党、人民已经觉醒了,中国已经到了一个伟大历史的转折关头。”  

  “两个凡是”是全面拨乱反正的主要障碍,必须从根本上打破。但胡福明认为,“不能简单地批它,必须提出一个马克思主义的基础观点和它对立。只要守住马克思主义阵地,就能驳倒它”。1977年夏天,胡福明在医院陪护妻子的过程中,完成了文章《实践是检验真理的标准》的写作。

杨西光在光明日报社期间的办公桌(光明日报社供图)

  记者:“您是花了最大力气去准备和写作这篇文章?”

  胡福明:“对,可以说是把浑身能量都放进去了。晚上我去陪护妻子,就在走廊里拿几张凳子,在楼灯下面把《马克思恩格斯选集》四卷、《列宁选集》四卷、《毛泽东选集》四卷一批一批带过去,靠着灯光查关于真理标准的语录。查出来几十条,然后在凳子上搞提纲。趴在凳子上、坐在地上,就这么干了大概十四五天吧。”

  文章写好后,胡福明把它寄给了《光明日报》。“考虑到影响问题,我要寄给全国性的报刊。这时我想到了王强华,他是《光明日报》哲学组组长。我们有过一面之交,我就寄给了《光明日报》。”当时的胡福明肯定不会想到,他的这个小小的举动将会带给中国怎样的影响。

  一个人的勇气变成了一群人的执着

  从文章寄到北京开始,一个人的勇气就变成了一群人的执着。除了王强华,《光明日报》总编辑杨西光、理论部主任马沛文以及中央党校理论研究室的孙长江,都加入到稿件的研究和修改中。胡福明本人后来也到了北京,在报社住了20多天。一篇6200多字的文章,前前后后,定稿历时8个月。

1978年4月13日晚谈实践检验问题的讨论记录(光明日报社供图)

  记者:“杨西光调整了一下标题?”

  胡福明:“对,调整标题增加了‘唯一’两个字。毛主席说,只有实践才是检验真理的标准。这当然是一个很好的发挥。”

  记者:“他还调了一下作者?”

  胡福明:“杨西光说,你不是我们特约评论员,你是自己投稿投来的。但是从现在开始,我就聘请你为《光明日报》的特约评论员。”

  1978年5月11日,署名为“本报特约评论员”的文章《实践是检验真理的唯一标准》在《光明日报》头版发表。平静的神州大地仿佛响起了一声惊雷,全国范围内开始了轰轰烈烈的真理标准大讨论,思想解放的号角就此吹响。1978年12月13日,在十一届三中全会前的中共中央工作会议闭幕会上,邓小平同志作了《解放思想,实事求是,团结一致向前看》的著名讲话:

  “……实事求是,是无产阶级世界观的基础,是马克思主义的思想基础。过去我们搞革命所取得的一切胜利,是靠实事求是;现在我们要实现四个现代化,同样要靠实事求是……”

  最好的文章是能在历史上留下印记的文章

  改革开放40年,一代代领导人不断解放思想、开拓创新,为中国经济社会发展开启了一扇扇“智慧之门”。胡福明说,发展中国特色社会主义,就是由一系列的解放思想、一系列的实践探索、一系列的总结积累构成的。

 记者:“这是您作为一个学者很骄傲的事情么?”

  胡福明:“我觉得是我应该做的事情。解释真理、修正错误,这是一个学者应该做的。解放思想、实事求是,这是一个理论工作者、一个党的工作者必须坚持的。”

  记者:“当时如果不是您写出来,也早晚有人会写出这篇文章吗?”

  胡福明:“对,早晚会有人写。”

  记者:“这篇文章从学术水平上来讲,我认为,是最高的吗?”

  胡福明:“文章水平高的标准是什么?社会科学领域最好的文章,就是能在历史上留下印记的文章。”

  记者:“解决现实问题的文章。”

  胡福明:“没错!”

北京大学南京校友会赠送给胡福明的书法作品

Posted in History 历史, Ideology 思想, Politics 政治 | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

UFO Over North China

UFO sighting in China!

 

An April 30 video is on YouTube at  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IxVXmLNRY6M

Another version of this video, albeit with many fewer viewers, has the helpful message written in English on the screen “We will achieve unification one way or another”.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3IZ5wFo7Css

A Chinese Academy of Sciences expert attributed UFO sightings to an 80 kilometer night-shining (noctilucent) cloud. https://www.zhihu.com/question/275033617  and a video report on the CAS expert’s explanation. https://v.qq.com/x/page/n07140p7c50.html

Space launch expert James Oberg analyzed a similar July 2017 video of an apparent missile launch over Xinjiang:  http://jamesoberg.com/china/

Or could the recent UFO appearances show ET recognition of China as a rising power?

The article speculates that they might be some high performance military aircraft. We know that is what the aliens would have bribed them to say. It is not just Earthlings who are good at media control.

Then again, maybe foreign spies would say to patriotic Chinese, those are alien spacecraft, not Chinese military aircraft, so there is nothing wrong about a patriotic Chinese telling a fellow Earthling, albeit from a foreign intelligence service, about UFO flight characteristics!

While living in Beijing in the late 1990s, I noticed that the more nervous the Chinese got about politics, the more UFO sightings there were. Not deus ex machina exactly. Maybe ET ex machina though.

I used to read Flying Saucer Investigations 飞碟探索 http://www.zazhipu.com/pub/feidiietansuo.html back then, which boasted of being the highest-circulation UFO magazine in the world. After all, perhaps the Chinese UFO-ologists were and now are on to something.

You can’t be too careful!

201812291624
Translation:

 

Unidentified Flying objects over North China, the White House is Shocked!

November 19, 2018

Editor’s Note: Recently, according to media reports, UFOs have been seen flying over North China.

A bright light not only flew very fast but also maneuvered over North China at very high speed. This incident also attracted much attention in the West. Chinese experts say that this is a mysterious Chinese weapons test. This weapon is most likely the hypersonic warhead now under development in China. The news shocked the West. Afterwards, the White House said that it seems that China has made great progress, and the US anti-missile system will not be effective against it.

So what is a hypersonic weapon? According to the definition, a hypersonic weapon is any weapon that flies at a speed that exceeds Mach 6. That includes both the US US X51A and the Chinese DF-ZF warhead. These are two very different weapons. The X51A is similar to a cruise missile and is generally carried by a fighter. The DF-ZF is similar to a ballistic missile warhead mounted on a ballistic missile. So what does this kind of weapon do? Of course it hits its target. This kind of weapon is distinguished by its long range, high speed and high precision. This kind of weapon does not have the restrictions to which nuclear weapons are subject to and so many countries are racing to develop them. Current anti-missile systems cannot shoot down this kind of weapon. How does it avoid them?

First of all, most current anti-missile system only targets weapons when they are beyond the atmosphere in outer space. In the atmosphere most anti-missile weapons do not work.

Therefore, this weapon flies in the atmosphere to avoid detection and interception by enemy weapons systems. Secondly, even if this weapon is discovered, because of its extremely high speed, it is hard to track. Even if it can be tracked, the weapon can be maneuvered so that the enemy cannot intercept it. That is why it makes existing anti-missile systems obsolete.

The excellent penetration capability, long range and power of this weapon can make it a key weapons system of the future. As can be seen from this test, China has made a major breakthrough in successfully mastering the problem of maneuvering this weapon.

Now that the US has terminated the X51A https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boeing_X-51_Waverider program, China now leads the world in this field.


华北上空现不明飞行物 西方愕然失色 白宫:反(图)

2018-11-19
编者按:近日,据相关媒体报道,最近中国华北上空发现了不明飞行物,一道亮光以极快的速度划过了华北上空,并还进行机动变轨。这件事也引来了西方极大的关注,中国专家表示,这是中国正在进行神秘武器测试,这款武器极有可能就是中国正在研制的高超音速弹头,得知消息后,西方愕然失色。事后,白宫表示,看来中国已经取得了很大的进展,从此美国反导体系形同虚设了。

那么什么是高超音速武器呢?对这款武器的定义是只要飞行速度超过6马赫,都能够称为高超音速武器。目前比较有代表性的就是美国X51A与中国DF-ZF弹头,这也是两款截然不同的武器,X51A类似巡航导弹,一般由战机携带发射。而DF-ZF则类似弹道导弹的弹头,一般由弹道导弹携带发射。

那么这款武器究竟有什么作用呢?最明显的作用就是打击目标,与一般打击方式相比,这种武器射程更远,速度更快,打击精度也更高。而且这款武器在使用时没有核武器那么多限制,已经成为各军事强国争夺的焦点。最关键的是,现有的反导体系在这款武器面前,几乎都失去作用了,那么它是如何实现这一功能的呢?

首先,目前反导体系一般只针对外太空的目标或者大气层内的目标,而在外太空与大气层之间的临界空间,反导武器是无能为力的。所以这款武器就是利用这一特点,主要在这个高度进行飞行,这样就避免了被敌方探测系统发现,自然就能够躲开对方的拦截了。

其次,就算这款武器即使被发现了,由于其速度极快,能不能持续性追踪目标就是一个问题。就算能够持续性跟踪到这个目标,这款武器也能够进行机动变轨,敌方依然无法拦截它,这也是为何这款武器能够令现有防空武器失效的原因了。

也真是因为这款武器突防能力强,射程远,威力大,在未来将成为主流打击武器。而从这次测试中可以看出,中国已经成功掌握这款武器的机动变轨能力,已经取得了重大突破。由于美国已经终止了X51A计划,目前看来,在这块领域,中国已经走在了世界的前列。

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