Google Translated: June 4th Thank You Note to the Tiananmen Martial Law Forces

Zhou Enlai memorial website offers resources such as old issues of People’s Daily. I looked up some articles from around June 4th. http://home.zhouenlai.info/

Google Translated — The machine translation is very good. I was surprised. I broke up some of the long paragraphs to make it more readable.

Last year I translated Liao Yiwu‘s Bullet Opium 子弹鸦片 into English. (Some of the chapters I translated are online. Just click on the characters!)  I hope it will come out next year.  Bullet Opium is a book of interview with people who experienced June Fourth in Beijing or Chengdu focusing on the workers and others who tried, sometimes at the cost of their lives, to prevent the military from reaching Tiananmen, where they feared a slaughter would take place. Most of the students and others were able to leave Tiananmen. Quite a few of the people killed were not students but rather Beijing people trying to stop the soldiers from getting to the students.  Liao Yiwu’s interviews in Bullet Opium focuses on those people, the non-students, the ones who were not able to flee to the West, on their experiences around June 4th, their long prison sentences and suffering in prison, and their difficult re-entry to Chinese society after their release.

A long way of saying why reading this notice dated June 4th which appeared in the June 5th issue of People’s Daily made quite an impression on me.

Of course it could be good Chinese practice for students of Chinese too!  The Chinese text follows the machine translation.


General Staff Department General Political Department General Logistics Department
Letter of condolence to the martial law forces
Dear All PLA officers, police officers and armed police comrades who perform the martial law tasks:
You have worked hard! First of all, let us on behalf of the officers and men of the whole army warmly congratulate you on your great victory in quelling the serious counter-revolutionary riots in Beijing, restoring the solemn face of Tiananmen Square and the normal order of the capital! You have created an immortal historical feat for defending the Republic and defending the capital of our great motherland! The party thank you! The people of the whole country thank you!
In the past few days, the situation in the capital has deteriorated, and the turmoil deliberately created by a very small number of people has evolved into a serious counter-revolutionary riot. They cut off traffic, burned buildings, burned military vehicles, robbed weapons, and kidnapped, beaten, and killed officers and men of the martial law. The anti-Party and anti-socialist arrogance was extremely arrogant. At this critical juncture, in order to defend the lives and property of the people of the capital and defend the party and the socialist system, you resolutely implement the orders of the Central Military Commission and resolutely carry out the sacred martial law. On the way to the road, in the case of the violent siege, inhumane beatings and illegal kidnappings by the mobs, you remember the trust of the party and the people, relying on the masses of the people and young students in Beijing, and carrying forward the fear of hardship and hardship. The brave and fearless spirit of bloodshed and sacrifice, taking resolute and decisive measures, hit the counter-revolutionary arrogance of a group of gangsters who created riots.

With your own loyalty and blood, you restored the solemn appearance of Tiananmen Square, defended the capital, defended the People’s Republic founded by the revolutionary predecessors, and defended the achievements of the decade of reform. You are worthy of being a loyal guardian of the party and loyal to the people. They are worthy of defending the loyal guards of the cause of socialist modernization and deserve to be the strong pillar of the people’s democratic dictatorship. We would like to extend our cordial condolences to all the officers and men who have made outstanding contributions in this fight! I would like to pay tribute to the glorious comrades! The revolutionary martyrs who devoted themselves to heroism expressed deep mourning.
Comrades, this struggle is long-term and complicated. Entering the duty station and restoring the order of Tiananmen Square is only an initial victory, and the task ahead is even more arduous.

I hope that you will thoroughly study the important speeches of the central leading comrades and the martial law orders of the State Council, further recognize the nature and significance of this struggle, and firmly carry out the struggle to quell the counter-revolutionary riots and stop social unrest. I hope that you will maintain a high degree of political vigilance, stick to your position, be loyal to your duties, and be ready to fight the counterattack of a small mob and consolidate and develop the fruits of victory. I hope that you will carry out the activities of “Love the Capital, Love the People of the Capital, and Love Young Students” in a down-to-earth manner, firmly unite the masses of the people and young students, and maximize isolation and combat against a small mob. I hope that you will strengthen the discipline of the organization, resolutely execute the orders, obey the command, strictly abide by the three disciplines and pay attention to the three disciplines, protect the capital of the grass and trees, and use iron discipline and strict military capacity to show the military and the people of the whole country The spirit of the division and the teacher of civilization. I hope that you will continue to carry forward the revolutionary spirit of hard work, hardship, and continuous assault. They will always maintain high morale and complete the glorious tasks entrusted by the party and the people.
Pay tribute to the great people’s warriors who fought bravely to fulfill the sacred duties entrusted by the Constitution!
Pay tribute to the glorious people’s soldiers who have worked tirelessly to defend the motherland and defend the people’s peaceful labor!
General Staff of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army
General political department
General logistics department
June 4, 1989
(Xinhua News Agency)

总参谋部 总政治部 总后勤部
致戒严部队的慰问信
亲爱的执行戒严任务的全体解放军官兵、公安干警和武装警察同志们:
你们辛苦了!首先让我们代表全军官兵热烈祝贺你们在平息北京发生的严重反革命暴乱、恢复天安门广场的庄严面貌和首都正常秩序的斗争中取得的重大胜利!你们为保卫共和国、保卫我们伟大祖国的首都创立了不朽的历史功勋!党感谢你们!全国人民感谢你们!
几天来,首都的局势日趋恶化,极少数人蓄意制造的动乱,演化成一场严重的反革命暴乱。他们断绝交通,焚烧楼房,砸烧军车,抢夺武器,肆意绑架、殴打、杀害我戒严部队官兵,反党、反社会主义的气焰极为嚣张。在这危急关头,为了保卫首都人民生命财产,保卫党和社会主义制度,你们坚决执行中央军委的命令,坚决执行神圣的戒严任务。开进途中,在遭到暴徒们疯狂的围攻辱骂、惨无人道的殴打、非法绑架的情况下,你们牢记党和人民的重托,紧紧依靠北京市广大人民群众和青年学生,发扬不怕艰难困苦、不怕流血牺牲的英勇无畏精神,采取坚决果断的措施,狠狠打击了制造暴乱的一伙歹徒的反革命气焰。你们用自己的忠诚和热血,使天安门广场恢复了庄严面貌,保卫了首都,保卫了革命前辈创立的人民共和国,保卫了十年改革的成果。你们不愧为忠于党,忠于人民的伟大军队,不愧为保卫社会主义现代化建设事业的忠诚卫士,不愧为人民民主专政的坚强柱石。我们谨向在这次斗争中作出杰出贡献的全体官兵致以亲切的慰问!向光荣负伤的同志们致以崇高的敬意!向英勇献身的革命烈士表示深切的悼念。
同志们,这场斗争是长期的,复杂的。进驻执勤点,恢复天安门广场的秩序,这只是夺取的初步胜利,今后的任务更加艰巨。希望你们反复深入学习中央领导同志的重要讲话和国务院的戒严令,进一步认清这场斗争的性质和意义,坚定地把平息反革命暴乱、制止社会动乱的斗争进行到底。希望你们保持高度政治警惕性,坚守岗位,忠于职责,随时准备打击一小撮暴徒的反扑,巩固和发展胜利成果。希望你们把“热爱首都、热爱首都人民、热爱青年学生”的活动,深入扎实地开展下去,紧紧地团结广大人民群众和青年学生,最大限度地孤立和打击一小撮暴徒。希望你们加强组织纪律性,坚决执行命令,听从指挥,严格遵守三大纪律八项注意,爱护首都的一草一木,以铁的纪律,严整的军容,向首都和全国人民展示我军威武之师、文明之师的精神风貌。希望你们继续发扬吃苦耐劳、不怕困难、连续突击的革命精神,始终保持高昂的斗志,园满地完成党和人民赋予的光荣任务。
向为履行宪法赋予的神圣职责而英勇奋斗的伟大的人民战士致敬!
向为保卫祖国、保卫人民和平劳动而不懈努力的光荣的人民战士致敬!
中国人民解放军总参谋部
总政治部
总后勤部
1989年6月4日
(新华社发)

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Chinese Political Mini-Novella: The Last Assassin’s Mace Left Over From Before the Dissolution of the Soviet Union 苏联解体前留下的最后杀手锏

Here below is a Chinese micro-novella found on a Chinese website, Google machine-translated from Chinese to English, then slightly cleaned up.  I’ll copy the Chinese text below the translation.  Sometimes articles with a political tinge disappear suddenly from Chinese websites for ideological health reasons.  So I put a copy down there just in case.    The mini-novella posting didn’t list the author’s name. 

The Assassin's Mace Left Behind from Before the Collapse of the Soviet Union (novel)

The Assassin’s Mace Left Behind from Before the Collapse of the Soviet Union (novel)

[ https://www.bilibili.com/read/cv721541/ ]

In March 1986, a special plane flew from Moscow to New York, and there were only two passengers in the large cabin – Yuri Dobrynin and his wife Jelena.

The Ambassador left

Dobrynin is uneasy about this treatment, but this means that he has become one of the secretaries of the Central Committee of the CPSU.

This was his last trip to the United States as the Soviet ambassador to the United States. He arrived in Washington on March 15, 1962. Today, he has been a legendary ambassador for the past twenty-four years. He is the most important between the two superpowers. Communicator.

Over the years, he has experienced the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Kennedy Assassination, the Vietnam War, the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and the United States, the Afghan War, the Star Wars… Rusk, Kissinger, Brzezinski, Schultz are both their opponents. It is also his friend.

The waiter brought him a gin, and Dobrynin shook his glass and sighed softly.

He knew that Gorbachev forcibly removed him from Washington and returned to Moscow as a ****, not to promote him. Otherwise, he should succeed Gromyko as foreign minister. However, Gorbachev handed this important position to a Georgian who was ignorant of diplomacy – Shevardnadze.

Since 1985, he has been observing Gorbachev. He believes that under the leadership of this man, the Soviet Union is doomed to be arrogant.

He saw the darkness of his future and saw the ominous signs of the future of the Soviet Union.

On April 7, after the ambassador handled the handover, he went to the White House to resign to President Reagan.

The South Lawn is sunny and warm, and Secretary of State Schultz, National Security Adviser Poyn Dexter, Regan, Matlock and other White House officials all put on formal gowns to accompany the President to meet Dobrynin.

After the two-hour conversation, Reagan got up and sent Dobrynin out of the oval office, through the garden, and sent him to the side of the car.

When no ambassador of a country resigns, he can get such a high standard of courtesy. But Dobrynin knows that it is not about his relationship with Reagan, but because of the strength of the Soviet Union.

Next, there are constantly various farewell banquets, the Senate, the House of Representatives, the State Department, the diplomatic corps, the media, the business, the military… waiting for him.

However, Dobrynin did not sleep well before leaving the United States. As a staunch Bolshevik, he was unable to save his country’s destiny, and Gorbachev was driving the ship of state onto the rocks.

However, Dobrynin is determined to awaken a “cold one” and give the United States a heavy blow in the future.

The Deep Water Bomb

In mid-April, Dobrynin quietly came to New York to open the FBI’s secret police in Washington on the grounds of attending the farewell to the United Nations Headquarters.

The “cold one”, in addition to the KGB President Andropov, is the only single-line contact, and only the two of them know the existence of “cold one”.

Dobrynin usually called him Donnie, and when he arrived in New York, he immediately sent a unique meeting signal to Donnie. , Location: Newark Harbor Marina, time, 12 o’clock in the middle of the night.

In the port of Newark under the stars, the waves are rhythmically impacting the bank, and Dobrynin avoids the dim light and stands alone in the shadows. Wearing a top hat, erecting a coat collar, motionless like a silhouette, waiting quietly.

At 12 o’clock, a tall man of forty years old suddenly flashed from the other shadow and quickly moved over to him.

The tall man groaned in his mouth: “The flowers in the basket are fragrant, listen to me, sing, sing, and come to Nanniwan…”

Dobrynin sang: “I hope that from the future, you and I will never forget that evening on the outskirts of Moscow.”

The two large hands were tightly held together, and they shouted in unison: Comrade!

Dobrynin felt that the bones of his hands were almost broken, and he finally pulled out his hand and licked his hand.

“Donnie, I have to be transferred back to Moscow.” Dobrynin said.

“What do I do?” the tall man asked urgently.

“Continue to lie low, wait for the order.”

Is there any other contact?”

Dobrynin replied solemnly: “For a long time, you will not have contacts in the United States.”

“I don’t have to do anything?”

“Do you know Sorge?” Dobrynin asked.

The tall man nodded. “My idol, red super spy.”

“Yes, he is German, you are also a German descendant.”

“We all hate the bourgeoisie, please have the organization give me a test.” The tall man clenched his fist.

Dobrynin patted his shoulder. “No, Donnie, your mission is to be a sleeper.”

“I want to act.” Downey was a little excited.

“The Soviet Union will be dissolved by the enemy. You will have to bide your time, waiting for the day when you can stick your dagger into the enemy’s heart.”

Donnie looked sadly at the stars and said, “Long live the Soviet Union!”

“The real Bolsheviks will have to face the reality bravely, Donnie, the organization will make you a New York real estate tycoon.”

“But, I am going bankrupt again, my father doesn’t have enough capital…”

“The organization will arrange for you to operate the funds.” Dobrynin handed him a big check.

“I will complete the task.” Donnie quickly stuffed the check into the pocket.

“You are in New York, more arrogant and better than any capitalist. The FBI will not suspect a rogue.”

“I have no problem with that.”

“Remember, you have to become a businessman that politicians like and get into the White House.”

Donnie looked around and “Then, when what should I do there? Steal information?”

“Can’t you be a little more ambitious? You should be aiming at becoming the master of the of the White House.” Dobrynin said sharply.

“How could that be?”

“Incite the masses, help the workers and peasants, and stand with the working class.”

“But will the bourgeois newspapers let me get away with that? They will suspect me of colluding with the Russians.”

“Be at ease, Donnie, the workers and peasants will support you.”

Donnie sings softly: “The workers, peasants and soldiers unite and move forward, and they are united. The workers, peasants and soldiers join forces to move forward and destroy the enemy…”

Dobrynin looked at his watch. “It’s not too late, Donnie, you can come to Moscow next year to observe. If the Soviet Union is gone, you have to be patient.”

“how about you?”

“I don’t care, but the Kremlin will definitely have big guys. By then, your information will be unblocked.”

Will I have a new superior when I am activated?”

“Yes, your mission will be activated.”

How long? Ten years, twenty years?” Donnie was in a hurry.

“Be sure to take care of your health. Even if you are age 70, you must take up the burden of defeating imperialism and its minions.” Dobrynin reached out.

“You take care too.” Donnie held his hand tightly, and Dobrynin’s eyes watered from the bone-crushing handshake.

Donnie was a little moved and took out five hundred dollars. “Comrade, please give my party fees to the organization.”

Dobrynin nodded, took the banknotes and planned to leave.

Donnie called again: “Wait a minute, comrade, can you give me two hundred?”

Dobrynin snorted. “This is outrageous.”

“I remember that I still have to go out for a midnight snack, give me three hundred.”

“Don’t you say two hundred?”

“Is there? I clearly said three hundred.” He pulled the ambassador’s sleeves.

Dobrynin returned the three hundred pieces to him and quickly evacuated. Before getting on the bus, he felt that this “cold” was more destructive than he thought.

Donnie walked alone in the shadow of Newark Harbor. The sea breeze blew his hair. Thirty years later, a loyal hymn was being played at the White House.

The above story is purely fictitious. If there is similarity, it is a coincidence.


https://www.bilibili.com/read/cv721541/

苏联解体前留下的最后杀手锏(小说转载)

小说杂谈 7-12

1196阅读41喜欢8评论

1986年3月,一架专机从莫斯科飞往纽约,偌大的机舱里只有两名乘客–尤里.多勃雷宁和他的夫人伊莲娜。

大使离去

多勃雷宁为这样的待遇感到不安,然而这意味着他已经成为苏共中央委员会书记之一。

这是他以苏联驻美国大使身份最后一次前往美国,从1962年3月15日抵达华盛顿,到今天整整过去了二十四年,他被称为传奇大使,是两个超级大国之间最重要的沟通者。

这些年来,他经历过古巴导弹危机,肯尼迪遇刺案,越南战争,中美建交,阿富汗战争,星球大战……腊斯克,基辛格,布热津斯基,舒尔茨这些人既是他的对手,亦是他的朋友。

服务员给他端来了一杯杜松子酒,多勃雷宁晃着酒杯,轻轻叹了口气。

他知道戈尔巴乔夫强行将他调离华盛顿,回莫斯科当****,决不是为了提拔他,否则,他应当接替葛罗米柯成为外交部长。然而,戈尔巴乔夫将这一要职交给了一位对外交一窍不通的格鲁吉亚人–谢瓦尔德纳泽。

1985年开始,他就一直在观察戈尔巴乔夫,他相信苏联在这个人的领导下,注定凶多吉少。

他看到了自己未来的灰暗,也看到了苏联未来的不祥之兆。

4月7日,大使处理完交接事务后,前往白宫向里根总统辞行。

南草坪阳光明媚,暖意融融,国务卿舒尔茨,国家安全顾问波因德克斯特,里甘,马特洛克等白宫要员全部换上正式礼服,陪同总统会见多勃雷宁。

两小时的谈话结束后,里根起身送多勃雷宁走出椭圆形办公室,穿过花园,一直送他到了专车边上。

没有一个国家的大使辞行时,可以得到如此高规格的礼遇。但多勃雷宁知道,不是他跟里根交情有多深,而是因为苏联的强大。

接下来,不断有各种告别宴会,参议院的,众议院的,国务院的,外交使团的,媒体的,商界的,军界的……等着他。

然而,多勃雷宁在离开美国之前,没有睡过一个好觉,作为一名坚定的布尔什维克,他无力挽救他的国家命运,戈尔巴乔夫正带着这艘大船走向沉没。

不过,多勃雷宁决心唤醒一颗“冷子”,在将来给美国以沉重一击。

深水炸弹

四月中旬,多勃雷宁以参加联合国总部告别会为由,甩开FBI布在华盛顿的秘密警察们,悄然来到纽约。

这颗“冷子”,除了克格勃主席安德罗波夫之外,他是唯一的单线联系人,世上也只有他们两人知道“冷子”的存在。

多勃雷宁平时管“冷子”叫唐尼,到了纽约后,马上向唐尼发出独有的见面讯号。,地点:纽瓦克港码头,时间,深夜12点。

星空下的纽瓦克港,海浪有节奏地冲击着岸堤,多勃雷宁避开昏黄的灯光,独自一人站在阴影之中。戴着礼帽,竖起大衣衣领,像个剪影般地一动不动,静静地等待着。

12点整,一名四十岁左右的高个子男子身影,突然从另一处阴影里闪出,快速向他移动过来。

高个男子嘴里哼着:“花篮里花儿香,听我来唱一唱,唱一呀唱,来到了南泥湾……”

多勃雷宁接唱:“但愿从今后,你我永不忘,莫斯科郊外的晚上。”

两双大手紧紧握在了一起,异口同声轻轻喊道:同志!

多勃雷宁感觉手骨都快被握碎了,好不容易抽出手来,不动声色地揉了揉手。

“唐尼,我要被调回莫斯科了。”多勃雷宁说道。

“那我怎么办?”高个男子急问道。

“继续潜伏,等待命令。”

“会有别的联系人吗?”

多勃雷宁面色凝重地答道:“很长一段时间内,你在美国不会有联系人。”

“我不用做点什么吗?”

“你知道佐尔格吗?”多勃雷宁反问道。

高个男子点点头,“我的偶像,超级红色特工。”

“对,他是德国人,你也是德国后裔。”

“我们都痛恨资产阶级,请组织考验我吧。”高个男子握紧了拳头。

多勃雷宁拍了拍他的肩膀,“不,唐尼,你的任务是潜伏。”

“我要行动。”唐尼有些激动。

“苏维埃联盟将被敌人瓦解,你要坚持到打入敌人心脏那一天。”

唐尼悲伤地望向星空,“苏维埃联盟万岁!”

“真正的布尔什维克要勇敢面对现实,唐尼,组织上要将你打造成纽约房地产大亨。”

“可是,我又快破产了,老爸那点资本不够我……”

“组织上会给你安排运作资金的。”多勃雷宁递给了他一张大额支票。

“我一定会完成任务。”唐尼将支票快速塞入口袋。

“你在纽约,要比任何一个资本家更荒淫,更好色。FBI不会怀疑一个流氓的。”

“这个我没问题。”

“记住,你要变成一位讨政客喜欢的商人,并进入白宫。”

唐尼看了看四周,“然后,偷点情报?”

“能不能有点志向?你要成为白宫的主人。”多勃雷宁厉声说道。

“这怎么可能?”

“发动群众,扶助工农,与工人阶级站在一起。”

“但资产阶级报纸会放过我吗?它们会怀疑我勾结俄国人。”

“放心,唐尼,工农群众会支持你的。”

唐尼轻轻唱道:“工农兵联合起来,向前进,万众一心. 工农兵联合起来,向前进,消灭敌人……”

多勃雷宁看了看表,“时间不早了,唐尼,明年你可以来莫斯科观察一下,如果苏联不在了,你要有耐心。”

“那你呢?”

“我不重要,但克里姆林宫肯定还会出现大人物,到时,你的资料将被解封。”

“我到时会有新的上线?”

“是的,你的使命将被唤醒。”

“要多久?十年,二十年?“唐尼有些着急。

“一定要保重身体,哪怕到了古稀之年,你也要把打倒帝国主义和它的爪牙们的担子挑起来。”多勃雷宁伸出了手。

“您也保重。”唐尼紧紧握住他的手,多勃雷宁眼睛湿润了,因为骨头又碎了。

唐尼有点感动,掏出五百美元,“同志,请将我的党费交给组织。”

多勃雷宁点点头,接过钞票,打算离去。

唐尼又叫道:“等一下,同志,能还给我两百块吗?”

多勃雷宁楞了一下,“这事没有出尔反尔的。”

“我想起我还得吃宵夜呢,还给我三百块吧。”

“不是说两百吗?”

“有吗?我明明说的是三百。”他拉住了大使的衣袖。

多勃雷宁把三百块退回给他,迅速撤离。上车前,他觉得这颗“冷子”比他想象的破坏力还要大。

唐尼一个人走在纽瓦克港的阴影里,海风吹乱了他的头发,三十年后,一曲忠诚的赞歌在白宫奏响。

以上故事,纯属虚构,如有雷同,实属巧合

 

 

Posted in Literature 文学, Politics 政治 | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Bloody Chronicles 血纪: Bloodbath in the Apple Orchard

[Chinese language text online in second half of 【禁书】《血纪》中集(42)

To judge by its latitude, Yanyuan was in the tropics. It would have been a comfortable place to live if its high elevation had not given it a long spring, autumn sandstorms and a harsh winter.

Yanyuan County, Liangshan Prefecture, Sichuan Province outlined in red.

Yanyuan County, Liangshan Prefecture, Sichuan Province outlined in red.

Most apple and pear trees planted there did well. If we just watered the seedlings, prepared the ground around them, and inter-tilled, the trees would flower and bear fruit the next year. Trees planted on the red earth hill slopes did well too.

Year after year, surviving trees moved up the mountain ravine up the hills. After several years the land around the different production brigades became orchards. The hard labor and sweat of the prison slaves transformed this desolate red clay wilderness as the orchard trees changed the red clay soil into a series of green oases.

How many prison slave bones did the the bloody Chinese Communist dictatorship bury there? The farm headquarters for the Erdaogou region, in order to supply Party and government cadres and People’s Armed Police with vegetables, forced two hundred prisoners who, although they had completed their sentences, to stay at the Yanyuan Farm to grow vegetables. What the Chinese Communists called “prisoners released after the completion of their sentences” was a special category of “citizen”.

– 381 –

Beginning in 1972, orchards were planted around the vegetable gardens. After several years, the orchard had grown to become a forest. The managers had a wall built around the vegetable garden to separate it from the orchard.

The “storehouse” that Chen Li, who had escorted us earlier, had built was in the orchard area. The fruit trees growing day by day above the top of the wall had already shaded that group of brick buildings.

An improved variety apple tree brought in from the Chinese interior. Every summer, when the tree was so heavy with apples that the large apples made the thick branches sag under their weight, many bees swarmed to the fragrant apples. In order to prevent staff as well as imprisoned exiles from stealing fruit, the authorities forbade people who had completed their sentences from setting foot in the orchard once the fruit had matured.

Sanjiaozhou, a section that came not under a particular section but which was directly subordinate to farm headquarters, was also covered with grass. This had once been the machine repair workshop and the woodworking workshop of the Third Infrastructure Brigade. The young prisoners who had been brought to the Farm under armed escort from Chengdu and Chongqing rearranged the workshops, moving most of them to the lands assigned to other brigades. The shops left behind, the repair shop and the motor vehicle repair shop, became the mainstays of machine repair work. But staff who worked there never escaped the label of “prisoners who had completed their sentences”.

A master craftsman named Guo Xian was good at repairing and driving motor vehicles. Farm headquarters assigned him several apprentices to help him and to learn his skills.

Master Guo, an introvert, didn’t like to talk. He was determined to endure the cruelties and oppression of prison life. He had a passive and relaxed attitude. He spent all time repairing vehicles and driving them. He very rarely argued with anyone.

One of the apprentices assigned to him was named Sun Mingquan. According to Guo Xian, Sun’s father had been a butcher and his mother had died when he was still young. When the Cultural Revolution began, his father was considered to be a counter-revolutionary. Their home was ransacked. Sun Mingquan, then only fifteen years old, had to live on the streets as one of the “Seven Bad Elements” comprised of landlords, rich peasants, counter-revolutionaries, bad elements, rightists, capitalists and reactionary gangs. Later, hungry, he resorted to theft. After he was caught, the correctional institution for juvenile offenders sentenced him to three years of hard labor and sent to Yanyuan. After he completed his sentence, he was sent to the machine shop to be Guo Xian’s apprentice.

Sun Mingquan was also an introvert. Bedeviled by misfortune ever since early childhood, he had in him explosive gene for resistance as well. He had had enough of forced labor on the Yanyuan Farm. He gritted his teeth and bore all sorts of unjust treatment, storing up his resentments inside, until they the day came that they ignited into a blast with terrible destructive power.

Six years at the machine shop passed by in a flash. Sun Mingquan was already a 24 year old young man.

One early evening in fall 1974, after Sun Mingquan finished lunch he went down the road towards farm headquarters towards the exercise field. A film was being shown there that evening.

It was the apple harvest season. On the left hand side of the road was the tall enclosing wall of the apple orchard from which spread fruit fragrances that assaulted passers-by.

He would ordinarily pick up a rock and throw it at one of those heavy branches. He was looking for apples that fell outside the wall. When he looked up, he saw that some apples had fallen just inside the orchard and the branch, now relieved of its burden, once again straightened out. A few yellow leaves fell on the road.

– 382 –

Just then, two small fellows came walking swiftly towards farm headquarters. When they saw Sun Mingquan standing there as if in a daze, they yelled to him, “Sun Mingquan, the movie will start soon. Why are you waiting there?” Sun Mingquan didn’t answer. He noticed that the small side gate the workers who had completed their prison terms to enter and exit the orchard was only half closed. He pushed on the gate and entered.

It was dark and still inside the apple orchard. All around the orchard, since the apples had just been picked, he could see the edges of “fallen apples” with yellow marks on them lying half in the deep grass.

He parted the grass to pick them. They were ripe apples that had rotten on one side. The rotten side of the discarded apple lay hidden in the grass. This looked like a “battlefield” that had left many apples behind in the rush.

Someone had forgotten to lock that side of the orchard in the rush. So he looked through the tall grass once again in different spots, looking and choosing some of the large, yellow apples. He was getting ready to go out the gate when behind him, from deep in the orchard came a sharp woman’s voice crying “Halt!”.

Sun Mingquan flinched and turned around. The woman was coming the yellow building towards him. He saw that it was Peng XX from the accounting department of farm headquarters. Among all the female cadres of the farm, Peng XX was always harsh towards both prisoners and former prisoners. People called her the “female tiger”.

This time she was wearing sandals as if she had just taken a bath after dinner and had come here for a walk. Sun Mingquan stopped and wondered why this woman was calling him? When she got within five meters of him, she reprimanded him saying, “Who told you to come into the orchard? Don’t you know that you are not supposed to be here?”

This rebuke disgusted Sun Mingquan. He had usually done planting and management of the the orchard by himself. What right did that woman have to say that he was not allowed to come in?

“What did you incorrigible thieves come in here to steal? Put all the apples you stole on the ground.” she ordered Sun Mingquan in a disdainful and insulting tone.

Sun Mingquan stood there stupefied. He put all the apples he had stolen on the ground. Do you know how big a fine there is for each stolen apple?” the woman continued in a rude tone.

“I didn’t steal anything. The orchard had already been picked. I came by here and took some apples that lay rotting in the grass.” Sun Mingquan in an exasperated voice felt forced to start defending himself.
– 383 –

“You picked them up? Where did you go to pick such big apples?” She pointed to an apple in her hand as she continued to berate him in a high-pitched voice. “And how did you get in? Where did you jump over the wall?”

“The back gate was open. When I came into the orchard, the apple trees had already been picked clean. So I gathered a few fallen apples.” Sun Mingquan pointed to the back gate and gave her the apples in his hand, saying, “Look, this is a rotted apple that fell off the tree.”
“How dare you talk back to me! How dare you say that those apples were not stolen! Today there are only the two of us. Now that I have caught you, do you dare lie?” She was getting violent as she got into her full bore female tiger form.

Faced with this utterly unreasonable woman, Sun Mingquan got very angry. He stood there angrily, standing perfectly still. She reached her hand out towards Sun’s clothing which was bulging with apples. Sun Mingquan, reacting quickly, stared at her hand reaching out to him. He grabbed it and pulled it off to the right in the same direction she was moving. The lady tiger kept floating forwards unaware to pounce like a “hungry dog stealing shit”.

She staggered one step forward while the sandal on the other foot could not keep up with her plump body. and fell to one side. She stood on her barefoot but she was not prepared.

When she steadied herself, feeling awkward on the grass, she started yelling in a loud voice, “Quickly stop the thief! … You dared hit a cadre!” She was very angry. Her face was red, sputtering. Her anger quickly turned into rage.

Two cadres, hearing her yell, came out of the office. The woman, seeing that reinforcements were on the way, got even more outrageous. “Catch him, catch that thief. That fellow is acting outrageously. Not only does he steal things but he also tried to murder an old lady!” She picked up her fallen grass sandal and waved it in the direction of Sun Mingquan’s head.

Sun Mingquan stood steady as a rock through all this. When that woman beat him on the face with the sandal, his nose began to bleed. The woman still hadn’t calmed down. The men who had come out from the office seized him and took him to the office.

In the middle of the night after the three hour long movie was over, Sun Mingquan’s shop master Guo Xian got a notice from farm headquarters calling him to the farm office building to “retrieve his apprentice”.

When Master Guo received Sun Mingquan, he had just been untied. He had bruises all over his body. That woman, in front of Sun Mingquan, was determined to give a lesson to Master Craftsman Guo, berating him for improper management since one of his apprentices had gone out to steal apples and hit a cadre without his knowledge.

Sun had a great deal of anger inside him because he had had to wander the streets as a child after his parents were persecuted. This fire from his youth had long been buried. He often said that a pack of tigers had come to ransack his home. He said that after he was imprisoned, inhumane treatment in prison had intensified the hatred he felt.

Moreover today he was being insulted this way by that woman over a few fallen apples. He felt it was very hard to bear. They didn’t understand the depths of his pain. However, since he was an introvert, he took bore this new pain just as he had born other pain in the past.

After Cadre Peng insulted Sun Mingquan, Sun continued working together with the master craftsman. Early every morning he drove the tractor to dam number two to make repairs there. Working there until evening, they would drive the tractor back for oiling and maintenance. Did Guo Xian realize what his apprentice was thinking? Everyone gradually forgot how Sun Mingquan had been beaten.

One day, during Sun Mingquan’s rest period, he ran to the explosives workshop where he got ten detonating caps and a sack of dynamite which he put in the cab of the tractor. Guo Xian only wrinkled his brow, wondering what Sun was up to? Was he going to set an explosive to get fish?” Sun Mingquan quickly explained, “A fellow from my hometown wants to go to the Xiaojin River to set explosives to catch fish.” Guo Xian felt suspicious but he knew his apprentice’s nature. If he questioned him further, he would just be rebuffed. He saw Sun washing the vehicle body so he decided it must be true and so didn’t ask him anything more about it.

One afternoon about two months after the “beating for stolen apples” incident, Sun Mingquan asked his master craftsman for leave, saying that he had had a stomach ache for several days, saying he wanted to go to the hospital that day to get some medicine and left his workplace.

At about 5 PM, after quitting time, the occupants of the big office building started to leave by the main gate. Sun Mingquan squatted along on the right of the main gate. When he saw people going out the gate, he got up and went towards the enclosing wall on the left side. As he walked along, staring at the people coming out from the office building, Cadre Peng came out.

Sun Mingquan waited until that woman had passed by him and then slowly turned around. He walked behind her, walked past her and turned around. He quickly got in front of her and then suddenly turned around. He said in a loud voice, “Peng, today I will settle accounts with you!”

When he finished, Sun Mingquan opened up his work clothes, revealing both his t-shirt and the ten blasting caps strapped tightly to his chest. A packet of dynamite hung from his neck. In his left hand he held the fuse and in his right hand a cigarette lighter!

The woman was startled to suddenly see the young man she had personally punished two months before. Faced with the blazing hot anger in his eyes, this woman, who always despised the workers as mere slaves, had not time to think. Before that female tiger had time to curse or to strike, she was already paralyzed with fright. Did she understand what the young man was doing? She didn’t even ask “What are you doing?”. Her face turned pale, her feet slackened and she trembled helplessly with fright.

She wanted to cry out, but she was too frightened to even voice her scream. She stared fearfully at the lighter in the young man’s hand. She knew that her life depended on a flick of the finger of that hand holding the lighter. At that moment she saw who that young person was. He was that “good for nothing” she had shat all over!

The radiating from his eyes in her direction and his hate-filled looks made not only her heart tremble but also made her deeply regretful although that regret was a mere twinge that soon passed. She even considered kneeling and asking for forgiveness but it was already too late. All her attention focused on the fuse that had already been lit and the flame burning its way along the fuse to the blasting cap.

She suddenly had the urge to run but her trembling legs couldn’t get her up. At the same time as her scream of despair there was a big explosion as a a big shock wave and ball of fire erupted, tearing Sun Mingquan’s body apart, splattering bits of his flesh and blood on the enclosing wall, the street, and even on the branches of orchard trees extending outwards from the encircling wall.

That woman, already frightened out of her mind, fell onto the ground. People walking further away were pushed several steps along their way by the shock wave! The sound of the tremendous blast covered everyone’s screams and cries.

Ten seconds later, the gunpowder slowly dispersed. There were only a pool of blood were Sun Mingquan had been standing. His chest had been completely blown away. His bloody organs were piled up on the encircling wall, handing on tree branches or scattered on the road.

There was only left that indomitable head and that bloodily pulped face and that pair of big unconquerable eye still opened wide staring straight ahead as if to see whether his adversary had been finished as he had been! And accusing, before all the eyewitnesses, that woman who had insulted him for no reason at all. Finally pouring out all the hatred that had accumulated for so long in his chest!!

– 385 –
Somebody yelled, “If a rabbit is pushed too hard, it will turn around and bite you! They oppress us too brutally.” “Too bad Sun Mingquan didn’t go to the office to do it. There he could have taken a few more lives in exchange for his own!” Some argued, “A one-for-one exchange. It was worth it. Sun Mingquan was a real man!”

The men in the crowd gave a big thumbs up to the man who had died. They praised Sun Mingquan for being a real man. Sun Mingquan, at the cost of his young life, had voiced the anger that they all felt.

The women exclaimed their admiration and sorrow at the loss of this young man who had been so quiet and unassuming. That was the first time that the thousands of workers on the Yanyuan Farm over the past decade had expressed their shared anger at the brutality they had been suffering at the hands of their jailers.

Sun Mingquan’s name will certainly be written down as a hero in the local history of the Yanyuan region. People who come later will tell the tale. Everyone, both men and women, was unanimous in their scorn for the tiger woman. In their conversations they say things like, “Heaven punished her for what she did!” and “Good is repaid with good and evil with evil. This is what happens to evil people in the end.” Everybody agreed.

Three minutes later, the farm headquarters siren sounded. Two squads of armed police soldiers came running to the “incident” site. They used clubs and bayonets to disperse the crowd that had gathered. The long notes of an ambulance, soldiers cursing, dogs barking and running footsteps all blended into one chaotic chorus.

Deng Yangguang held a bullhorn. He shouted himself hoarse yelling at the onlookers, “Everybody go back home. An immediate curfew is in effect. If you do not leave you will be arrested.” But nobody paid him any attention. His shouts were lost in the noise of the crowed. Rifle shots rang in the air.

After about ten minutes, all the roads and paths between the fields in the areas were covered by soldiers with live ammunition. In the end there was no riot but the situation did make Deng Yangguang break out in a sweat!

The next day, Master Craftsman Guo was put in solitary confinement. The astonishing news spread quickly throughout the Yanyuan Farm and then onward into the Yanyuan county seat as well.

Ever since the Lin Biao incident, there had been a period of respite from the savage “class struggle” that had been going on throughout China. For a time the soldiers refrained from beating people up whenever they liked. Lin Chegao was also transferred from the Sixth Agricultural Brigade back to farm headquarters and he lost his official title as deputy director of the revolutionary committee.

However in that tumultuous era, the fall of a Lin Biao meant his replacement with someone even more brutal — Jiang Qing who defamed the fine scholar Wang Li and Guan Feng and put together a group of lieutenants including Chi Qun and Liang Xiao. Her gang of crooks were the demons who indicated quite clearly the ongoing twists and turns of China’s despotism. The Chinese people had seen so much over the last two decades! As long as the devil Mao’s sacred position was “not overturned by catastrophe”, the chaos would continue.

– 386 –

The tyrant was about to tear off his mask and lift the butcher’s knives that would bring increased oppression and carve up society. Any people who showed the slightest resistance would be rudely uprooted and cast aside. There was one “Strike Hard” campaign after another for “thought” crimes. Thought criminals became for a time the main targets of the machinery of state.

The Sun Mingquan affair struck a sensitive nerve in the “People in Authority” faction [note: 当权派 a Cultural Revolution term used for Party and government officials accused of taking the capitalist road.] on the Yanyuan Farm. The day after the Sun Mingquan affair, the big banners and big character posters fashionable at the time calling on “All Party members and Rebel Faction 造反派  [note: supporters of Mao and the Cultural Revolution.] , to immediately take action to sharpen their vigilance, dare to personally lay down the law by taking revenge against counter-revolutionary sabotage, and to take the lead in cracking down hard at the outset against any signs of counter-revolutionary activity to overturn state power”; “Keep the class struggle foremost in mind in you work everyday, every month and every year” and “Pledge to thoroughly implement the struggle to criticize Lin Biao and Confucius”.

CR poster Pledge to thoroughly implement the campaign to criticize Lin Biao and Confucius

Cultural Revolution poster: Pledge to thoroughly implement the struggle to criticize Lin Biao and Confucius

These banners and posters spread throughout the Yanyuan Farm headquarters and its surrounding region, covering them in layer after layer of white paper. Every brigade strengthened its vigilance. Random beatings once again became commonplace.

Several days later, farm headquarters held a “big meeting for pronouncing verdicts” and Sun Mingquan was sentenced to death. Guo Xian was also severely punished for his involvement in a criminal case.  Some “speech offenders” and “jail escapee offenders” were taken to the execution ground. All brigades were told to strengthen their efforts to “find and indict the two kinds of people involved in counter-revolutionary activities to restore the old regime.”

Strange as it may seem in that era of red terror, the rumor spread from farm headquarters that after Sun Ziquan killed himself, people were hearing voices from the part of the enclosing wall marked with the blood and flesh of Sun Mingquan. Disciplinary and education personnel passing by would hear the shout, “Evil is rewarded with evil. The time may not have yet come, but when it does, it will be fully repaid” and would feel a chilly wind blowing from that direction that terrified them.

If other people sent down for reform through labor or as prisoner exiles passed by, the voice would say instead “I do not regret my death. Friends remember me and avenge me.”

This strange yet vivid rumor shook the farm.  Therefore farm headquarters cadres mobilized 90 workers from the vegetable brigade to spend an entire day cleaning every trace of blood from the enclosing wall and surrounding area. However the deepest marks seemed to be carved into the enclosing wall and the road. No matter who much they scraped it stayed red and that voice seems never to have faded away. All passersby needed were ears to hear.

Six years later, after the wrongful accusations against me were dismissed and I was just about to leave the farm, I made a special trip to that place to say farewell to that hero. I secretly resolved to remember his advice.

Posted in History 历史, Politics 政治, Society 社会 | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Wicked Sorcerer Voldemort Quote is China Daily Thought of the Day

36999264_10213762002461763_2197548827639021568_n

        As we try to understand where China may be going, we should be alert to the possibility that evil may gain a toehold in some critical position.
       Two days ago, the China Daily official Weibo for its morning thought of the day quoted the evil sorcerer Lord Voldemort,  Harry Potter’s nemesis and the most powerful evil sorcerer in the world.
        Evil is no guarantee of accuracy in translation. More likely still is that the evil lord’s Chinese confederates may have their own agenda.
       An accurate translation of the Chinese mistranslation would be something like “There is no absolute good or absolute evil. Their only difference is the difference between the strong and the weak who are unable to see the Truth.”   
        Most of the comments disagreed with Voldemort, so Voldemort will need to do much more ideological work in the future.   Perhaps you will understand better than I just what is Voldemort Thought With Chinese Characteristics.  I that I number among those weaklings unable to see the Truth.  That is why the Party is there to guide us I suppose.
         The China Daily Party Committee may want to consider that anonymous quotes are hazardous. Moreover, since we don’t know how vigorously Lord Voldemort protects his intellectual property rights, unnecessary provocations are best avoided.

中国日报

昨天 07:05 来自 微博 weibo.com

There is no good and evil, there is only power and those too weak to seek it. 世上没有绝对的善与恶,差别只在于强者和无法分清事实的弱者。早安! ​​​
转发 141
评论 27
赞 303

微励志

把困难踩在脚下,你才会站得更高。生命就是一次次蜕变的过程。唯有经历各种各样的折磨,才能增加生命的厚度。一个人的成长过程,恰似蝴蝶破茧的过程,在痛苦的挣扎中,意志得到锻炼,力量得到加强,心智得到提高,生命在痛苦中得到升华。当你从痛苦中走出来时,就会发现,你已经站在了人生的高处。

7-9 07:06

4

微博鸡汤

喜欢鸡汤和名句的朋友看过来,内容绝对不会让你失望哦。 [抱抱] [抱抱]早安

随心评述 : 每天一点正能量

7-9 07:14

4

11岁

成年人都权衡利弊哪分什么善恶 [笑cry]

7-9 07:49

3

朱焓焓

胡说!

7-9 07:06

2

寄语情话

最近很喜欢卢思浩的一句话:爱的时候不辜负人,玩的时候不辜负风景;睡觉时不辜负床,一个人时不辜负自己。

7-9 08:24

2

西海散人201607

不敢苟同!!!

7-9 08:10

Lydia_丽迪亚

转发微博

7-9 08:03

RedBookmark

英文中说Violence is the voice of the unheard. 弱小的人无权,也不被关注,最终无奈走向极端 …… 这样的早安问候,gross

7-9 07:18

2

温江司法

上午好,,努力工作,享受生活![加油]

7-9 10:10

可霜儿-ally

善恶是彰显在哪个发展更好更有利!而为自己考虑的自私自利行为皆为恶!是人的弱点太多很容易堕入泞淖的沼泽,所以才分不清人心,善恶!这也是为何有些变化延续成了歪理邪说或者心里安慰!

7-9 09:00
发表评论
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Just Who are the “Hired Guns” on China’s Internet?

Educational is the Baidu article on the “internet water army (shui3jun1) of hired guns/astroturfers.

The graphic accompanying the article depicts several hand-like waves of water emerging from a computer screen labelled tweeters,  online public relations, deliberate postings to create a trend, and libelous comments…  The surfer at comments “These waters are just too rough!”

shuijun on China internet cartoon

The article begins with a definition “in various wikis, the “online water army” is a paid web authors who are posting information about a specific topic. The “online water army” is often called “water army” for short, and is also called “online hired guns”.  They are usually active  on social media platforms such as e-commerce websites, online forums, microblogs. By impersonating ordinary web users or consumers, they post replies or post information or microblogs and elsewhere that are aimed at influencing regular web users
在维基百科中,网络水军被定义为一群在网络中针对特定内容发布特定信息的、被雇佣的网络写手。网络水军通常简称水军,又名网络枪手,他们通常活跃在电子商务网站、论坛、微博等社交网络平台中。他们通过伪装成普通网民或消费者,通过发布、回复和传播博文等对正常用户产生影响。
Further down, distinguished from spam
1. Classical ‘water army’ has a strong group character while spam is an individual entity.
2. A ‘water army’ aims to harm an individual or organization while spam in general only increases the amount of useless information.
3. A ‘water army’ could simply be a software bot controlled by a  platform’s API application program interface  (which enables automated interaction with users) and only in specific circumstances does it manifest its ‘water army’ characteristics. This makes it harder to detect a ‘water army’. Opinion spam on  E-commerce websites like Taobao and Amazon is a kind of ‘water army’.  Opinion spam is generally detected only through discussions among users on an e-commerce website.

水军特点

编辑

水军与传统的垃圾用户存在以下几点不同。第一,典型的水军具有很强的群体特征,而垃圾用户通常强调的是单个用户。第二,水军有可能对个人、公司或组织造成伤害,而垃圾用户通常只是增加垃圾信息。第三,水军既可以是被平台API(如新浪微博开放平台API)控制的程序机器人,也可以是公司的雇员或者临时招募的人员等真实的用户,这与传统研究的程序机器Twitter bot等不同。第四,水军通常比垃圾用户更隐蔽。很多水军在通常情况下是正常用户,只有在特定任务到来时才表现出水军的特质,这增加了水军检测的难度。淘宝、亚马逊等电子商务网站中的意见垃圾用户(Opinion Spam) 也是水军的一种,但是意见垃圾用户的检测通常是基于电子商务网站的用户评论进行的。
A bunch of references in English at the end of the article. Interesting that no Chinese-language references appear although most of the articles include writers with Chinese names. Could it be a limitation of the article?  I found a second article with Chinese-language references (copied below).

网络水军

编辑

在维基百科中,网络水军被定义为一群在网络中针对特定内容发布特定信息的、被雇佣的网络写手。网络水军通常简称水军,又名网络枪手,他们通常活跃在电子商务网站、论坛、微博等社交网络平台中。他们通过伪装成普通网民或消费者,通过发布、回复和传播博文等对正常用户产生影响。
中文名
水军
外文名
Spammers
分    类
社交网络特性

定义

编辑

由于在线社交网络信息传播速度快和受众多等特点,大量有着商业目的的话题推广活动在社交网络中展开。在这些话题推广活动中,大量的水军用户被组织起来发表和传播特定的信息。在微博中,水军是一种特殊的垃圾用户,他们被组织起来发表、回复、转发博文或提及他人(@ 用户名),以达到快速传播目标博文的目的。大量的有目的甚至不真实的博文在社交网络中传播,不仅让正常用户无法看清事件的真相,而且会对他们造成误导,造成不良的社会后果。例如,中国著名导演陆川宣称他的电影《王的盛宴》遭受网络水军的严重诋毁,严重影响了此电影的票房。为了减少网络水军造成的负面影响,研究网络水军的群体特性及其检测方法具有重要意义。网络水军是一群有着特殊目的(如商业推广目的等)的在线用户,他们被组织起来在社交网络中发布大量的推广信息,使得话题是自然传播的还是人为推广的难以分辨。

水军特点

编辑

水军与传统的垃圾用户存在以下几点不同。第一,典型的水军具有很强的群体特征,而垃圾用户通常强调的是单个用户。第二,水军有可能对个人、公司或组织造成伤害,而垃圾用户通常只是增加垃圾信息。第三,水军既可以是被平台API(如新浪微博开放平台API)控制的程序机器人,也可以是公司的雇员或者临时招募的人员等真实的用户,这与传统研究的程序机器Twitter bot等不同。第四,水军通常比垃圾用户更隐蔽。很多水军在通常情况下是正常用户,只有在特定任务到来时才表现出水军的特质,这增加了水军检测的难度。淘宝、亚马逊等电子商务网站中的意见垃圾用户(Opinion Spam) 也是水军的一种,但是意见垃圾用户的检测通常是基于电子商务网站的用户评论进行的。

水军来源

编辑

水军网(http://www.shuijunwang.com,目前已被关闭)是一种供在线用户获取水军兼职工作的网络平台,这类网站可以帮助公司、组织等在短时间内召集大量水军。用户可以从这些网站上获取一定的报酬来帮助公司、组织等完成一些特定的任务,如发表广告博文的任务等。这些水军的行为会带来一些负面影响,如有很多博文变得难以相信,因为水军们经常发表不加思考的雇佣方提供的博文。对于一个特定任务,通常有组织者团队(Organizers)负责组织此推广活动,通常有三组人员为他们工作。第一种是资源组(Resource Team),其负责为推广活动提供素材,如博文内容、图片、视频等,其成员可能是作家和图片、音频、视频制作专家等。第二种是内容发布者(Poster Team),其任务是将资源组提供的素材发布到特定的网站中,其通常是一个公司、组织的雇员,或公司控制的僵尸用户(如通过新浪微博API控制的僵尸程序),或是从水军兼职平台临时召集的用户。第三组是观察和评估组(Observation and Evaluation Team),其通常评价己方推广活动的成果和分析敌方的应对,为组织者的决策提供支持。

水军发现方法

编辑

宋(Song) [1]  等认为基于用户行为特征的方法具有易伪装性而使得此类方法效果不佳,如果网络水军掩饰自己的被该类方法检测的行为,那么此类方法难以进行检测。他们认为用户间的关系网络相对于用户行为更加稳定,因此他们提出了基于用户关系网络的水军识别方法。他们利用用户间距离和用户关系强度等特征使用多种分类器进行学习,实验发现推特(Twitter)中的只有少数正常用户被水军发布的意见所影响。克里斯特尔(Krestel) [2]  等在标签分享站点中建立用户、标签和网络资源的关系结构,然后给定若干种子节点为水军的概率值,假定与水军相邻的用户也很可能为水军,即节点为水军的可疑度是可以在网络中传播的,据此计算得到所有用户为水军的概率值。巴特(Bhat) [3]  等发现社交网络水军也会组成社区,他们利用用户行为日志抽取用户交互图并发现水军的重叠社区。他们在数据集中加入了模拟的网络水军用户,此方法的性能仍有待于在真实数据集上进一步验证。
卢(Lu) [4]  等使用评论因子图模型(Review Factor Graph Model) 将内容特征与用户特征相结合,然后利用已知的网络水军通过可信度传播理论发现其它未知的网络水军。此方法可以同时发现网络水军和其发布的虚假评论。由于种子水军是事先人工标注的,因此在真实环境中水军识别的准确度可能有所下降。许(Xu)等 [5]  收集了亚马逊网(Amazon)中的约13万件产品及其评论数据,共包含约60万评论用户。他们分析了用户行为特征并构建分类器发现网络水军,然后他们利用网络水军间的关系修正分类结果以达到更好的效果。
津曼(Zinman)等 [6]  对社交网络中的用户行为特征和关系网络进行了分析,然后利用朴素贝叶斯模型和神经网络模型对社交网络中的用户进行建模,发现网络水军的典型行为模式。
为了发现网络水军,王(Wang)等 [7]  首先分析不同于正常用户的个体及群体特征,在当前的水军和垃圾用户的研究中,个体统计特征被广泛研究,但是水军作为群体表现出的群体特征则很少涉及,作者分析和研究了水军的4个个体特征和6个群体特征。然后基于这些特征,提出了一种基于逻辑回归模型的水军用户检测方法。在检测出的水军基础上,分析了在同一个话题中出现的水军社区和同一社区中水军的观点倾向,以研究水军的群体特性。在已发现的水军基础上,发现推广活动的幕后推手。
解读词条背后的知识查看全部

AI水军汹涌而来,人类水军也要失业了

人类手写的虚假点评,已经是一个兴盛的地下行业。只要有钱,你就能找到人帮你的产品写下正面的点评,后者给对手写下负面的评价。现在,传统水军行业未来可能也要被AI取代了。 整个点评口碑界正面临潜在却是严重的冲击。如果AI创造的虚假点评泛滥,最终将导致全部点评信息可信度急剧下降。技…

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参考资料
  • 1.Song J, Lee S, Kim J.Spam filtering in Twitter using sender-receiver relationship.Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag:In: Sommer R, Balzarotti D, Maier G, eds. Proc. of the 14th Int’l Symp. on Recent Advances in Intrusion Detection (RAID 2011),2011:301-317
  • 2.Krestel R, Chen L.Using co-occurrence of tags and resources to identify spammers.Brookline: Microtome Publishing:In: Saeys Y, Liu H, Inza I, eds. Proc. of the Discovery Challenge Workshop at the European Conf. on Machine Learning and Principles and Practice of Knowledge Discovery in Databases,2008:38-46
  • 3.Bhat SY, Abulaish M.Community-Based features for identifying spammers in online social networks.New York: ACM Press:In: Rokne JG, Faloutsos C, eds. Proc. of the 2013 IEEE/ACM Int’l Conf. on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining (ASONAM 2013,2013:100-107
  • 4.Lu Y, Zhang L, Xiao Y, Li Y.Simultaneously detecting fake reviews and review spammers using factor graph model.New York: ACM Press:In: Davis HC, Halpin H, Pentland A, eds. Proc. of the 5th Annual ACM Web Science Conf. (WebSci 2013),2013
  • 5.Xu H, Yu B.Automatic thesaurus construction for spam filtering using revised back propagation neural network:Expert Systems with Applications,2010:18-23
  • 6.Zinman A, Donath J.Is britney spears spam:In: Proc. of the 4th Conf. on Email and Anti-Spam (CEAS 2007),2007:1-10
  • 7.Wang X, Zhang Z, Yu X, et al.Finding the Hidden Hands: A Case Study of Detecting Organized Posters and Promoters in SINA Weibo:China Communications,2005

 


网络水军

目录

[隐藏]

什么是网络水军

网络水军官方上讲是指受雇于网络公关公司,为他人在网上发帖回帖造势的网络人员,同时,他们通过灌水来获取报酬。但是有些不收取任何报酬的普通网民在某些情况下也是一种特殊的网络水军。[1]

网络水军兴起的原因[2]

(一)根本原因:互联网对民意的操控和制造能力

在当代社会,民意的重要性更加凸显。民意的支持,可以使政党赢得政权,使企业赢得巨额利润,使个人获得超级人气。民意功利性的后果刺激越来越多的人试图通过多种途径来操控和制造民意。而作为“网络水军”传播媒介的互联网恰是可以成为操纵和制造民意的有力工具。

首先,互联网为操控和制造民意提供了技术支持。“只要掌握了操控网络的技术,那么网上就可以充斥单方面声音,从而使真实民意反映出现偏差,甚至对民意进行“操控”。“网络水军”正是凭借网络论坛、BBS、博客微博、QQ群和新闻跟帖等互联网提供的这些技术平台得以伪造大众进行大量发帖回帖,传播信息,从而操控和制造民意的。

其次,互联网民意表达的匿名性为操控和制造民意提供了保护。实践证明,一个在现实社会中循规蹈矩的人在网络中可能出言不逊、牢骚满腹,这是因为网络的匿名性使之放松了对自我的约束。在匿名性的保护下,“网络水军”接受雇主任务时毫无顾忌,什么样的任务都敢接,管它是否与社会道德甚至法律相违背。普通网民的发言也常常缺乏理性,情绪容易走向极端,被人利用。于是,在雇主经济利益的诱惑下,毫无顾忌的“网络水军”又蓄意对网民的非理性加以诱导,从而轻松地操控和制造民意。

再者,互联网为操控和制造民意提供了强大的意见环境。“沉默的螺旋”理论告诉我们,“个人在表明自己的观点之际首先要对周围的意见环境进行观察,当发现自己属于“多数”或“优势”意见时,他们便倾向于积极大胆地表明自己的观点。反之,就保持沉默” 。“网络水军”发布的信息,数量大,传播速度快,还貌似真实的民意,这种信息在短时间内就可以对受众造成强大的意见环境压力,很多受众选择沉默或附和,于是“网络水军”营造的“优势”意见更加突出,形成了强大的“民意”,互联网上一个个翻手为云覆手为雨的传奇故事就是这样不断上演的。

(二)现实条件:互联网的繁荣与管理的滞后

1.互联网的繁荣为“网络水军”提供了“网络”和“水军”

高速发展的互联网成为“网络水军”的广阔战场。截至2012年6月底,我国域名总数为873万个,其中.CN域名数为398万个,两者均出现明显增长。网站总数达到250万个。¨ 互联网在中国的快速发展与普及,为受众的生产、生活和学习提供了方便,同时也为“网络水军”的活动提供了充分的传播媒介资源。

互联网的发展还为“网络水军”提供了“水军预备役”。中国互联网络信息中心发布的第3O次中国互联网络发展状况统计报告显示,截至2012年6月底,中国网民规模达到5.38亿。“水军”一定是网民,没有数量庞大的网民,就不能衍生出足够规模的“水军”。

2.滞后的管理为“网络水军”提供了“可乘之机”

首先,相关部门对网络公关公司监管不力。网络公关迅速发展,但相关的法律法规滞后,使得网络公关存在不少灰色地带,违规成本相对较低。一批不良网络公关公司组织了庞大的“网络水军”队伍,造谣诽谤、制造事端、恶俗炒作等,这些行为却因为缺乏相应的法律法规依据而得不到有效制止和引导。

其次,“网络水军”难以追踪和认定。“网络水军”匿名发帖,要锁定大量的“网络水军”实非易事。同时,“网络水军”的发帖真真假假,鱼龙混杂,又以网上信息的表达自由作后盾,要对“网络水军”的发帖内容进行是否涉嫌操控和制造民意的认定实为不易。目前难以找到相关的认定标准,制定相关的认定标准也很困难。

再次,“网络水军”缺乏明确的管理主体。“网络水军”不是明确意义上的广告主体广告法不能适用,工商行政管理部门不能对其进行日常管理。发帖回帖也谈不上新闻传播,相关部门也很难管理。现实的情况是,只有在“网络水军”的行为触犯了现行法律情况下,才可能有公安部门介入,这只是一种事后救济,“网络水军”的事前和事中的管理缺乏明确的主体。据了解,“万科新东方等受到网帖攻击后,都向警方报了案,结果要么不了了之,要么被告知只能由企业向法院起诉,警方不会立案侦查。警方对此的解释是,此类针对企业或单位的网络攻击,如果涉嫌诽谤,属于民事诉讼范畴,应由法院直接受理,法律上没有明文规定要求公安机关侦查” 。管理主体的模糊由此可见一斑。

(三)受众因素:社会转型期复杂的受众心理

当前我国正处于社会转型期,各种矛盾凸显,受众心理呈现出复杂的特点。“网络水军”话题的选择与传播手段的运用正是迎合了受众的一些心理特点。

一是敏感心理。这主要表现在受众对食品安全、司法公正、官员腐败等社会问题往往保持高度的警惕,一有风吹草动,受众就感觉到草木皆兵,对周围的一切都充满强烈的不信任感。如圣元奶粉性早熟事件炒作成功一个重要原因就是受众对中国的乳品业信任度本来就很低,“网络水军”稍微煽风点火,受众就非常敏感,不作理性分析,迅速产生相关反应,于是雇主目的很容易就达到了。

二是草根心理。“质疑一切权力”成为中国公众的普遍心态,尤其是表现在网民群体中。 伴随着对权力的挑战,是公众对草根的追捧,他们越来越讨厌“精蝇”、“砖家”自以为是的判断,对来自草根大众的声音表现出强烈的兴趣。以“超级女声”等为代表的平民造星运动的兴起正是公众草根心理推动的结果。“几年前风靡全国的‘超级女声‘选秀活动,其策划者已经意识到可以通过大众投票的方式,来改变‘精英认证精英’的小圈子权力结构”‘l 。所以,在发帖回帖的信息传播过程中,“网络水军”一方面在身份上伪装成“草根”受众;同时又“制造”出如“富二代”、“官二代”骄横跋扈和“穷二代”苦苦挣扎等话题,正是迎合受众的草根情结,达到操控和制造民意的目的。

三是浮躁心理。社会变革加剧,新生事物层出不穷。而媒体娱乐化的盛行,传播了大量的快餐文化,能静下心来细细揣摩和品位经典的受众越来越少,很多人梦想着一夜成名。心理的浮躁造成受众缺乏主见,易于跟风和盲从,这正减轻了“网络水军”操控和制造民意的阻力。

由此可见,“网络水军”的“异军”突起并非偶然,他们正是利用互联网操控和制造民意的巨大能力,以网络作为传播的广阔战场和大量网民作为“水军预备役”,在互联网管理的灰色地带上兴风作浪,频繁地挑动受众的敏感心理和蔑视权威的草根心理,裹挟着众多浮躁的受众紧随其后跟风造势,使简单的信息传播在互联网上形成了水漫金山之势。

网络水军的类型[3]

北京大学社会经济和文化研究中心通过研究将网络水军分成了三类,即零分党(受正义召唤的自由水军)、五毛党(权利组织的御用水军)、阉党(企业豢养的商业水军)。

(一)零分党——正义召唤的自由水军。人们总是相信正可压邪,因此正义在任何时代任何社会总是以一定形式存在着。2009年2月,云南在押人员李乔明死在看守所,警方称其“躲猫猫”时撞墙而死。这一事件经媒体报道后,在网络上迅速传播。在事件成为网络热点后,云南省委宣传部迅速组织事件真相调查委员会,并邀请网友和社会人士参与调查。在网络舆论的推动下,“躲猫猫”事件真相很快被查清,施暴者受到法律制裁,有关责任人受到行政处罚。在此前后,包括杭州“70码”、温州“购房门”、陕西“华南虎照”、山西“黑砖窑”、上海“钓鱼执法”等一系列网络公共事件中,网民监督公权力,推动着事件真相的调查。还有,当网友们拜读了华侨发表的《你们究竟要我们怎样生存》文章以后,纷纷自发起来挞伐西方的双重标准,中华民族爱国主义情节空前凝聚起来,国家认同感空前升华。当然,还有更多的关于网络征求政策出台和法律发布的意见,这时的水军更是一种自发的政治参与,极大地提高了法律制度的公正合理性。而2011年初于建嵘教授发起的微博打拐热潮更是正义的水军的一种自觉行动。网友们零碎的、非专业的行动,与公安部门、媒体、人大代表及政协委员等力量结合在一起,迅速形成舆论焦点。这种义务的网络行动,这种自觉的集体参与,没有任何商业利益的自发行为,使得这种水军成为另一种存在,成为最后的“麦田守望者”,姑且以正义水军或“零分党”命名之。

(二)五毛党——权力组织的御用水军。出于控制舆论、加强“正面”宣传引导的善愿,政府或者有政府背景的单位(包括金融机构央企国企、商会、协会、学会等企事业单位)便组织进行网络舆情引导、监督和控制,名日“网络评论员”,行内普遍称之为“五毛党”。政府官员和官方媒体认为,网络评论员在维护社会稳定,封杀不利于政府的网络言论,维护政府形象,促进政府与民众沟通方面起到一定作用。但是绝大多数互联网用户认为,无论出于什么理由,网络评论员都不应当为金钱利益而发表自己原本支持或者反对的观点。《南都周刊》评论指出,政府某些领导和网评员之间的这种关系,非简单的拍马,而更像是互利的“合作性互骗”。有网友认为,在每次重大社会事件背后,很多网络讨论中都会存在着互相猜疑、甚至暴力言论的现象。而这正是某些政府部门雇佣与放任网络评论员所造成的恶果,并认为这种相互猜忌妨害正常讨论所造成的社会破坏,已经远远超过了网络舆论引导策略并潜在歪曲事实可能的威胁,网评员不正当的讨论方式给普通网民树立了很坏的模仿榜样。新加坡学者郑永年也警告,中国基层社会的基本社会信任将有解体危机。也有网友指出,五毛党在各种论坛删除或禁止回复敏感议题,是无法达到审查机构初衷的。北京大学胡泳认为,这种网评员成不了气候,只会成为笑柄,他们的弱点是无法积累名誉,获得信任。网络写手温云超也称Twitter上的一些中文用户不会轻信网评员的话。我国网络企业家及大众媒体专家毛向辉认为,这也算一种审查制度,既监督公众,又削弱了网络上其他声音,增大了噪音。我国官方媒体人民网也曾刊文指出,组织网络评论员制造舆论压制对方与职业道德不符,不应利用公权力来制造虚假的舆论。

(三)阉党——企业豢养的商业水军。网络水军最初只不过是在论坛大量灌水个体的总称,没有严整的结构,属于网络集体无意识作为。自从注意力经济成为大家的共识以后,加上中国人如鲁迅批判的那种喜好围观的劣根性,无意中推动了水军的横空出世、无处不在和无孔不入。随着网络民意愈来愈深地影响现实舆论,水军开始受雇于网络公关公司,成为在网络发帖回帖转帖借势造势的群体。而其中负责发帖打压对手的水军,则是水军中的先锋——网络打手。因此,这些被雇佣的网络水军成为被阉割了自身主见的党徒,而且成为幕后策动其他网民掉进按照商业利益编织的陷阱中的帮凶。而虽然没有接受雇佣赚取发帖费,其他一些不够成熟的普通网民由于不了解真相,也在不知不觉间“被水军”,从而陷入了幕后操纵的舆论陷阱。

网络水军的主要特点[4]

网络水军主要有以下四个特点。

1.身份的隐蔽性。我国没有实行网络实名制,网民注册ID不需要用真实身份,使人难以辨认其真实身份。而网络水军与雇主之间在互联网上使用例名帐号来联络、交易,这使其具有隐蔽性。

2.分布的零散性。网络水军成员分布在不同地域、从事着不同职业,但是通过互联网就能迅速集中在一起,执行传播命令,完成指令后又分散开。

3.操作的灵活性。一方面,网络水军成员可灵活选择任务,甚至可以同时选择接受多个任务予以完成;另一方面,网络水军操作很灵活,他们可以在电脑或者移动电话上操作,只要接人互联网终端设备,就可以执行任务,不受时间和地点的限制。

4.人行的门槛低。只要会应用普通网络,如,ID注册、发帖、回复、发博文等,就可以入行成为网络水军。

网络水军的工作内容[5]

l、论坛传播:网络公关公司基于网络论坛和社区的日常传播服务,根据传播需求、论坛人群特征制定传播策略以及执行方案,由水军进行发帖、回帖、置顶讨论等活动

2、话题炒作:依据客户需求和网络关公公司要求,进行策划,通过制造或参与各种热门话题的讨论,制造出热点内容,并对整个过程进行引导和控制,形成一边倒的趋势,使“形势”有利于客户。

3、事件营销:制造或利用、引发热点事件,然后由“水军军团”进行全程包装炒作,引发网民高度关注,吸引各路媒体进行报导转载,扩大影响,最终达成客户的宣传目标。

网络水军的正功能[1]

当下提起网络水军,颇有种“过街老鼠,人人喊打”的感觉,但是网络水军是信息高速公路的产物,是时代的新生产品,其是顺应时代发展的,所以其存在必然有相对合理性。

(一) 网络自由水军活跃了网络文化

无论是“贾君鹏你妈妈喊你回家吃饭” 的互联网行为艺术。贴吧文化狂欢,还是“爱相声、爱演戏、爱豪宅、爱得瑟、爱谁谁,我是郭德纲”标签式的凡客体消费品推广,这些颇有特色的文字不论是在网络上还是在生活中,仿佛人们说话时的作料,总能在不经意间给人带来一些笑声,一些快乐。

(二)网络商业水军一定程度上能实现好的传播营销效果

后工业社会中,人们的观念发生了异化,金钱的地位逐渐上升,重商主义消费主义成为主流,形成了当今传播的大背景— — 后现代语境。受众崇尚拜物教,通过对实物商品的占有来满足精神需求。商家更注重追求眼球经济,希望在短时间内用最小的费用达到最好的传播效果。以互联网为平台,通过网络水军造势能够很好地达成这一目的,因此网络营销是一种非常符合时代背景的网络营销手段。

《后宫·甄嫒传》是网络营销传播极其成功的一个典型,不仅达到了极好的宣传造势效果,也基本没有出现网络暴力,这其中,网络水军功不可没。

(三)网络水军能够在一定程度上引导人们关注热点

网络传播本身有传播速度实时性、信息内容海量性、信息形态多媒体性、信息检索便利性、传播过程交互性、传播范围全球性等特点,这些使其比起传统媒体,它能够更快地给人们传播信息,形成互动,网络水军则能够使大家在网上短时间内关注到某个信息,并使之成为社会热点。以其关注.但是现在通常是网络热点爆出来后,传统媒体进行跟进.从而形成传统媒体和互联网互动,最后在多方努力下真相大白。同时,近些年来传统媒体的编辑记者对新闻的采编方式也有变化,很多时候会在网上找新闻线索,然后线下采访,最后写成稿件发表出来引起人们关注。由此不难看出,网络水军在对人们的关注点的引导方面起到了不小的作用。

(四)网络自由水军有利于网络监督的实现

网络反腐是指借助网络这一平台引起社会舆论效应,对执政行为进行监督对权力进行约束,从而达到预防、遏制、惩戒腐败问题的目的。

正义水军的网络监督有利于国家官员增强自律,大众以网络为平台的监督比起媒介监督所受的制约更小,能够真正实现监督的可能性更大,而这些可以督促国家相关部门加强工作的透明度,以积极心态接受民众监督。从长远来看,网上监督利于增强国家机关的公信力和我国发展建设、长治久安。

(五)短时期内使消费者在商业竞争中获利

2012年8月14日, 京东CEO 刘强东两条微博成为电商争霸导火索,其后包括苏宁国美等多家电商高层在微博中回应了刘强东,一时间电商行业硝烟弥漫,新一轮电商大战拉开序幕。随着当当、易迅等企业的“乱入”,演变为整个国内电商行业的混战。2012年9月。国家发改委认定电商价格战欺诈,需要严惩,商务部称将制定规则。价格围绕价值上下波动,并受供求关系的影响。这些商家降低价格的恶性竞争,并且雇佣水军进行造势,在各大网站宣传, 以便让更多的受众“获益”。长久看来,这种竞争方式是不利于市场经济秩序也不利于各商家的长期发展.而水军的加入使得这场电商战等价混乱。但是对于消费者来说,通过水军获得了降价信息,买到价格实惠的东西,何乐而不为呢?

网络水军的负功能[1]

(一)破坏正常的商业竞争

2010年8月,圣元奶粉被曝出导致婴儿性早熟,虽过后被卫生部证实圣元乳粉与女婴性早熟无关,但是仍使得企业遭受毁灭性的打击,也使得人们在“三鹿三聚氰胺”事件后再次恐慌。有传这次事件是乳业巨头混战,蒙牛伊利为了商业利益,雇用网络水军诋毁竞争者,但是两大企业声称自己是受害者。此次“罗生门”事件后,人们对所有国产的乳制品持怀疑态度,进而为许多外国品牌进驻、占领中国市场提供了机会,使得我国的乳制品商利益受损。

如此看来,许多企业为了商业竞争雇佣水军以不道德甚至诽谤诋毁的方式打压对手,破坏市场经济规律.扰乱了市场竞争,造成了十分恶劣的影响。

(二)混淆视听、绑架民意、破坏公共秩序

首先,热点事件不一定真实。网络公共平台门槛很低,任何人都能匿名发言。网络水军杜撰网络热点事件,达到网络营销的目的。

其次,热点事件不一定客观。网络水军炒作的热点不是新闻,而是按照需要达到的目的进行“伪装” 后的信息,让普通受众按照网络水军期望的态度进行反应。

基于以上两点,很多热点不一定真实、客观。假作真时真亦假,无作有时有还无,这种情况下,普通受众根本无法知晓真相,他们的关注点、感受都受水军牵引。同时,受众在强大的舆论声浪下,很难有不同观点。一是受众由于信息压力,在通常情况下受众会认为多数人提供的信息其正确性概率大于少数人,因此个人会对有网络水军制造出来的多数意见持较信任的态度;其二是受众的趋同心理,个人希望与群体的多数意见保持一致,以免因孤立而遭受群体制裁的心理。所以,受众即使有不同想法。也不愿意或是说不敢提出来, 因为这想法和网络水军制造出的群体意见不同。

由此看来,网络民意如同诺依曼“沉默的螺旋”理论,它满足三个条件:一是个人意见的表明是一个社会心理过程;二是意见的表明和沉默的扩散是螺旋似的社会传播过程;三是大众传播通过营造“意见环境”来影响或制约舆论,只不过这是网络水军营造的意见环境。网络水军通过造势形成强大的舆论声浪,使得民众不明真相,混淆视听,使得乌合之众“被水军”, 然后绑架民意,形成占压倒性的多数意见,甚至网络暴力,破坏网络平台的公共秩序,形成所需要的舆论,从而达到“营销”的最终目的。

(三)消费者成为电子商务的最终受害者

网络水军的评价会影响消费者的购买行为,会使消费者受到欺骗。虽然很多大的电子商务网站可以退货换货,但是却没有人为这一欺骗行为负责。

(四)形成网络黑社会和网络暴力

很多名人都注册了新浪微博或腾讯微博,而且相关部门进行了认证。微博是名人与公众互动的一个很好的渠道,这些名人在微博中无疑是一个意见领袖,其言论对公众有相当的影响力。

名人和公众之间有光晕效应的存在。晕轮效应,又称“光环效应”、 “成见效应”、 “光晕现象”。是指在人际相互作用过程中形成的一种夸大的社会印象,正如日、月的光辉,在云雾的作用下扩大到四周,形成一种光环作用。

常表现在一个人对另一个人(或事物)的最初印象决定了他的总体看法,而看不准对方的真实品质,形成一种好的或坏的“成见”。明星的微博许多是其所在的经纪公司在经营,其中大多数明星都是会花钱买粉丝,也就是水军,来拥护明星们的言论。真正的粉丝在对明星的崇拜心态下,容易受光晕效应的影响,认为明星说的都是对的,再加上水军的推波助澜,粉丝就越发肯定明星的言论。同时有些明星在网上表现出的态度也让人不敢苟同,例如转发批评自己网友的言论使得发言人被众多“脑残粉” 和水军人肉。网络水军和“脑残粉”演变成网络黑社会中的网络打手,对他人进行网络暴力,甚至影响到了他人的正常生活。虽说明星这种公器私用的做法是极不道德极不负责任的,但是网络水军的重要作用也不可忽视。

(五)使网民们知情权和话语权丧失

普通网民在网络水军的炒作下不明真相,也没有足够的媒介素养和辨识能力,只能在群体压力和从众心理的作用下盲目跟风。同时,受众接受信息易受“第三人效果”的影响,更倾向相信自己身边的人。在网络社会中, 我们会受“半熟人” 和网络水军的影响, 容易丧失自己的判断,信假为真,甚至引发蝴蝶效应。例如日本核辐射而我国网上疯传“盐荒”, 网民们不知道真相就全部跑到超市去买盐。

网络水军产业链的最底层,实际上是一种网络民工.他们看似按要求随意写几个帖子,转发几个帖子。实际上他们是在以低廉的工资出卖自己的话语权,因为他们的发言根本没有代表自己的态度。

(六)网络水军易引发“三俗” 问题

近些年来的网络红人不少,不论是自我感觉过于良好的芙蓉姐姐、一阵飓风般强劲刮过互联网的凤姐还是天涯极品女小月月.仿佛让人们觉得已经进入了审丑的时代。

为什么这些网络红人都让人觉得庸俗、低俗、恶俗呢?为什么受众明明对这些人很无语还偏偏去关注呢?因为网络水军把握住了人们最原始的动物性,他们炒作的这些网络红人能满足人们的猎奇心理,越低俗庸俗恶俗越能引起人们的关注。网络上能盛行这些东西在于“把关人”机制的缺失,所有上传至网络的东西没有经过过滤。 叶巴关人”的缺失,就使得控制论在网络环境中被破坏。按照控制论的创始人威纳的观点,任何系统都是按照一定的秩序运行的,但是由于系统内部以及环境中存在着许多偶然的和随机的偏离因素,因此任何系统都有从有序向无序、从确定状态向不确定状态变化的倾向。为了维持系统的正常运行,就需要对系统进行控制,而其控制的一个重要的方式就是信息反馈。网络水军无疑是在制造虚假的反馈而这些都只会让这些“三俗” 问题愈演愈烈,颠覆人们的三观。不利于和谐社会精神文明建设。

网络水军的治理对策[2]

“网络水军”以一种失范的信息传播来获取经济利益,扰乱了正常的网络秩序,危害社会,必须对其进行有效治理。

(一)治理理念——平衡网络自由与网络管理的关系

治理“网络水军”,首先不能损害公民利用网络自由表达的权利。言论自由是公民的基本权利,必须受到法律的优先保障。其次,要使自由表达的权利服务于人们信息传播和交流状态的改善。“互联网为每个人的自由表达准备好了技术工具,网络时代的人们却更难知道真相的样子” j。这实际上是自由表达权利滥用的结果。所以,我们治理“网络水军”的对象是“水军”而不是网络,是不良的传播者而不是传播媒介。据此,一个基本的治理思想是要协调处理好网络自由与网络管理之间的关系,“网络水军”的行为当然需要规制,这与现实世界对不良行为的道德谴责和法律惩罚无本质区别。但这种治理不能以网络世界的言论自由和不记名开放受损为代价。如果因为“水军”的存在,导致网民在网上发言的自由受到伤害,则有因噎废食之嫌。“水军”是网民,但网民不全是“水军”,打击“水军”须避免殃及无辜网民。

(二)治理方针——惩防并举,以防为主

为协调处理好网络自由与网络限制之间的关系,最大限度地发挥互联网的积极作用,“网络水军”的治理要坚持惩防并举,以防为主的方针。“防”是重点,要在遵循媒体规律的前提下,合理运用各种手段,阻断“网络水军”产生的各种条件。“惩”是辅助手段,旨在通过法律法规的威力对“网络水军”产生警戒作用,起到以儆效尤的效果。当然,“惩”和“防”的各项措施既要具有易执行性,又要避免可能干涉到公民言论自由权和媒体的信息传播权利。

(三)治理手段

1.净化网络环境,铲除“网络水军”的温床

(1)技术手段。针对“网络水军”的兴风作浪,有关部门需要不断地增强对“网络水军”的技术防范能力。如今越来越多的人物评选活动都将网络投票作为重要的参考依据,但这种投票也受到“网络水军”的侵袭。如“央视感动中国2010年度人物评选就遭遇网络水军密集刷票”。为防止投票作弊主办方对IP地址的技术限制,而这常被“网络水军”破解。但为防止水军“注水”,主办者在投票页面上进行了技术改进,加入“验证码”功能,达到了较好的效果。另外,“搜狐畅游公司通过技术手段,使其网络游戏公共区域里用户发表的低俗内容,从每个月8万条降低到现在不足1 000条;对这类低俗内容的处置时间,也从原来的每条1O分钟降低到了每条3分钟”¨ 。同时,还可以通过技术手段,对同一个IP在一定时间内注册的身份数量作出限制。当然,一些居心叵测者总是在钻研互联网技术的漏洞,但魔高一尺道高一丈,技术漏洞应该通过技术的不断进步来填补。

(2)内部管理。首先,加强对网站编辑、论坛版主及吧主的资格审查和素质培养,防止他们有意或无意地被“水军”。因为不管哪类水军、谁的水军,在网编等很多网站工作人员那里都是裸奔的,他们一眼就能认出来。如果网站工作人员愿意同“水军”作战,“水军”自然不敢胡作非为。其次,网站要形成与“网络水军”斗争的环境和制度。网站在显要位置要表明打击“网络水军”的决心和措施。同时,对工作人员的行为何种程度上变质为“网络水军”作出明确的规定和处罚措施。再次,网站编辑对有水军炒作痕迹的事件要多加强理性引导,用负责任的传播行为防止网民误入歧途,在网络信息传播过程中掌握主动权,牢牢地守住网络舆论阵地。

(3)外部监督。一是加强受众对“网络水军”的监督。可以通过增设举报渠道、建立举报激励机制等方式鼓励网络受众监督“水军”。将“水军”限于“人民战争”的汪洋大海中,水军是很容易现出原形的。如“网民们饶有兴致地开展了‘找水军’游戏,并总结出了规律,如微博的末尾跟着莫名其妙毫无关联的数字或生僻字,就极有可能是水军。‘原来水军都是这么计件的啊。’最早发现的网友感慨道。”¨这种发现靠的正是广大受众的智慧。二是注重媒体间的相互监督,既鼓励传统媒体对互联网媒体的监督,也鼓励互联网媒体之间的相互监督,并形成长效机制。三是对于发现从事“网络水军”行为的人员通过互联网等多种平台进行大范围曝光。

2.提升传统媒体舆论引导力,削减“网络水军”的威力

“网络水军”不仅影响了网络媒体的形象,这种对信息传播的不信任还会蔓延,进而会损害包括传统媒体在内的媒体公信力,恶化媒体的生存环境。面对波涛汹涌的“网络水军”,传统媒体要有所作为。一是做到不失语。传统媒体面对一些敏感事件迟迟不作声,受众就会努力通过互联网寻找和传播信息,这就给“网络水军”提供了机会。其实,与互联网相比,传统媒体更具公信力优势。如果传统媒体在敏感事件上能及时权威发声,那么“网络水军”的威力自然锐减。

二是不要盲目跟进。面对热火朝天的网络事件,传统媒体应理性对待,不要人云亦云,更不能掉进“水军”设置的陷阱里。传统媒体要利用自身丰富的人才资源和新闻传播经验,多开展调查,用独特的视角和观点对网络事件加以阐释和引导。

三是多设置具有积极意义的舆论热点。受众的需求有低层次的,也有高层次的。但受众常常被“网络水军”设置的低层次的内容牵着鼻子走,“芙蓉姐姐”、“凤姐”、“小月月”。受众掉人了一个娱乐狂欢的传播场景,这是负有舆论引导职责的传统媒体的严重缺位所致。传统媒体要通过主动的设置舆论热点激发受众高层次的需求,将受众的视角引向与国家发展和百姓生活有关的具有积极意义的事情上来,培养受众的高雅品位和人文精神,使其不至于成为“网络水军”的庸俗看客,乃至被“水军”。

3.培养受众甄别能力,增强抵抗“网络水军”免疫力

受众作为网络信息传播的对象,通过培养受众甄别“网络水军”的能力,化解“网络水军”的威力,无疑是治理“网络水军”的一剂良方。“网络水军”千军万马,看似强大,其实又很“水”,它的作战是有迹可循的。受众可以从传播内容是否具有倾向性和发帖的时问、是否密集以及发帖人的IP、ID等信息是否可疑等方面进行综合判断,只要用心研究,就不难发现其破绽。如“‘今天开车走到公园附近,突然感慨起来,周鸿神还是挺牛的,想想,在他公司干的人,跟着他的人,现在出来打江山的,千万富翁不少。’如此个人化的表述,却重复出现在几十个不同账号的微博中。这被有心人发现,视为360雇用水军的最直接的证据” 。如果受众具有了独立的思考和判断能力,“网络水军”就只有溃不成军了。

4.加大违法打击力度

首先,明确打击的对象。“网络水军”不是作战,必须对“网络水军”灰色链条上的各个环加强治理。“水军”的行为触犯了相关法律,当予以严惩,但相关网络工作人员是否纵容他们为,也要深入调查。同时,还必须查出其背后的孤军节都然要的行网络公关公司和雇主,他们是非法行为的组织者和发起者,应该受到相应的法律惩罚。

其次,健全相关法律法规。法律法规的不健全纵容了“网络水军”的泛滥。比如,网站的编辑、论坛的管理员以及吧主等相关网络工作人员对涉嫌的帖子有没有监管的义务?被“水军”应承担何任?很多管理的空白点都需要法律法规作出具说明。所以,“国家应出台关于健全网络运营监侵权种责体的管的法律法规,或将网络领域的相关恶意行为补充在广告法和反不正当竞争法中,让虚拟的网络社会有法可依”。

再次,多个部门协同作隐蔽作战,对其取证需要技战的。“网络水军“都是术支撑。同时对民意的正常表达和民意的有意操控的区别也存在一定难度。对“网络水军”的治理需要多个部门协作,明确相关职能部门的职责,从多个环节和角度加强对“网络水军“的打击力度。

参考文献

  1. ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 胡朵朵,张厚远等.“网络水军”传播现象的功能研究(A).采写编.2013,4:60~61
  2. ↑ 2.0 2.1 张香萍.“网络水军”的传播学分析及其治理(A).宜宾学院学报.2012,12(10):118~121
  3.  杨枝煌.网络水军类型、多重信用及其治理(A).广东行政学院学报.2011,23(4):16~17
  4.  赵敏,谭腾飞.网络水军的成因及其发展(A).新疆社科论坛.2012,2:64
  5.  杨思汉.浅析“网络水军”对中国企业的影响(A).中国电子商务.2012,14:31
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Excerpt from Kong Lingping’s Memoir Bloody Chronicles 血纪: Encounters with Educated Youth Sent Down to the Countryside

Chapter 5 We are Even Less Than You Are

I don’t remember just when it started but sometime after the Lin Biao incident,  our group was sent every afternoon to dig potatoes in the big Sixth Brigade potato field on the mountain slope.  There some young people between 15 and 20 years old joined us. To judge by their accents, these children seemed to be local peasants.

Later, after talking with them,  we found that they were middle school students from Meishan and Leshan. They had recently been sent down to the countryside here as educated youth to be “re-educated” by the poor and middle peasants. The slightly older ones were “old Red Guards” who had been caught up in the “great tumult” of the Cultural Revolution.

I didn’t detect among these older children, although they had travelled all over China during the upheavals of the Cultural Revolution, any of the bookishness of the middle school students of my day. They were still childish so they left me an impression that is hard to explain.

1    A Chance Meeting

On the plateau, once the sun reaches the horizon, it gets pitch black in just half an hour. That afternoon I hurriedly finished pulling up sod and then, since I was being hit by strong gusts, I hid from the afternoon winds deep in the mountain ravine where potatoes grew best. Not only would I be out of the wind there, I could also dig up potatoes. That afternoon I was lucky. In less than two hours I had dug up a half scoop full of potatoes.

shougongbianzhiyuanjizhucuoji_5109391
A scoop used in rural China      Credit:  红动中国

  When the sun had begun to set behind Sanhaoliang, I knew that it was already late so I picked up my sod digging tool and put the potatoes in a small burlap sack and got ready to carry them back in wicker baskets tied to the pole slung over my shoulders.

From thirty meters away, a young fellow less than twenty years old turned to me and yelled, “Put your scoop in my basket”. I was uncomfortable because it sounded like he was giving me an order. I didn’t pay him any attention so I just took my “stuff” and headed straight down the mountain slope.

He huffed and puffed to catch up to me. He stopped me and in a different tone of voice, childish and asking for help, he said, “Uncle, I forgot to bring a bag. I picked so many potatoes that I would like to borrow your scoop. I promise to give it back to you here tomorrow at 3 in the afternoon.”

I saw the pleading in his eyes and the perspiration dripping off his sunburned face. From the windblown rags he was wearing I saw how poor he was. I looked all around. There was only the two us. It was getting dark and the wind was still blowing hard.

I thought of another 20 year old child busy trying to fill his stomach in the mountain ravines and felt sympathy for him. I stopped,  put down my carrying pole, took the scoop out of the basket and handed it to him. I asked him, “What is your name? I think from your accent that you are not a commune member. How did you end up here?”

– 374 –

As he took the scoop and put some of the potatoes he had just picked in it, he answered saying, “My name is Lengjun. I was a middle school student in Meishan. I graduated two years ago. I thought then that I could find a job after I graduated from middle school

Meishan to Yanyuan

The educated youth sent down to the countryside to be re-educated by the peasants were from Meishan, a city due south of Chengdu.  Kong  Lingping met them near the county seat of Yanyuan County at bottom left.

with the help of recommendations from my school or work unit. Unexpectedly, the street committee notified me that I had to report to the committee within three days for resettlement in the countryside. Then they sent us here.”

From his simple answer filled with disappointment, I could see that he was different from the lawless Red Guard soldier thugs of the time.

During those years we often met many members of the new generation deeply marked by the “Cultural Revolution” including Shen Liangyu, Pan Yufang, and Meng Pingdeng.  They were opinionated and scornful of everything and so very different from we humble, self-centered, timid and overcautious people formed in the Chinese Communist-run schools.

I thought a lot about what created such a big generation gap between us. I think it was because of our completely different positions in society. Our generation experienced one “revolutionary” movement after another. Students branded as capitalist class and so forever remained people to be struggled against. Mao Zedong trained the students of today to be his “power seizing foots oldiers”.

Naturally people with different social backgrounds were branded differently. The children of the black five categories — landlords, rich peasants, counter-revolutionaries, bad elements, and rightists — were all discriminated against.  As for the children of the five red categories — poor and lower-middle peasants, workers, revolutionary soldiers, revolutionary cadres and revolutionary martyrs — after the revolution had won, just what would their social category be? Would they be the rulers or would they become slaves like us? Even they didn’t know.

61ce0bee9ea7275_size38_w400_h220

“Educated Youth Go to the Villages to Be Re-educated by the Lower and Middle Peasants!”    Credit:  Cultural Revolution Period: Educated Youth Art

This, however, did not affect their characters which were formed by their own personal experiences and by the social conditions under which they had lived.  I decided to talk to one of these young people and listen to his story. I didn’t care how late it was. I put down my basket and sat down next to him. As I watched him dig potatoes, I started to talk with him.

I asked him, “Which production brigade do you belong to?” “The Third Plum Rain Brigade” he answered.
“Do you live in production brigade housing or do you belong to a commune family? Or did you live with other young intellectuals sent down to live here?” I continued.

“When we first came here, we were dispersed among different peasant families. Later the production brigade leader said. “It would be better if you all lived together and cooked your own food. The commune will give you a house. Those of us who had arrived together were put in the same house and we made our meals together.”

“How big is your grain ration? Are you paid a salary?” I asked. The young man nodded as if answering those questions would be difficult. I saw that he had already finishing digging his potatoes and had filled an entire wicker basket. Some of them, however, were sprouting or rotted,  so he tossed those inedible potatoes away. Then he said, “These have poison in them and can’t be eaten.”

He was obviously very embarrassed. “I am not afraid if you laugh at me but we are even lower than you are. You get to eat three meals a day. We have to rely entirely upon ourselves. We don’t earn enough workpoints to eat. To be frank, we haven’t eaten our full for a year. During this spring season, when food is temporarily short, we have to rely on what we can find scrounging on the mountainsides!” He laughed bitterly.

It had already gotten dark. He picked up the muddy blue ragged clothes that he thrown on the ground, picked up his carrying pole and baskets of potatoes and nodded. Then he walked towards the northeast along the ridge and then down the slope.

The next day, he kept his word. He gave me back my scoop on time just as he had promised. There were two other children with him.  The both looked like they were under twenty.

He had kept the promise he had made to me on our first meeting, so the social distance between us shortened considerably. After we had all finished picking potatoes, if it was still early, we sat together on stone blocks in a circle who he and his other classmates who had come together to settle here. We had lively discussions about how to succeed.

– 375 –

“Do you know that we are convicts. Are you afraid to make friends with us?” I asked the youngest child. That child however gave a very sincere answer. He said, “No matter whether you are a convict or not, we are even worse off than you are. We never know where our next meal will come from.”

That was exactly what Lengjun had said to me the previous evening. That was the common lament of all the “educated youth” that we met. It was a heavy load for a young person just starting out in life to carry. Were they to seek those “broad horizons” right here?

Liangshan Prefecture Sent Down Youth

Photo of Sleeping Quarters for Youth Sent Down to the Countryside from the collection of the Museum to the Youth Sent Down to the Countryside in Xichang, Liangshan Prefecture. Over 50,000 educated youth from Chengdu and other cities were sent to work in seven townships in the Xichang region. Yanyuan County is in the same Liangshan Prefecture but in a different region.                                              Credit:  Educated Youth Museum of Xichang, Liangshan

“Did you come here completely voluntarily as educated youth? Why would you choose to settle here?” I asked.

Lengjun replied immediately, “When we graduated from middle school there were no universities we could go to. Middle school graduation meant that our student days were over. If, by then our relatives couldn’t get us a job in a factory or in a government office, earning work points would be very hard. We couldn’t just stay at home and eat for free. Three days later, two people from the street committee came to my home and told me to sign up to go to work in the rural and mountain areas. They claimed that there were great opportunities for us in the countryside. We knew they were lying to us but we didn’t dare contradict them.  Later they sent us blunt notices telling us that we would be sent down to the countryside!”

Even before Lengjun had finished speaking, the smallest child was even more blunt: “The people from the street committee exaggerated how good life was in the countryside. They said pork and beef were common dishes there. My father started to get suspicious. He asked the people from the street committee was there any limit to how long the educated youth would stay in the countryside? When they came back a year or two later, would they be assigned to a job? We never imagined that we would be sent to a place so desolate that even ghosts can’t lay eggs there. Two years went by in a flash. When we ask about returning home, it is like dropping a rock into a deep well. We don’t get any answer at all.”

I interrupted him, saying, “You were tricked but why didn’t you just return home? It can’t be too late now to return home.”

“It is not that easy. When we were sent here, our household registration moved along with us. If we were to move back, it would be impossible for us to get a household registration. We know that the police can grab people without registration at any time and put them in a detention camp. They would arrest us.”  Lengjun said with bitter hatred in his voice.

I finally understood a little their situation. How could these young people have been tricked into coming here and then on top of that their household registrations changed so that they wouldn’t be able to return? Such a poor and desolate place would be enough to change any mischievous student into a criminal. How could these naive students play in the same league as those political scoundrels in Beijing?

“What is your ration now?” Four of the children started to argue about how to answer my question. Their conclusion was that they had had to wait from the last spring plowing season until October 1 National Day before they started getting rations.

Each person got about 150 pounds of workpoint grain. The grain ration had been all been consumed by the month of May. The rations given them in late autumn, a mix of potatoes and grain, came to over 90 pounds each. That would not be enough to pay back the commune for the grain that they had already eaten. So the only thing they could do was to “go out at night and look for food themselves” including gleaning crops that had been left behind scattered in the fields. No wonder that they kept saying to us, “We are worse off than you are.”

When we told them that our daily ration was just one pound plus 50 grams. If we had to pay for it ourselves we would be just living hand to mouth. That simple calculation broke down all the barriers between us.

Except our different political situation, we all lived in the same hell.  We bore the terrifying label of “counter-revolutionary” and were kept under armed escort. These educated youth, though they wore the laurels of people who had been sent down to the countryside, were like us forced to suffer from hunger.  We were as alike as patients in the same hospital ward. No wonder they said that being “sent down to the countryside” was just a disguised form of “reform through labor”.

Then I got the idea of visiting them in their quarters so I asked, “Do you all live together?” The four of them nodded all at once. They all welcomed my visit to their “home”. They told me where they lived and we agreed that I would meet them in their yard two days later at 4 PM.

As promised, I prepared a small sack of white rice and went to the agreed place, the courtyard of a peasant household. Lengjun was already waiting for me there.

When I got close, I realized that they lived along the route we had to take the previous autumn when we carried back some grass. At the time none of us realized that we were fated to meet again.

Coming into their courtyard brought back memories of when I had been banished to the home of the Zhaos in a Nantong village. As I thought back to that time, the sour stink of hog wash assailed my nose just as it had fifteen years before.

A twenty-square-meter room on the west wing of the compound was their “home”. The peasant family’s pigpen was just behind their room. That made me think back to that period with the Nantong Jiepai production brigade when we had all lived together.

Their environment was even worse than ours had been. Very little light got into the room. The only opening other than the door was a 20 centimeter long square window hole that had been bored into the wall.

From the dim rays of light in the room I could make out two upper and lower bunk bed with an old small table between them. That was where they “dined” and “studied”.

The small room was very crowded. The bedclothes were scattered on the bed. It was so dark it was impossible to see how dirty they might be.

I could tell at a glance that the potatoes piled in one corner of the room was the “grain ration” collected from our field at Third Ridge. Along the hallway was a small “oven” made from piling several big stones together.

My four hosts were busily washing the pots, the rice and the potatoes. They started a fire using some corn stalks and sunflower stalks piled up in the back of the courtyard. Half an hour later came the savory smells of rice and and pot of hot potatoes. The food was put on the table. They had no vegetables only a small dish with some salt and chili water. The five of us sat around the table and talked about our experiences.

Lengjun was the oldest of the four. What a complicated resume he had! We spent most of the time listening to his story. He talked about being a student, then about being a Red Guard. On his way back from a trip to establish ties with other Red Guard units, he had been involved in fighting. He talked about smashing the Four Olds — Old Thinking, Old Culture, Old Customs, and Old Habits — and about destroying some temples and cultural relics in western Sichuan province. He talked about the unbridled violence along with his own personal regrets. He spoke for over an hour. I felt that I had heard it before. Only the times and places were different.

It became pitch dark without me realizing it. The stove fire in the hallway had long since gone out. The potatoes left in the dishes on the small wooden table were all cold. I got up and put the skin from the potatoes lying next to the dishes and dropped them on the ground in front of the room. It was already quite late. I suddenly thought that the iron gates to the Sixth Brigade may have been already closed and whether when I entered the sentry would give me any trouble. So I hurriedly said my goodbyes and rushed back to Fifth Ridge. Their words “We are even worse off than you are” kept ringing in my ears.

Afterwards, we often caught sight of them, silhouetted on the hills, struggling to survive.

2 A Fortunate Encounter

During the later years of the Cultural Revolution, I got very interested in the erhu alto fiddle. That musical instrument was good at comforting the sad feelings we felt in our hearts. Nobody had ever given me pointers on how to play. When Li Kejia was sent to the Sixth Agricultural Brigade, a house that had originally belonged to the Fifth Agricultural Brigade was turned into a small prison. He was imprisoned a year after I was. The year after we were sent in 1964 under escort from Huanglianguan to Yanyuan, he was sent under prison escort from Chengdu to Yanyuan.

In 1966, he was transferred from the Fifth Agricultural Brigade to the Sixth Agricultural Brigade. Li was famous throughout the Farm for his frequent escapes from prison as the “foremost resister of remoulding”.

In summer 1968, when a prisoner who had escaped from solitary confinement was shot to death on the basketball court of the Sixth Agricultural Brigade, he was the one whom the guards sent for to see  that evening’s “death scene”.

From about 1967 onwards, ever day after dinner, he would sit in the corridor in front of the prison cells and play gentle melodies on the erhu. When we heard him play the northeastern China folk tune “River Waters” 《江河水》 江河水 YOUTUBE I had never heard, except for broadcasts of the Central Philharmonic Orchestra, tunes like his that brought tears to our eyes.

He also played the old tunes by Liu Tianhua. His hand on the strings of his instrument made tunes that gave us the feeling of “sounds of a murmurring spring flowing down to a beach” and tunes in which “its intermittent silences touched our hearts more deeply than the tune itself”. That fountain of emotion flowed right into the hearts of his listeners. It made people look upwards and sigh as they reflected on the griefs in their own lives.

I could hear in his playing how he so wanted to communicate with other people.  Every tune and every note flying off those strings was the sound of weeping and cries from his heart!

I decided then that I would learn how to play this instrument that could so vividly express one’s feelings.

6609c93d70cf3bc7e0efc7ddd300baa1cd112a17

                 Erhu  二胡                            Credit:  Baidu Baike article 二胡 

I thought that this peculiar environment would made it easier to converse with people using this instrument and could better express one’s deepest feelings.

Naturally, I knew that learning how to converse with people by erhu would be very difficult for someone like me who had no idea even of the basic fingering. To help me with that, Li Kejia gave me an old lower quality erhu to practice on. He gave me that eight-character mantra “Hearts willing to take hints find a way” [“心领神会,自己摸索”] but didn’t teach me anything.

At the same time, I asked Li Xianghua who was cutting down trees to bring back several pieces of boxwood and asked another person good at woodworking to make me a new erhu.

Everyone told me that I wasn’t making much progress with the erhu. They told me I needed to put a clip fastener on the erhu so the sound would spill out more vividly when I practiced. So I boldly put a fastener on the erhu so that everyone would be able to criticize the “killing chicken, killing duck” tunes that I made as I practiced.

The several “seasoned hujin” players in the Sixth Agricultural Brigade all played differently. Three months after I started playing, Chen Xiaolu said after hearing me played asked me in astonishment, “I never heard you playing the erhu before. I didn’t know that you could play too. He asked me when I had learned to play. I smiled a little and asked “How did I do?” “Not bad, but your playing is too sad and too inhibited.”

That was a matter of being “as majestic as Mount Tai while being as placid as a river”. Chen Xiaolu was someone who knew what a mountain stream sounded like.  His praise showed I was using the erhu to express my sadness.  He had heard it in my playing.

– 378 –
That my listeners could hear the sadness in my playing showed that I had achieved my original goal in learning to speak through my instrument. The only people who could hear that sadness in my playing were just those whose empathy was aroused from sharing the same plight.

I wanted the feelings of oppression radiating from my strings to call out to people who had become morally benumbed.  I wanted to shock them as if they had been suddenly jolted out of their drowsiness to face a new day. How could people who were not even aware of how miserable their situation really was even think about trying to change it!

The second half of the year before the autumn sowing the vegetable group was set to Maoniu Mountain to collect fertilizer. It was a virgin forest region composed mostly of pince and cypress trees. The Yi minority people who lived their used it for pasture.

Most of the fertilizer we gathered were years-old rotting pine needs and the scattered manure of cattle and sheep were most of the fertilizer that we gathered.

The day we went up to the mountain, I took not only my bedspread but also the erhu that Li Kejia had given me. The car took us into the virgin forest. We stopped after after an hour by the side of the road near a Chinese style mansion house.

That mansion would be our temporary residence. After entering the courtyard, we went into the left wind of the house and went up the stairway and put our bedding down on the wooden floor. That afternoon we went into the forest.

Living in the midst of the natural world gave us a temporary spiritual life after locked up behind iron bars for so long. Here there was no requirement that we constantly report to the sentry. Here the fear and gloom of prison was absent.  It was late autumn. The free atmosphere of the forest comforted my long-oppressed soul.

Maoniushan Yanyuan

2018 satellite photograph of Maoniu Mountain    牦牛山, Yanyuan County.  On the improved roads of today, it is a three-hour bus ride from the Yanyuan county seat.

“The forest is very beautiful!” I exclaimed in a loud voice. Chen Xiaoyu called to us from far away in an astonished voice. “Look, there is a very big fungus here.” He held in his hand a half pound of mountain fungus that had alternative red and white coloring. We gathered all around him but none of us could name it.

As we kept collecting fertilizer we saw more of them, under trees and in mounds of grass. On the cliff there were yellow ones, red ones and white ones. Li Xianghua who had lived in the area for a long time, taught us which ones were not poisonous so we brought back some mountain fungus along with fertilizer we had gathered.

Several Yi girls were getting water from the well near the manor when we passed by. They put the water in a cloud white crockery vase and then put the vases on their heads and walked away barefoot down a stone mountain path and soon disappeared into the deep forest. I wasn’t able to talk with them as they got water at the well because of the language barrier. Even so, the sight of them moved me more than any picture could have. The feet and the faces of Yi girls were “decorated” but even so they were still beautiful.

We lit a fire in the hallway. We boiled the mushroom in an iron vat. I climbed up the stairway alone to get the erhu that I had hung on the wall. After tuning the tension on the strings, I wanted to play a tune that would fly into that deep forest and call out to the homeless spirits that dwelled there.

Suddenly, in the gloom of the stairway,  I made out a man’s face. Then I heard a low voice calling to me “Lao Kong”.

– 379 –

Astonished, I turned to face him. During my fifteen years in prison, people generally called me “Kong Lao’er”. Very few among the exiles called me “Lao Kong” especially in the vegetable group. Be called “Kong Lao’er” made me feel closer to the group. Be called “Lao Kong” was surprising, but the voice was very familiar. I soon recognized the voice and called out in astonishment “Lengjun!”

It was him. He quickly came up the stairs. It had already been quite a while since I had seen him on the mountain ridges of the Sixth Agricultural Brigade. I had never imagined that we would meet here. I put down my erhu and shook his hand. When I saw him standing there in the dim light, I thought it was a bit thinner than before. I didn’t know when he started wearing eyeglasses. There weren’t any seats upstairs so we sat on the floor.

After we sat down, I asked him, “How did you end up coming here too? Where are your other classmates?” He started to talk about the changes that had taken place over the past year. “Of we four banished classmates, only one was assigned to a job in the city. I heard that his parents found a connection to some influential person in the county employment office and so was called back to the city.”

“The three of us remaining planned to last winter to steal and kill one of the commune’s sick sheep. We were caught and beaten up by people’s militia soldiers and so we got into trouble with the commune and so returned to Meishan.”

“After my father died, my family was all gone. Fortunately I found a job repairing roads with the Yanyuan County Road Bureau. I reported for work and now earn 20 RMB per month. After money is deducted for food, I have four or five RMB left. Life is easier now than it was in the village.  There I never knew where the next meal was coming from.” He continued to chatter away about his experiences that year.

“These past few days, our road repair group had been staying in the manor house. This afternoon at six we finished work and came back. Just as we were making supper, I saw your group in the forest. I could see you in the evening light. It was too dark so I wasn’t sure. After supper, I heard the sound of the erhu coming from the second floor. I followed the sound, climbed the stairs and found out that it was really you.”

3 Returning Home

As he spoke he felt the erhu that I had put on the bed. He said enviously, “I never imagined that you could play the erhu so well.”
After hearing his account about what had happened since we had last seen one another, I looked at this “educated youth” friend that I had met again by chance.

Temporary workers are on the job only for a short while. His wages are so low and in a short while he will be 24 years old. The time will come when he will want to start a family but who would want to share that misery with him? In those years, getting married and starting a family was too much to hope for. Life experience had made him see that our fates were linked.

We only spent two short weeks on the mountain. Every evening after supper he would come the stairs to my room to practice “killing chickens, killing ducks” on the erhu.

I told him that in my experience the erhu is the voice of the heart so one does not necessarily have to learn it the same way that others learn it. Once you have learned the basic fingerings, you will be able to make pleasant music according to your own ears and feelings.

After two weeks, when we left there he couldn’t bear to part with me. The day we left, he gave me a jar with his sugar ration inside. He had been stroking the erhu that I had brought with me to the mountains. I understood what he meant and so I gave the erhu to him as a parting gift and carved my name on the body of the erhu.

However, I never would have guessed that just a year later, in early 1975, I read posted on the wall of the Sixth Agricultural Brigade a “Strike Hard” notice from a court in a section of Chengdu. The notice listed a dozen odd names of people who had been executed. The third name, written in bright red type, was the name “Lengjun”. I was shocked. Many people have the same name. Could that Lengjun be the one that I knew?

When I read the details on the court notice, I saw that Lengjun had been a middle school student in Meishan and laster resided on the Meiyu Commune in Yanyuan County. As he appeared again before my eyes, I re-read the “evil deed” for which he had been executed. The notice read “One evening (of a certain day of the month in a certain year) he broken into a peasant home to steal 30 pounds of corn stored in a room. He was caught by a 60 year old woman. They fought in the dark as the old woman yelled for help. Lengjun used his carrying pole to beat the old woman and ran away with a bag full of corn.

– 380 –

Unexpectedly, that old woman died on the spot. For the sake of stealing 30 pounds of corn, two lives, one young and one old, were lost. Tragedies like that happened every day amidst the misery and starvation of the Mao Zedong era.

I didn’t doubt that Lengjun had broken into the room. He had only meant to steal some corn and of course starvation had forced him to that extreme.  Wasn’t it a sign of the decay of morals and the vanishing of all human feeling that a young person like Lengun would murder someone?

They were marked with the “fight to the death” scars of the Cultural Revolution. Long-term starvation in China had forced them to give up, as Lengjun had for 30 pounds of rice, their young lives far too early!

The sounds of his “kill chickens and kill ducks” playing on the erhu seemed to be playing in my ears. I thought of that “fight to the death” slogan popular during the Cultural Revolution and how it had destroyed moral values. Was he fated to lose his life so early?

I read in that notice the indictment of Mao Zedong for the “educated youth” for their tragic fates during those years. This “educated youth” I had met by chance in prison had jimped from the prison gate into that inferno from which there was no return.

Later, after my unjust sentence was overturned, I made more “educated youth” friends. Their fates had been much the same. Many of them when they reached middle or old age looked back, as I did, and agonized over the memories of those years that were so painful to recall.

The youth led astray during those years, were empty both morally and intellectually. The Cultural Revolution had made them empty-headed ignoramnuses.

I didn’t understand why that devil Mao, in his efforts to restore despotism, had so deceived and hurt those ignorant young students? Could the destruction he wrought on Chinese society be rooted in his own character?

Could it be that under the dictatorial rule of the Chinese Communist that many young ignorant students like Lengjun are led down a path that takes them to an early death?

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(2008) Tankman Wang Welin Probably Met a Bad End – by Wu Renhua

See the video for yourself — here is a link to the PBS Frontline program The Tankman.

Not long ago the Voice of America journalist Shu Guofu invited me for a video and audio interview. The reason of the interview was that a University of California at Berkeley tankmananthropology professor has provided a new study result and he would like to get my take on the result of the study. This professor determined that at the scene of the tank Wang Weilin first fell into the hands of plainclothes police and then into the hands of martial law soldiers.

This anthropology professor is an expert on the body language (body movement) of human beings. For many years he pays close attention to the fate of Wang Weilin. He repeatedly studies videos of the scenes where Wang Weilin blocked the tank until when he was pushed away. There were more than one video but most of them are the same. They were taken by different foreign journalists at the same time, location and angle from the porch of Beijing Hotel.

The time when Wang Weilin blocked the tank was on June 5, 1989. The location was Dongchanganjie near Tiananmen Square. The videos showed that Wang Weilin blocked the convoy of more than ten tanks which were advancing from east to west on Dongchanganjie in the direction of Tiananmen Square. He moved from left to right several times blocking the convoy of tanks which attempted to move past him. Once he even boarded the first tank and talked to the soldiers in the tank. Then a young man on a bicycle came along and approached Wang Weilin and had a brief conversation with him. Immediately after that two other young men came to pull Wang Weilin away and then one on each side seized him, took him away from the scene and quickly to the side of the street. For many years many people believe that the three young men who pulled Wang Weilin away were kind-hearted people from the crowd and that once he reached the side of the road he quickly hid himself among the crowd at the side of the street and safely got away.

This anthropologist studied closely the body language of the three young people and Wang Weilin and concluded that the three young people were not ordinary citizens but were instead specially-trained plainclothesmen. Wang Weilin did not escape but was arrested on the spot and his fate was ominous. To this day nobody knows what happened to him.

Having been concerned about the fate of Wang Weilin for many years and to get ready to give my views, I once again repeatedly studied the documentary film. I put it on a big screen and varied the speed of the film so that I could study it in great detail, paying close attention to the body language of Wang Weilin and the three young men. If that professor of anthropology had not pointed it out, most people would not notice the body language. There wasn’t anything that looked like a conflict or overly bodily conflict. The two young men who later appeared very professionally seized Wang from his two sides.

If you look closely, you can see them twisting his arms and pressing on the vertebrae in his back (when I passed the entrance examination for Peking University I was a professional officer in the People’s Armed Police and so I have some knowledge of this type of moves that paralyze people.) Their moves prevented Wang Weilin who wanted to fight to the death from even making a move and could only submit passively to towards the side of the street. The young man who first approached Wang Weilin immediately gestured to the tank after Wang had been seized and been taken from the center of the road. The professor of anthropology believes that that was not a gesture that an ordinary person would make but it is instead a trained gesture filled with significance.

I watched the film closely several times and each time became more and more convinced that the anthropology professor’s expert judgment was correct. What is especially important to me is that the documentary film that the professor chose ran a dozen or more seconds longer than most of the frequently shown videos. This sequence continues until Wang Weilin was pushed up onto the sidewalk. I noticed that there were only two or three unidentified plainclothesmen there, that there was no crowd gathered at all and that Wang Weilin had nowhere to hide.

Even more important, a row of tanks had already stopped there, indicating that even if this was not a restricted area belonging to the martial law troops it was very close to it and very close to Tiananmen Square in the vicinity of Nanchizi where ordinary people were not allowed to approach. It was the same area where, from the early morning to the morning of June 4, a large number of Beijing citizens tried to go to Tiananmen to support the students but were repeatedly shot down by the soldiers of the martial law troops. The horrifying slaughter there was second only to the massacre on West Chang’an Avenue. My book The Bloody Clearing of Tiananmen Square includes many eyewitness accounts, providing a detailed documentary of the massacre at Nanchizi.

 

I had previously thought that the location where Wang Weilin blocked the tanks was nearer the Beijing Hotel and further away from Tiananmen. I believe there would have been a big crowd on the side of the street there and that once Wang Weilin reached the sidewalk there, he might have been able to quickly melt into the crowd and get away safely.

Using the video control, I paused and rewound the video many times. Finally I could clearly see the serial number on the side of the tank. That tank belonged to the First Division of the Tianjin Garrison Command.

If the anthropology professor’s study results above and my own analysis are correct, we can basically conclude that Wang Weilin’s fate is ominous. He might have died under the brutal force of the Martial law troops. All of the students and ordinary people arrested within and without the square before and after Tiananmen was cleared were badly beaten by the martial law troops using clubs and gun butts. Many were killed and even more were disabled for life.

Shanxi University student Gao Xu was arrested in Tiananmen Square and beaten until he was permanently disabled. He described his own experiences. The detainees were all locked up near the Tiananmen watchtower in either the Beijing Working People’s Cultural Palace or in Zhongshan Park. Both locales became execution grounds for martial law troops blowing off steam. The detainees didn’t get food or water for three days.

I have always thought that “Wang Weilin” was not the real name of that young man who blocked the tank alone and that the name was just a rumor. From the way he was dressed, he must have been a student but not a student from Beijing. When he was blocking the tank, he had carried a little sack with him. Only students from outside Beijing carried sacks for carrying toothpaste, toothbrush and other daily necessities along with ID cards like their student ID.

The professor’s study results and my own commentary may already be on the Voice of America website. There must be a video accompanying it. If you are interested in gaining a deeper understanding of the study you can go on the website to search for it.

June 2008

Online in Chinese on the Epoch Times website at http://www.epochtimes.com/gb/8/6/7/n2146536.htm


【大纪元6月7日讯】前不久,美国之音记者舒国符约我做一个摄影和录音相结合的采访,原因是美国伯克利大学的一个人类学教授提供了一份最新研究结果,希望我对他的研究结果作一评论。这位教授断定王维林在挡坦克的现场先是落入便衣警察手中,然后又落入戒严部队军人手中,凶多吉少。

这位人类学教授是研究人类肢体语言(肢体动作)的专家。多年来,他一直关注王维林的命运,反复研究有关王维林挡坦克,以及最终被人推走的那一段录像。有关的录像不止一份,但大同小异,是不同的外国记者在北京饭店的阳台上拍摄的,时间,地点,拍摄角度都是一样的。

王维林挡坦克的时间是一九八九年六月五日,地点在东长安街,靠近天安门广场。从录像上看,王维林挡住十多辆沿着东长安街由东往西驶向天安门广场的坦克。数次左右来回挡住试图绕过去的坦克车队,并一度爬上第一辆坦克,向坦克里的军人喊话。先有一名骑自行车的青年上来靠近王维林,与王维林简短交谈,紧接着又上来两名青年,拉走王维林,随即一左一右挟持王维林离开现场,快速到了路边。
多年来,不少人认为将王维林拉走的三个青年是好心的民众,而到了路旁的王维林趁机躲入路旁的人群中,安全地消失了。

这位人类学教授在仔细研究了三名青年和王维林的肢体语言后认为,这三位青年不是普通的民众,而是受过专业训练的便衣人员。王维林没有安全脱走,而是当场被捕了,并且凶多吉少,因此至今下落不明。

出于多年来对王维林的关心,也为了发表评论,我再次反复观看了相关的录像,使用的是大屏幕,而且可以随意控制播放速度,看的非常仔细,并十分注意三位青年和王维林的肢体语言。如果不是这位人类学教授的提示,一般人不会太注意肢体语言,当时也没有类似于冲突的,过激的肢体冲突。两位后来出现的青年非常专业地一左一右地挟持住王维林,仔细观察会发现扭胳膊和顶住后背关节处的动作(我考入北大时是武警的职业军官,多少了解这些使人瘫软的手段),原先以死抗争的王维林似乎想抵抗也使不出劲,只能被动地朝路旁走去。先出现的青年在王维林开始被挟持着离开道路中央的时候,立即对着坦克打手势,人类学教授认为,这不是普通人毫无章法的肢体动作,而是经过专业训练,富有确定含义的手势。

我细心观看多遍,越来越确信人类学教授的专业判断。对我而言,尤其重要的是,这位教授所选择的录像,比过去所常见的录像带多了十几秒时间,一直延续到王维林被推上人行道,我注意到那里只有零星一两个身份不明的便衣人员,根本就没有围观的人群,王维林无处可躲。更重要的是,那里已经停著一排排的坦克,说明那里即使不是戒严部队的警戒区,也是接近警戒区的地点,距离天安门广场非常近,就在南池子附近,根本不会允许民众靠近。六月四日凌晨至上午,就是在这个区域,大批民众试图进入天安门广场声援学生,一次次被戒严部队军人开枪击倒,这里的惨烈境况仅次于西长安街。我在<天安门血腥清场>一书中引用多位目击者的证词,对南池子的屠杀有具体的记录。

过去,我一直以为王维林挡坦克的地点接近北京饭店,距离天安门广场较远,相信那里的路旁会有许多民众,王维林到了路旁,可以迅速没入人群,安全离开。

我努力使用控制器,不断地倒带停带,终于看清了坦克侧面的编号,知道这些坦克属于天津警备区坦克1师。

如果上述人类学教授的研究结果和我的评论和判断无误,基本可以断定,王维林凶多吉少,可能已经在戒严部队军人的暴力下遇难。天安门广场清场前后在广场内外被捕的学生和民众都遭到军人的暴打,用木棒,用枪托,打死不少人,受伤致残的更多。山西的大学生高旭在广场被捕,被打伤致残,他叙述了具体的经历。被捕者都关押在天安门城楼左右的劳动人民文化宫和中山公园里,那里成了军人泄愤的大刑场。被捕者三天没有吃喝。

我自始至终认为“王维林”这个名字不是独身挡坦克的青年的真实姓名,人们都这样传说而已。从他的穿着打扮,应该是一个学生,但不是北京的学生,他在挡坦克的过程中,随身带着一个小包,只有外地的学生才会带着小包,放一些牙膏牙刷之类的日用品和学生证等证件。

人类学教授的研究结果和我的评论,可能已经放在美国之音的网址上,应该是带视频的,有心深入了解的朋友可以去搜寻一下。

点击收看王维林挡坦克和被拉离现场的最详尽录像

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