1990s: PRC Scholars on Xinjiang — Analysis and Policy Recommendations

Here are some reading notes I made while working in the U.S. Embassy Beijing Environment, Science and Technology Section (1996 – 2001). These I have copied from the old U.S. Embassy Beijing website preserved on the Internet Archive. Here I have made a few corrections of romanization of Chinese book titles and added some photos of book covers I found online.

Interesting to compare Xinjiang policy then and now. See for example:

Mass Detentions and Repression in Xinjiang: A Bibliography

China’s ‘re-education’ / concentration camps in Xinjiang / East Turkestan
and the wider campaign of forced assimilation targeting Uyghurs, Kazakhs, etc.
Bibliography of select news reports & academic works

Compiled by Magnus Fiskesjö

Xinjiang Reading Notes: Population, Economy, Environment, Minorities Policy

Xinjiang Demographics

The Population Of China Into The 21st Century — Xinjiang Volume (kua shiji de zhongguo renkou — Xinjiang fence) 跨世纪的中国人口(新疆卷)published by China Statistics Publishing House (Zhongguo Tonji Chubanshe) in 1994 is a four hundred page richly detailed analysis of Xinjiang’s population structure, development, education, family planning, migration (including detailed information of Han in-migration to Xinjiang since 1949), environment and incomes.

Demographic Snapshots From The Xinjiang Demography Volume

新疆维吾尔自治区统计年鉴- 统计年鉴分享平台

From 1949 ethnic Han in-migration to Xinjiang rose and fell with events in eastern China. During the mid 1950s annual net inmigration of 250,000 (5 percent of contemporary population of 5 million) was dominated by production and construction corps in-migrants. In-migration rose to one million in 1959 (15 percent of the 6 million Xinjiang population that year) as famine killed millions in eastern China. In-migration dropped off sharply and even reversed itself to a 380,000 net out-migration in 1962 that was stemmed only by outmigration restrictions. During the Cultural Revolution net in-migration averaged 100,000 annually, peaking at 280,000 in 1965 and 350,000 in 1966 [5 percent of 8 million Xinjiang population]. migration flows again reversed to net out-migration in the early 80s as youth sent down to the countryside returned to their homes in east China. a rapid climb In net inmigration began in the late 1980s. In-migrants rose from 5100 in 1988 to 38,500 in 1989, 151,400 in 1990 and 74,900 in 1991. In-migrants now accounted for only one percent of the 15 million Xinjiang population, a much smaller proportion than during the 1950,. [pp. 224 – 252] the number of annual in-migrants reached 5 – 6 percent of the then population in 1958 – 1959. Information on total numbers of inmigrants from that period is incomplete, the authors say. Some inmigrants at that time said that getting to Xinjiang enabled them to survive the famine that followed the Great Leap Forward.

The great majority of the inmigrants to Xinjiang in 1990 [88 percent] came from rural China but were in general better educated than the average Xinjiang resident [p. 211, 250].

Xinjiang illiteracy dropped from 34 percent in 1980 to 20 percent in 1990. [p. 8]

According to a Chinese Academy of Sciences survey of Xinjiang, Xinjiang’s water resources in the year 2000 of 25.7 – 26.3 billion cubic meters of water, irrigated land of 4.32 – 4.81 million hectares, and food production of 7.24 – 7.5 million tons will be able to support a population of about 18 million people. [p. 349]

Ninety-five percent of Xinjiang’s people live on oases, watered by mountain snow melt, which comprise five percent of Xinjiang’s land area.

Desertification, secondary salinification of soil arising from irrigation, and pollution threaten Xinjiang agriculture. despite increased irrigation land, the amount of arable land per capita was slightly less for the 15 million Xinjiang population of 1990 than for the four million population of 1949.

Xinjiang’s food supply hovers near a deficit. causes include declining area sowed in food crops owing to increased production of more profitable crops such as cotton and other cash crops and aging irrigation systems. [pp. 346 – 374]


China’s Minority Populations: Surveys and Research [Zhongguo Shaoshu Minzu Renkou Diaocha Yanjiu]

中国少数民族人口调查研究》电子书下载,《中国少数民族人口调查研究 ...

Chief editors: Zhang Tianlu, Huang Rongqing No. 8 in the series China’s Population in Transition and Development Published March 1996 by Gaodeng Jiaoyu Chubanshe Shatan Houjie #55 Beijing fax 86-10-64014048

中国少数民族人口调查研究
张天路 黄荣清 · 1996分享收藏阅读量:13
出版单位:北京:高等教育出版社

Zhang Tianlu and Huang Rongqing are professors in the Institute of Population Economics of the Beijing College of Economics

This 400 page book summarizes population data on ten of China’s largest minority groups, concludes with series of essays on problems of overly rapid population growth, living standards, analysis of population trends, and population growth and economic development. Here is a summary of the chapter on the Uighurs of Xinjiang.

Ethnic Uighurs

by Yuan Xin (pp. 69 – 100)

According to the 1990 national census, the ethnic Uighur population of China totaled 7.207 million people. Thus the Uighurs are, following the Zhuang, the Hui, Manchurian (Man), and the Miao, are China’s fifth largest minority ethnic group.

There is little historical data on the Uighur population. It seems likely that the Uighur population was about 250,000 in the late 18th century, to 650,000 in 1831, to 1.13 million in 1887. During the mid 19th century Xinjiang lost over 500,000 sq. km and a portion of its Uighur population as a result of an unequal treaty with Tsarist Russia. In 1908, the Uighur population reached 1.57 million and then by 1949 had reached 3.29 million. During the first half of the 20th Century Xinjiang’s Uighur population enjoyed a population growth rate of twice the national average (1.82 percent vs. 0.80 percent) since remote Xinjiang was relatively undisturbed by the Chinese Civil War and the Japanese invasion. Two concentrations of Uighurs outside of Xinjiang, in Taoyuan County, Hunan Province and Shengchi County, Henan Province totaled one thousand population shortly after the founding of the PRC in 1949. At the founding of the PRC in 1949 over 99 percent of China’s Uighur population lived in Xinjiang. (pp. 69 – 72)

According to the 1990 census, the ethnic Uighur population of 7.19 million comprised 47.45 percent of the total population of the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. Improved medical care and better economic development spurred a rapid increase of the ethnic minority population of Xinjiang beginning in the 1950s just as in other Chinese minority regions. Family planning has been implemented among the ethnic Uighur minority only in the last few years, much later than among the ethnic Han population. Family planning among the ethnic Uighurs of Xinjiang began in late 1988. (p. 74)

Age structure: The Uighur ethnic minority has the largest proportion of elderly and one of the largest proportion of young people of any of China’s ethnic groups: this creates an especially large social and economic burden of supporting the young and the elderly. (pp. 74 – 75) Gender structure: In 1964 the gender ratio was an abnormally high 115 males to 100 females. With social progress and the higher status of women, the gender ratio fell to 105.1 by 1984 and 104.5 by 1990.

Among the elderly population there is an unusual excess of males compared with females: a ratio of 160:100 in the 60 – 64 years of age cohort in 1990. The higher proportion of males seems the result of the lower social status of women, the heavy responsibilities of women at home, in the fields, and in taking care of herd animals. and the widespread custom of early marriage, having children early and having many children. For example, the 1990 census showed that the death rate for women in the 15 – 49 age cohort exceeded that of men.

Falling Death Rate, Longer Lives

The sharp drop in the Uighur death rate is the result of better medical care, better nutrition and poverty alleviation and the basic elimination of contagious diseases long endemic to Xinjiang. The birth rate although declining is still high¡£  Population growth is the result of the death rate coming down before the birth rate declines. As living standards rise the desired number of children has been dropping. In the 35 – 49 year cohort women want 5 – 6 children; in the 15 – 34 year cohort women want 3 – 4 children. Urban Uighur women want just 2 – 3 children. The desires of Uighur women are coming into basic alignment with the family planning regulations for the Uighur people. (pp. 77 – 78)

Early Marriage Common, Divorce Rate High, Large Families

The Uighur ethnic group has several distinctive characteristic in its marriage and family life:

— One husband, multiple wives. Sanctioned by the Islamic religion of the Uighurs, in conflict with the marriage law of the PRC. This practice is gradually disappearing.

— Marriage must be within the Uighur ethnic religion and within the Islamic religion. Now marriage outside the ethnic group is gradually becoming accepted.

— Early marriage is common but gradually becoming less prevalent. The implementation of the PRC marriage law in the Xingjiang Uighur Autonomous Region calls for a minimum age at marriage of 20 for men and 18 for women. Nonetheless, because of the strong influence of the Islamic religion regulations that males are adult at 12 and females at 9, early marriage is common. Despite 40 years of the PRC marriage law, the 1990 census recorded 7.58 percent of the 15 – 17 year cohort of females and 4.64 percent of the 15 – 19 age cohort of males as already married. This is much higher than the national average for these cohorts of 1.09 percent for females and 1.80 for males. (pp. 81 – 82)

— Men are generally 5 – 10 years older than their wives at marriage with a 20 year gap not uncommon.

— High divorce rate and high remarriage rate. Early marriage arranged by parents results in mismatches not in accord with the physical maturity and personal wishes of the partners. Divorce is frequent and carries no social stigma. Parents do not interfere with the choice of subsequent spouse so there is much more freedom in making a second marriage. In 1990 the Uighur divorce rate at 5.25 percent per year was over seven times the PRC average. A study of marriages and divorces in Keping County, Xinjiang found that during 1980 – 1988 found 2797 marriages and 630 divorces or one divorce for every four marriages.

— Nuclear family. Uighur children leave home and start their own household at marriage. (pp. 81 – 87)

Social Structure

According to the 1990 census the proportion of illiterate and semi-literate people in the ethnic Uighur population was 26.58 percent compared with the national average of 22 percent.

Agricultural sector accounted for 84.07 percent of the active population in 1990.

Migration is becoming more common as the economy developed but most migration is within Xinjiang rather than inter-regional. (pp. 87. 89)

Society, Economy and Environment

Xinjiang, in China’s northwest, has a surface area of 1.66 square kilometers and occupies one-sixth of China’s national territory. Xinjiang has long borders of 5400 km which touch on eight foreign countries.

Xinjiang depends on oasis irrigation agriculture. Agriculture accounted for 34.1 percent of the regional economy in 1990. In 1992, Xinjiang had 47.01 million mu (3.136 million hectares) of arable land or 3 mu per capita. Food production totaled 7.06 million tons or 225 kg. per person. Food production is in surplus. Xinjiang is one of China’s top producers of cotton and grain. Xinjiang has 859 million mu (57.30 million hectares) of grassland, second only to Inner Mongolia and Tibet. Xinjiang’s coal and oil reserves are the greatest in China. In 1992 Xinjiang farmers has an annual income of 740 RMB; city dwellers 1753 RMB.

Xinjiang is surrounded by mountains. It depends upon snow melt water from these mountains to irrigate its oases. Xinjiang’s oases are isolated, separated from each other by large expanses of desert. Transportation is poor and expensive; as a result many regions are basically closed economies. In 1992, the average income of people in the Hotan region was 903 RMB and 1185 in Kashgar, respectively the lowest and third lowest per capita income of Xinjiang’s regions.

Nonetheless Hotan and Kashgar are rank second and third highest in Xinjiang in their population growth rate. Increasing populations in the oases has put great pressure on water resources, loss of vegetation on the fringes of the oases, accelerating desertification and grasslands deterioration. Of the 20 counties of Xinjiang in which the ethnic Uighur population comprises 90 percent or more of the population, 13 have been designated by the PRC government as key poverty alleviation counties. Many of these poor counties of southern Xinjiang are trapped in a vicious cycle of “as people get poorer and poorer they have more children”. pp. 90 – 92

Family Planning in Ethnic Uighur areas

Family planning for the ethnic Uighur minority was merely voluntary until the family planning regulations of 1988 were promulgated by the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. These regulations called for a maximum of two (three under certain conditions) children for urban Uighurs and a maximum of three (four under certain conditions) children for rural Uighurs. The practice of family planning doubled to over half of the Uighur population between 1988 and 1992.

Author Yuan Xin draws conclusions and makes policy recommendations:

— The Uighur population is growing relatively rapidly. The ethnic Uighur population now increases at an annual rate of 2.41 percent. Minority population growth accounts for three-quarters of the population growth of the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region.

— Poverty. According to 1992 statistics, the per capita income of Kashgar 669 RMB, Hotan 453 RMB, and Kezhou 431 RMB are below the Xinjiang average of 740 RMB. Sixteen counties with ethnic Uighur populations of 90 percent or more are among the 27 poverty alleviation counties designated in Xinjiang for the Eighth Five Year Plan. The 2.98 million people of these poor counties account for 41 percent of the entire Uighur population of China. Poverty expresses itself in that the population and economic growth are not in sync; these counties are in a vicious cycle of poverty in which they “get poorer and poorer as more and more children are born”.

— Environmental problems. The Xinjiang environment is fragile: over 90 percent of the land is mountain, hilly, desert, or semi-desert waste (gobi). Only 5 percent of Xinjiang’s area supports human life so the population pressure on the oases is very high. Some oases have a population density of over 197 people per square kilometer. The area lost to the desertification has increased from 370,000 sq. kilometers to over 420,000 square kilometers. The advance of the desert has forced people to move upstream along the rivers. The location of the ruins of the ancient cities conquered by the desert and the location of human habitation today is a sign of the advance of desertification. Increasing population overloads the environment as plants and grasses which stabilize desert sands are uprooted. Excessive grazing on grasslands, uprooting of medicinal grasses and green plants all facilitate the advance of the desert. Over 50 percent of the irrigated land along the Kashgar river has become salinized; in some counties the proportion of salinized land exceeds 90 percent. In Hotan county, the land is sandy, there is much windblown sand, the soil is covered by a sandy layer, the land does not retain water well and the effectiveness of fertilizer is limited.

— Education is backward. The educational level of the ethnic Uighur people is relatively low. Among people age 15 and up, 26.58 percent were illiterate or semi-literate in 1990. There are some young illiterates produced because the local school is not big enough. In some households the parents are not healthy enough to earn a living so the children must begin work at a very early age. Since the beginning of the contract system, children have tended to quit school to earn additional income for their families. This problem is especially serious in Kashgar, Hotan and Kezhou. Some children have no support because their parents have divorced and remarried.

— Frequent divorce and remarriage. This tends to increase number of children born since newly remarried people will want children. Increases money spent on marriage celebrations.

Yuan Xin’s Policy Recommendations:

— It is unrealistic to expect any rapid improvement in this impoverished area because of its closed culture and economy, low productivity.

— Family planning must be stressed. To quote President Jiang Zemin (in 1992) “If China is to develop, it must as it focuses on economic development, at the same time stress family planning. There must be no wavering on this point. As the socialist market economy is constructed the government must fulfill its function of controlling population growth. If we were simply to rely on the market to control population growth, China would be unable to achieve its family planning goals.”

This means that family planning work must be strengthened. A network of family planning services must be built throughout Xinjiang. Participants in family planning should be given insurance; the status of family planning worker should be raised.

The author (Yuan Xin) notes that family planning work in Xinjiang is seriously deficient.

Family planning among the Uighurs can only be successful if the family planning workers are themselves Uighurs. Without Uighur family planning workers, success is impossible. Uighur family planning workers must be trained. Economic resources for family planning must be assured. There must no longer be cases where clinics or hospitals refuse to do family planning related operations or even close down family planning clinics because of a lack of funds.

Laws on family planning are needed. Family planning is part of the PRC Constitution yet there are few detailed laws on family planning for implementing national policy. Detailed laws on family planning make clear the duties of the citizen and give family planning workers the power to enforce the law.

Work with Uighur society influentials such as religious leaders, village elders to promote family planning

Nearly all Uighurs believe in Islam. The cooperation and influence of religious leaders, village leaders, and the elderly in implementing family planning policy is valuable. (pp. 93 – 100)

Xinjiang Geography

Geography of Xinjiang (Xinjiang Dilixue Yanjiu) (1995) from the Xinjiang People’s Publishing House [Xinjiang Renmin Chubanshe] contains considerable statistical information and insights on Xinjiang agriculture, water resources, minerals, trade and urbanization.

Population, Economy And Ecologic Environment Of East China, Middle China And West China (Zhongguo Dongbu, Zhongbu, Xibu Sandai De Renkou, Jingji He Shengtai Huanjing) by Hu Huanyong and published by East China Normal University Publishing House (Huadong Shifan Daxue Chubanshe) in 1989 examines environmental constraints on plans to move settlers to China’s northwest (including Xinjiang) on pp. 94 – 99) and water resource constraints on Xinjiang’s development on pp. 18 – 58).

Nationalities Policy And National Unity

Introduction To Nationalities And Nationalities Policy Education – New Edition [Xinbian Minzuguan Minzu Zhengce Gailun] by Xu Chaoren and Zhang Leijun, published by Xinjiang People’s Publishing House [Xinjiang Renmin Chubanshe] in March, 1997 is a textbook on minorities policy. The book opens with a discussion of the Marxist theory of nationalities and includes essays on national unity by Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping. The chapter on religious splittists says that Xinjiang police have been tracking the East Turkestan party since its discovery in the early 1960s. Over the past several years signs, leaflets and posters advocating Xinjiang independence have appeared from time to time in many different places throughout Xinjiang. Religious extremist set up schools to train a new generation of splittists. Splittists and illegal religious activities are the greatest threat Xinjiang faces today. Chinese national and Xinjiang local (July 16, 1994) regulations governing religious activities are examined.

Preserve The Unity Of The Motherland (Nationalities Solidarity Education Book) [Weihu Zuguo Tongyi (Minzu Tuanjie Jiaoyu Congshu) published in August, 1996 by Xinjiang People’s Publishing House [Xinjiang Renmin Chubanshe]. Themes discussed in this book, largely counterarguments against separatists can give us insights into the arguments used by Xinjiang separatists. Here are summaries of the main themes. National splittism and illegal religious activities are the main threats to Xinjiang: “during the 1950s the U.S. And Britain supported nationalist movements that stirred up over ten uprising and riots that sought to overthrown the authorities of the new PRC. After Sino-Soviet relations soured in the early 1960s, the USSR plotted with and assisted the Yining rioters of the early 1960s and the “East Turkestan Revolutionary People’s Party” during the Cultural Revolution. During the 1980s enemies supported robberies and riots in southern Xinjiang. Western enemy forces have supported efforts to penetrate, subvert, divide and overthrown Xinjiang since the early 1990s, Xinjiang has entered a new period of especially active splittist activity. Over 100 cases of splittist activity were solved by policy between 1990 and 1995 and thirty since 1995 alone…in recent years there have been over 20 bombings and bomb plots in Xinjiang.”

“Religious schools and religious activities have often been used as a cover for splittist and terrorist activities…although the class basis religion depends upon for its survival has been wiped out in our socialist society, the soil in which it grows has not been completely eliminated and so religion will be with us for some time to come and foreign enemy forces will try to misuse it. Marx said that “the Koran divides people into believers and non-believers and that non-believers are the enemy and not protected by the law”… Splittists use matters like Xinjiang history, nationalities policy, resources development and exploitation, environmental protection and minorities family planning to stir people up against the communist party and the government.”

Other themes in Preserving Unity:

Xinjiang has been part of the Chinese motherland since ancient times.

China is easy to unify, hard to divide. The autonomous regions concept is a brilliant solution to the minorities problem for China, a country with 56 different nationalities. Autonomy makes each nationality master in its own house.

The equality of all the nationalities is a basic Marxist principle and the fundamental policy of the Chinese Communist Party. The problem is not whether more Han are moving into minority areas but whether the Han inmigration promotes economic development and so betters the lives of minority people.

The common interest of all the Chinese people is the highest good. The lesson we learned during the Cultural Revolution is that we must respect that particular interests of minority peoples.

Central government support has been essential to the development of Xinjiang. Half (56.8 percent) of the Xinjiang autonomous region budget has been covered by the central government during 1950 – 1994. Each five year plan has seen steadily growing support for Xinjiang from 8.2 billion rmb in 1981 – 1985, to 17.9 billion rmb during 1986 – 1990 and 34.5 billion rmb during 1991 – 1994. During the 1980s the central government began oil exploration and development in the Tarim, Turfan and Hami basins. The central government has invested in Xinjiang’s cotton industry. The Xinjiang construction and production corps has made great contributions to Xinjiang agriculture and industry.

Xinjiang’s natural resources are being exploited to bring prosperity to all the nationalities of Xinjiang. Western China should use its natural resources to accelerate its development. Although Xinjiang exports raw materials to eastern china and imports finished goods this situation is completely different from imperialist exploitation. Xinjiang gets many subsidies and many special concessions in its trade with eastern China. Xinjiang’s development is not just a matter for the 16 million people of Xinjiang but for all 1.2 billion people of China. Developing national resources is a sovereign right and benefits all China’s nationalities.

Family planning is China’s basic policy essential to the survival and development of the Chinese nation. China’s population puts tremendous pressure on China’s resources and environment. China’s minorities have now realized the importance of family planning and have reduced their birth rates. The Xinjiang birth rate fell from 30.03 per thousand in 1988 to 24.55 per thousand in 1994.

Religious activities must stay within the confines of the law. We must fully implement the religious policy of the Communist Party. Marx said that religion cannot be eliminated; it can only fade away naturally. In China, religious freedom is guaranteed. People may not be discriminated against because of their religious beliefs. Religious groups may not be controlled by foreign organizations. The PRC has never forgotten the lesson of history of how foreign powers used religion to invade China. We must resolutely oppose people who take advantage of the simple national and religious feeling of the people to stir up religious passions, holy war, and separatism.

We must all hold fast to the Marxist view of history and nationalities.

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Party Guidance Example: Commenting on Guangming Ribao Article on Chinese Philosopy

I have to confess that I find this article in Guangming Ribao by Professor Zhang Liwen on Chinese philosophy highly political.  One might saw that philosophy informs politics. Conversely, it seems true at least here that politics informs philosophy or at the least demands that it be politically correct of “qualified” as the saying goes in the PRC.  政治合格


The article appeared in the most important Chinese Communist Party newspaper aimed at intellectuals, Guangming Ribao on April 13, 2020.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is gmrb2020041315_b.jpg


  What would Confucius say with his stress on rectifying names with the word of the vague and highly politicized term “zhonghua minzu”?    The term seems to go back to the 19th century, although the United Front Work Department would push it back far, far further into ancient times.  Wikipedia has excellent articles on the origins of the key term zhongha minzu  中华民族  in both English and Chinese.

I found more in Chinese on the always-intriguing Q&A about most everyhing PRC website Zhihu https://www.zhihu.com/question/31911742 , from a Chinese government website 2005 posting  (“zhonghua minzu” was a favorite expression of then Party Secretary Hu Jintao http://www.gov.cn/test/2005-07/26/content_17366.htm ) and from the United Front Work Department for example in a 2019 presention in Yunnan Province  on the “Formation and Development of the zhonghua minzu”  http://www.zytzb.gov.cn/gdtzgz/320578.jhtml


In the aricle I see as usual the conflation of “eternal China” as a cultural zone with the current state governing most of its historic territories, the People’s Republic of China.  Conflating the “eternal China” of the various that suceeded one another or existed simultaneously over millenia with the current state is apparently aimed at building up national feeling to support the seventy year-old PRC (an even younger state 40 or so if one were to date it from the Second Foundation (with apologies to Isaac Asimov) since opening and reform began under Party Secretary Hua Guofeng and Maximum-leader-usually-without-state-or-party-top-portfolio Deng Xiaoping. (Parenthetically, I’m always trying to figure out the right job title for Deng, though he was chair of both the Party and State Central Military Commissions.)


Sometimes the basic question what is China arises. Earlier dynasties called themselves by their dynasty name such as Da Qing for the Qing Dynasty.  It is all too easy to project our understanding of how things worked today into the distant past. Many nationalistic ideas entered China as western influence grew from the mid 19th century. Rebels liked to use it a tool to rally opposition to the ruling dynasty which had been founded by Manchus who had conqured the previous “Chinese (ethnic Han) dynasty” called the Ming.

From the article:

  “一个没有历史记忆的国家,是没有前途的。”一个没有理论思维的国家,是没有未来的。中华民族有五千多年的历史记忆和理论思维 [Translation: “A country/state without an historical memory has no propsects”.  A country/state without theoretical thought has no future.  The Chinese nation has more than 5,000 years of historical memory and theoretical thinking.]

,笔者在《中国哲学逻辑结构论》一书中提出的“中国哲学逻辑结构”的观点,认为其古典哲学思维是以表意语言和象形文字的特殊的符号媒体,“象性”范畴、“实性”范畴和“虚性”范畴两两复合,构成与西方“爱”与“智”二元分裂异趣,具有象外有言,言内有意,爱外有智,智内有爱的奥妙无穷的和合精神意境。  

My Talks with Party Guys in China About Those 5000 Years

One of the consequences of this conflation of cultural zone with state is a pleasing albeit unfounded sense of superiority. Peering through history’s mists to see 5000 years into the past and compare it to the age of other states, some would feel quite senior and wise.  I remember having a long friendly conversation with a county party secretary in eastern Sichuan about ten years ago.  The party secretary told me at one point “We Chinese with our 5000 years of history are very impressed what you Americans have done in just 200 short years!”  I replied, “We Americans with our 200 years of history look at what has happened in the People’s Republic of China in just sixty short years and are amazed!”.  Needless to say, he didn’t like that!  This is the sort of confusion that between cultural zone and state that is fostered very deliberately. Over and over.  Our conversation stayed friendly. It was a nice talk and a nice day.   


During a visit to Xichang, Sichuan about ten years ago, I had dinner with a midde-ranking local party official.  He told me, “Those damn South Koreans. They think that Confucius belongs to them.  They say that he was Korean!” My response was that Confucius lived two millenia ago and has been influential in many countries.  Why couldn’t a Korean make a serious study of Confucius and come to understand him better than some Chinese who don’t read him so closely? 

Chinese Cultural Zone With India and West Belongs to Philosophical G3!


The China of the article is, along with India and the West, one of the philosophic G3, which have invented quite independent philosophic systems.  I gather from the article that all these G3 are quite distinct and are a bit encumbered by thinking of them as being put under the same rubric of philosophy, which happened in the Chinese case because the Japanese created the term two-character term for Greek philosophy 哲学 that was then imported into the Chinese language and used to refer to Chinese philosophy.   哲学这个词源于希腊语的翻译,日本明治初期的思想家西周将其译为“哲学”,这个译语是从“希哲学”“希贤学”演变而来。在此之前,中国哲学已独立发展很长时间,它与希腊哲学、印度哲学并育而不相害,三地界隔而无相悖。

Behind the Talk, Deep Worries About the Party’s Future


Perhaps this projection of nationalist ideas into the distant past in a whiggish sort of way is meant to bolster the PRC in its ongoing legitimacy crisis. Chinese people are better educated, better traveled and more aware of how life is lived in other countries. The Communist Party has long worried about how it will handle a likely turbulent transition to becoming a relatively wealthy, middle class country.

Now it seems to be switching horses in midstream from Marx/Lenin/Mao of “New China” to the nationalism of the Great Chinese Renaissance and of bringing home the bacon of unbounded economic growth.  What is to fear in this for China and its neighbors is that all this talk is aimed at stirring up worship of a powerful PRC party-state — an organic whole by design in China — in a kind of extreme statism or statolatry that will restore Eternal China to its place of centrality in at least the East Asian world order. One hopes that this is not a move towards a kind of fascism one of those poorly defined political terms — maybe state worship would be better term since facism gets thrown around so much it pales from overuse as an all-purpose insult.

I hope that the lessons of the Maoist convulsions of the First Foundation of the PRC and the great improvements since the Second Foundation by Hua Guofeng and Mao will put the breaks on Xi and his creepy echoings of at least the slogans of Mao’s time. Party General Secretary Xi’s regime is still far from the tremendous widespread cruelties of Maoist era although ongoing abuses in Xinjiang and Tibet do remind one more and more of Mao’s bad old days.

What’s Missing Here?


I also wonder too about what is missing the article. No mention at all of the philosophies of Marx, Lenin, and Mao. Socialism and the leadership of the Communist Party as immovable elements of the PRC are enshrined in the first article of the PRC Constitution yet get no mention.

Perhaps better to pass over those bankrupt ideologies in silence and look forward to the glories the Party is leading the PRC and along with it Eternal China towards.  I remember the relative of a provincial vice governor telling me, back in 1996 shortly after I began my diplomatic assignment at U.S. Embassy Bejjing. what he heard the vice governor say: “We are the guardians of a dead religion but must hold on for the sake of social stability.”


Also, while characterizing western philosophy at some length, the interaction between Western philosopy and Chinese philosophy is not discussed. The ingerence and bullying of the western powers towards the Qing Dynasty gets a mention but not the late 19th and 20th century effervescence of new thinking inspired by the cross-fertilization of Chinese and Western ideas.



What I Like: A Refreshing Emphais on Traditional Chinese Thinking that Various Chinese Philosophies Share


While I can be critical about the shaping of the piece to meet the needs of the Party, I think using ideas about the way and the dao to characterize Chinese traditional thinking is very interesting.  So-called Confucianism and other categories used to talk about Chinese traditional thinking in an overly rigid way as essentially library classifications made for the sake of convenience get re-infied into different thought schools with impermeable barriers between them. Stepping back a bit and seeing traditional Chinese thinking as a whole is very helpful. 

The dynamism and capacity for continuous re-invention with novel blending of new and imported elements with the old seems to be a great strength of Chinese thinking. Authority derives from ideas being ancient, so as ancient as possible builds credibility — perhaps that is why there is a tendency to put new ideas into old bottles. — as for example using Mao’s phrase “practice as the only criterion of truth” to dynamitc Maoist nonsense and initiate opening and reform or socialism with Chinese characteristics to bring back capitalism (more openly after Jiang Zemin invited the capitalists into the Party in the late 1990s!) 

Professor Zhang Liwen highlights the great intellectual effervescence of the Spring and Autumn Period when Confucius and other Chinese thinkers and schools of thought contended. This was significantly an era during which the Chinese cultural zone was divided much more than it is today when we see the Chinese Mainland, de facto autonomous Taiwan and the formerly largely autonomous Hong Kong. Heterodox thinkers back then could escape across the border to the jurisdiction of a friendlier prince.

Party Thought Guidance Corrodes Academic Discourse in China


Looking the article over and looking about the Chinese internet for discussion on zhonghua minzu, I noticed some differences of opinion on this key topic. This article does, however, hew closely with the perhaps problematic views presented on a government website and by the Party’s United Front Work Department. 


So, despite my on lack of erudition on this important topic, I will have to say that the strong political coloring of the article makes it suspect.  


Highly charged poltiical environments and a state such as the PRC which is determined to punish or reward scholars depending about how closely they hew to or stray from correct thinking are highly corrosive to academic discourse.

  
A Chinese scholar, an expert with deep experience in the field studying some Chinese minorities told me in 2005 when I was on a six-week temporary assignment at the U.S. Consulate General in Chengdu,  “I give talks to Party cadres but I can’t share with them much of what I know. These things would help them do their jobs better but the Party doesn’t allow me to say those things.” 

A few years later, during my five-year stint at the Chengdu consulate a scholar-apparatchik, just retired from the Sichuan Academy of Social Sciences, told me at lunch “My real job was to monitor the thinking of the other professors at the Academy.”

Chinese Philosophy is a Treasure: Sad those Political Distortions and the Abuse that Chinese Scholars Suffer


Chinese philosophy has much to offer the world and indeed will certainly be much appreciated in the “commmunity of common human destiny” that Party Secretary Xi is always talking about. 

Unfortunately, when discussion gets constrained by political considerations. I of course can’t say that this is true in the case of Professor Zhang Liwen.  Yet when one looks at academic discourse on topics of concern to the Chinese Communist Party one can see a pattern in how ideas and interpretations that serve the propaganda line get a strong push while those that contradict it had best be passed over in silence.

The PRC being what it is and seeing many scholars and writers suffer or in many cases learn to keep silent, it is not impossible that hugging philosophers too face incentives and disincentives according to where they stand on the current Party line. What a sad waste of great talent.  My Chengdu writer friend Ran Yunfei wrote something along those lines 

2008: Ran Yunfei: “Where Will the Fear End? A Talk that Could Not Be Delivered”  

Just to give you an idea of the article I am commenting on, here it is in Google Translate.


The Tao of Chinese Philosophy

Author: Zhang Liwen“Guangming Daily” (15th edition on April 13, 2020)

  Philosophy is the essence of the spirit of the times. Chinese philosophy is arrogant and misty, overwhelming with wind and rain, introspectively and horizontally, from the source of the heart, hooks profound and far-reaching, and only adapts to changes. It shines the dawn of the wisdom of Chinese civilization on the history of philosophy, and makes the love of eastern wisdom especially bright and brilliant.

Heaven and human

  The Chinese nation is a nation that is good at thinking and a nation that pursues the love of wisdom. It has contributed to human culture the wise men with extraordinary talents. There are broad academicians, subtle thinkers, very wise philosophers, and politicians of the mean. Such as Laozi, Confucius, Mozi, Zhuangzi, Mencius, Sunzi, Xunzi, Han Feizi, Dong Zhongshu, Zhu Xi, Wang Shouren, Wang Fuzhi and other great philosophical thinkers. Chinese philosophy is a philosophy of “changing for the Tao” and “exploring the hidden”, adding dazzling brilliance to the world philosophy. “Zhou Yi”, “Dao Jing”, “The Analects”, “Mo Zi”, “The Art of War by Sun Zi”, “Four Books” and “Biography” A large number of classics such as “Record” and “Zhengmeng Note”. The classic Chinese masters are the creators of intelligence, the embodiment of intelligence.

  Philosophy, as a knowledge for inquiries, usually starts from perceptual existence, from the surface to the inside to the rational existence, that is, from the phenomenon to the essence, the concrete to the abstract, the metaphysical to the metaphysical as the foundation, this is from Plato and Yari The traditional metaphysical way of thinking from Stode to Hegel. However, modern Western philosophy rejects traditional metaphysics and advocates that from what is currently present to what is not present behind it, what is not present and what is present are real things, not abstract eternal essence. Heidegger criticized the previous metaphysics without a foundation, and tried to replace it with a metaphysics with roots. What he said is the questioning from what is revealed to what is hidden, that is, the degree from “being” to “nothing”. Nietzsche, Heidegger, Gadamer, etc. basically follow this way of thinking.

  ”A country without historical memory has no future.” A country without theoretical thinking has no future. The Chinese nation has more than 5,000 years of historical memory and theoretical thinking. The author put forward the view of “the logical structure of Chinese philosophy” in the book “On the Logical Structure of Chinese Philosophy”, and believes that its classical philosophical thinking is based on ideographic language and pictographs. The special sign media, the category of “imagery”, category of “substantiality” and category of “virtuality” are two-by-two, which constitutes a dualistic split of “love” and “wisdom” in the West, with words outside the image and meaning inside the words , There is wisdom outside of love, and there is an infinite harmony spiritual mood of love inside wisdom.

  Since ancient Greece had its philosophy, it has profoundly affected all countries and nations in the world. People always feel its existence strongly, consciously or unconsciously, are restricted by it, and always compare their own philosophy with it to determine whether it is philosophy or not. In the eyes of some people who have little knowledge of the “Four Books” and “Five Classics”, or who are sighed by the “Jingshi Ziji”, there is no word “philosophy” in Chinese classical literature. No matter from the earliest “Hanshu·Yiwenzhi” or the more recent “Siku Quanshu”, no “metaphysics” equivalent to Aristotle’s “Metaphysics” has been found. Therefore, Hegel asserted that “the real philosophy begins in the West”, “Eastern thoughts must be excluded from the history of philosophy”, and “no philosophical knowledge can be found here.” Later, the French deconstructive postmodern philosopher Derrida also believed that “China has no philosophy.” The reason why they believe that China has no philosophy is because the East does not have the freedom of will, and philosophy is “the metaphysics of reason”, and it is with freedom. In fact, in the long history of Chinese social civilization, the mainstream of philosophical thought is open and free. During the Spring and Autumn and Warring States period, a hundred schools of thought contended, and a hundred flowers blossomed, each of which was its own; Han and Tang Confucianism, Taoism, and Xuanism disputed each other. Taoism and Buddhism have mutual debate and mutual learning, as well as the mutual acceptance and mutual application of Xuan Buddhism. Whether it is the “six schools and seven sects” or the free debates among the various sects of Buddhism, it has continued. During the Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, the three teachings of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism were in harmony with each other. They were inseparable from each other, but also infiltrated each other. There was a scene of colorful, a hundred schools of thought erupting, as well as various lectures of thousands of people. , There are also small-scale academic seminars (such as the Goose Lake Meeting), exchanges of various philosophical views, frequent communication, or “respect for virtue”, or “dao asked learning”, or “simple”, or “disconnection”, subject Not only is his will not restricted, it is free to play and intelligent innovation. The Chinese nation’s love-wise and harmonious ethics and freedom exist together.

  In the eyes of Hegel and others, the reason why there is no philosophy in China is because the Orientals advocate the unity of nature and spirit, and the unity of nature and man. This kind of direct unity is the subject “as a negative and destructive thing, sinking into objective “In the entity”, so “the entity (object) and the individual (subject) are indistinguishable”, and a spiritual realm (the unity of nature and man) appears, “only staying in the shallowest thoughts.” As a result, the unity of nature and man in Chinese philosophy was denied. Hegel maintains that true philosophy is that the subject is in the object while maintaining the characteristics of the subject itself. In fact, China’s “Harmony of Man and Nature” is a mysterious and profound spiritual realm, which is based on the free, universal and infinite Chinese philosophy of the subject. Mencius put forward the proposition of “conscientiousness-intellect-knowledge of heaven”, Zhu Xi’s note: “He who is in the heart is the god of man, so he is the one who has common sense and responds to everything.” Obviously, Hegel did not seriously realize China’s “Heaven and Man are one. “. In the Spring and Autumn Period, Zi Chan has already begun to divide the heaven and the human, that is, the subject and the object are not mixed. He criticized the astrologer Xian Zao for linking the operation and changes of the heavenly path with the good and bad for the human affairs, and advocated that “the heavenly path is far away, humanity is far away, and it is beyond reach.” It shows the awakening of the subject’s self-personality. When people consider the sky as an object opposite to the subject, they also consider themselves as the subject opposite to the object. When Zhuangzi advocated the integration of man and nature, Xunzi criticized him for “covering the sky but not knowing the man” and sinking the subject man in the sky (object). He advocates “the distinction between heaven and man”, and believes that “praise it from the sky, and use it to control the destiny”, obey the sky (object) and praise it, rather than the subject (man) mastering the object (sky) and using it . Looking forward to the sky and waiting for the gift of the sky (object) is not as good as man (subject) grasping the changes of the seasons, and making the sky (object) serve man (subject). The subtle and unique interpretation of the relationship between heaven and man, object and subject in Chinese philosophy was not understood by Hegel and later Western philosophers. For example, the Neo-Kantian Wendelban, in his famous book “A Course in the History of Philosophy”, used an irrational saying: “Among the Chinese, the early moral philosophy exceeded moral preaching… But these are far away from the self. The route of European philosophy into a complete system, so this textbook does not need to start discussion.” This deep-rooted Western cultural centralism paranoia pushes Western philosophy into the only and universal philosophy in the world, which is different from this philosophy. There is no value and necessity discussed in the history of philosophy. The reason why it is not worthy of “discussion” is that the Eastern philosophical spirit of China and India is “specially restricted”, such as being restricted by daily needs, or controlled by myths and religions. In other words, in their view, Chinese philosophy has long been based onVirtue is leading, it is impossible to generate the ancient Greek-style philosophical character of love and wisdom.

Chinese philosophy

  ”The five flavors are different, and the great harmony is the same; although the music changes, they are also in harmony.” Although the philosophies of all countries and nations are like the five flavors and are very different, the beauty and beauty are common and common; the changes of music are like the intricacies of society. Their universal commonalities are harmonious and coordinated. The pursuit of true knowledge and the pursuit of love and wisdom are common to the philosophy of all nations in the world, and are not exclusive to Western philosophy. As for what philosophy is, Chinese and foreign philosophers say what it is and what it is, as if there are a hundred Hamlet in the eyes of a hundred people. However, philosophers of different eras and nationalities have different understandings of conflicts and crises, and their solutions are also different, the concepts and categories they grasp are also different, and the definition of philosophy is also different. In the history of Western philosophy, it may be considered that philosophy is love of wisdom, that is, one is everything, “existence is the unchanging one”, man and all things merge into one; or philosophy is to treat existence as a concept independent of man The pursuit of learning; or the claim that philosophy is the meaning of the life world where man and the world are integrated. As far as different philosophers are concerned, Wendelban believes that “the so-called philosophy, according to the current habitual understanding, is a scientific discourse on the general issues of the outlook on the universe and life”; Russell believes that “philosophy, as far as I understand this It’s something between theology and science.” He thought that all exact knowledge belongs to science, and all dogmas that involve more than exact knowledge belong to theology, and the remaining “no man’s land” , That is, “all the issues that the speculative mind is most interested in” is philosophy.

  The word philosophy originated from the translation of Greek. The thinker Nishi Zhou in the early Meiji era in Japan translated it as “philosophy”. This translation was evolved from “his philosophy” and “xi xianxue”. Prior to this, Chinese philosophy had developed independently for a long time, and it was in harmony with Greek philosophy and Indian philosophy without harming them. Huang Zunxian, a scholar in the late Qing Dynasty, first introduced the term philosophy from Japan to China, and it was accepted by Chinese scholars at that time. Since then, Xie Wuliang’s “History of Chinese Philosophy” was published by Zhonghua Book Company in 1916. In his “Introduction”, he stated that China “has six arts in ancient times, and then there are nine streams, which are mostly taken by philosophy.” His so-called Chinese philosophy is based on “The secret of Confucianism, the ruler of philosophy”, has not passed the traditional Confucian view of history. Later, Hu Shi’s “Outline of the History of Chinese Philosophy” praised by Cai Yuanpei was published by the Shanghai Commercial Press in February 1919. He said in the “Introduction”: “The definition of philosophy has never been definite, and I will now define it for the time being:’Anyone who studies life’s vital problems and seeks a fundamental solution is fundamentally called this kind of knowledge. Philosophy’.” Hu Shi went on to respond to questions such as what is the history of philosophy, the purpose of the history of philosophy, the historical materials of the history of philosophy, and the “position of Chinese philosophy in the history of world philosophy” and other questions, laying the foundation for the history of Chinese philosophy. Following Xie and Hu, Feng Youlan published a two-volume “History of Chinese Philosophy” (published by Shenzhou Guoguang Publishing House in 1931 and published by the Commercial Press in 1935), which began in the pre-Qin Zixue era and the post-Han Confucianism era. Written to Liao Ping in the late Qing Dynasty, it can be described as a general history of Chinese philosophy, to make up for the shortcomings of Hu Shi’s “Outline of the History of Chinese Philosophy” which only has the history of philosophy in the pre-Qin Dynasty. Feng Youlan said in her “Introduction”: “The definitions of philosophy given by various philosophers are also different. For the sake of convenience, I will first describe the content of philosophy generally considered to know what philosophy is, and philosophy is a formal term. There is no need to add another definition for the definition of “.” The content of philosophy, ancient Greek philosophers is divided into three parts: physics, ethics, and theory, namely cosmology (the truth about the world), and the theory of life (the truth about life). ), Epistemology (the truth of knowledge). When Feng talked about the content of ancient Greek philosophy, he used ancient Greek philosophy as the philosophical definition. However, when Feng Youlan heard Jin Yuelin’s lecture “Philosophy is a game of concepts” at Cambridge University, England, she said, “Now I realize that this formulation speaks a true nature of philosophy. Take a look at Jin Yuelin’s “On the Tao”. Do you put many concepts around? Not only is the “On the Dao” like this, so is my philosophical system, which claimed to be the “Xintong” at the time.” Feng Youlan agreed with Jin Yuelin’s philosophy. In his speech on “Does China Have Philosophy”, Mou Zongsan,He defined philosophy: “What is philosophy? All the activities of human nature, introspection and explanation with reason and concepts, is philosophy.” He believes that any cultural system has its philosophy. If China is recognized China’s cultural system recognizes Chinese philosophy. It is ridiculous to say that China has no philosophy.

  The various philosophical systems in the world have their own ideas, without a certain pattern, and they are different. Chinese philosophy can speak its own philosophy based on the reality of Chinese philosophy. Since ancient times, China has had a vast and subtle self-contained logical system of philosophical theoretical thinking. It has completely broken through the metaphysics in the ancient Greek sense. It is not necessary to speak Chinese philosophy as Western philosophy. Because Chinese philosophy is rooted in the fertile soil of more than five thousand years of national culture that is different from the West and has no breaks, it has created unique philosophical concepts, category systems, and rigorous logical structures. The level of awareness and spirituality reveals the form of Chinese philosophy and adds luster to the world’s pluralistic philosophy. Therefore, defining Chinese philosophy as “the thoughtfulness and name system of the Tao of the universe, society, and the way of life” can surpass ancient Greek philosophy and pragmatism or new realism to define Chinese philosophy. Philosophy stands in the forest of philosophy in the world with extremely bright theoretical thinking.

Tao as the core topic

  ”The metaphysical is the Tao, and the metaphysical is the instrument.” Tao is a super-sensory, super-experience, invisible and invisible thing. It is a highly abstract, universal, and infinite concept and category; the opposite is The tangible things are concepts and categories of concreteness, particularity, and finiteness. Tao is the miraculous coagulation of Chinese philosophy’s unremitting pursuit of true knowledge and wisdom, the presentation of the rational spirit of Chinese philosophical theoretical thinking, and the awareness of the subject’s thoughtfulness, comprehension, scrutiny, and reflection on the world and all objects. The sublimation of knowing Tao, enlightening Tao and attaining Tao. Taoism has always flowed in the long river of Chinese philosophy history, never stopped. It not only runs through the hundreds of schools, three religions and nine streams, but also infiltrates the four books, five classics, and the sub-collections of classics and history. The metaphysical Dao, as the main body of the heavens and all things, and the root and basis of the existence of the heavens and the earth, is the “innate and earth born”, “being the mother of heaven and earth”, and “the root of heaven and earth”; It is the law of the natural changes of the world and the world, and the way that conforms to the principles of all things; it is the greatest value ideal and goal. “The perfection is the ideal and goal of course.

  China does not have to rebuild metaphysics in the sense of ancient Greece. Metaphysical Tao (that is, Tai Chi and Li) is the core topic of Chinese philosophy’s love of wisdom. Its form is extremely high, clear and abstract, and its connotation is vast and rich. It is the “people who are not far away” that Chinese sages, scholars and scholars have always explored. The problem. From Yin and Zhou to the Spring and Autumn and Warring States period, the Tao from the road was abstracted into concepts, categories, and propositions such as principles and methods, origin and laws, heaven and humanity, metaphysics and metaphysics. Confucius said, “When you hear the Tao, you can die at night” and pay attention to humanity; Lao Tzu pays attention to the way of heaven, and the way is often nameless, and this way is no longer a famous way. “Book of Changes” integrates the Tao of Confucianism and Taoism, proposes the Tao of Heaven, Earth and Man, and regards Yin and Yang, softness, and benevolence as the connotation of the Tao of Heaven, Earth and Man, which has metaphysical connotation. The Taoism discussed in the controversy of a hundred schools of thought in the pre-Qin Dynasty are all integrated into the Taoism of Three Talents. It is not only the rule that the heaven and earth and all things must develop, but also the root and basis for the existence of heaven and earth and all things.

  During the Qin and Han dynasties, the Qin unified the six countries and established a unified centralized state with prefectures and counties, and ended the federal feudal state of decentralized vassals in the Zhou Dynasty. It is proposed that “one law is worthy of the stone, the car is the same, the book is the same”, and it also requires “one morality” and unified thinking. Dong Zhongshu advocated that “the sky is the perpetual way, and the opposites must not be two, so it is called one. One is not the two, the sky is also”, cheap and expensive. Taking Tao as one, embodies the spirit of the time at that time, and constructs a corresponding philosophical and theoretical thinking mode that adapts to the unification of heaven and man.

  During the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties, the Qin and Han dynasties were broken, and the Taoist model was denied. “Stopping a hundred schools of thought and respecting Confucianism” turned into a “xuanyuan school” of freedom of subject thought. Metaphysics has created a new trend of contention among different viewpoints of being and not, original and end, famous teaching and nature. He Yan and Wang Bi advocated the non-oriented and the noble school, inheriting the “Three Xuan” ideological connotations of Zhouyi, Laozi, and Zhuangzi. He Yan believes that “a husband and a man has no owner.” Behind the complexity of the universe and everything, dominated by an invisible hand, this is nothing, that is Tao. The Tao is speechless, nameless, intangible, and silent. Wang Bi believes that this kind of Tao means nothing, “the Tao is called nothing.” The Tao is nothingness, nothingness, nothingness, nothingness that cannot be seen. So Tao has the characteristic of penetrating everything. Wang Bi advocated that “Dao is the same as nature” instead of teaching by the same name. This is the embodiment of his natural inaction. Although he speaks of “holding on the way of unifying the people,” he is not persistent and believes that the way is great, prosperous and constantly updated. The opposite of He Yan and Wang Bi’s “No matter what you are” is Pei Wei’s “Theory of Advocating You.” He combined inaction with action. In the opening chapter of “Chongyou Theory,” he said: “Husbands are mixed with groups, and the way of sect is also.” The most fundamental and universal way of summarizing the world of all things is yes, yes The origin of the world is that omnipotence is born. The first born is also self-generated. This is the way of Zongji.

  During the Han Dynasty, Indian Buddhism was introduced to China, and at the beginning, it was attached to Chinese Taoism and became Buddhism. The concept of Tao is rare in the Indian Buddhist scriptures. During the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties, the three religions of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism were both controversial and integrated. Many Buddhist works of Chinese monks used the concept of Tao, which is a manifestation of the sinicization of Buddhism. In the context of the development of Buddhist Prajna, Zen, and Nirvana, the distinguished Buddhist scholar Daoan of the Western Jin Dynasty expounded the Tao from three aspects: Dharmakaya, Rua, and Reality. “Dharmakaya” is the constant way of constant silence and forgotten everything; “like” is the way it is originally, permanent existence, and nothing is sent to; “truth” is clinging to nothing, doing nothing but doing nothing, it is the truth of all things, is “The Supreme Truth”. In this way, it explains the equal and undifferentiated world of Buddhism. At this time, Buddhism’s way of Nirvana is unchangeable, transcending the shackles of the world, extinguishing thoughts, abandoning emotions, and going beyond the chakra to return to the highest level of mystery. The three religions of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism in Sui and Tang dynasties were controversial around Taoism. Buddhism denies that Taoism regards Tao as the “extremely greatest” with “Tao law of nature”. Buddhism believes that Tao can communicate with cause and effect, because good and evil and karma, the connection between this life and the next life, give people seemingly unrealistic comfort and sustenance. Following the source of poverty, we can achieve contingency and understand the fundamentals. Dharma Zang takes the Bodhi path as the highest wisdom. Hui Neng, the sixth ancestor of Zen, argued that seeing one’s nature clearly is the way to reach Buddhahood.

  Taoism is a religion native to China. Ge Hong believes that Tao is not a name but the origin of everything. God does nothing, let everything be natural. The Tao of Longevity, the Tao of Immortality, and the Tao of Songqiao that he talked about are all methods to reach the profound Tao. In the early Taoist work “Tai Ping Jing”, it is believed that Tao is the head of all things, and the world and all things are born from Tao and change through vitality. “The husband and the Tao are the roots of Dahua.” In the Sui and Tang Dynasties, Taoists all understood the Tao of Double Xuan. Cheng Xuanying believes that people cannot escape the control of the way of nature, and that people should not take the ever-changing things of the world into their hearts. A worry-free heart is in line with “the way of true equality.” And nature, virtual communication, and tranquility include the process of natural changes in nature, society, and life.

  In order to contend with Buddhism and Taoism in Tang Dynasty, Han Yu strongly advocated Confucian Taoism in order to restore the Confucianism of benevolence, justice and morality. Liu Zongyuan advocated the Dazhong Dao, and took the three principles and five constants as the connotation, and through the revival of the Confucian benevolence and righteousness, the establishment of the righteousness, the highest level of mankind, and the rule of the world.

  From Han to Sui and Tang Dynasties, the three religions of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism conflicted and merged. Confucianism not only criticized Buddhism and Taoism, but also absorbed the famous analysis of Buddhism and Taoism, Taoism nature and ultimate concern; Buddhism absorbed the mind and ethics of Confucianism. , And gradually become sinicized; Taoism and Buddhism both contend and absorb each other. It demonstrates the openness, tolerance, freedom, and equality of Chinese culture, as well as the Chinese civilization spirit of “harmony by others”.

  The Neo-Confucianism of the Song and Ming Dynasties merged with Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism, and Taoism also entered a new realm. After ending the separatist regimes and the social turmoil and wars of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms, in order to rebuild ethics and value ideals, the Neo-Confucian scholars went into and out of Buddhism and “exhausted all their talks.” They “keep learning for the sage” and implemented the “inclusive” cultural integration method of the three religions since the Sui and Tang dynasties to “the law of heaven”, opening a new era of Neo-Confucianism. Shao Yong believes that Tao is the origin of heaven and earth and the basis for the existence of heaven and earth. He said that heaven, earth, things, and people are born, formed, shaped, and walked by Tao. Although the characters of heaven and earth are different, they are all expressed by Tao. Dao, which is the origin of the characters of heaven and earth, is an abstract concept of silent, intangible, intangible, super-experiential feeling. Cheng Er Cheng believes that the metaphysical way is the origin of everything in the world; “the law of heaven is the way of heaven”, and the way is the law of nature. Dao is based on the five principles and five constants. To violate this is to violate Dao. In the logical structure of Er Cheng’s philosophical thinking, Tao, Tai Chi, and Li, although they are divided in different contexts, all belong to the same metaphysical category, with Yin and Yang and Qi as the metaphysical categories.

  Zhu Xi inherited the thoughts of Cheng Er Cheng and the theories of Confucianists, and collected the great achievements of Confucianism. He believes that Tao is not Yin and Yang, but the metaphysical of Yin and Yang. “However, what has one yin and one yang is what Dao body does.” Dao body implies noumenon, essence, root and fundamental meaning. Therefore, Tao is an everlasting and everlasting existence, and a super-temporal spiritual body. Although the Dao body is always immortal, it is constantly changing and coming and going, “it is the nature of the Dao body”. This is the natural principle of things and a movement that conforms to the law shared by people. He believes that Tao is inseparable from Tai Chi, theory, and sex: Tao is grand, and theory is precise; Tao is the general name, and theory is detailed; Tao is public theory, and theory is the theory of everything. But Dao has inseparable identity and commonality. Dao is Tai Chi, and Yin and Yang are only Yin and Yang, not Tai Chi. However, the Tao is in the instrument, the Tao does not externalize yin and yang, and yin and yang do not externalize the Tao.

  Lu Jiuyuan, the founder of Xinxue, advocated that “Tao has nothing to do with its heart.” The Tao that takes the subject’s mind as its form of existence is the root of all things in the world. This is the Tao that is one with the mind, filling the universe and omnipresent. There is nothing outside the Dao (heart), and there is no Dao (heart) outside. Everything is in my heart. Lu Jiuyuan’s disciple Yang Jian went on to say in “Yang Shi Yi Zhuan · Xiao Hu”: “The original mind of man is Tao, so it is Tao mind.” It is the mind that does not move in mind, the universe, everything, everything, All principles come from this way (heart). With the development of Chen Xianzhang and Zhan Ruoshui, Wang Shouren has gathered his great achievements, advocating that the mind is the Tao, “the mind is the Tao, and there is no two.” There is no time and no place for this eternal Tao, without beginning and end. The conscience that is connected with the heart is also connected with the Tao, “The Tao is the conscience.” Dao Xin is the rule and basis of the existence of heaven and earth.

  Wang Tingxiang of the Qi school advocated that “vital energy is the foundation of Tao”, and vitality is the root and foundation of Tao. Without the vitality, Tao does not matter. There is nothing, no way, no reason above vitality. Luo Qinshun believes that reason is the order of the gathering, dispersing and changing of Qi, and Tao resides in the Qi of Yin and Yang. Liu Zongzhou tried to understand the theories of various schools, advocating that “the way of the Tao, the way of qi, the reason, the reason of things”, the qi will produce numbers, images, names, things, nature, and dao, “the way will come later”. Wang Fuzhi, the master of Qi studies, said: “Taihe 絪絪絪絪絪絪絪絊絪絊 is Taixu…the body of Tao.” Taihe絪絪絪絪絪絪絪絪絪絪絪絪絪絪絪絪絪絪絪絪絪絪two qi, generating all things and everything, the essence of the resource is the Tao. He endows Tao with the rules and laws of “all things are shared by all”, it has objectivity and stability, “Qihua is popular in the world, and each has its own course, said Tao.” Between heaven and earth, there are no two ways. The way is also, in the sky is the heaven, and the man is the humanity. Heaven is the origin of all things, and humanity is the code of ethics and behavior that people must follow. Wang Fuzhi inherited the essence of Zhang Zai’s thought. He took the Qi of the Taixu body as the way, and the Qi of the yin and yang creatures as the way to popularize, constituting the ever-changing nature of the world. Dai Zhen regarded Tao as the energy of yin and yang. He criticized Zhu Xi for taking Tao as a metaphysical principle, which emptied the connotation of Tao. He said: “Say Tao refers to the name of its physical reality.” The so-called metaphysical refers to the natural state of the yin and yang gas without transforming into all things, and the metaphysical is the form of the yin and yang gas transforming into all things. Metaphysics is not the origin or basis of the metaphysics. Tao is also a process of gasification. Qi speaks its body and Tao speaks its transformation.

  In modern China, the Qing government was decayed. It was repeatedly invaded by Western powers and ousted land for compensation. The people’s lives were in dire straits. In order to save the country and the people, people with lofty ideals embarked on the path of seeking governance from the West and reformed the traditional Taoist philosophy. On the one hand, we reformed the Gangchang Etiquette Education with Western Equality Thought. Tan Sitong put forward the idea that “the path is one” and “the image is equality”. Kang Youwei reformed the traditional Three Gangs Teachings with the views of freedom, equality, and natural human rights of the western bourgeoisie. He believes that the three major teachings “all lose the righteousness of humanity and independence, and those who undermine natural human rights”, and advocated that “everyone has the right to be independent.” People are equal, and inequality between men and women is the most unhumane. They merged the fraternity of Christianity with the benevolence of Confucianism, and proposed that “fraternity is benevolence.” On the other hand, it absorbs western natural science concepts and scientific knowledge to enrich the connotation of Tao, such as using “ether” and “electronics” as the medium of Tao as one, and proposes new propositions such as the path of evolution and the path of biology. For example, Sun Yat-sen said, “The husband who evolves, the way of nature is also”.

  From the pre-Qin to modern times, Dao concepts and categories have risen or fallen, higher or lower, in the waves of history, always striving forward without stopping or breaking. Pre-Qin was the way, rules, and methods, Qin and Han were the way of heaven and man, Taiyi, Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties were the way of nothingness, Sui and Tang was the way of Buddhism, Song and Yuan were the way of reason, Ming and Qing were the way of heart, and the way of air. Modern times are the way of humanity. Tao is the origin and basis of the existence of heaven and earth; it is the inevitable, universal, and relatively stable internal connection of things, reflecting the fundamental nature of things; it is the process of movement and change of heaven and earth, because it contains yin and yang, existence, The fusion of dynamic and static, qi, and Daoqi treatments; political principles, ethical and moral standards. Therefore, Tao is the core concept and category of Chinese philosophical theoretical thinking, and it is the broad and subtle original category that constitutes the framework of the meta-logic logic system of Chinese philosophy.

Taoist way of thinking

  The Chinese nation’s philosophy of inquiring, seeking, and enlightening through worries in the amidst all kinds of hardships has formed the theoretical thinking system and value system of Taoism, which is the soul and body of the Chinese nation. It is the essence of the spirit of the times and the spiritual force that promotes peace, development and cooperation of mankind. The characteristics of Taoist theoretical thinking are embodied in the conflict and integration of history and logic, reality and necessity, all phenomena and truth, and questioning and Taoism.

  History and logic, that is, the logical rationality of the historical evolution of Taoism. The evolution of Tao at each stage is the expansion of Tao body category in time. Where does the history of Tao start, where does the logic of thinking begin. That is to say, the Tao body is a condensed and abstract Tao history, and the historical evolution of Tao is an unfolding Tao body. This outward expansion is also inward deepening. The general idea of ​​Taoism is the inner basis. The historical development of Tao is the life growth process of Tao. The consistency between history and logic is the way that Taoism constitutes its own path, and it is the objective basis for the existence and function of logic. The power of logic lies in the development of history. Logic unfolds the accumulated traditions, and makes the Taoism deeply rooted and endless. Tao is from the way, the way of heaven and man, the way of the one, the way of nothingness, the way of Buddhism, the way of reason, the way of heart, the way of air to the way of humanity. This is the development of Tao in every historical period. And internalization is adapted to the core topics of philosophical thinking in each era, and is not contrary to the spirit of this era, achieving the integration of history and logic.

  Reality and necessity, that is, the real certainty and inevitable trend of Tao in its evolution. It is a ubiquitous fact of actual existence, a fact of actual existence that is interconnected with the past, present and future. It is the facts that people have heard, seen, seen, and personally felt, such as looking up at astronomy, surveying geography, watching birds and beasts, and the reality that resembles the feelings of all things, and like the way of obscurity, no image, inaction, like the sect of all things The actual concept and category of the reality, it tends to exist in a purely chronological order. Whether it is actual existence or abstract category existence, it is universal existence. Actual and inevitably constitute an inseparable relationship. The fact that reality is reality is controlled and determined by the hand of the inherent necessity of things. Necessity is an inevitable inevitability under certain conditions. It is an inexorable trend that conforms to the law of the connection and development of things. It is necessary to grasp the trend and direction of the evolution of things. It is the result of the fusion of various causes and conditions inside and outside the real thing. Such as the cause of external suffering, which arouses internal worries and intelligently creates the philosophical result of Tao. In the development and change of reality, intricate and uncertain phenomena often appear, manifested in various contingency, which means that reality has a certain contingency. The trend of inevitability resides in contingency, that is, inevitability resides in reality, through reality. Performance, to open up the path of inevitable trend for oneself. In other words, the Tao of Reality is transformed into Taoism through the trend of necessity.

  Vientiane and Dao, namely the phenomenon and essence of Dao in the pandemic. Each person, country, and nation has its own race, language, skin color, ideas, beliefs, customs, morals and ethics, ways of thinking, values, and aesthetic tastes. They are all different in form and invisible. Vientiane is diversified and diversified, and constitutes its external and distinct characteristics. In its evolution and development stage, Tao also manifests its different humanistic contexts, core topics, and dependent texts, with different natures, manifested in the form of images and phases, and hidden in the form of imageless and phaseless without being perceived by the senses. Wanxiang Wanxiang is unexpected, meaning meaning, reason, and righteousness. It embodies the nature of Vientiane and Vientiane and constitutes the inherent essential connection between Vientiane and Vientiane. It has general and common properties and attributes. This nature and attribute constitute the relatively stable and undisclosed nature of things. The essence is the decision maker of Vientiane and the basis of its existence. “The truth of things is the Tao.” As the essence of Wanxiang Wanxiang, the truth and justice are expressed in the Wanxiang Wanxiang in a certain way to illustrate their own existence. That is to say, essence, reason, and reason are in all phenomena, and they are inseparable from each other. If they are separated, there is no so-called essence, reason, and reason, and there is no such thing as all phenomena, but they are separated and not mixed. Phenomenon and truth are indifferent and mixed, and there is no such thing as phenomenon and essence, image and truth. When essence and reason are separated from phenomenon, the image will flow into emptiness. When essence and reason are separated from phenomenon, the image will become water without a source and a tree without root. The two are connected but not mixed, blending and uniting.

  Questioning and Taoism, that is, the way of thinking and the possibility that Tao embodies in the pandemic. “Respect virtue and ask for knowledge.” Human cognitive activities are always in the process of asking, seeking, and enlightening, that is, seeking truth and seeking wisdom. In the long river of history, the forms are colorful and colorful. Every theoretical thinking mode is the product of history. The theoretical thinking mode of Ask Dao is rooted in the soil of the practical cognitive mode of the past dynasties in China. It is the subject grasping the object conceptually, and showing a relatively stable thinking style through analysis, synthesis, judgment, and reasoning. The way of thinking of Taoism has been from the way of the road all the way through various historical times. It has gradually changed from perceptual cognition to rational cognition, from external influence to internal knowledge, and from Vientiane to realize the abstract essence, it reveals the inherent nature of Tao. Dao body of connection, essence and rules, worldview and methodology. Dao body is beyond the world of existence and meaning, and it is a metaphysical possible world. In Chinese philosophy, there is a different understanding of Taoism, or it is believed that there is no such thing as an unchanging Taoism that transcends heaven and earth. When there is qi and vacancy, there is Tao, and there is change in qi, and the Tao body “stops without a breath”; or think that the number “two” (yin and yang) and “four” (four images) are the Taoist body, “things under heaven are all different. It is also enough to see the true nature of Taoism.” “Nature” refers to the original state of Taoism; or that “the essence of Taoism” is the root and metaphysical basis of the everlasting immortal world and everything. The Harmony Life Taoist body is like a morning glow rising in the east with Chinese philosophy, and the world is full of glory.

  (Author: Zhang Liwen, professor of Renmin University of China School of Philosophy a) (Character Sketch: Guohong Song)

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2009: Old Comrade on “The Governing Party Needs to Establish Fundamental Political Ethics”

The Governing Party Needs to Establish Fundamental Political Ethics

— A Talk by an Old Comrade on the Eve of the Sixtieth Anniversary of the Founding of the PRC

执政党要建立基本的政治伦理

——国庆60周年前夕一位老同志的谈话 

[ Talk said to be by 1980s leading reformer former PRC Vice Premier Wan Li]

The sixtieth anniversary of the PRC is coming, I hear that now is a busy time preparing for military parades. I am old and can’t walk anymore so perhaps I won’t be able to go to the reviewing stand on Tiananmen. Although I was never in charge of propaganda work, I know that for the sixtieth anniversary of the PRC there will be a great deal of propaganda work done. The propaganda will concentrate on achievements and how much progress the country has made. That is the way it has been done for all these past sixty years. A few days ago a professor from the Central Party School, a very young person but someone has been doing some deep thinking, visited me for a talk. He said that he belongs to the reform generation and an old guy like me belongs to the revolution generation. He said that young people these days are very broad-minded in their thinking and so they ask me a lot of questions that are hard to answer. Some of their views seem to violate the ways of thinking about things and doing things that we have in the Party. However, the more I talk with them, the more I believe that they are quite honest in their thinking and they are not just thinking recklessly. Sometimes I am offended by their way of thinking, but perhaps that just goes to show that I am not as real and sincere as these young people. I keep telling them, you young people need to understand some history.

A few days ago, he came again, to tell me that he wants to ask me about history. The questions are not his own questions, but questions those local government bureau level cadres that he is teaching are posing. He said he can’t answer those questions and so wanted to pass them along to me. The question those student cadres wanted to pose are:

  • Over the past sixty years since the founding of the PRC, what hasn’t changed?
  • Why hasn’t it changed?
  • Could it change in the future?

I understood what he meant. For the past sixty years, the propaganda for the sixtieth anniversary is telling the people every day what great changes have been made. Could we look at things a little differently and ask, a country allows a single political party to lead for sixty years, that is quite a long time. Just how can those sixty years be characterized and summarized? Our Party has a responsibility to explain this clearly to the people. If at first we don’t explain it so they can understand, well, it doesn’t matter if there are questions, we can just explain again. We can publicly talk about it, we shouldn’t hide and not talk about it, or only talk about it with a select few. The country has already been established for sixty years so can’t we openly talk about some problems. Shouldn’t these sixty years be discussed? We are people who have had this experience so we have a responsibility to speak clearly so that we will be understood. There should be no order to keep some fundamental matters fuzzy, nor should we allow others to fuzzy about them.

I told the young professor that in the sixty years since the PRC was established, there are many things that haven’t changed. The most fundamental is that this country is still led by the Chinese Communist Party. Everyone know this fact, but what lies behind this fact? For example, with its 70 million Party members, it is the biggest party yet this party has never registered with the social organizations management department. What lies behind that fact? The fact that the PRC does not a have a “Law on the Government Party”. For sixty years, nothing, a blank page. That hasn’t changed. The PRC does not have a modern political party system. “The state is still the Party state.” and not the “Party is the party of the state.” For sixty years, the concept “Party and state leader” hasn’t changed. In finance, no wall has been built between the Party treasury and the State treasury. Look, millions of soldiers are still called the “Liberation Army”. That hasn’t changed. The military is still not a real armed force of the state in a real sense. The highest leader of the armed forces is the highest leader of the Party. The identification of the military with the Party still has not been replaced with an identification with the state. In sixty years, that has not changed. Even now, although sixty years have gone by, a truly competitive system of elections has not been established, not to mention at the national level.

Although there is talk all the time of consultation, in practice it is the same tradition of secret, behind that scenes manipulation that went during the war. These are all fundamental facts. They can be expanded upon to arrive a fundamental principles. They should be discussed openly. A discussion must involve these fundamentals and so young people must understand more history. I remember how in the early years of the PRC, some representatives of democratic parties wrote a letter to the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee, suggesting that the Forbidden City of Zhongnanhai be returned to the people. This is an imperial garden and should be preserved as a public cultural memorial. At the beginning of the 1980s, the Party Secretariat also received suggestions like this, including the suggestion: the organs of the Communist Party Central Committee such as the Party Office, the Central Committee Organization Department, the Central Committee Propaganda Department, the United Front Department etc. should established offices with signs since they are the organs of the governing party and are not longer illegal underground organizations. This suggestion was passed down through the hands of many party secretaries, but was in the end never discussed. These two things are also something that hasn’t changed in sixty years.

Later, the professor told me that he believes that he has studies some issues at considerable depth but still doesn’t know how to handle these fundamental facts. From many different channels, I know that over the past ten decade or so there have arisen new ways of thinking and new formulations. However no matter what the theory or whatever the school of thought, when they consider what has changed and what has not changed over these sixty years they need to understand these fundamental facts. There are some things that should not change, that may or may not change, or that can or cannot change. Distinguishing which fundamental fact fit into which category is difficult. But when we want to discuss a problem, we need to first clearly understand the basic facts. I said to the young professor, you raised this question, so I have no alternative but to speak the facts, the basic facts. Once the basic facts are clear, intelligent people will be able to think about them. Is “no change” a good thing in politics? Or is a kind of political inertia? Or a kind of political stagnation? All these questions should be studied and discussed with reference to basic facts and not closed off with an empty conclusion.

A few years ago, when an old comrade was seriously ill, I went to see him. He talked with me for over an hour about his worries about the current situation of the country and the Party. He said he would very much like to talk about these things directly with a leader of the Party Central Committee. I promised to pass along his concerns. Later, when a member of the Standing Committee of the Politburo came to visit me, I passed along what the old comrade had told me. What I remember best is how that old comrade who had devoted his life to the revolution was most concerned about how he could explain to the people, to make an accounting to history when he himself has some many doubts and so many things that he didn’t understand that he didn’t know what to say. The sixtieth anniversary of the PRC, I think, is a good opportunity. We need to summarized our experiences and have a good discussion. I am an old man who has worked for the state and the Party all my life. I cannot but be sentimentally attached to them, but still I don’t agree with formulations such as “Sixty Glorious Years” and “Fifty Glorious Years”. They are not true. The hard times of the “Great Leap Forward” lasted for three or four years. The chaos of the “Cultural Revolution” lasted ten years. Those years cannot be called glorious. Even with words used in propaganda, care should be taken that they are accurate and accord with the fundamental facts. If you don’t eliminate those years, the people will remove them from their hearts and the historians will also eliminate them.

Ordinary Party members will do the same. For several years during the 1990s, I said more than once, that political propaganda has strayed too far from reality. What does this mean? This is uncultured, barbarous propaganda. During those years there was also barbarous propaganda aimed at stopping the mishandling of goods on the wharves by stevedores. That kind of barbarous propaganda should also be rectified. Nobody paid attention to what I said. Why is it that things haven’t changed in sixty years? Not only young people should think about this but also we people who have lived through it should also reflect — in effect rethinking things. We should celebrate well the sixtieth anniversary and also rethink matters carefully. The whole nation and the whole Party should rethink things. A governing party, the only governing party of a great country, a party that has governed for sixty years should after all have the courage to rethink things. This is actually a responsibility and the people in the government and the Party are not up to the task. I believe that the views of the people, of the democratic parties, of the experts and the scholars, and people who have not fulfilled their political ambitions should be listened to especially carefully. These voices should not be suppressed. Sixty years. Here I am saying things that a sage of old said over one thousand years ago. When I think of that, it makes me feel very uncomfortable.

One old comrade who worked in the Party Secretariat in the early 1960s spent some of his later years in Shenzhen. Once when I went to visit him, he talked about the twists and turns in his career. He said that with respect to the state and the Party, he feels one part gratified, and two parts regrets. He personally pushed forward opening and reform in southern China and was one of the forerunners in reform in the entire country. One of his regrets is that he was unable to rectify a great injustice in the history of the Chinese Communist Party. Another regret is that he was unable to promote a policy of tolerance by the Party of people with different views. He didn’t speak long, so when he finished we two sat together in silence.

Sixty years have passed since the founding of the PRC. In the early years of New China, there were some political reasons for some policies but do those hold true for the entire sixty years? Are those political reasons still valid today? Are they reasonable? If these political reasons don’t make sense today, then how can the word “glorious: be applied to those sixty years of building state power, ideological construction, and cultural construction?

A system that tolerates dissident views still has not been constructed. That shows that this bit of Stalinism is still causing problems: “as the construction of the revolution become more successful, so too does enemy opposition become more serious”. If this were not so, how could it be that there has been no change in this area over the past sixty years? That old comrade died several years ago. His long-cherished wish still hasn’t been realized. That wish is how to make an accounting to the people and to history? From the breakdown of the first period of cooperation between the KMT and the Communist Party up until 1949 when we drove out the KMT, the KMT oppressed us for 22 years. They banned our publications, arrested and killed the members of our Party, and suppressed dissident view in the schools. History proves that they failed. We should not use similar means against dissident views and the people who hold them. Sixty years compared to twenty-two years, what sort of conception of time does that convey to us?

I was once a senior leader in the Communist Party. Now I enjoy excellent political treatment. I asked the professor, if it seems inconceivable that I could say these things? He replied honestly that he really isn’t sure that it is really inconceivable. I think I want to say these things just because I am a senior cadre and so should think about things from the perspective of historical responsibility. If not, than a senior cadre is the same thing as a senior official and that would never do. Responsibility to history is a problem of political ethics. Taking responsibility for a political party, that is an issue that needs to be thought about carefully.

I’ll put it this way, since I have been thinking about these problems for a long time. I remember how in the late 1970s, Comrade Hu Qiaomu in an internal Party speech mentioned the words political ethics. This is the first time I had ever heard these words. Once, during the break in a meeting, I went to him and asked him to explain it to me. He said that he has been through too many trials and tribulations within the Communist Party so the problem of political ethics is too difficult to explain in just a few words. Unfortunately, he never again discussed this issue. Yes, thirty years after the founding of the PRC, one outstanding talent finally brought up this issue within the Chinese Communist Party. After that, he didn’t bring it up ever again.

In the thirty years since, nobody ever brought it up again. I just do practical work myself and don’t have a high theoretical level. However, one idea has kept going back and forth in my mind these past thirty years. Could it be that we Communists just can’t stand discussing ethics? What I mean to say is, that others shut us out for 22 years and have we now for sixty years been using the tactics of those other to shut out others for sixty years? Is that itself a question of political ethics? We don’t discuss it openly but can we stop the people from thinking about this issue? Many questions have been bumping around in my head ever since that conversation in Shenzhen. I tried to put them out of my mind but I can’t. To be honest, I really don’t want to understand. I am afraid has to do with as the Song Dynasty poet Su Dongpo wrote “only willing to see things from my viewpoint on the mountain and not seeing the mountain”. This needs to be studied carefully.

Last year, as I watched on television our leaders at the national day celebration in Tiananmen Square offer flowers at the Monument to the People’s Heroes. When the people of today pay their respects to people who died in the past for an ideology or an ideal, is that not a kind of fundamental political ethics? If they had not made their sacrifice, the Communist Party would not hold power. That is a basic fact. But who will stand before the people and explain why that hasn’t been done for over 50 years? No, not even such a simple explanation is made. It seems that restoring political ethics in a short time will be difficult. You would have under you tens of millions of party members, you who rule over one billion citizens, for over fifty years, you have not even made a serious expression of respect. Shouldn’t you make a serious apology? Nobody has done what they should.

Whoever has made a mistake should stand up and take responsibility for it. That is a basic moral principle. In our Party there are many people who like to brag that everything is done correctly now. But they don’t make even a basic accounting of why things were not done correctly in the past. People often say that when the prodigal son returns, he isn’t asked to give the money back. The precondition for not paying back the money is reflection and accepting responsibility. Our great and impressive country, our great noble Party, has been very vague about its past and that is why it is in its current state! It has abused its servants and been careless in choosing people for promotion. The system of examinations and evaluations is also not run responsibly. The consultative system is also run irresponsibly. The disciplinary and inspection committee inspectors only care for their investigations and prosecutions but do not consider the negligence of those who were supposed to supervise these people. They arrest people, see that they are executed  and then consider the case closed.

But then discover the glorious accomplishments of these people. With all this, how could a country avoid becoming a country in which people do not accept responsibility. How could our Party not become an irresponsible Party? If things continue this way, how will we be able to even start to talk about political ethics.

Reflecting upon all this, I realize that these serious errors of our Party are all a matter of not being able to reverse course unless it runs into a wall. Those walls are the laws of nature and the objective rules of national development. If you break those rules, then your heads hits the wall and bleeds. Why is this so? For sixty years, our country has not developed a social force that can compete with the Communist Party, that can warn and supervise our Party. Those people with different views, because they do not reflect the correct line of the Communist Party, are ignored. But full powers to govern also means the responsibility of full powers. During these past sixty years, how many times has the development of the country been blocked and opportunities for the development of its citizens lost, and constitutional rights failed to be implemented. That situation is immoral. That old comrade who asked me to speak for him said, you and I are both getting old, what we worry about is that it will be hard to make an evaluation of us as we are laid in our coffins! I have already reached the latter days of my old age and cannot help but reproach myself in this way.

Once a man bears moral responsibility, he certainly will not live an easy life. A country and a political party are probably the same way. An old man like me, when he gets together with young people, always pricks up his ears to hear when these successors think of me. That young professor told me that over the past sixty years in our country there have not yet appeared voters in the true and complete sense. Our Party has not yet seen party members with full rights. We still have not built a system that allows other people to have a political function. Isn’t this what troubles you the most? I got to know this professor, despite the difference in our ages, because he sent to me through my son a short article that he had written. He said he does not plan to publish it, but wants it to circulate within the Party and stir up discussion.

In the article he asked why many of the rights in the Party Charter have not actually been implemented. Why weren’t the parts that were not amended? Many times I invited him over for discussions. We need to start from basic facts. We need to start from the time of the founding of the Communist Party. Our Party said that it represents the peasants and the workers. After 1949, it said it represents all the hundreds of millions of people of China. Down to the sixtieth anniversary of the founding of the PRC, its still says this. Everyone knows that for sixty years, it has not established serious and rigorous political processes to implement these rights whether through elections or other means.

Some old provincial governors and city mayors from my home province often come to see me. I always tell them, your position needs to be an elected one if you are to be able to do your job properly. You need to rely on your own abilities to get elected. You shouldn’t be relying as always on the behind the scenes work of the party organization department within the People’s Congress delegation. If you rely on that to get elected, you should blush. If you count on Party members with the right to vote by imposing party discipline to implement all the party’s decisions, that is just “party activities with the legislature”. That must be legal, but still, on many occasions, this becomes a method for suppressing dissident views. Just what other political party is there that compares in size to the Communist Party anyways? This is a system of unfair competition. It has been this way for sixty years. It hasn’t changed. It would be hard to argue that this system is serious and rigorous. According to the present election law, this is not illegal, yet it violates political ethics. It is the same as a single political party controlling the election process. This system makes it hard for the views of the people to be expressed. Anyone should be able to see that.

The Party School professor told me, that for the past sixty years, the Communist Party has responded to various crises including political unrest, internal disputes, pressure from public opinion, and improper personnel changes with a standard pattern of emergency response. The Party has also built up quite a lot of talent. With all these advantages, why hasn’t the Party been willing to engage in open inter party competition? I said that I can’t answer that question, but I do think that the problem of elections can’t be avoided. Today some people still say that conditions are still not ripe for Chinese people to have genuine democratic elections. That is just like saying that China has many peasants, many poorly educated people, and China doesn’t have a democratic tradition — all these are disadvantages. However, if these disadvantages were to turn into advantages, than the advantages of the Communist Party organization would disappear. When that happens, why not have a democratic election? When will this tangled knot of political ethics be finished with and untied? Sixty years have already passed. How many more decades will we have to wait?

Sixty years have passed since the founding of the PRC. I need to return to a fundamental issue. What do the citizens of this country want? What method should be used so that they can express their true desires? The Soviet Union didn’t know how to answer that question. The state and party collapsed after 69 years. I have never been a populist. One the basis of my decades of political experience, I dare to say that the expression of popular views is part of the “infrastructure” of the political system of a country and also a measure of the progress and culture of a country. I still get letters from many ordinary people. I ask my secretary to make a selection from them for me to read. I have been doing that for many years. Last year, I got a letter from a peasant in Shandong Province. He asked me, “Do you leaders in Beijing really know what we are thinking about and want?” This made me recall how during the difficult years of the 1960s, Chairman Mao called upon us to go to the countryside and do investigations. I went down to the countryside and traveled around for two months. I summarized them and made a report to Chairman Mao and the Central Committee.

Among them was this problem. Forty years passed and ordinary people are still asking this question. He did not get answer from the TV broadcasts and newspapers, so he asked me. Of course the views of the people are very complex, and there are all kinds of people with differing views. This is normal. The question is does the Party understand public opinion properly and what system can be used that will ensure that public opinion can be fully expressed? Television broadcasts report how people want to become rich and want to improve their lives. That is progress because before people weren’t allowed to say that openly. Who is to be held responsible for not having allowed people to speak? Don’t people today want to get rich? They want to get involved in more social and political matters, they want more rights, more opportunities to develop. Why aren’t they allowed to say this openly? Who will take responsibility for not letting them speak?

Sixty year have gone by, and shouldn’t we say that those errors in handling public opinion were the most serious errors the Communist Party has made. That should be written in the history books. In the early 1990s, there were many books of petitions, of interviews, and of open letters. As I have said many times, don’t make a big fuss about small matters, don’t make rough investigations and close things down. If people want to speak, then let them have their say. What is it that we can’t stand it? Nobody listens to what we say. A leader in charge of ideology and propaganda who came to see me said, I don’t dare not to interfere. The Party Central Committee says that the guardian has the responsibilities of his post, this post is mine, and if I don’t interfere, then I am negligent. You see — that is their idea of responsibility. But it is not being responsible to public opinion.

What especially pains me is that many people vulgarize the guidance of public opinion and use it for their own personal ends. Distorting public opinion and holding public opinion as a “hostage” to oppose reasonable demands for reform and to oppose calls to revise erroneous policies. The consequences are very serious and result in more violations of political ethics. At the end of the 1990s, a group of comrades who had taken part in the “War to Oppose America and Assist Korea” wrote to the Central Committee to request that scholars be forbidden from publishing the latest results of their research on the “War to Oppose America and Assist Korea”.

They believe that these research results revise the final conclusion that was previously established. They feel that they cannot accept that. That is public opinion, but what kind of public opinion? How much to these old comrades really know about the war? Those experts not only made use of the just-opened archives of the former Soviet Union and used these materials in scholarly research. What is wrong with that? A scholar wrote me a letter about an injustice that I passed along to a leader. But in the end, the letter was like a rock sinking into the deep sea. Where did that conclusion in the minds of those old comrades come from? Was it fed to them? If facts come along to revise some old ideas of theirs, should we say not, we should consider the feelings of these old comrades, say that “this history of the Party is an important matter”? What kind of political logic is this?

Sixty years have passed, there are many things that should change and may be changed, but that kind of logic makes the changeable become something that cannot be changed or may not be changed. If fundamental political ethics are to be established, there are many obstacles that must be overcome. The first is that for the past sixty years, our Party has made the state its own creature so that every one of the the twists and turns of all these years were all caused by the twists and turns of our Party itself. This pains me the disasters that the twists and turns of our Party brought to the state and ordinary people. All these years we told the people that if it weren’t for the Communist Party, there would be chaos. The people are very afraid of these twists and turns and want stability — this has became the “public opinion” as our party continued to govern alone. When will this cycle end?

The second has to do with how to enable the people to understand history and understand the true facts. We need to make clear some basic facts. For the past sixty years, the words we have used most is “The lives of tens of millions of martyrs paid for the red mountains and rivers”. This is one of the main reasons for the legitimacy of the Communist Party as the ruling party. Tens of millions of people died for New China. This is a basic fact. Another basic fact is why did they make this sacrifice? They came one after another, taking the place of fallen comrades, because the Communist Party had established goals and ideals. Today how many ordinary people know what goals the Communist Party established? I know.

In 1990, a book was published entitled “Heralds of History: Promises Made Fifty Years Ago”. The book was quickly banned. I had my secretary get me a copy. I finished reading it in a weekend. I then asked some people who had studied that historical period. They told me that the documents assembled in that book were all editorials, commentaries and declarations of our Party during the 1930s and 1940s. They were all authentic. Our Party at that time made promises to the Chinese people that it would establish a free, democratic and independent country. At that time the KMT was not democratic, did not allow freedom and did not allow the country to be truly independent. The Communist Party made these commitments and replaced it. These commitments attracted many people with lofty ideals.

The people who were sacrificed belonged to that group. In fact, these commitments can be found in Mao Zedong’s writings from the 1930s and 1940s. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, the editorial committee of Mao Zedong’s works edited them out. I saw an original and revised version sent from a document research office. In those days it gave us a big shock. Today, we can openly speak of the questions that arose in our minds over twenty years ago. But these revisions and the sacrifice in vain of these tens of millions of lives? It is all there in black and white, clearly repudiating the commitments that our Party made at that time. To speak plainly, we don’t respect history. In essence, this is a violation of political ethics. This is equivalent to building the foundations of the legitimacy of the party’s rule on a pile of sand. Can that be solid?

History will eventually reveal the truth to the people. If not in sixty years, than in seventy, if not in seventy years, then in eighty years the people will know. In 1991, the some experts wrote a report for the Central Committee that analyzed the dissolution of the Soviet Union. According to the report, Gorbachev’s opening destroyed the Soviet Communist Party and the Soviet Union. I would put a big question mark after this conclusion. I would say that it wasn’t that he did opening the wrong way but that it came too late. In many matters, there will always be people who will take an experience as a lesson and take a lesson as experience. That must change.

Sixty years have passed and there are still many things that have not been clearly explained to the people. When the “Decision” was drafted in 1980, many comrades raised many doubts. They were silenced by the issuance of a “rough outline”. That principle is still used today by some people who want to hide the truth and as a shield from taking responsibility before history. This made reform of our Party much more difficult. Last year, when the thirtieth anniversary of reform and opening was commemorated, some people who were involved in this turning point in history made some revelations but still observed many rules since the “taboo about criticizing living persons” and the “taboo about criticizing sages” had become a habit that is hard to break. That year I went to Guangdong Province on an inspection trip where some people involved told me about October 6, 1976 that confirmed some of the things I had heard from different sources. Just what happened behind the scenes our ordinary people could read in an issue of a south China newspaper.

In handling the matter of the “Gang of Four” the Party’s secret intelligence organs played a special role that is hard to explain but was indispensable. An old marshal used his own relatives to communicate with intelligence organs. That fact was hidden for twenty-two years. Who bears the responsibility for hiding this fact? That a leader of the governing party uses his own relatives and intelligence organs and military force to settle and in internal party dispute. This kind of thing that “is not to serve as a precedent” but will it truly not serve as a precedent? Premier Zhou, when the PRC was founded, warned Comrade Li Kenong that intelligence organs are not to be used in struggles within the party. Did his warning stop that violation of norms within the Party?

Sixty years have gone by, and the governing party still finds it inconvenient to explain matters to old comrades. It should at least also explain the facts clearly to the tens of millions of party members that while it praises this special contribution that enabled the country to achieve a new situation, it clearly condemns the methods they used. Only this way accords with political ethics. Today, we still haven’t heard any condemnation of their methods. A party that has governed the country for sixty years still doesn’t pay attention to this. What good is simply wanting the capacity to govern? Just what will become of a capacity to govern that is not founded on political ethics? I think that everyone should think carefully about this issue.

Our party has governed for sixty years. At the beginning it said it would make decision-making scientific and the balancing of powers. But what did it actually do? It seems that considering political ethics is indispensable. Talk is not enough; there need to be methods and a system to put it into practice. Chairman Mao before the PRC was founded put forth “Serve the people”. This is the highest goal of political ethics but how are the people to be served. Old Mao never was able to answer that question well. This “service” may be more modest that “govern for the people” but it is much more honest. But how is it to be put into practice? My conclusion is that making “Serve the People” or “Govern for the People” a slogan cannot solve problems. This slogan needs to be built on a foundation of political ethics. A young scholar named Kang a few years ago proposed that there are three sources of legitimacy. To say that a political party merely has to swear to “serve the people” and thus becomes the legitimate governing party seems immature to me and leaves some fundamental questions unaddressed.

Sixty years have gone by. Anyone who is concerned with the development of the country will be concerned with how to promote the development of democracy. Our ordinary people and social organizations are not able to express their own independent views with respect to the political life of our country. Neither can they truly participate in the political process or exercise oversight over the governing party. The words of the lowly carry little weight. This “three noes” situation cannot last for long. We can just keep going on with ritual talk, ritual inspections, and ritual approvals. We need to think more about how the ruling party can assume the historical responsibility it has towards the state, towards the people, and towards history.

I am so old and I have spoken so much. Some young people criticize me, that I didn’t speak up when I was in power, that I didn’t do anything. They are right to criticize me for this. I cannot myself use the objective situation and objective elements to reject the historical responsibility that I should bear. I have spoken so much about political ethics, yet I myself need to work on building up my own political ethics. In the 1980, while drafting the “Decision”, Comrade Deng Xiaoping said that he has the best credentials for evaluating the political character of Chairman Mao. Yet he also believed, that that kind of evaluation should be left to the future. In that way, the problem has come down to us. If successors don’t have the qualifications of Comrade Deng Xiaoping, and do not have basic political ethics, things will be dragged out until someone in the future addresses them. There will always be people who will have something to say. I am one of them.

( This manuscript was prepared on the basis of four conversations and approved by the person interviewed. The title was added by the person who prepared the text.)

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执政党要建立基本的政治伦理
——国庆60周年前夕一位老同志的谈话

建国六十周年了,听说正忙着阅兵准备,我已经老了,腿脚不灵了,

可能去不了天安门城楼了。以前,我不分管宣传报道这一块,但我知道,为了六十年大庆,会有很多大规模的宣传,主要为了宣传国家的成就和进步,这是六十年来 的老办法了,一直没有变过。前些天,中央党校一位年轻的教授到我这里来聊天,他很年轻,很有思想的。他总说他是改革的一代,而我这样的老头子是革命的一 代,现在的年轻人思想很活跃,给我出的难题不少,有些看法好像冒犯了我们党的一些说法和做法。可是,和他们谈得多了,我就越相信,他们还是真诚的,没有乱 来的意思。有时候,我觉得被他们的问题冒犯了,这可能说明我本人还不如这些年轻人真诚,我只是经常告诉他们,年轻人要多知道一些历史。

前些天,他又来了,说要向我请教历史,问题还不是他提的,而是他教的那个地厅级干部班的学员提的,他说他回答不出来,就把问题提给了我。那些学员干部在讨 论时提出的问题是:建国都六十年了,我们国家的哪些东西没有变?为什么没有变?会不会变?他的意思我明白,六十年大庆的宣传报道天天向老百姓说发生了什么 样什么样的变化,能不能换个角度来想一下,一个国家让一个政党领导六十年了,也不算短的时间了,这六十年到底应该怎么来概括、怎么来总结,我们党有责任向 老百姓说清楚讲明白。一时说不清楚讲不明白,有疑问,也没有关系,重要的是要讲出来,公开讲出来,不要藏着不讲或私下里讲。建国都六十年了,还不能公开地 讨论一些问题,这六十年该当何论呢?我们是过来人,有责任说清楚讲明白,尤其是一些基本事实,一些基本道理,不能令已昏昏,也不能让人昏昏。

我告诉年轻教授,建国六十年了,我们这个国家没有变的东西还有很多很多。最基本的事实是,这个国家还是由中国共产党领导,这个事实谁都明白,但这个事实的 背后是什么呢?比如说,我们党有7000多万党员,是一个最大的党,而这个党至今还没有在社团管理部门登记过,这个事实背后又是什么呢?就是我们国家还没 有一部“政党法”,六十年了,还是空白,没有变,我们国家还没有现代意义上的政党制度。“国家还是党的国家”,而不是“党是国家的党”。六十年了,“党和 国家领导人”这个概念没有变。在财政上,党库与国库之间的那堵墙还没有建立起来。再看看,数百万军队还叫解放军,没有变,还不是真正意义上的国家武装力 量。军队的最高领导人还是党的最高领导人。党军一体没有被国家对军队的领导来代替。六十年了,这一点也没有变。即便在党内,六十年了,也没有建立起真正意 义上的竞争性选举制度,更不用说在国家范围内了。经常说到的协商,实际上还是战争时期的秘密运作传统。这都是一些基本的事实,它们能引伸出什么基本道理, 应该好好讨论。这些讨论离不开这些基本事实的,年轻人真应该多多了解历史。我记得建国初期,几个民主党派人士给中央写信,建议把中南海还给老百姓,这个皇 家园林最好作为公益文化的纪念物保存下来。80年代初,书记处又接到过类似的建议,还加了一条:党中央机关应该挂牌办公,办公厅、中组部、中宣部、统战部 等,都是执政党的机关,不是非法的地下机关,这个建议转了好几个书记的手里,最后没有上会讨论。这两件事,也是六十年来没有变化的。

后来,教授告诉我,他自认为对一些问题特别有研究,但还是没有想到怎么样来理解这么一些基本事实。我通过很多渠道知道这十多年来的新思潮、新提法,不管什 么样的理论什么样的流派,对国家六十年变化了的东西、没有变化的东西,先要搞明白基本事实。有些东西应不应该变、可不可以变、能不能变,要区分起来,比较 困难。要讨论问题,那就从搞清楚基本事实入手。我对年轻的教授说,你提那么个问题,我别无选择,只有说事实,基本的事实。基本事实搞明白了,有头脑的人就 会思考了,这种“没有变化”是一种政治优势吗?还是一种政治惯性?还是一种政治停滞?都要好好研究,要具体分析,不要下空洞的结论。

前些年,一位老同志病重,我去看他,他花了一个多小时向我说他对国家、对党的现状的种种担忧,说很想对中央领导同志直接谈。他说他没有这个机会了,我说, 我保证转达到。后来,一位常委同志来看我,我就传了话,我特别忘不了的是,这位老同志专门提到,革命了一辈子,到头来怎么向老百姓、向历史作个交代,还有 那么多疑点没有搞清楚,怎么交代才好呢?建国六十年了,我想,这是好机会,应该好好总结,好好讨论的。我是个老头子了,为国家为党也工作了一辈子,那种感 情是怎么也割舍不了的,可我一直就不同意“辉煌五十年”、“辉煌六十年”的提法。这不符合事实的。大跃进困难时期那三、四年,“文革”动乱那十年,总不能 说是辉煌的吧,宣传用的词,也要讲究精准,要符合基本事实。你不把那几年扣除,老百姓在心里会扣掉的,历史学家也会扣除的。普通党员也会那么做的。在90年代的那几年,我说过不止一次,政治宣传离事实太远,那叫什么?那就是不文明的,是野蛮的宣传。那几年治理码头车站上的野蛮装卸,这野蛮宣传也要治一治。 我的话没有人听。这六十年来,为什么这一点没有变,不但年轻人要想一想,我们这些过来人更要想一想,这叫反思。六十年了,应该好好庆祝了,也应该好好反 思。要举国反思,要举党反思。一个执政党,一个大国的唯一的执政党,执政了六十年的执政党,总应该有起码的反思勇气吧。这实际上是一种责任,是政党的责 任。这反思,肯定会引出许多不同的看法来,这有什么可奇怪的呢?要是搞得气氛紧张,搞一些封杀动作,这显得我们共产党人太没有气度了。在我看来,老百姓的 看法,民主党派人士的看法,专家学者的看法,政治上不得志的人的看法,这四类人的看法,尤其应该好好听听,封杀不得,六十年了,我还在这里说一些一千多年 前古人说过的那些道理,想起来让人感到很不舒服。

有一位八十年代初主持书记处工作的老同志,晚年在深圳住过几年,有一次我去看他,谈到他那曲折的人生经历,他说,对这个国家、对这个党,他有一大欣慰,两 大遗憾。欣慰的是,他亲手推动的华南地区的改革开放成为国家发展的先行者。一个遗憾的是,没有能为党的历史上一个重大冤案平反,另一个遗憾的是没有推动党 对不同意见的容忍政策。他的话不多,说完了,我们俩只是相对无语。建国都六十年了,新中国成立初期,有些政策有些政治上的理由,那也不至于六十年来都是如 此呀。那些理由现在还存在吗?还站得住脚吗?如果那些理由还站得住脚的话,那么,六十年的政权建设、思想建设、文化建设,还能用“辉煌”两个字来概括吗? 容忍不同看法的机制还没有建立起来,这只能说明,斯大林主义的那一套还在作怪:革命建设越成功,敌人的反抗就越严重。否则,何至于六十年在这一方面还没有 变化呢?那位老同志前几年已经故去了,他的夙愿还依然是个夙愿。这怎么向老百姓交代、向历史交代?从国共第一次合作分裂开始,到1949年我们赶走国民 党,国民党压制了我们22年,封杀我们的报刊,捕杀我们的党员,在学校里压制不同的意见。历史证明,他们失败了。我们绝对不能用类似的手段来对待不同意 见,对待其他人士。六十年对二十二年,这是一种什么样的时间概念?

我曾经是这个党的高级领导干部,现在享受着很高的政治待遇。我问年轻教授、由我来说出这些话,是不是让他觉得不可思议呢?他老实告诉我说,他真的不知道是 不是不可思议。我想要说的是,正因为是高级干部,就更应该从历史责任的高度来考虑问题,否则,高级干部就等于高级官员,这万万要不得。历史责任就是一个政 治伦理的问题,对一个政党要负责,就要好好想一想这个问题。
我这样说,是因为我对许多问题想了很久。记得七十年代末的时候,乔木同志有一次党内讲话时提到了政治伦理这个词,这是我第一次听到这个词。有一次开会休息 的时候,我专门向他请教,他说他经历了党内太多的风风雨雨,政治伦理问题真是一言难尽。可惜他后来再也没有谈过这个问题。是啊,到了建国三十年,党内才有 这么一位大秀才提了这么一句。之后,又不提了。又是三十年了,还是没有人再提。我是做具体工作的,没有那么高的理论水平,可脑袋里一个疑问转了三十年了: 我们共产党人就那么不堪谈政治伦理吗?我要说的是,人家封杀我们22年,我们就有必要花六十年时间以其人之道还治其人之身吗?这样的道理不就是政治伦理问 题吗?我们不公开谈,能阻止老百姓去想这样的问题吗?这么多问题,在那次深圳谈话以后,一直在我的脑袋里撞来撞去,赶也赶不走。说老实话,我还没有想明 白,这恐怕不能用“只缘身在此山中”来解释。这正是需要大家一起来好好研究的。

去年,在电视上看到我们的领导人在国庆那一天到天安门广场,向人民英雄纪念碑行礼献花。后人向过去为主义、为理想的献身者表达敬意,不正是一种基本的政治 伦理吗?没有他们的牺牲,就没有共产党掌权,这是基本的事实。可是,有谁站出来向老百姓解释一下,为什么过去五十多年就没有这样做?没有,连个简单的交代 都没有。看来,要一下子找回政治伦理也难。你属下几千万党员,你治下十几亿国民,五十多年了,连个庄重的致敬仪式都没有,是不是应该有个庄重的道歉呢。谁 没有做应该做的事情,谁做错了事情,谁就要站出来担责任的。这是起码的伦理。我们党有不少人总是习惯夸耀说现在做的一切都是正确的,同时,却对过去为什么 不做正确的事情连个起码的交代都没有。人们常说浪子回头金不换,这金不换要有前提,就是要有反思,要有承担责任。我们这么一个泱泱大国,这么一个堂堂大 党,总这样含混过去,成了什么样子!用人用错了,举荐的人不负责任,考察评价系统也不负责任,协商机制不负责任,纪律检查委员会也只管查处,不管用人过程 中的失察责任,把人关起来了或者枪毙了,就算了结了,还要说查处此人是伟大的成就。这样,这个国家不就成了没人负责任的国家了吗?我们的党不就成了没有人 负责任的党了吗?这么下去,这政治伦理又从何谈起呢?

仔细想想,我们党的那些重大失误都属于撞到了南墙上才回头的,这堵墙是自然规律、国家发展的客观规律,你违反了规律,就头破血流了。为什么会这样?六十年 了,我们国家没有成长起应该有的社会性力量来与我们共产党竞争,来提醒、来监督我们党,那些不同意见统统因为不能反映我们党的正确就听也不听。那么全权施 政,那就全权独担责任吧,又不是。六十年里有多少时间,国家发展受到阻碍,国民的发展机会失去了,宪法权利也得不到实现。这种现象是很不伦理的。那位让我 传话的老同志对我说过:你我都垂垂老矣,怕的是盖棺难定论呀!我已经走到了晚年的晚年了,这样的自责总摆脱不了。

人一旦有了伦理责任,肯定活得不轻松。一个国家,一个政党大概也是如此。我这么一个老人总想和年轻人在一起,就是要竖起耳朵,听听这些后来人怎么说我。这 位年轻教授对我说,六十年了,我们国家还没有出现完整意义上的选民,我们党也没有出现权利完整的党员,我们还没有建立起来容许其他人发挥政治作用的制度, 这些是不是您个人最大的不安?我和教授的忘年之交,是因为他通过我的孩子转给他写的一篇短文,他说他不为了发表,只是希望能在党内流传,引起讨论,文章说 的是“党章”上的那么多权利为什么落不到实处,为什么落不到实处却又不加修改。我就找他来谈了很多次。还是要从基本事实说起。从建党的时候起,我们党就说 自己代表了农工,四九年以后,又说代表了几万万中国人民,到建国六十年的现在,还是这么来讲。大家同时还看到,六十年了,并没有严肃严谨的政治程序来赋予 那种代表权,选举的、非选举的,都没有。

老家的一些省市长经常来看我,我总是对他们讲,你们的职位是需要选举才能得到的,要凭自己的本事来当选,不要老是寄希望于人大代表团中党组织的幕后作用。 靠这种作用选上的,脸要红的,对有选举权的党员进行党纪约束来统一贯彻党的决定,这就是“议会中的党员活动”,应该是合法的,可是,在很多情况下,这就变 成了压制不同意见的优势,哪里有像共产党这样大的党团呢?这不是平等竞争的机制,六十年来都是如此,没有变,很难说这样的程序是严肃的、严谨的。依照现在 的选举法,这没有违法之处,但却是违背政治伦理的,等于一家政党掌控了选举机器,民意要真正表达,就是一件难事了。这是谁都看得见的。

党校这位教授告诉我,六十年来,共产党应对各种危机,比如政治动荡、内部纷争、舆论压力、人事不正常变动,已经有了许多很定型的危机处置办法了,人才也聚 积了不少,有这么大的优势,为什么还没有打算搞平等的党际竞争呢?我说,我回答不了这个问题,但总觉得竞争选举是一个绕不过去的坎。现在还有人说,在中国 搞真正意义上的民主选举,条件不成熟,这好像是说,中国农民多,素质不高,中国没有民主传统,这都是劣势。可是,当这些劣势转变为优势了,共产党组织的优 势可能就没有了,到那时候,就又有理由不开放民主选举了。这政治伦理上的死结,什么时候能彻底解开?六十年已经过去了,还要再等几十年?

建国六十年了,应该回到一个最基本的问题上去。这个国家国民的意愿到底是什么?应该通过什么样的办法来表达真正的民意?这个问题,苏联没有搞明白,六十九 年就亡国亡党了,我从来就不是一个民粹主义者,凭我几十年的政治阅历,我敢说,表达民意是一个国家政治制度的“基础设施”,也是衡量一个国家进步、文明程 度的主要标准。我总能收到许多老百姓写来的信,我就让秘书挑一些让我看看,多年来都是这么做的。去年,接到山东一位农民的信,他问我:你们北京的领导到底 知道不知道我们在想什么、想要什么?我就想起六十年代困难时期,毛主席他老人家号召我们大兴调查研究之风,我下到农村,走了两个月,汇总起来报告给毛主席 党中央一大堆问题,其中就有这个问题。四十年过去了,这个问题还是让老百姓又问出来了。老百姓从我们的广播电视、报纸上找不到答案,就又问到我们头上来 了。当然,民意本身是很复杂的,有各种各样的人,就有各种各样不同的看法,这很正常。关键是,我们党是不是正视了民意,又在用什么样的制度来保证民意能获 得充分的、真实的表达。现在电视上报道了老百姓想致富想发展、想生活得好一些。这是一个进步,因为以前不让公开这么讲。这不让讲的责任,由谁来负?现在老 百姓老想发财致富吗?他们想参与更多的社会政治事务,想要有更多的权利,更多的发展机会。这些为什么不让公开讲?这不让讲的责任,又由谁来负?六十年了, 我们是不是应该说,在民意处理上的失误,是我们共产党最大的失误,这是要写进史书的。90年初那几年,有不少签名信、万言书、公开信,我说过多少次,不要 大惊小怪,不要乱查封杀,人家有话说,就让他说出来,有什么忍受不了的。我的话就是没有人听。一位管思想宣传的领导跑到我那里说,我不敢不管呀,中央说守 土有责,我是管这个的,不管就是失责,你看看,这就是他的责任观念,就是不对民意负责。

让我特别痛心的是,有许多人还把对民意的引导庸俗化、功利化。歪曲民意,挟持民意为“人质”,来抵制对改革的正当要求,抵制对一些错误决策的修正。这造成 很严重的后果,更是违反政治伦理的。九十年代末的时候,一些参加过抗美援朝的老同志给中央写信,要求禁止一些学者发表关于抗美援朝战争的最新研究成果,他 们认为,这些研究修正了过去的一些定论,让他们感情上受不了。这是民意吧,可这是什么样的民意呢?这些老同志到底了解那场战争多少?那些专家则不过是到前 苏联那里查了刚刚公开的档案,做了学术上的研究。这有什么错?有一个学者写信给我喊屈叫冤,我给有关领导转了他的信,最后还是石沉大海了。那些老同志脑袋 里的定论到底从哪里来的?还不是从外面灌输给他们的。要用事实来纠正他们的一些老观念,就说不行,就说要照顾老同志们的感情,就说“党史无小事”,这是什 么政治逻辑?

六十年了,许多应该变而且可以变的东西,在这样的逻辑下,就变成了不能变、不可变的东西,要树立起基本的政治伦理,还有许多障碍要克服。第一条,六十年 了,我们党把国家的治乱要系于一身,过去那么多年的折腾,没有不起因于我们党自身的折腾的。这让我痛心,我们党的折腾殃及了国家,殃及了老百姓。这么多年 了,我们告诉老百姓说,这个国家没有共产党的话,就会大乱的,老百姓真是怕折腾怕到极点了,他们对稳定的盼望,就成了我们党再单独执政下去的“民意”,这 一循环什么时候能够打破呢?

第二条,涉及到怎么样让老百姓认清历史、认清现实,就是要认清一些基本事实。六十年来,我们说得最多的一段话是“几千万革命先烈换来了红色江山”。这是关 于共产党执政合法性的最大理由之一。为了新中国,死了数千万人,这是基本事实。还有一个事实是,他们是为什么牺牲的?他们前仆后继,为的是当时我们中国共 产党设立的目标和理想,现在,有多少老百姓知道那时共产党设立了什么具体目标?我知道,90年时,出过一本书,书名叫《历史的先声——半个世纪前的承 诺》,很快被查封了。我让秘书找了一本我看看,用了一个周末的两天,我全部看完了,我还找了一些专门研究那段历史的专家来问了情况,他们告诉我,这本书里 收集的,全部是我们党在三四十年代公开发表的社论、评论、声明,没有一份是伪造的。当时,我们党向全中国人民做了承诺,要建立一个民主、自由、独立的国 家。那时,国民党不搞民主,不给自由,也没有能力让国家真正独立,才有共产党肩负那些承诺来取而代之。这些承诺的确吸引了无数志士仁人。那些牺牲的人就属 于这部分人。其实,那些承诺在毛主席三四十年代的许多著作中都有。可是,到了五六十年代都被那个毛泽东著作编辑委员会修改掉了。我看到过一份文献研究室送 来的原稿与修改稿,当时让我心里震动很大。现在,我能公开说出二十多年前我脑袋里就产生的疑问,这么个修改法,那几千万人不是白白牺牲了吗?那是白纸黑 字,确实推翻了当年我们党的承诺。说轻了,这是不尊重历史,本质上,这就是违反政治伦理,这就等于是把我们党执政掌权的基础建在沙滩上,这能牢固吗?历史 总会把真相还给老百姓的,六十年不行,七十年,七十年不行,八十年,老百姓总要知道的。91年的时候,有专家给中央写出苏联解体原因的分析报告,说是戈尔 巴乔夫的公开性毁掉了苏共、毁掉了苏联。我在这个结论下是划了大大问号的。照我看,不是公开性搞错了,而是搞迟了。在许多事情上,我们有一些人总是把经验 当教训,把教训当经验,这不改是绝对不行的。

建国六十年了,还有多少事情没有向老百姓说清楚,80年起草《决议》时,许多同志提出了许多疑问,后来都被一句“粗线条”打发过去了,这个原则在今天还在 起作用,被一些人用来做为掩盖真相、推卸历史责任的挡箭牌,让我们党的改革更加艰难。去年,纪念改革开放三十年的时候,一些当事人就那个历史转折的真相做 了一点披露,但还是被设置了许多规矩,以致“活人讳”、“圣人讳”成了一种习惯,难改。那一年我到广东视察,就有一些当事人向我聊起1976年月10月6日的一些事情,印证了我以前的一些道听途说,这一事件的内幕,我们的老百姓在去年的一份南方报纸上看到。在处理“四人帮”过程中,党的秘密情报机关起到了 特殊作用,难以说明、又不可缺少的作用,老帅要利用自己的亲属与情报机关作沟通打招呼。这一事实被隐瞒了整整三十二年。谁承担这种隐瞒的责任?一个执政党 的领导人运用亲属、情报机关、军队的力量来解决党内纠纷,这种“下不为例”的事情,真的下不为例了吗?周总理在建国之初就告诫过李克农同志,情报机关不要 卷入党内斗争,他的告诫防止了我们党内的那些不规范行为了吗?六十年了,执政党即使不方便向老百姓说清楚,至少也应该先向几千万党内同志讲清楚,在赞扬那 些为国家进入新局面作出了特殊贡献的人的同时,也应该明确地否定他们所使用的手段,这才符合基本的政治伦理。现在,还没有听到这种否定。一个执政党执政了 六十年还不注意这一点,要执政能力有什么用?没有政治伦理为基础的执政能力,会变成什么样的能力,我想,大家会认真思考这个问题的。

我们党执政六十年了,开始说到了决策科学化,开始说到了权力制衡,但做得到底怎么样?看来不说到政治伦理不行,光说到还不行,还要有办法、有制度来落实这 种伦理。毛主席在没有建国的时候,就提出了“为人民服务“,这是最高的政治伦理目标,可是怎么为人民服务,他老人家没有回答好这个问题。这“服务”不知要 比“执政为民”要谦卑、要诚恳多少倍,但做得怎么样呢?我的结论是,光有“为人民服务”、“执政为民”的宗旨,是解决不了问题的,这一宗旨也还是要有政治 伦理作基础的。有一个姓康的年轻学者前几年提出第三种合法性来源,说是一个政党只要发誓为老百姓服务,就有了执政的合法性,我看,这种看法是不成熟的,对 基本事实都没有搞清楚。

六十年了,只要关心国家发展前途的人,都会想到怎么样推进政治民主的问题,我们的老百姓、社会团体对国家政治生活既表达不了独立的看法,又参与不了实际政 治过程,又监督不了执政党,人微言轻,这种“三不”状态总不能这样延续下去吧,不能总是一成不变地讲话如仪、视察如仪、批示如仪吧。要多想想执政党对国 家、对老百姓、对历史应该承担的历史责任。

我这么老了,说了这么多。有些年轻人会骂我,在位的时候怎么不说,怎么不做,这种责骂是有道理的,我个人不能用客观环境、客观因素来推卸我应该承担的那一 部分历史责任。说了那么多政治伦理,我本人就要好好养成那种政治伦理。80年起草《决议》的时候,小平同志说,他最有资格来评价毛主席他老人家的政治品 质。可他却认为,这种评价应该让后人去做。这么一来,难题就留下了。如果后人既没有小平同志那种资格,又不讲基本的政治伦理,这事情又要赖给后后人了。总 要有人出来讲话的,我算是其中的一个吧。

(此稿由四次谈话整理而成,经谈话人审定。标题为整理者所加)

欢迎在QQ/MSN/GTALK/SKYPE/twitter上传播:  万里的讲话,《执政党要建立基本的政治伦理——国庆60周年前夕一位老同志的谈话》 http://bit.ly/12Joiu

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Trending on Wechat in China: Trump does his friend Zuckerberg a favor by banning Tik Tok in the U.S.

Translation by Alex Yuan of article “The Opportunist Zuckerberg” 投机分子扎克伯格 by Fang Hao which appeared online on a Weixin microblog. Original Chinese language text is copied below.

[Note on translation: The writer uses slang and colloquial terms to be entertaining euphemisms cannot be directly translated into English, I have made an approximate attempt to capture the “feel” for the language and included explanations in parentheses.]


继美国国务卿蓬佩奥表示有可能封杀抖音海外版Tik Tok之后,美国总统特朗普一天之后再次确认做了这个可能性。

A day after Secretary of State Pompeo mentioned the possibility of blocking Tik Tok in the U.S., Trump also confirmed the U.S. was considering it.

如果Tik Tok在失去印度市场之后又失去美国市场,等于失去了中国科技公司出海过程中两个最重要的市场:一个是人口最多的海外市场,一个是经济最发达的海外市场。咖喱饭凉了,鸡腿汉堡也要凉了。

If Tik Tok loses the India and U.S. market, it would be akin to losing the two largest overseas markets in the world: One market is the world’s most populous, another market is the world’s most economically developed. Just as the dish of Curry Chicken is cooling off, the chicken sandwich is also cooling off [Translator’s Note: India market is the Curry Chicken and the U.S. market is a Chicken Sandwich]

现在这个节骨眼上,全世界最高兴的人当属Facebook创始人扎克伯格。去年全球月活最多的十款App,前三名都是Facebook家的,第四名是微信,第五名还是扎记出品:Instagram。第六名就是抖音海外版Tik Tok。

At this juncture, the happiest person in the world is Facebook’s founder Zuckerberg. Last year, of the ten most popular apps, the top three were part of Facebook, the fourth was wechat and the fifth was also Zuckerberg’s Instagram. The sixth was Douyin’s overseas version Tik Tok.

关键是,Tik Tok过去半年还在疯狂增长,被扎克伯格视作Instagram最大的威胁。微信的天花板是华人圈子,Tik Tok的天花板是国会山。在国会山谈笑风生、舌战群儒的扎克伯格怎么可能给张一鸣过去喝茶的机会。

The critical thing is that Tik Tok over the last six months has been experiencing crazy growth, becoming the biggest threat to Zuckerberg’s Instagram. Wechat’s limiting factor is the Chinese population, TIk Tok’s limiting factor is Capitol Hill. How could Zuckerberg, the lobbyist and debater of Capitol Hill, give the same opportunity to Zhang Yiming to go to Capitol Hill to face his critics? [Translator’s Note: Zhang Yiming is the founder of Bytedance, the owner of Tik Tok]

字节跳动接下来IPO两个选择,一个是美国,一个是香港。据说之前的调调是只要美国政府不封杀Tik Tok,就选择华尔街。现在来看,90%会选择香港了。

There are two choices for the Bytedance’s IPO, one is an IPO in the US, and the other one is an IPO in Hong Kong. Rumors were that Bytedance would choose to IPO on Wall Street as long as the USG did not block them. Now it looks like its 90% likely that Bytedance will choose Hong Kong over the US.

目前Tik Tok在美国市场的下载量接近2亿,这意味着字节跳动一旦在美国上市,抢的就是“扎记”的钱仓。小扎没能搞定中国,小张却有可能搞定美国,反了,反了。

Currently Tik Tok has close to 200 million downloads in the U.S. What this means is that if ByteDance were to IPO in the U.S., it would be stealing money from Zuckerberg’s treasure chest. While Zuckerberg can’t break into China, ByteDance has figured out how to make money in the U.S., everything has run counter to expectations.

所以,小扎此刻的心情,应该就是2010年李彦宏的心情了:哎玛,没想到还有意外惊喜!

As such, Zuckerberg’s thoughts on this should be similar to the thoughts that Li YanHong (founder of Baidu): How unexpected!

2011年上市的时候,Facebook一直被认为是美国的新一代互联网巨头,大有颠覆谷歌、亚马逊之势,但随后几年的发展并没有如预期想的那样,不仅市值已经被谷歌、亚马逊越甩越远,去年还经历了“数据门”带来的政治风波。至于小扎念兹在兹 的中国市场,更是关上了大门。

In 2011 when Facebook went on an IPO, it was seen as the leader of a new generation of internet companies, a giant upending Google, Amazon. But after a few years later it did not turn out as expected, not only has Facebook’s market value lagged behind Google and Amazon, there was last years controversy over ”datagate.” ( This may be a reference to Cambridge Analytica – data-analytics firm) To top it off, Zuckerberg’s love affair with the potential Chinese market was also shutdown.

去年,看到Facebook进军中国市场已无希望,小扎把枪口对准有关部门,批评咱们对互联网内容审查太严。当年谷歌退出中国的时候,两位创始人也只是告诉世人“我们不做什么”,小扎则是简单直接:你们不该这么做。年轻人啊,你管得有点多!

Last year, when it looked like Facebook had no hope in the Chinese market Zuckerberg criticized the Chinese government that had requested Facebook to censor content in order to work in China. He criticized China’s overly strict controls on the internet. But when Google shutdown its China operations because both of Google’s co-founders said they were also unwilling to censor content, Zuckerberg switched positions and criticized Google saying “You shouldn’t do this.” Youngsters, you protest too much!

要知道,2016年的那个春天,小扎为了Facebook能进中国亲自来京公关。当时他还是一个穿上跑鞋、不带口罩、吸着雾霾在天安门前做健身状的华裔女婿,一句“我又回北京了”亲切得像个老街坊。没想到翻脸比翻书还快。

Its important to note that in spring 2016, Zuckerberg came to China to talk to Chinese officials. At the time he was wearing sneakers, without a face mask and breathing the pollution of Tiananmen. With his ethnic Chinese wife he proclaimed “I’ve returned to Beijing” like an old Beijnger. No one knew that he would change his tune faster than flipping a page of a book.

扎克伯格把进入中国市场当成了写代码:我输入一个指令,就应该有一个结果。但他没想到硅谷算法与北京算法并不一样。WPS抢了那么多微软的市场也没见盖茨抱怨一句,姜还是老的辣。

Zuckerberg thought entering the China market was like designing a algorithm: you enter an order, and out comes the result. What he didn’t realize was that his Silicon Valley calculations were different than Beijing’s calculations. Notice that even after WPS (Chinese software company that competes with Microsoft Word) took over much of Microsoft’s market in China, Bill Gates didn’t complain publicly at all. As the Chinese saying goes “The older ginger is spicier.” [Translator’s Note: WPS is a Chinese word processing program that has largely replaced Microsoft Word in China. Bill Gates is the old ginger.]

扎克伯格只比张一鸣小一岁,但成名早了将近十年。2004年Facebook成立时,张一鸣还在读大三。现在很多人喜欢把张一鸣称作中国的扎克伯格,二人确实很像:都用算法干了一大票、也都喝过茶。只不过小扎属于喝茶上瘾型,喝完美式速溶茶还要喝中式红茶;小张不喜欢喝茶。所谓“扎克一鸣”,不存在的。

Zuckerberg is only one year younger than Zhang Yiming, but Zuckerberg became famous ten years earlier than Zhang. When Facebook was started in 2004, Zhang was still in his third year at university. Today many people call Zhang Yiming, China’s Zuckerberg, the two of them are very similar: Both used algorithms to win the big ticket (becoming wealthy and successful), and both lobby their governments. Except that Zuckerberg is a lobby addict, after drinking American tea (lobbying the U.S. government) he also wanted to try Chinese Black Tea (lobbying the Chinese government). But Zhang doesn’t like to lobbying. So the term “Zuckerberg-Zhang” is not a fair description.

前段时间口无遮拦的特朗普把Twitter高层烦得实在看不下去了,一会警告一会屏蔽内容,惹得总统大人很不开心。此时小扎及时地出现了,他表示Facebook愿意成为总统畅所欲言的地方。挖角Twitter 大V的野心昭然若揭。

At some point, the uninhibited Trump’s twitter announcements pushed Twitter to the point that they could no longer tolerate him. Twitter wavered between warning Trump and then deleting his content. This caused the president to be very unhappy. At this point, Zuckerberg showed up. He said Facebook is willing to be a platform for free debate. Pulling a VIP account like Trump from Twitter to Facebook reveals Zuckerberg’s ambition.

扎克伯格的野心从特朗普竞选美国总统之初就显露出来了。当时Facebook的天使投资人、董事会成员彼得·蒂尔因为资助了特朗普上百万美元得罪了一票硅谷大佬,同行、媒体纷纷要求小扎把这位投资大佬赶出董事会,但扎克伯格力排众议,根本没当回事。

Zuckerberg’s ambition since the election of Trump are now clear for all to see. When Facebook’s angel investor and Board Member, Peter Thiel angered the Silicon Valley elite for donating millions to the Trump campaign, media elites urged Zuckerberg to push Peter out of the Facebook’s Board but Zuckerberg acted like it was no big deal.

小扎之于蒂尔,就是小弟之于大哥的关系。没有彼得·蒂尔早年间那笔及时的投资,Facebook可能就挂在半路上了。大哥陪伴了Facebook十多年,一路给小扎保驾护航,大哥要给总统候选人捐款,小弟事先能不知道?

Zuckerberg’s relationship to Thiel is akin to a student and his mentor.[Translator’s Note: The Chinese version uses “small brother to big brother” which denotes a student/ mentor relationship] If not for Thiel’s early investment, Facebook may have fell to the wayside. The mentor stayed with Facebook for ten years, protecting Zuckerberg. Along the way, if Thiel wants to give millions to a presidential candidate, could the protege not have known Thiel’s political inclinations all along? [Translator’s Note: This is a rhetorical question implying that Zuckerberg and Thiel both support Trump)

彼得·蒂尔投资的Facebook回报超过1万倍,但他对特朗普的投资,不啻为是对Facebook早先投资的一种延续。去年美国国会吊打小扎,无非是民主党的秋后算账 (。

Thiel’s initial investment into Facebook has netted him a return that is 10,000 times more than his initial investment. He used the same strategy in his early investment in Trump. Last year, Congress questioned and berated Zuckerberg during hearings, it must have been the Democrats getting even with him after the election.

当年特朗普与希拉里选战正酣,Facebook一面把特朗普的竞选广告投放给更多的用户,一面用算法放大关于希拉里的黑材料。后来有人说Facebook与特朗普走的太近,特朗普说扎克伯格一直帮俄罗斯人在Facebook上黑我,小扎说我一直反对特朗普。二人真真假假演得很到位。

During the campaign when Trump and Hillary fought, Facebook not only used its algorithm to put Trump’s ads in front of as many users as possible but also used its algorithm to disseminate information to its users that discredited Hillary Clinton. Some people said this showed that Facebook was too close to Trump. In response, Trump publicly accused Facebook of helping Russian trolls to spread rumors on the internet discrediting him. At the same time, Zuckerberg publicly stated he was always opposed to Trump. The two of them, Trump and Zuckerberg, created this false controversy in order to prevent the public from realizing how much they secretly support each other.

在美国,一个路人皆知的野心就是,小扎想成为美国总统。他想入住华盛顿已是公开的秘密。这与生于美国偏远山区的亚马逊创始人贝佐斯很不一样。作为特朗普的著名反对者,贝爷自己不想从政,更不想特朗普这样的人住在华盛顿,所以他收购了《华盛顿邮报》,天天写特朗普负面,川皇都要烦死了。

In the U.S. it is well known that Zuckerberg’s ambition is to run for President one day. The fact he wants to go to Washington D.C. is an open secret. This is very different than Amazon’s founder, the standoff-ish Bezos. As Trump’s main critic, Bezos does not want to personally enter government service, but also hates the idea of Trump living in Washington D.C. That is why he bought the Washington Post, so he can criticize Trump all day which drives Trump nuts.

在特朗普眼中,如果说小扎属于人畜无害小可爱,贝佐斯就属于势不两立的大魔头了。《华盛顿邮报》简直就是“针插不进去、水泼不进去的独立王国”。你说你一个电商大佬买什么媒体,买了之后还要跟中央唱反调,这不是作死吗?但这就是西海岸大佬的主流作风。

To Trump, Zuckerberg is a cute harmless little pet while Bezos is like a tiger on a mountain with room for only one tiger. The Washington Post is like a “an impregnable kingdom that cannot be attacked by land or sea” [Translator’s Note: this is a famous quote attributed to Mao Zedong who felt powerless against newspapers that criticized his policies.] What kind of internet mogul buys a newspaper and then proceeds to attack the central government with it? Is he suicidal? But this is exactly how the big shots on the West Coast believe how the game should be played.

从政治站位来讲,小扎属于硅谷的非主流、甚至是反主流。东风刮来向西倒,西风刮来向东倒,不仅想左右逢源,还想太平洋两岸通吃,想得美!

In politics, Zuckerberg stands well outside the Silicon valley mainstream. He even runs counter to it. When the East wind blows he leans West, when the West wind blows he leans East. Zuckerberg not only wants to be seen as a stalwart of both the Left and the Right, he also wants to take the part of both sides of the Pacific at once. In his dreams! [Translator’s Note: “Both sides of the Pacific” refers to Zuckerberg wanting Facebook to be profitable in China and in the U.S.]

如果有机会能登录Facebook,我一定要跟他掰扯掰扯。

If I’ll ever be able to logon to Facebook, I will definitely banter with Zuckerberg. [Translator’s Note: Facebook is blocked in China so the writer is using a subtle way to express his unhappiness about this.]

Original text at https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s?__biz=MzI3OTAzMzUyNQ==&mid=2650590818&idx=1&sn=f3481285905f44c687db7b25a9a0d65e&chksm=f3458db8c43204aea5521aed1ba087cb3b98ee63eb6709df6377a97127f896fbb86219d5b8de&mpshare=1&srcid=0709YkCvadYi7CAdTDslB1Z6&sharer_sharetime=1594263382406&sharer_shareid=5397a569b9bbc5b88fad8cd6e4c49f46&from=singlemessage&scene=1&subscene=10000&clicktime=1595532385&enterid=1595532385&ascene=1&devicetype=android-29&version=2700103f&nettype=WIFI&abtest_cookie=AAACAA%3D%3D&lang=en&exportkey=AqhxCzwZmd0MABLbpqI2pvk%3D&pass_ticket=AsvT%2BGs%2BpKjprEi8L%2FnkSwNg%2BCNP%2BGmm8HxM1Ha6ADPCMIsXA%2BVgwEZhi%2F%2FRqYH5&wx_header=

投机分子扎克伯格

Original 方浩 接招7/9

不吹不黑

文丨方浩

继美国国务卿蓬佩奥表示有可能封杀抖音海外版Tik Tok之后,美国总统特朗普一天之后再次确认做了这个可能性。

如果Tik Tok在失去印度市场之后又失去美国市场,等于失去了中国科技公司出海过程中两个最重要的市场:一个是人口最多的海外市场,一个是经济最发达的海外市场。咖喱饭凉了,鸡腿汉堡也要凉了。

现在这个节骨眼上,全世界最高兴的人当属Facebook创始人扎克伯格。去年全球月活最多的十款App,前三名都是Facebook家的,第四名是微信,第五名还是扎记出品:Instagram。第六名就是抖音海外版Tik Tok。

关键是,Tik Tok过去半年还在疯狂增长,被扎克伯格视作Instagram最大的威胁。微信的天花板是华人圈子,Tik Tok的天花板是国会山。在国会山谈笑风生、舌战群儒的扎克伯格怎么可能给张一鸣过去喝茶的机会。

字节跳动接下来IPO两个选择,一个是美国,一个是香港。据说之前的调调是只要美国政府不封杀Tik Tok,就选择华尔街。现在来看,90%会选择香港了。

目前Tik Tok在美国市场的下载量接近2亿,这意味着字节跳动一旦在美国上市,抢的就是“扎记”的钱仓。小扎没能搞定中国,小张却有可能搞定美国,反了,反了。

所以,小扎此刻的心情,应该就是2010年李彦宏的心情了:哎玛,没想到还有意外惊喜!

2011年上市的时候,Facebook一直被认为是美国的新一代互联网巨头,大有颠覆谷歌、亚马逊之势,但随后几年的发展并没有如预期想的那样,不仅市值已经被谷歌、亚马逊越甩越远,去年还经历了“数据门”带来的政治风波。至于小扎念兹在兹的中国市场,更是关上了大门。

去年,看到Facebook进军中国市场已无希望,小扎把枪口对准有关部门,批评咱们对互联网内容审查太严。当年谷歌退出中国的时候,两位创始人也只是告诉世人“我们不做什么”,小扎则是简单直接:你们不该这么做。年轻人啊,你管得有点多!

要知道,2016年的那个春天,小扎为了Facebook能进中国亲自来京公关。当时他还是一个穿上跑鞋、不带口罩、吸着雾霾在天安门前做健身状的华裔女婿,一句“我又回北京了”亲切得像个老街坊。没想到翻脸比翻书还快。

扎克伯格把进入中国市场当成了写代码:我输入一个指令,就应该有一个结果。但他没想到硅谷算法与北京算法并不一样。WPS抢了那么多微软的市场也没见盖茨抱怨一句,姜还是老的辣。

扎克伯格只比张一鸣小一岁,但成名早了将近十年。2004年Facebook成立时,张一鸣还在读大三。现在很多人喜欢把张一鸣称作中国的扎克伯格,二人确实很像:都用算法干了一大票、也都喝过茶。只不过小扎属于喝茶上瘾型,喝完美式速溶茶还要喝中式红茶;小张不喜欢喝茶。所谓“扎克一鸣”,不存在的。

前段时间口无遮拦的特朗普把Twitter高层烦得实在看不下去了,一会警告一会屏蔽内容,惹得总统大人很不开心。此时小扎及时地出现了,他表示Facebook愿意成为总统畅所欲言的地方。挖角Twitter 大V的野心昭然若揭。

扎克伯格的野心从特朗普竞选美国总统之初就显露出来了。当时Facebook的天使投资人、董事会成员彼得·蒂尔因为资助了特朗普上百万美元得罪了一票硅谷大佬,同行、媒体纷纷要求小扎把这位投资大佬赶出董事会,但扎克伯格力排众议,根本没当回事。

小扎之于蒂尔,就是小弟之于大哥的关系。没有彼得·蒂尔早年间那笔及时的投资,Facebook可能就挂在半路上了。大哥陪伴了Facebook十多年,一路给小扎保驾护航,大哥要给总统候选人捐款,小弟事先能不知道?

彼得·蒂尔投资的Facebook回报超过1万倍,但他对特朗普的投资,不啻为是对Facebook早先投资的一种延续。去年美国国会吊打小扎,无非是民主党的秋后算账。

当年特朗普与希拉里选战正酣,Facebook一面把特朗普的竞选广告投放给更多的用户,一面用算法放大关于希拉里的黑材料。后来有人说Facebook与特朗普走的太近,特朗普说扎克伯格一直帮俄罗斯人在Facebook上黑我,小扎说我一直反对特朗普。二人真真假假演得很到位。

在美国,一个路人皆知的野心就是,小扎想成为美国总统。他想入住华盛顿已是公开的秘密。这与生于美国偏远山区的亚马逊创始人贝佐斯很不一样。作为特朗普的著名反对者,贝爷自己不想从政,更不想特朗普这样的人住在华盛顿,所以他收购了《华盛顿邮报》,天天写特朗普负面,川皇都要烦死了。

在特朗普眼中,如果说小扎属于人畜无害小可爱,贝佐斯就属于势不两立的大魔头了。《华盛顿邮报》简直就是“针插不进去、水泼不进去的独立王国”。你说你一个电商大佬买什么媒体,买了之后还要跟中央唱反调,这不是作死吗?但这就是西海岸大佬的主流作风。

从政治站位来讲,小扎属于硅谷的非主流、甚至是反主流。东风刮来向西倒,西风刮来向东倒,不仅想左右逢源,还想太平洋两岸通吃,想得美!

如果有机会能登录Facebook,我一定要跟他掰扯掰扯。

Posted in Economy 经济, Media 媒体 | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

PRC Scholar Yin Jiwu: Comparing US and PRC Concepts of National Security

The PRC’s holistic national security concept encompassing the foreign and the domestic as well as ideological challenges whether they come from within China or from ‘outside the borders of Mainland China (jingwai)’ a term of art that encompasses both foreign countries as well as Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan.

The PRC considers Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan the which the PRC considers parts of its national territory although under a different internal political regime either becuause of the one country – two systems policy or as a practical matter because of the frozen conflict between the Republic of China on Taiwan and the one-time rebels of the Chinese Communist Party who now rule Mainland China and currently do business as the People’s Republic of China. The question of whether “the rebels” are on Taiwan or on the China Mainland is intriguing.

The holistic nature of China’s national security means that is works a bit differently than U.S. national security concepts as generally understood. Since 9/11, the U.S. has paid more attention to the domestic dimension of national security and in particular improving coordination between domestic and foreign intelligence agencies which now operate under the Director of National Intelligence (DNI). Even after 9/11 domestic national security threats were often assumed to be foreign terrorists who had infiltrated the U.S. White supremacist groups in the U.S. have only recently gotten more attention as a source of domestic terrorism. They tend to be seen as local rather than national threats. In China however national security within China often involves home-grown actors. Domestic seperatists in Xinjiang and Tibet are often labelled terrorists and considered to be a first-order national security threat.

Ideological challenges are threats to the existence of the state to the extent that some prefer to call the PRC a party-state rather than a state. Ideological threat can reach China as sort of ideological virus caught from abroad and so ideological work overseas is dong by the United Front Work Department of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party as well as by other PRC agencies. PRC financial and other pressures aimed at controlling Chinese-language media outside the borders of Mainland China include pressure on Taiwan’s domestic media and in Chinese communities in many foreign countries as He Qinglian detailed in her recent Chinese-language book Red Infiltration that was published in Taiwan. I understand that an English translation will be published in the UK. See also the recent translated excerpts at Red Infiltration: The Reality of China’s Global Media Expansion (Part 1) and Part Two.

Chinese religious organizations both inside and outside China can be a security threat. Chinese Catholics and Protestants, Muslims and Buddhists are expected to operate within Party-obedient and faith-sinicizing religious umbrella organizations or else face closure or even jail. Unregistered religions are a subject of special concern. For example, recently the PRC government-controlled NGO the China Anti-Cult Association sounded the alarm about a space alien contactee new religion preached by a Chinese-Australian that was winning adherents inside the PRC.

PRC criticism of U.S. political arrangements can be mildly interesting but never a security threat. U.S. criticism of China including on such issues as human rights is considered a national security threat in China however. In the late 1990s when I worked in Beijing whenever there was an unpleasant period in US – China relations, internet discussion fora would erupt with all sorts of comment many quickly delted by China’s vast legions of Internet censors. One comment I saw several times was “Always keep in mind that the United States is not the enemy of the Chinese people; it is the enemy of the Chinese Communist Party.” The PRC as a party-state, does not admit to such distinctions. The interests of the Party come first.

Other PRC domestic threats include political dissidents since as Article One of the PRC Constitution states:

Article 1. Socialist state

The People’s Republic of China is a socialist state under the people’s democratic dictatorship led by the working class and based on the alliance of workers and peasants.

The socialist system is the basic system of the People’s Republic of China. Disruption of the socialist system by any organization or individual is prohibited.

Constitution of the People’s Republic of China

Professor Yin Jiwu’s discussion helps bettter understand how national security is understood in the PRC. The Chinese original text follows this translation.

Comparative Analysis of Chinese and American National Security Concepts

Posted July 6, 2020 Source: “Contemporary World and Socialism,” 3/2020

  Summary: The security concept is a systematic presentation of national security concepts. Analyzing the differences in the national security concepts of China and the United States helps link to promote mutual understanding between them and increases the effectiveness of strategic communication. Judging each other’s strategic intentions and actions has become the key element in the national security views of both China and the United States’ national security views. The national security views of China and the United States are based on how the state of their relationship and their judgments of how that relationship might develop. For the United States, national security is based on a “security threat” paradigm while for China it is based on the “national security state” paradigm. In terms of security dimension, security differentiation thinking, security measures, security value there are systematic differences between the national security views of China and the United States. Behind this are other differences: aspects of cultural background, political basis, and implementation mechanisms that create difficult obstacles. Understanding these differences between the Chinese and American countries’ views on security and their causes can help avoid mistakes in strategic communication between China and the United States and enhance security cooperation between the two sides.

Keywords: national security concept, strategic communication, security status, security threat

About the author: Yin Jiwu is Professor in the School of International Relations, Renmin University of China

  The concept of security is a systematic presentation of national security thinking, and security strategy is a systematic strategy and method that needs to be adopted to maintain and achieve a secure state. There are many factors that affect Sino-US strategic communication and its effectiveness. The difference in security concept or thinking is the reason for the difference between China and the United States in terms of security status and threat judgment, definition of security interests, and choice of security maintenance methods. The mainstream power transfer theory It does not focus on the impact of safety concepts and thinking. This article focuses on the comparative analysis of the national security concept, with China and the United States as the object, and systematically analyzes the differences between the two countries in the national security concept and their causes. The United States is the most important external actor that affects China’s national security. Therefore, systematically understanding and comparatively analyzing the differences in security views between China and the United States is an essential link to deal with Sino-US relations and shape a good Chinese national security environment.

   China’s judgment on the strategic intentions and actions of the United States has become the main content constructed by others in China’s national security concept. After the end of the Cold War, the United States’ strategic positioning of China is one of the main threat judgments in the United States’ national security strategy. Therefore, the correct understanding of each other’s security thinking between China and the United States is the basic work of the two countries to promote cooperation and avoid conflicts. The security relationship between China and the United States is a core element that determines the direction of the future world political power structure.

   Differences in PRC and U.S. Concepts of Security

   The security concept of China and the United States belongs to two different security paradigms. The United States is the “security threat” paradigm, and China is the “security state” paradigm. The United States attaches great importance to the formulation and publication of the “National Security Strategy”. Since 1987, each administration has made the formulation of a national security strategy an important strategic task, but the reports do systematically describe U.S. national security concept. China has systematically described its own security concept, for example, in the new security concept of 1996 to the overall national security concept of 2014, but China has never issued a national security strategy report. China has described to the international community its own concept of security in a series of national defense white papers, white papers on security issues.

The basic paradigm of the US national security concept is the “threat paradigm”, while the basic paradigm of the Chinese national security concept is the “status paradigm”. The primary task of the “threat paradigm” is to define the source of national security threats. Since World War II, the definition and countermeasures to national security threats have been at the core of US national security strategy. During the Cold War, the United States defined the Soviet Union as a strategic threat and the target of a security response; with the end of the Cold War, the United States lost its core threat; after the “9.11” terrorist attacks, the United States made terrorism as the core national security threats; once the threat of from terrorism gradually eased, the Trump administration listed China and Russia as the main security threats to the United States in its National Security Strategy Report. From this perspective, the core priority of the US national security concept just what are the threats to US national security and where do they come from. Whether or not these presumed threats are actually threats or not, the threat report focuses on specific state or non-state actors.

   In its threat assessments, the United States judges the primary source of threats to national security based on the capabilities and intentions of the other party. On the one hand, from the perspective of strength assessment, the determination of the possible threats to U.S. national security by relevant state or non-state actors is based on the assessment of the target’s national capabilities, especially military capabilities and strategic behavior and on the assessment of intentions. Thus the definition of security threats in the United States depends on many factors and among these the ideology and political system of the assessment play an important role. An important assumption of security and conflict in the United States is based on the “democratic peace theory”, that is, democratic countries will not become security threats to each other. After the Cold War, the primary threat to US national security hesitated between the strategic competition with major powers and non-traditional security threats.

   China’s national security concept is a “security status” paradigm. China’s focus is on the real threats and challenges to the security of the state. This kind of challenge can come from a specific behavior or challenge. For example, in the reports of the National Congress of the Communist Party of China and the series of white papers on China’s national defense, hegemonism, power politics, and separatist forces are all seen as both threats to world peace and to the national security of China. Based on this, China’s discussion of its national security situation generally begins with a description of the current international and domestic security situation, and then sorts out the important factors that affect China’s national security status, including basic assessments of on the international security situation and the international situation in China’s immediate neighborhood. For example, in the white paper “China’s National Defense in the New Era” released in 2019, the risks and challenges facing China’s national security are summarized as “with the profound evolution of the international strategic landscape, the overall stability of the Asia-Pacific security situation, and the risks and challenges facing national security cannot be ignored”. At various levels, particular attention is paid to the strategic actions of US unilateralism and the threats to China’s own domestic security, while highlighting the challenges of non-traditional security in the new period. Unlike the specific definition of US security threats, China’s elaboration of security threats and challenges may be a specific country or regional security situation, or specific actions of specific countries, such as US arms sales to Taiwan and militarism in Japan. China’s definition of national security challenges focuses on identifying the various factors that affect and challenge the status quo of China’s overall national security stance, while systematically elaborating upon the security principles advocated by China, what China views as an ideal security order and its vision for security.

   Specific Differences in PRC and U.S. Security Concepts

   The national security views of China and the United States are based on two different views on what national security means. The United States emphasizes security threats and their responses, while China is concerned about security threats and challenges. These two different security paradigms are embodied in the systematic differences in the scope, distinctions between variety of security thought, security measures and values embedded in security thinking.

   (1) Differences in the scope of security thinking

   The US national security concept is largely one-dimensional, focusing on the dimension of military security. This threat is generally associated with strong external challengers and competitors. For example, during the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union were strategic competitors in the areas of military force and technology, in building global spheres of influence, and in other fields. Since then, the scope of US national security has gradually expanded, extending from traditional military security to embrace non-traditional terrorist security threats. This is most clearly seen in the adjustment of US national security concepts and strategies caused by the September 11 terrorist attacks. With non-traditional security threats such as terrorism becoming the main source of security threats to the United States, the United States has shifted from focusing on international or foreign security to focusing on the national security of the United States and on external traditional and non-traditional security threats. As globalization accelerates, the various non-traditional security issues arising from U.S. and global contacts increase the challenges to the U.S. own security and identity, the United States has also come to pay more attention to non-traditional security issues such as immigration, technology diffusion, and energy. This has gradually increased as Trump’s emphasis on homeland security and US in distinction to foreign interests has won domestic support, reflecting the heritage of the diplomatic traditions of Jackson and Hamilton in the United States. The national security concept of the United States highlights military means of maintaining traditional and non-traditional security while also incorporating its own self-proclaimed values and development model into the national security goals.

Compared with the United States’ emphasis on military security, China emphasizes a comprehensive and overall national security concept embodied in the overall national security concept proposed by the Chinese leader in 2014. This concept builds China’s national security system from eleven component elements. In the national security system of China, the most fundamental element is political security, especially the security of the regime and the security of the political system, while the security of the people is the most important objective of national security. From this perspective, China’s national security completely integrates international and domestic security. Assessment of security threat origins and challenges are not considered simply from the perspective of military security threats. Greater emphasis is place on terrorism, both foreign and domestic, as well as on domestic separatism as threats to national sovereignty and the territorial integrity of the state. In the national security system, China’s national security is a systematic project that combines traditional and non-traditional security, domestic security and international security, political security, economic security, military security, social security and cultural security.

   (2) Distinctions Made Between Different Types of Security

   American security thinking is based on a binary opposing enemy vs. self thinking. In different periods, the United States has had different “enemies”. From the Soviet Union during the Cold War, to terrorism, and now to China and Russia as competitors, we can see how the United States necessarily focuses on shaping conceptions of its core security threats. The basic principle of the binary distinction between enemy and enemy in the American security culture is also more prominent in the political and diplomatic fields. For example, in the political and ideological fields, “democracy” and “non-democracy” are used as the basic criteria for distinguishing the polities of other countries and has been a guiding principle of U.S. foreign relations. Of course, based on double standards, the United States often follows the principles the realist perspective rather than ideological affiliation. In the field of foreign relations, based on the basic concept of the spread of democratic ideas, U.S. idealism is more apparent, with Wilsonianism as the most typical model.

   The security thinking of the United States is reflected in the strength and intentions of the target country as a criterion for judging whether it is hostile or threatening to the United States. Furthermore, when determining security measures, the elimination of the enemy is as the basic method of obtaining security. This is dualism and an way of thinking that is very different comprehensive security concepts such as coexistence, tolerance and mutual influence. American hegemony has domestic religious, ideological and political roots.

   China’s national security concept is a systematic security concept. Since the 1980s, China has established a policy of non-alignment in its foreign relations. It does not make ideological distinctions. It decides its position and basic principles of policy based solely on the merits of the matter itself. China’s national security is not imbued with the idea of defining and then eliminating an enemy. From the new security concept of establishing mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality and cooperation proposed in 1996 to the overall national security concept proposed in 2014, combined with the concept of a harmonious world in China’s diplomacy and a community of human destiny, China’s national security concept is based on cooperative security The principle of “emphasis” is on seeking common ground while reserving differences, rather than eliminating those with different view. The maintenance of China’s national security is not based on clearly defining the “enemy” of China’s national security, but on resolving differences and contradictions through the spirit of “rational negotiation” such as cooperation, common consultation, mutual understanding and concessions on a basis of equality. This involves finding where interests coincide, achieving mutual goals through cooperation, and placing off to one side disputes and contradictions as necessary. Therefore, the relationship between China’s national security and the national security of other related countries is not a zero-sum game, but can promote the interests and well-being of other states as well.

(3) Differences in Security Measures

   The US national security concept emphasizes the elimination of security threats from abroad through military means and war.

First, this involves strategic military competition. The United States needs to maintain its absolute military superiority and security, so it is always seeking innovations in the field of military technology in order to maintain its military superiority, thereby maintaining its strategic deterrent force and coercive force. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union launched an arms race in the fields of conventional and nuclear weapons, which exacerbated tensions in international security.

Second, the use of force and other strategic strikes to eliminate security threats. The competition between the United States and the Soviet Union is a state of cold war, and low-intensity wars such as proxy wars are carried out in relevant areas. After the end of the Cold War, the United States tried to eliminate the threat of terrorism through unilateral military actions, cooperate with the plans of countries making “democratic transitions”, and shape regional powers friendly to the United States.

Third, strengthen the US security maintenance network through alliances. The alliance has become the basic pillar of the US foreign strategy. By establishing a worldwide military network, the United States has achieved the goal of maintaining strategic interests and responding to security threats globally. The construction of alliances and military bases has laid a strong strategic ally support for the United States to maintain military security globally.

  China has made its own characteristic choice of measures to maintain its own national security.

First, China emphasizes the importance of political and peaceful dialogue and pursues a defensive national defense policy. On issues such as territorial border disputes, the development of relations between major powers, and the maintenance of the security situation in the surrounding areas, China has always advocated non-military solutions, and has always adhered to the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence and the international norms for the peaceful settlement of international disputes.

Second, China emphasizes partnering instead of alliance, and does not seek to maintain its national security through military alliances. In the early days of New China, China adopted a “taking one side” foreign policy for some time, but with the adjustment of China’s foreign policy and the recognition of the negative effects of policy based on alliances, China has since the 1980s adopted a non-aligned policy. Today, China pursues a policy of “partnership without alliance”, upholds the basic attitude of non-confrontation, peaceful consultation and settlement of international disputes, and seeks political cooperation and safeguards national security by building various types of partnerships.

Third, cooperate to resolve differences and achieve common security. From the new security concept to the overall national security concept, China attempts to model for the international community a harmonious security concept that is different from the security concept of Western hegemony and conflict, that is, based on common, comprehensive, cooperative and sustainable security concept, with peace and cooperation as the common goal. China emphasizes and respects the differences between countries, takes non-interference in internal affairs as its basic principle, and seeks to find common interests with foreign states.

(4) Differences in Values Embedded in Security Concepts

   The values embedded in American security concepts are as follows.

First, the value of binary opposition. Based on American cultural traditions and security value standards, the United States’ judgment on national security threats highlights the duality of opposition, that is, the capabilities and intentions of relevant actors to threaten American security. The pursuit of national security in the United States is mainly based on political ideological standards, that is, that democratic countries do not have threatening intentions while non-democratic countries have threatening intentions. Here also is embedded a dualistic security philosophy.

Second, the rationales behind national security. The United States regards the alliance as the basis of global strategic support system for US national security. This security support is based on the individual rationale for US national security, that is, US security and the core the values of so-called “democracy” and “freedom” in the United States are threatened, the response to which involves related tactics, strategies and double standards.

Third, the pursuit of absolute security. Based on its status as a global superpower, the United States has a correspondingly aggressive approach in the way it pursues its own security. It uses its own absolute superiority as the foundation for its own security. Therefore, it must establish its superiority in both quality and quantity.

   China’s choice of security values reflects a certain diversity, collective orientation and relativity.

First, China’s security value are inclusivity and coexistence. The philosophy of China’s foreign relations is coexistence and not binary thinking and ideas of incompatibility. China applies dialectical thinking to a certain extent in its assessment of security threats and challenges. That is, there is a certain mutability in the favorable factors and unfavorable factors of security.

Second, the systematic and collective nature of security. Security maintenance is a systems project, and China’s national security also requires a systematic approach among the eleven closely related elements of national security. From the perspective of the relationship between China’s national security and the security of other countries and the international community, China emphasizes interdependence and their systematic dialectical relationship, that is, in order to solve mutual security issues in a mutually trustful, mutually beneficial, equal, and collaborative way to achieve cooperation, national security and collective security.

Third, the relativity of security. China’s overall security strategy is actively defensive, that is, it achieves a balance between China’s domestic security and international security through defensive security maintenance measures, and “is determined to never seek hegemony, never to seek expansion or to seek to expand its sphere of influence.” In terms of military security measures, China emphasizes technological progress and ending its history of being a victim, rather than pursuing an absolute security state and corresponding means of support. In general, China’s security philosophy is a defensive security culture that focuses on maintaining multiple balances and maintaining system status.

   The politicization process of security thinking: the reasons behind the difference in security concept between China and the United States

   The national security concept of China and the United States are two different concepts. This difference and its impact are more worthy of attention during a period of translation when the differences in power between China and the United States during a period in which the relative powers of China and the United States are becomes more equal and then shifts. The security concept is a systematic presentation of national security thinking, which is based on the country’s material foundations and cultural environment, and formed through the practice of domestic political practice. Differences in the security concepts between China and the United States include differences on these three levels: cultural background, political foundation and implementation mechanism.

   (1) Cultural background

  As a systematic refinement of national security thinking, the national security concept is influenced by the different cultural backgrounds of various countries. Cultural background factors, including cultural traditions and security culture, determine the security concept formed by different countries. For example, whether it emphasizes binary opposition or tolerance of differences, whether it focuses on cooperation or conflict resolution, and whether it emphasizes overall interests or individual rational interests.

   First, cultural traditions. American culture emphasizes individuals shaping their own values, as does the country. Although American society pays attention to personal boundaries and privacy between individuals, the United States also feels that it has a universal culture and is committed to promoting its own democratic values to the world. This is also driven by American religious culture. Americans pay attention to the definition of interests and personal boundaries in their interactions. Therefore, the determination of security interests and threats has become the core of the US national security concept and security strategy. Dualistic thinking constitutes the basis for the determination of security interests. The clear dual definition of security interests and their maintenance is also influenced by the US “low context culture”, that is, the security interests and threats to the United States can be clearly defined, and are not affected by relationships, culture and situation as contextual factors. .

   China’s cultural traditions, however, are collectivism and relationship-oriented, so China’s national security concept also has more collective and ideological orientation. China’s own security is inseparable from the security situation of other countries and the international community. At the same time, China’s security goals include not only its own security, but also the promotion of international security and global peace and stability. China has specifically divided its national security concept into eleven areas of security, and believes that these eleven security areas are interconnected and inseparable. In addition, Chinese cultural tradition emphasizes peace and harmony, and pays attention to the resolution of with each other’s security dilemmas and competitions in an inclusive and mutually acceptable manner, rather than obtaining their own absolute security by eliminating their opponents.

   Second, security culture. The American security culture is a concept of absolute security based on its own typical individualist culture. Under the influence of individualistic rational interest thinking, security is relatively zero sum game, especially for actors who are confronting or competing with one another. The US national security culture values the clear definition of security and security threats. That culture holds that only by eliminating insecurity or security threats can it be secure. And alliances and building military strength building have become the basic means and strategies for eliminating security threats. Moreover, security threats come to be seen from the perspective of values to make them consistent with the US pursuit of homogenization-oriented security, that is, as long as I turn you into the same type of person as I am, security threats will disappear and security relations will be reshaped. The security culture of the United States focuses on shaping the decisive elements of its own national security. Therefore, the United States has been in a state of security anxiety to a certain extent, constantly searching for enemies, eliminating them, enhancing its strength, and seeking absolute security.

   China’s security culture emphasizes interdependence, collectivism and possibilities for cooperation. Security is a status achieved through relationships. The status of security is achieved by through an mutual adjustments that optimize relationship and not unilaterally by military means. The achievement and optimization of the security state depends on the adjustment of the interrelationship rather than the solution of simple military means. There is no zero-sum game relationship between security and national interests. This relationship between the two can be optimized to form a security status of cooperation and collective security. Founded as it is on the principles of dialogue and consultation, China’s national security culture emphasizes the transformation and resolution of possible external threats through dialogue, as well as the desire for peaceful and harmonious coexistence and needs of building a community of shared human destiny. The relationship of the various aspects of domestic security and its maintenance to international security is seen holistically in China’s interconnected national security culture. A distinctive feature of China’s national security is that it is understood from the perspective of overall national security and systemic connections among all its elements both foreign and domestic.

   (2) Political Foundations

   The political basis of security concepts means that a country’s security concept must go through the socialization mechanism of national politics in order to define national security goals, interests and strategies that are aligned with the cultural background of the country. On the one hand, the concept of security is influenced by national power, which is the material basis of the concept of security; on the other hand, the concept of security is built within the a particular country’s political ideology and political system and so reflects the country’s specific political values and tendencies.

   First, national strength. The different national security views of China and the United States are determined by their respective strengths and positions in the international arena. The national strength, international status, ideology, geographical environment, and historical culture of China and the United States are the foundations of the differences in the security concepts of the two countries.

   Due to its unique geographic location and the important role it played during the two world wars, the national strength gradually surpassed that of traditional hegemons and became the world’s unique superpower. Driven by this, the national security concept of the United States has changed from isolationism to globalism. The United States’ own values and ways of thinking methods are also reflected in its security concept. Offshore checks and balances have become the main strategy of the United States. During the years immediately following the founding of the United States, the United States has been threatened by factors such as European countries and immigration, and has always implemented defensive security strategies in response to these challenges. After it strength had gradually grown into global dominance, the United States incorporated global interests into its own security interests, and gradually adopted liberal internationalism as the basis for a promoting global order. Since the Trump administration came to power, the United States has begun to backtrack on its support for liberal internationalism, and go back to the U.S. first concept of maintaining US national security, retreating from the international stage to just relying upon itself. This process is also a reflection in the national security concept of the United States of the relative decline of U.S. national strength.

   China has always adhered to the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence and advocated the principles of international security relations based on the basic values of equality, fairness and justice. This has also been affected to some extent by China’s own strength. China’s own security values arise because of China’s own relative decline in power and the colonial aggression its suffered from in modern times. Thus China, which is in a relatively weak position in international competition, its own security values tends to reflect more the demands of the weak, emphasizing the basic principles of equality, fairness and justice. As China has become stronger, the global vision of the equality of states based upon the central position in the world order which China previous occupied in history has become the foundation of China’s foreign security concept. Therefore, pursuing a new global security concept that furthers the goal of building of a community of shared future for mankind has become an important goal of China’s foreign security strategy in the new era.

   Second, ideology. The United States boasts that it represents the tide favoring the Western democratic political countries in today’s world. In the process of foreign policy and maintaining security, the American democratic values and the deep philosophical foundation behind it are exposed. Based on its so-called democratic values, the United States regards whether a country is democratic or not as an important basis for determining whether or not it is a security threat. Therefore, ideology not only determines U.S. assessments of external threats, but also reflects the dualistic thinking of U.S. security assessments. That is that threat of non-democratic countries must be eliminated by means of there transformation to democracy or by military means. The United States’ external security thinking embodies its long-standing ideological roots. However during the Trump era, the United States has returned to using realism and pragmatism as the ideological bases for assessing its national security.

   From an ideological point of view, China is not among the Western-style democratic systems recognized by the United States. The nature of China’s socialist system determine that China’s security concept advocates the principles of equality, justice, tolerance and pluralism, and does not view the security competition between countries as a zero-sum game. On this basis, China’s national security takes the people’s security as its purpose and political security as its foundation, is determined by its socialist ideology.

   (3) Implementation Mechanism

  In the light of historical developments, the national security views of both both China and the United States will also undergo corresponding changes, The forces driving these changes are the inherent tension and balance between their national strategic culture and the security concepts of their national leaders. Strategic cultures are relatively static. National views in those areas accumulate over time in the course of the implementation of strategy and its goals. The security views of leader are affected by many factors including leadership turnovers and changes in power. These changes also affect national security concepts.

   First, strategic culture. Strategic culture or thinking is one of the more fundamental internal elements that determines a country’s security and strategic choices. The strategic thinking of the United States is influenced by its own history, the growth of its national strength, and the specific environment of international strategic competition. Generally speaking, US foreign strategic thinking is more militant, embodying its idealistic color, emphasizing that the interests of the United States are global, and not just limited to the United States. The characteristics of American strategic thinking are logical thinking, thinking in categories, mechanical thinking, and externalized thinking. All along, the maintenance of US external security has kept the battlefield and locales of competition outside the homeland. Only terrorism, an unconventional force, has changed the traditional strategic thinking of the United States. In addition, realism is also the foundation of American strategic thinking in its emphasis on the importance of power and strength. Therefore, building world-class absolute military strength and realizing the projection of US power and strategic layout globally are the basic considerations of US foreign strategy and security.

   There is much debate about whether China’s strategic thinking is offensive or defensive. Western scholars have always used foreign actions and power development as the basis for analyzing China’s strategic thinking, and concluded that China is offensive strategic thinking. This conclusion is inconsistent with China’s own characteristics. China’s security maintenance is defensive and passively reactive. Only when its own security interests are harmed, China uses force and other means to maintain its own interests. Both political and strategic communication in diplomacy are security maintenance methods that adhere to the principles of consultation and dialogue. China’s security maintenance motives include national interests, threats, and challenges. Non-material elements such as honor, self-esteem, and national sentiment are among its deeper motivations. Therefore, China’s security strategic thinking is not based on pure realist philosophy.

   Second, security beliefs. Before and just after World War I, the idealistic foreign policy tradition represented by President Wilson of the United States based on the concept of free and democratic values, made a run at dominating foreign security policy of the United States. Different security philosophies in the United States are promoted by different leaders, reflecting the changes in the United States’ own strength and the role of different strategic traditions. In in addition to Wilson’s idealistic diplomatic tradition, there is also the Hamiltonian tradition that privileges business interests and Jacksonianism that stresses military strength. The Trump period opened a new stage of reconsidering US national security, that is, a reflection on the previous security concept based on the liberal international order, and has been a new shrinking of US security interests from the international level to the national level. This change was influenced by the leader’s own personality and policy ideas, but the foundation of current mainstream position in US national security thinking is the change in the strength of the United States.

   China’s own national security concepts reflect changes in the security beliefs of different collective leaderships. The specific leaders’ own experiences and values influence their choice of how to define security threats and challenges and how to respond. For example, leaders since reform and opening up have attached importance to development and the need for an international peaceful environment, which has also determined China’s pursuit of a new security concept. Now that China’s own power has grown faster and the power balance between China and the United States has become more even, China’s security concept embraces more specific global concerns and less simply the maintenance of China’s own security interests.

Conclusion

   In the era of Sino-US strategic competition, differences in security thinking and concepts significantly constrain the effectiveness of strategic communication between the two sides. A comparative analysis of the security concepts of China and the United States can help avoid strategic communication errors and enhance the strategic understanding of both sides.

   First of all, we must be alert to strategic miscalculations in a situation in which power is asymmetric. The relative strengths of and changes in those relative strengths between China and the United States are fundamental elements in the different national security concepts of the two countries. As a hegemonic country in relative decline, the United States has become more sensitive to the growth of China’s strength growth and the its related defensive foreign strategies and behaviors, and it has become easier for the United States to regard China as the most dangerous and “malicious” competitor.

  Second, we need to avoid the adverse effects of cultural differences on communications between the two countries on security issues. The difference between Chinese and American security thinking is highly consistent with the difference between Chinese and American cultural cognition. For example, the unitary and pluralistic view on differences in values, the difference between hostile thinking and inclusive thinking, and the difference between taking actions to try to make systems alike and the idea of seeking common ground while reserving differences. With this understood, the security concept also embodies awareness of how culture and cognitive styles affect security concepts. In the process of strategic communication between China and the United States, the respective security culture characteristics of both sides will determine the nature, strategic choices, reasons and attribution of responsibility for problems and the ways in which problems are resolved.

   Third, stress the importance of establishing confidence in the reliability of intentions to cooperate. The core issue of Sino-U.S. strategic communication is the effective and credible expression and understanding of each other’s intentions to cooperate. If this problem cannot be overcome, China and the United States will have difficulties resolving uncertainties in each other’s strategic intent. The path from there leads to security difficulties and conflicts like the “Thucydides trap”. In the concept of security goals and ways to achieve them, China and the United States have different understandings of how to assess the credibility of cooperation intentions. The Chinese way is for both sides working together to shape the status of the situation and their relationships so that both sides can confirm the will to cooperate and the non-malicious intentions of the other side. The American security concept, embodies realist thinking, focusing on strength and assessments of intention colored by ideology and has the tendency to resolve issues through strategic conflict and other methods. Both sides relying on their respective strategic cultural habits has given rise to many problems in the credible understanding of intentions in the China – United States strategic communication process.

  Traditional research on the Sino-US strategic relationship research focuses on the formation of strategic consensus, coordination of strategic interests, and management of differences. The direction of the China-US relationship of strategic competition depends on the development of the relative strengths of both sides and the effective use of strength. Correctly understanding the specific characteristics of each other’s security concepts and how they affect strategic communication will certainly be one of the micro-strategic building blocks that will affect the direction of this relationship. (Notes omitted)

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Name: Yin Jiwu

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中美国家安全观比较分析

2020年07月06日

来源:《当代世界与社会主义》2020年第3期 作者:尹继武字号打印推荐

  内容提要:安全观是国家安全思维的系统化呈现。剖析中国与美国的国家安全观的差异,是促进中美相互正确认知、增加战略沟通成效的重要环节。对于彼此战略意图和行动的判断,成为中国和美国国家安全观中他者构建的主要内容,中美两国的国家安全观建立于相互关系定位和发展预判之上。美国是“安全威胁”范式,中国是“安全状态”范式。在安全维度、安全区分思维、安全措施、安全价值等方面,中美的国家安全观存在系统的差别,其背后有深刻的文化背景、政治基础以及实践机制等多维的塑造力量。正确认识中美国家安全观的差别及其原因,有助于规避中美战略沟通过程中的偏差,增进双方安全合作关系。

    关键词:国家安全观 战略沟通 安全状态 安全威胁

    作者简介:中国人民大学国际关系学院教授

  安全观是国家安全思维的系统化呈现,安全战略则是为维护和达成安全状态而需要采取的系统性的策略及方法。有诸多因素影响中美战略沟通及其成效,安全观或思维的差异是中美双方在安全状态与威胁判断、安全利益界定及维护安全手段选择等方面存在差异的原因,而主流的权力转移理论并未重点考察安全观与安全思维的影响。本文聚焦于国家安全观的比较分析,以中国和美国为对象,系统分析中美两国在国家安全观上的差异及其原因。美国是影响中国国家安全最为重要的外部行为者,因此系统了解并比较分析中美两国在安全观上的差异,是处理中美关系、塑造良好的中国国家安全环境的必要环节。

  中国对于美国的战略意图和行动的判断,成为中国国家安全观中他者构建的主要内容,而冷战结束后,美国对于中国的战略定位,是美国国家安全战略中威胁判断的主要内容之一。因此,中美双方对于对方安全思维的正确理解,是两国促合作、规避冲突的基础性工作。中国和美国的安全关系,是决定未来世界政治权力格局走向的一个核心要素。

  中美国家安全观的类型差别

  中美国家安全观分属两种不同的安全范式,美国是“安全威胁”范式,而中国是“安全状态”范式。美国重视《国家安全战略报告》的制定与发布,自1987年起每届政府均将制定国家安全战略作为自身的一项重要战略任务,但不会系统地阐述美国的国家安全观。中国会系统阐述自身的安全观,例如,从1996年的新安全观到2014年的总体国家安全观,但中国从未发布国家安全战略报告,而是通过系列的国防白皮书、安全议题的白皮书等形式,向国际社会表明自身的安全观。

  美国国家安全观的基本范式为“威胁范式”,而中国国家安全观的基本范式为“状态范式”。“威胁范式”首要的任务是界定国家安全威胁的来源。自二战后,对于国家安全威胁的界定及应对措施,是美国国家安全战略中最为核心的部分。冷战时期,美国将苏联界定为战略威胁及应对对象;冷战结束后,美国对核心威胁的界定一度出现迷失;“9·11”恐怖袭击后,美国将恐怖主义作为安全威胁最为核心的来源;恐怖主义威胁渐渐获得阶段性的缓解后,特朗普政府在《国家安全战略报告》中又将中国和俄罗斯列为美国的主要安全威胁。从这个角度来看,美国国家安全观的核心要务,就是界定国家安全的威胁来源。这种威胁来源无论是否真实,都是聚焦于特定的国家或非国家行为体。

  从威胁的判定来看,美国对于国家安全首要威胁来源的判定依据,主要为对方的能力和意图。一方面,从实力评估的角度,判定相关国家或非国家行为体对于美国国家安全可能带来的威胁,其基础在于对评估对象的国家能力,尤其是军事能力与战略行为的评估;另一方面,从意图评估来看,美国对安全威胁的界定取决于很多因素,其中评估对象的意识形态、政治制度等有重要的影响。美国对于安全与冲突的一个重要假定,就是基于“民主和平论”,即民主国家之间不会相互成为安全威胁对象。冷战后,美国国家安全的首要威胁,在大国战略竞争与非传统安全威胁之间徘徊。

  中国的国家安全观是一种“安全状态”范式,中国重点关注的是对于国家安全状态的现实威胁与挑战。这种挑战既可以来自于某一特定行为或势力,如在中国共产党历次全国代表大会的报告和中国的国防系列白皮书中,均将霸权主义、强权政治以及分裂势力看做是对世界和平与中国国家安全状态的挑战。基于此,中国在安全形势的论述中,一般从对当前的国际和国内安全形势的描述开始,继而将影响中国国家安全状态的重要因素梳理出来,包括对国际安全形势和中国周边局势的基本判断等。例如,在2019年发布的《新时代的中国国防》白皮书中,将中国国家安全面临的风险与挑战归纳为“国际战略格局深刻演变、亚太安全形势总体稳定、国家安全面临的风险挑战不容忽视”多个层次,尤其关注美国单边主义的战略举动和中国国土安全面临的威胁,同时突出新时期非传统安全的挑战。与美国的安全威胁的具体界定不同,中国对于安全威胁与挑战的阐述,可能是具体的国家,也可能是地区的安全局势,或者是具体国家的特定行为,如美国的对台军售、日本的军国主义行为等。中国界定国家安全挑战,重在辨析清楚对中国国家安全局势现状产生影响和挑战的各种因素,同时系统阐述中国倡导的安全原则、中国呼吁的理想安全秩序以及愿景。

  中美国家安全观差异的具体表现

  中美两国的国家安全观基于两种不同的安全思维,美国强调安全威胁及其应对,而中国关注安全状态的威胁与挑战。这两种不同的安全范式,具体表现在安全维度、安全区分思维、安全措施和安全价值等领域有着系统的差异。

  (一) 安全维度的差异

  美国国家安全观传统上所针对的安全内涵是单维度的,聚焦于军事安全维度。这种威胁一般与外部强有力的挑战者与竞争者联系在一起,例如,冷战时期,美苏两国在军事与科技、全球势力范围等领域开展了战略竞争。而后,美国国家安全的内涵逐渐扩大,从传统的军事安全扩展到非传统的恐怖主义安全威胁,直接表现为“9·11”恐怖袭击导致的对美国国家安全观念和战略的调整。随着恐怖主义等非传统安全威胁成为美国最主要的安全威胁来源,美国从关注国际或国外安全,转为重点关注美国本土国家安全以及外部的传统与非传统安全威胁。随着全球化进程的加快,加之美国与全球联系中所产生的各种非传统安全议题对于美国自身的安全与认同的挑战增多,美国对于移民、技术扩散、能源等非传统安全议题的关注也逐渐增多。在此背景下,特朗普对于本土安全与利益的强调,获得了国内的支持,体现了美国杰克逊和汉密尔顿学派的外交传统。美国国家安全观突出维护传统安全与非传统安全的军事手段,也将一贯自诩的价值观、发展模式等内容归入国家安全目标之内。

  与美国侧重于强调军事安全相比,中国强调的是综合与总体国家安全,集中体现为2014年中国领导人提出的总体国家安全观,将中国的国家安全构建为包含11个领域的国家安全体系。中国国家安全体系中,最为根本的是政治安全,尤其是政权安全和制度安全,而人民安全是国家安全的宗旨。由此观之,中国的国家安全将国际安全与国内安全有机结合在一起,对于安全威胁与挑战来源的判断也不仅仅从军事安全威胁角度考虑,而是更为强调国内外恐怖主义和分离主义势力对于国家主权和领土完整的挑战。在国家安全体系中,中国的国家安全是一项系统的工程,综合了传统安全与非传统安全,国内安全与国际安全,政治安全、经济安全、军事安全、社会安全与文化安全等多种范畴。

  (二) 安全区分思维的差异

  美国的安全思维建立在一种二元对立的敌我思维基础之上。在不同时期,美国的“敌人”是不同的,从冷战时期的苏联,到后来的恐怖主义,再到如今将中国和俄罗斯作为竞争对手,都体现了美国必须聚焦于塑造核心的安全威胁者。美国安全文化中对于敌我二元区分的基本原则,在政治和外交领域也表现得较为突出,例如,在政治和意识形态领域,以“民主”和“非民主”作为区分其他国家政体的基本标准,并以此作为美国对外关系的基本原则。当然,基于双重标准,美国又经常遵循现实主义的利益原则,而非意识形态的标准。在对外关系领域,基于民主扩散的基本理念,美国的理想主义色彩较重,以威尔逊主义最为典型。

  美国的安全思维,体现为以对象国的实力与意图作为评判其是否对美国具有敌意或威胁的标准,进而,在确定安全的措施时,将消灭敌人作为获得安全的基本方式。这是一种二元对立的思维,不是共存、包容与相互转换的系统思维,美国的霸权行为具有国内宗教、意识形态和政治根源。

  中国的国家安全观是一种系统的安全思维。从20世纪80年代开始,中国在对外关系中就确立了不结盟政策,不以意识形态划线,只根据事情自身的是非曲直决定自己的立场和政策的基本原则。中国国家安全的维护并不是建立在树立敌人、消灭敌人的理念基础之上。从1996年提出树立互信、互利、平等和协作的新安全观,到2014年提出的总体国家安全观,结合中国外交中的和谐世界、人类命运共同体理念来看,中国的国家安全观基于合作安全的原则,强调的是求同存异,而非消灭异己。中国国家安全的维护,并不是建立在明确界定中国国家安全的“敌人”的基础之上,而是通过平等基础上的合作、共同协商、互谅互让等“协商理性”的精神,化解差异与矛盾,寻求利益汇合点,通过合作获得共同利益,必要时可以将争议和矛盾搁置一边。从而,中国的国家安全与其他相关国家的国家安全之间并不是零和博弈的关系,而是可以相互促进,相互获益的。

  (三) 安全措施的差异

  美国的国家安全观强调通过军事手段,通过战争等方式消灭来自国外的安全威胁。其一,战略军事的竞争。美国要保持自身在军事上的绝对优势和安全,所以在军事技术领域寻求创新,保持优势,从而维持战略上的威慑力和强制力。在冷战时期,美苏之间就展开了常规、核武器等领域的军备竞赛,这加剧了国际安全的紧张局势。其二,通过使用武力等战略打击手段消除安全威胁。美苏大国竞争是一种冷战的状态,在相关地区进行代理人战争等低烈度战争。冷战结束后,美国通过单边的军事行动,试图消除恐怖主义的威胁,配合相关的“民主改造”计划,塑造对美友好的地区力量。其三,通过联盟的方式加强美国的安全维护网络。联盟成为美国对外战略的基本支柱。美国通过建立世界性的军事网络,在全球实现战略利益维护以及安全威胁应对的目标。联盟以及军事基地的建设,为美国在全球维护军事安全奠定了强大的战略盟友支持。

  中国在维护自身国家安全的措施选择上体现了自己的特色。其一,中国强调政治与和平对话的重要性,奉行防御性国防政策。在领土边界争端、发展大国关系以及维护周边地区安全局势等议题中,中国一直倡导非武力的解决方式,也始终坚持和平共处五项原则、和平解决国际争端的国际规范。其二,中国强调结伴而不结盟,不以军事联盟的方式维护国家安全。在新中国建立初期,中国在一段时间内采取了“一边倒”的外交政策,但随着中国对外政策的调整以及对于联盟政策负面效应的认识,自20世纪80年代以来中国采取了不结盟的政策。如今中国奉行“结伴而不结盟”的政策,秉持非对抗性、和平协商解决国际争端的基本态度,通过建设各种类型的伙伴关系,寻求政治合作、维护国家安全。其三,合作化解分歧,获得共同安全。从新安全观到总体国家安全观,中国试图向国际社会展示一种有别于西方霸权冲突安全观的和谐安全观,即基于共同、综合、合作和可持续的安全观,以和平、合作作为共同的目标。中国强调并尊重国家之间的差异,以不干涉内政作为基本原则,寻求与不同国家之间的利益共同点。

  (四) 安全价值的差异

  美国安全价值的选择表现如下。其一,二元对立的价值。基于美国的文化传统以及安全的价值标准,美国对于国家安全的威胁评判突显二元的对立,即清晰评判相关行为体威胁美国安全的能力与意图。美国对于国家安全的追求主要基于政治上的意识形态标准,即民主国家的非威胁性以及非民主国家在意图上的威胁性。这里同样体现出一种二元对立的安全哲学。其二,国家安全的个体理性特色。美国将联盟作为美国国家安全的全球战略支援体系的基础,这种安全的护持是基于美国国家安全的个体理性,即美国的安全是安全的核心,而美国所谓的“民主”“自由”等价值理念受到威胁,具有相应的策略性和双重标准。美国自身在本土和国家安全方面受到的军事威胁,成为美国国家安全最为关注的目标。其三,绝对安全的追求。美国基于自身全球超级大国的地位,在安全追求上具有相应的进攻性,以自身的绝对优势作为安全的基础,因此在质量和数量上必须树立美国的优势。

  中国的安全价值选择则体现了一定的多元性、集体性和相对性。其一,中国的安全价值是包容共存的。从中国与国际社会的关系来说,中国自身的生存哲学是共存,而非二元对立的非兼容性思维。对于安全威胁和挑战,也体现了一定的辩证思维,即安全的有利因素与不利因素之间是可以相互转换的。其二,安全的系统性与集体性。安全的维护是一个系统的工程,而中国国家安全的内涵也是系统的,其中11个安全领域是紧密联系的关系。从中国的国家安全与其他国家以及国际社会的安全的关系来看,中国强调相互依存和系统的辩证关系,即以互信、互利、平等、协作的方式,共同解决彼此的安全问题,从而实现合作安全和集体安全。其三,安全的相对性。中国总体的安全战略是积极防御的,即通过防御性的安全维护力量,实现中国国内安全与国际安全的平衡,对外“坚持永不称霸、永不扩张、永不谋求势力范围”。在军事安全手段的建设方面,中国强调技术上的进步,改变落后就要挨打的状态,而非追求绝对的安全状态及相应的手段支持。总体上,中国的安全哲学是一种积极防御性的、注重多元平衡与系统状态维系的安全文化。

  安全思维的政治化过程: 中美国家安全观差异的原因

  中美的国家安全观是一对具有相对差异性的范畴,在中美权力接近与转移时期,这种差异及其影响更为值得关注。安全观是国家安全思维的系统化呈现,而安全思维又是基于国家的物质基础和文化环境,在政治实践中形成的,中美国家安全观差异的形成原因包含三个层面:文化背景、政治基础和实践机制。

  (一) 文化背景

  作为国家安全思维方式的系统化提炼,安全观受到不同国家文化背景的影响。文化背景因素包括文化传统和安全文化,决定了不同国家形成的安全观的本体价值取向,例如,是强调二元对立还是多元包容,是侧重合作还是冲突的解决方式,是重视总体利益还是个体理性利益等。

  第一,文化传统。美国文化注重个体价值理念的塑造,作为国家也是如此。虽然美国社会注重个体之间的边界与隐私,但是美国更有一种普世的情结,致力于将自身的民主价值理念推广到全球,这也是受到美国宗教文化的驱使。美国人际交往中注重对于利益及其边界的界定,因此,对于安全利益及威胁的判定成为美国国家安全观和安全战略的核心内容,而二元对立的思维构成了安全利益判定的基础。对于安全利益及其维护的清晰二元界定,也受到美国“低背景文化”的影响,即美国的安全利益和威胁是可以进行清晰界定的,不受作为背景因素的关系、文化和情境等影响。

  而中国的文化传统是集体主义和关系导向的,所以中国的国家安全观也具有更多的集体,主义倾向。中国自身的安全与其他国家以及国际社会安全的情势是密不可分的,同时中国的安全目标不仅仅包括自身的安全,也包括促进国际安全和全球的和平与稳定。中国将自身国家安全内涵具体细化为11个安全领域,而且认为这11个安全领域是相互联系、不可分割的。此外,中国文化传统中强调和平与和谐,注重以包容、兼容的方式处理相互之间的安全困境和博弈,而非以消灭对手的方式获得自身的绝对安全。

  第二,安全文化。美国的安全文化是建立在典型的个体主义文化基础上的绝对安全的理念。在个体主义的理性思维影响下,安全具有相对的零和性,尤其是对于相互处于竞争状态或对抗状态下的行为体而言。美国国家安全文化重视安全与安全威胁的清晰界定,只有在消除不安全或安全威胁的基础上,才能实现自身的安全。而联盟和实力建设成为消除安全威胁的基本手段与策略,同时从价值观方面对相关安全威胁加以改造,使之符合美国对于同质性安全的追求,即只要我把你变成同一类人,那么安全威胁就会消失,安全关系就会重塑。美国的安全文化注重对自身国家安全的决定性要素的塑造,因此,美国在一定程度上一直处于安全焦虑之中,不断地寻找敌人,消灭敌人,增强实力,寻求绝对的安全状态。

  中国的安全文化强调相互依存性以及集体与合作的可能性。安全是一种相互关系的状态,安全状态的达成和优化取决于对相互关系的调适,而非简单的军事手段的解决。另外,安全利益之间并非是零和博弈的关系,而是可以通过优化形成合作与集体安全的状态。基于对话和协商的路径,中国的国家安全文化强调通过对话来转化和化解外部可能的威胁,同时强调和平与和谐共处的愿望以及人类命运共同体的诉求。在国内安全的类型及维护上,中国安全文化中的系统性和联系性也表现得较为突出,以总体国家安全观和系统联系性看待中国的安全建构。

  (二) 政治基础

  安全观的政治基础是指一国的安全观必须经过国家政治的社会化机制,从而对各自文化背景下的国家安全目标、利益和策略等进行界定。一方面,安全观受到国家实力的影响,国家实力是安全观的物质基础;另一方面,安全观是建立在相关的政治意识形态和体制之内的,反映了特定的政治价值和倾向。

  第一,国家实力。中美各自不同的国家安全观是由其各自的实力及在国际上的实力位置所决定的。中美两国的国家实力、国际地位、意识形态以及地缘环境和历史文化是两国安全观差异的基础。

  美国由于其独特的地理位置以及在两次世界大战期间发挥的重要作用,国家实力逐渐超越传统的霸权国,上升为世界超级大国。受此驱动,美国的国家安全观从孤立主义走向全球主义,美国自身的价值理念和思维方式也在安全观中得到体现,离岸制衡成为美国的主要策略。美国在建国后一段时期内,自身的实力受到欧陆大国、移民等因素的威胁,一直实施防御性的安全战略。在实力逐渐在全球占据优势后,美国将全球范围内的利益纳入到自身的安全利益内涵之中,也逐渐将自由国际主义作为推行全球秩序的基础。直到特朗普政府上台以来,开始扭转自由国际主义的秩序理念,重新回归美国优先的安全维护理念,从国际回归到国家本身,也是美国自身实力的相对衰落和安全反思的结果。

  中国一直坚持和平共处五项原则,倡导基于平等、公平和正义等基本价值的国际安全关系原则,这在某种程度上也受到中国自身实力的影响。由于近现代史上实力相对衰落并遭受到殖民侵略,在国际竞争中处于相对弱势地位的中国,其自身倡导的安全价值更多反映了弱者的诉求,强调以平等、公平和正义为基本的原则。在中国实力逐渐发展后,中国历史上曾经具有的中心地位下的全球公平视野成为中国对外安全理念的基础。因此,追求新安全观下推动构建人类命运共同体的全球安全理念成为新时期中国对外安全战略诉求的重要目标。

  第二,意识形态。美国自诩代表着当今世界的西方民主政治国家潮流,在对外政策和安全维护过程中,美国的民主价值理念及其背后深刻的哲学基础显露无遗。美国基于其所谓的民主价值理念,将是否是民主国家作为判断安全威胁来源的重要依据。所以,意识形态不仅决定着美国对外的威胁评判,也反映了美国在安全判断中的二元对立思维,即非民主国家的威胁必须以民主和军事改造的方式消除。美国的对外安全思维体现了其长久的意识形态根基,尽管特朗普时期美国回归到将现实主义和实用主义作为安全构建的思想基础。

  从意识形态来看,中国并不在美国所认可的西方民主制度之列。中国的社会主义制度属性,决定了中国在安全观的倡议方面,坚持的是平等、正义、包容和多元的原则,并非以零和博弈的游戏规则来看待国家间的安全博弈。在此基础上,中国的国家安全以人民安全为宗旨、政治安全为根本,这是由社会主义意识形态所决定的。

  (三) 实践机制

  从历史动态来看,中美的国家安全观也会发生相应的变化,其变化的动力来源于国家战略文化和领导人的安全信念之间的内在张力及平衡。战略文化相对而言是静态的,是国家长期沉淀积累的关于战略及其目标实现的信条,而领导人的安全信念会受到领导人更替、实力变迁等诸多因素的影响,这种变化会 对国家安全观产生影响。

  第一,战略文化。战略文化或思维是更为基础性的、决定一国安全与战略选择的内在要素。美国的战略思维受到其自身的历史、国家实力的增长以及特定的国际战略博弈环境的影响。总体来说,美国对外战略思维更具有进攻性,体现了自身的理想主义色彩,强调美国的利益边界在全球,而非仅仅局限于美国国土之内。美国战略思维的特性表现为逻辑思维、类属思维、机械思维和外化思维。一直以来,美国对外安全的维护,将战场与博弈地点控制在本土之外,只有恐怖主义这种非传统力量才改变了美国的传统战略思维。此外,现实主义也是美国战略思维的根基,强调力量与实力的重要性。因此,建设世界一流的绝对军事实力,实现美国在全球的力量投射与战略布局,是美国对外战略与安全的基本考虑。

  中国的战略思维到底是进攻性还是防御性的,存在着较多的争论。西方学者一直以对外行动和实力发展作为分析中国战略思维的依据,得出中国是进攻性战略思维的结论。这种结论与中国自身的特性并不相符,中国的安全维护是防御性和被动反应式的,在自身安全利益遭受到危害的情况下,中国才使用武力等手段维护自身的利益,而在常规外交中的政治与战略沟通都是坚持协商与对话为主的安全维护方式。中国的安全维护动机包括国家利益,威胁和挑战的回应,如荣誉、自尊、民族情感等非物质性要素是更为深层的内涵。所以,中国的安全战略思维并非是基于纯粹的现实主义哲学。

  第二,安全信念。一战前后,美国总统威尔逊所代表的理想主义的对外政策传统,以自由民主价值理念为基础,试图主导当时美国的对外安全政策理念,但直到二战前后这一理念才在国内获得较高的政治认可。美国不同的安全哲学都是受到特定领导人的推动,反映了美国自身实力变化、不同战略传统的作用——除了威尔逊理想主义外交传统外,还包括重视商业利益的汉弥尔顿主义、重视军事实力的杰克逊主义等。特朗普时期开启了美国国家安全新的阶段性的反思,即对先前自由主义国际秩序的反思,将美国的安全利益重新从国际层面向国家层面收缩。这种变化受到领导人自身个性和政策理念的影响,但美国自身实力的变化是其在当前能够占据主流地位的基础。

  中国国家安全观的变化体现了不同领导集体的安全信念变化。特定领导人自身的经历和价值观影响了他们对于安全威胁和挑战的界定及应对方式的选择。例如,改革开放以来的领导人,对于发展的重视以及国际和平环境的需求,同样决定了中国对于新安全观的追求。在中国自身实力发展更快,中美之间的权力对比更为接近时,中国的安全观更多地具有全球性关怀,而不仅仅局限于中国自身安全利益的维护。

  结语

  在中美战略竞争的时代,安全思维和观念差异对于双方之间战略沟通的成效有着显著的制约作用。对中美国家安全观进行比较分析,有助于规避战略沟通误差,增进双方战略理解。

  首先,要警惕权力非对称下的战略误解。中美之间的实力对比及其变化是中美在国家安全观上存在差异的基础要素。作为处于相对衰落中的霸权国,美国对于中国的实力增长及其相关防御性的对外战略与行为更为敏感,更容易将中国视为最危险的、具有“恶意”的竞争者。

  其次,规避文化认知差异对于安全沟通的不利影响。中美安全思维的差异与中美文化认知差异具有高度的一致性,例如,一元与多元的价值对立、敌我思维与包容思维的差异以及同质化措施与求同存异理念的差异等。基于这种认识,安全观也体现了国家安全观念的文化认知特性,那么中美在战略沟通过程中,双方各自的安全文化特性,对中美关于战略问题的性质判定、策略选择、原因和责任推断以及问题解决方式等都会产生影响。

  第三,重视合作意图可信性的塑造。中美战略沟通的核心问题是双方对于彼此合作意图的有效、可信的传递与理解,否则中美难以解决彼此战略意图中的不确定性,容易走向诸如“修昔底德陷阱”之类的安全困境冲突之中。在关于安全目标及其实现途径的观念中,中美对于合作意图的可信性认知存在不同的理解。中国的方式是,以状态和关系的塑造确认彼此意图的合作性与非恶意,在策略上偏向于协商、沟通与合作等方式。而美国的安全观体现了现实主义的思维,以实力和意识形态属性对意图进行判定,尤其侧重战略冲突等方式。这种对于各自战略文化习惯的倚重,导致中美在战略沟通过程中围绕意图的可信理解存在诸多偏差。

  传统中美战略关系研究大多聚焦于战略共识塑造、战略利益协调和分歧管控等方面。中美战略竞争关系的走向取决于双方的实力发展及对实力的有效运用,而正确认知彼此安全观的特性及其对于战略沟通的作用,无疑是影响这一走向的微观战略基础环节。(注释略)作者简介

姓名:尹继武

Posted in Foreign Relations 外交, Ideology 思想, National Security 安全, Politics 政治 | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

China Anti-Cult Association: Analyzing a Rising Flying Saucer Cult

To judge by this article on a number of PRC websites including several government ones, the Communist Party may be conerned that some people hope-against- hope that space aliens will come to the rescue.  Or maybe this is just the Party Life required reading assignment for party members this month.

This article can be read on many different levels including

– Chinese popular culture and popular religion (which is often syncretic in search of the Great Harmony of Chinese tradition),

– Chinese Communist Party fears of independent popular organizations,

– Ongoing general crackdown on religious believers of all kinds including Christian congregations

– Methods for controlling online information from Chinese abroad back into China. In this case, subtitling of religious videos downloaded from foreign websites and then sharing the new Chinese version across many websites within China has become a concern of the Party. In this case, the activities of Chinese-Australian Ma Xiaoxiao and the popularity of her “I Met an Alien” video in China worry the Party.

– Preventing the leakage back into China of unapproved belief systems and ideas is a Party priority and likely a motivations for its well-funded work on gaining influence or control over Chinese language media abroad. He Qinglian’s book about United Front Department work on Chinese language media outlets abroad was published in Taiwan and I understand will be published in translation in the UK.

— An example of the work of the China Anti-Cult Association

In part one of this article, ordained Buddhist monk and China Anti-Cult Association Executive Director Chen Xingqiao discusses an alleged space alien contactee-inspired religious cult. He puts it in context discussing the backgroun of writings of UFO and space alien enthusiasts as well as imaginative literature and speculation in both China and the West, including science fiction stories, novels, movies and television series. China has many UFO fans.

During my five years at U.S. Embassy Beijing in the late 1990s, in my capacity as a science fiction fan, I would sometimes read Lanzhou-based magazine The Journal of UFO Research 【飞碟探索】 which claimed to be the highest-circulation UFO-oriented magazine in the world. Sometimes it seemed then that UFO sightings increased during when political tensions got high. Must have been those space alien political officers making a field trip!

Photo: Ma Xiaoxiao sits by an image of the extra-terrestrial being Ashtar one of the reincarnated cosmic aliens she teaches about.

Part two of Chen Xingqiao’s article, also translated and copied in Chinese below, examines the activities of a prominent Chinese alleged alien contactee  Ma Xiaoxiao.  Ma preaches a space alien-influenced religion with combines some Christian elements mixed in which is discussed in considerable detail.  Sometimes the detail is such as that it almost seems to be spreading rather than criticizing this contactee religion.   I read somewhere that a century ago underground movements in Russia used that method of hidden proselytizing by writing long articles denouncing Japan when their target was, transparently enough for the alert reader though not always the censor, the Russian imperial regime. But no, I must be imagining things!

Could this recall to some Chinese the syncretistic religion combining Chinese and Christian elements of the mid 19th century Taiping Rebellion sometimes called the Taiping Revolutionary Movement against the Qing Dynasty, a rebellion led by Hong Xiuchuan who called himself the “younger brother of Jesus Christ” and which cost tens of millions of lives?

The Chinese Communst Party is always alert to potential connections of religion with politics, political organization against the Party and government and of hidden western hands using religion to promote bourgeois liberalization.

As the supreme arbiter of morality and values — as well as the ultimate “manager of society”, the Party demands that all religions take on the colorations that it dictates. Sometimes religious organization start out not intending to offend the Communist Party but then run afoul of the Party anyways in large part because of the Party’s control freak ways that emerge when someone or some movement becomes too popular — the much-persecuted Falun Gong is an example of that process.

Some of Ma Xiaoxiao’s Chinese language “I Met an Alien” videos are on YouTube. Might be good Chinese practice! Communist Party members should avoid watching them — see the note on the 2018 Communist Party Disciplinary regulations below.

The Party may be trying to stamp out loose talk about aliens.  Although the Chinese science fiction genre has been getting more appreciation from practicioners of that genre in other countries over the past several years, the Party does gets very concerned about “superstitious cults” [xie2jiao4 邪教] perhaps because jealous of their constitutionally protected monopoly of that sort of thing. 

Ma Xiaoxiao mentions at the start of the first video that Mao Zedong’s former personal interpreter, Sun Shili, leads the New York branch of the World Chinese UFO Federation and former Chairman of the China UFO Research Association. Her center and its work comes under the World Chinese UFO Federation as the work of a subsidiary organization. Related organizations in Taiwan and Hong Kong were mentioned as well but no specific endorsed. A means of establishing credibility apparently.

Background: Addressing the Topic of Religion in “Official Circles”

The PRC Constitution protects which until 1978 protected everyone’s “right to propagate atheism” along with freedom of religion continues to treat religion cautiously. The current PRC constitution as ammended last in 2018 [hosted on the website of the NPC Observer, a remarkable source of analysis and translations on the National People’s Congress and Chinese law] handles the topic of religion this way:

Article 36: Citizens of the People’s Republic of China have the freedom of religious belief.
No State organ, social group, or individual may compel citizens to believe in, or to not believe in,any religion, or discriminate against citizens who believe in, or do not believe in, any religion.
The State protects normal religious activities. No one may make use of religion to engage in activities that disrupt public order, impair the health of citizens, or interfere with the educational system of the State.
Religious bodies and religious affairs are not subject to any foreign domination.

NPC Observer https://npcobserver.files.wordpress.com/2018/12/PRC-Constitution-2018.pdf

Party members are forbidden to believe in religion although some exceptions have been made for minority people. Party disciplinary rules have notwithstanding status: they supercede any constitutional or legal rights a person might have. A member of the 91 million-strong (end year 2019) told me “The Communist Party is easy to join but hard to leave.”

Party members need to be very circumspect: the 2018 Chinese Communist Party Disciplinary Regulations call for punishment up to expulsion for any party member and their superior if the member should even forward an article posted online that favors “bourgeois liberatlization” or questions key Party policies. Therefore articles about religion need to have a critical tone as well as being descriptive and if possible illuminating. Excerpts from several sections of the

Article 45:Those using methods such as networks, radio, television, periodicals, pamphlets, or books, as well as lectures, forums, report meetings, or symposiums to openly publish articles, speeches, manifestos or declarations upholding Bourgeois liberalization, opposing the four cardinal principles, opposing the Party’s policy of Reform and Opening,are to be expelled from the Party…..

Article 46:Where there are any of the following acts through methods such as information networks, radio, television, periodicals, pamphlets, or books, or using lectures, forums, report meetings, or symposiums, and the circumstances are more minor, warnings or or serious warnings are to be given; where the circumstances are more serious, sanctions of removal from internal Party positions or Party probation are given; where the circumstances are serious, they are expelled from the Party.

(1) Openly publishing articles, speeches, manifestos, declarations, and the like that go against the four cardinal principles, go against or distort the Party policy of Reform and Opening, or having other serious political issues.

(2) Making a mockery of the Party Central Committee’s major directives, undermining the Party’s centralism and unity…..

Article 57:Where serious negative impact is caused by organizing or participating in assemblies, protests, or demonstrations opposing the Party’s basic theories, line, platform, or major directives or policies; or by using methods such as lectures, forums, reports, or symposiums to oppose the Party’s basic theories, line, platform, or major directives or policies; the masterminds, organizers, and core participants are to be expelled from the party.

English translation by China Law Translate

Some of these PRC laws and Party regulations color how sensitive topics are present on official websites, by academics and by members of the public at large so it is useful to keep them on mind. PRC laws and regulations are often loosely worded yet they do contribute to both an atmosphere of intimidation and to “socialist legality”.

The article translated below is by Chen Xingqiao, executive director of the China Anti-Cult Association. The China Anti-Cult Association is a kind of Chinese government sponsored NGO with high level connections of the National People’s Congress, S&T community and associations of PRC government-recognized religions. The Chinese language Wikipedia article on PRC government designated banned superstition cults is through — here run through Google Translate.

The Chinese Communist Party’s United Front Work Department with its broad responsibilities of liaise with organizations outside the Communist Party including religious organizations and minorities and then to guide them on the righteous path is likely somewhere in the background. The Tianjin Municipality Communist Party Committee United Front Work Department website article on “superstitious cults” reflects its concerns. The United Front Work Department, like many other Communist Party central organizations, is reflected all the way down in provincial, regional, and county Party organizations which will have their own corresponding components of the same name. A March 2018 article is entitled “China Anti-Cult Association: We Must Be Highly Vigiliant Against the Harm that Superstitious Cults Do to the Masses” The article detalis some of the more recent activities of banned cults. Here again, through Google Translate, losing some of the detail but you can get the general idea.


A New Religion is Born? Or Just A PRC Alien Arrival with Chinese Characteristics?

The article makes me wonder about how religons arise.  In some cases perhaps to give assurance in an uncertain world and sometimes unbearable world,  something perhaps of the positive side of the “opiate” role of religion similar to the use of opiates in medical care. 

Always intriguing to think about what people are thinking about.  Sometimes detailed criticism by the opposition is a way to get at it by the authorities’ own description of what they are worried about. 

Science itself as a new sort of religion in the form of scientism — unjustified claims for oneideology or another as being particularyl scientific — has been influential in 20th century Chinese thinking.  Relying on a cosmology PhD as we see here for ‘science-based’ criticisms for a new religion would be one example! Even Communism pretends to be a scientific socialism. I found Kwok’s book on Scientism in China —   Scientism in Chinese Thought, 1900–1950 by D. W. Y. Kwok enlightening!


Who knows.  Reading this article may count towards your Party members’ relevant documents reading assignment for the month. Check with the county party secretary’s office to make sure.

The Chinese Communist Party’s Global Times wrote about Chen Xiaoxiao in January 2019 in an article entitled “Enlightenment through contacting aliens? Chinese astrophysics PhD student debunks cult-themed social media accounts”

Criticism in the Global Times drew a response from one of Ma Xiaoxiao’s defenders (with English translation at the end of the article).

Just came across a 2000 Elizabeth Rosenthal New York Times story “Beijing Journal; A U.F.O. Boom Doesn’t Worry China’s Rulers” — “Wildly popular and politically unthreatening, U.F.O. research is the kind of unorthodox pursuit that is allowed in China today. Anyway, government officials and citizens alike tend to view U.F.O. research as science or at least possibly scientific.”

Space aliens too are feeling stronger pressure from the Party under General Secretary Xi Jinping. How different from what I heard from the Soviets back in 1965. As a grade schooler listening to the “Moscow Mailbag” program on the North American service of Radio Moscow, a listeners asked “Should we be worried about an invasion by aliens from outer space?” Radio Moscow replied, “You don’t need to worry. Any space aliens with a technology sufficiently advanced to travel the tremendous distances from another star to Earth will also be an advanced society that has reached the stage of communism. So don’t worry. If the aliens come, they will be peace-loving communists!” Maybe Xi Jinping missed that program!

I polished a Google Translate translation of this article to make it more useable. I think it is as comprehensible as I can make it; the subject matter may well exceed the limits of my as yet alien-uncontacted mind.

I first came across this article on a county government website in Xinjiang.


Translation of http://www.xjjh.gov.cn/info/1718/114153.htm

Research on a “A Space Alien” Type of Superstitious Cult (Part 1)


Source: China Anti-Cult Net by Chen Xingqiao Release date: [16 May 2019]

Source: China Anti-Cult Net of: by Chen Xingqiao Release date: [17 May 2019]
Editor’s note: In January of this year, Dr. Liu Boyang published an article online “Reporting the “Alien” Cult Organization Using Real Names” on the Internet, listing Pleiades, Raelism, Heaven’s Gate, Galactic Federation and other Chinese and foreign under the banner of UFO and aliens. He concluded that Ma Xiaoxiao, who gave an “I met an alien” lecture series online in recent years mines the same veins as these cults. This website, the China AntiCult Nework, published “Ma Xiaoxiao’s “Alien” was revealed to be a big human trafficker in Brazil”, and exposed the absurdity of Ma Xiaoxiao’s lectures. Liu Boyang’s article was reprinted or followed up on by the People’s Daily, China Net, China Economic Net, China Youth Online, China Taiwan Net, Global Times, Observer and other websites. This “alien” cult has also attracted the attention of the domestic scientific and technological circles, religious circles and anti-cult circles.

From the perspective of a religious scholar, Mr. Chen Xingqiao, the executive director of the Chinese Buddhist Association and the executive director of the China Anti-Cult Association, comprehensively and in-depth analyzed Ma Xiaoxiao’s remarks about “aliens”. Sooner or later this will become an influence and develop into a cult.” Taking Ma Xiaoxiao’s theory as an entry point, he analyzed the hypnotic, healing, and spiritual works of the “alien” belief system, and compared it with the “Falungong” of some years ago, pointing out some harmful “alien” systems (awakening system ) The trend in people’s thinking is running rampant, endangering the physical and mental health of the people and social stability. “A Study on an “Alien” superstitious cult — Taking Ma Xiaoxiao’s “Alien” and “Religious” Remarks as an example” is of great value for exposing the “Alien” System (Awakening System) heresy, and is now serialized.

Table of Contents

1. UFO, Alien Topics and “Contemporary Metaphysics”

2. A Brief Analysis of Ma Xiaoxiao’s “Alien” and “Religious” Remarks

(1) Ma Xiaoxiao and his affairs

(2) An analysis of Ma Xiaoxiao’s “Adventure” and the formation of his abnormal psychology

(3) A Brief Analysis of Ma Xiaoxiao’s “Alien” Speech

(4) A brief analysis of Ma Xiaoxiao’s “religious” speech

3. How to treat UFO, alien reports and alien cults

4. The origin and harmfulness of Ma Xiaoxiao phenomenon

Introduction

On January 15th, 2019, China Science and Technology Expo published an article by Dr. Liu Boyang who studied in Australia at the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, “The government has concealed the truth of the universe from you…” “Unveiled the tip of the iceberg of various individuals under the banner of scientific research UFO, aliens, propaganda of witchcraft, spirituality,mmerging religions, quasi-cults, cults, self-media and groups. The most prominent among them is a Chinese living in Australia, Ma Xiaoxiao.

She produced episodes of “I met an alien” in the “Starry Sky Academy Live Room” (also known as “Starry Sky Academy Qianchao Live Room”), claiming to be able to often meet and have conversations with aliens, Sakyamuni Buddha, the sun , Maitreya Buddha, Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva, Dizang Bodhisattva, Samantabhadra Bodhisattva, Jesus Christ, the Creator. Moreover she was made a special emissary by Buddha Bodhisattva, several gods and aliens to make the with the assignment of making the whole earth ascend and awaken and of leading the major religions of the world to the point that “all religions will be united”!

The government is hiding from you the truth about the cosmos…. ” from a real-name report of an “space alien” religious cult organization. Source: Liu Boyang in China Popular Science Expo 中国科普博览 Source: “China Popular Science Illustrated” microblog public account (ID:kepubolan) Note: a news flash made the “space alien” topic become a burning topic of conversation, even as the controversy of the “Qianjian” [权健] imperial therapy fraud case scandal had not yet died down. Suprisingly, this is even more outlandish — Someone is trying to create another “Quanjian” type of organized fraud based on a “space alien” religious cult. What is this all about? This article will show you just the tip of that iceberg. Let’s go back to November 1, 2018 when the China Anti-Religious Cult Microblog made a report against the relgious cult house media microblog Cosmic Light.

Image Captured From Chinese Popular Science Expo Article

At the same time, more media and netizens support Dr. Liu Boyang. “Global Network”: “What is the alleged “alien cult”?” Report the real name of the Chinese Astrophysics Doctor! “Bai Yizi’s Blog”: “Sima Nan: The cult under the banner of “Aliens” is here again”; Dr. Cloth: “I give Ma Xiaoxiao and Liu Boyang a new year”; “Scientific Atheism” website: “Tu Jianhua: false accusation is a common cult of cults, “Wang Wenzhong: talk about the “alien” evil master Ma Xiaoxiao,” “Tu Jianhua: Rudolph in the alien cult circle is a pseudo-scientist”; China Anti-Cult Network: “Ma Xiaoxiao’s “alien” turned out to be a Brazilian bastard trafficker”, the above article was reposted by many media, and ruthlessly exposed and teased Ma Xiaoxiao’s sensational “experience” and bizarre theory, spreading positive energy . Due to reports from many netizens, self-media platforms such as “I met an alien” and WeChat public account “Starry Sky Radio” were closed by the State Cyberspace Administration, and Ma Xiaoxiao’s aggressive legal proceedings ended.

Translation: Soace Alien Contactee Ma Xiaoxiao Shares Her Experiences Series I Met Space Aliens #7

Image Capture From Closed WeChat Site

I have a little bit of information about UFO and aliens. Because of its confusing, there are many different opinions. Because Dr. Liu Boyang’s real name report and Ms. Ma Xiaoxiao’s “Meeting the Alien Series Topic Sharing” involved cults and religions so I got interested. There are many personal media accounts and associations that promote spirituality, ascension, witchcraft, emerging religions, and even cults, using UFOs and aliens as gimmicks. There are millions of foreign fans. Ma Xiaoxiao and her “experience” emerged from this. There are indeed many issues worthy of our attention and consideration. To this end, the author intends to take advantage of the occasion of Liu Boyang’s critique to report on the “alien” cult organization, mainly from the perspective of religion, psychology and the security of society, to give my opinion on the above-mentioned related issues, throwing bricks and introducing jade to teach the Fang family, and to commemorate the Chinese government The 20th anniversary of the ban on the Falun Gong cult.

In the article, Dr. Liu Boyang identified Ms. Ma Xiaoxiao as the “master” of the “Awakening” cult/pseudoscience part of the media, and Ms. Ma Xiaoxiao wrote “They all grow from the same root, that is why a response is urgent– a reply to Liu Boyang’s article”

One article rejected Liu’s article, and also sent a lawyer’s letter to Dr. Liu Boyang and “China Science Expo”, threatening to sue them in court; “Star Radio” issued a “Condemnation of Liu Boyang and Platform Self-Discipline Initiative”; “Awakening Caption Group” Moderator A Liang wrote “How to Treat and Study UFO and Extraterrestrial Civilization by Scientific Spirit-Discussion with Liu Boyang”; Rudolph E. Schild, Honorary Professor of Astrophysics at Harvard University, USA, wrote an open letter to Dr. Liu Boyang . They all condemned Liu Boyang in the name of “science” and asked him to apologize to Ms. Ma Xiaoxiao. That drew a lot of attention.

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Chinese Anti-Cult Network article “Ma Xiaoxiao’s “Alien” was revealed to be a big human trafficker in Brazil” was pickup by the China Youth Daily Online website.

Despite the increasingly advanced technological methods of today, the Hubble Space Telescope has discovered that it may be the most distant galaxy in the universe, measuring 13 billion light-years away from the earth, but in the past 50 years of searching, scientists have been in contact with extraterrestrial civilizations. There has been no progress. For most of the incidents that witnessed UFOs and even “aliens”, due to the lack of sufficient evidence and reasonable explanations, the governments of the relevant countries and the mainstream science and technology circles did not recognize or shelved. But these did not destroy the enthusiasm of the UFO phenomenon and the alien legends, and all kinds of wonderful rumors in the world continued. At the same time, around the topic of flying saucers and aliens, two ups and downs and two markets have formed in Europe and America:

First, literary works and science fiction films with the theme of flying saucers and aliens are emerging in an endless stream. They combine scientific and technological knowledge, literature and art, and various ideological concepts including religion, myths and legends, and life and emotional experience. This kind of alien invasion into the earth is vivid and vivid, which greatly enriches people’s cultural life and forms a distinctive film and television cultural industry.

Examples include Hollywood’s “The Fifth Element”, “Decisive Battle Orangutan”, “Independence Day” 1-2, “Star Gate”, “Super Battleship”, “The Third Contact”, “Alien vs. Predator 2”, “Black Man” 1- 3, “Prometheus” 1-2, “Ender’s Game”, “Los Angeles Battle”, “Paul”, “Ninth District” and other alien science fiction blockbusters, as well as children’s science fiction drama “Lego Movie”. Most plots revolve around aliens invading the Earth. After the bizarre and fierce battles, the “heroes” finally saved the world and saved them from danger. They are wonderfully conceived and rich in expressions, which is breathtaking. Because it is purely literary, artistic creation and scientific fantasy, although it brings a lot of visual impact and brainstorming to the audience, generally no one would mistake them for accounts of actual events.

Second, some people associate flying saucers and aliens with scientific theories, supernatural phenomena, religions, myths, legends, spiritual events, psychology, yoga, etc., pretending to be ghosts, talking about spirituality, awakening, ascension, salvation, and even becoming a god oneself.

Many listeners were so taken in that they accepted these illusions as true. Thus was created the “alien” cult or quasi-cult, and even formed the “alien” system hypnotic, healing, spiritual industry. Dr. Liu Boyang has a more detailed discussion on this in his report. From “The Rise of UFO Legend”, “From Urban Legend to Pseudoscience, from Pseudoscience to Cult”, “The ins and outs of the “Star” Pleiades” “” Who promotes’Awakening’ in China?” “The business model of “Awakening” and “Ascension”” clearly outlines the context, and is accompanied by the “Ma Xiaoxiao and “Awakening” cult/pseudoscience personal media list “, people interested may want to look into this online.

In July 2015, the Guangxi Province Nanning City Qinxiu District People’s Court made a determination according to the law that the “Milky Way Federation” was an evil cult organization. The court believes that Zheng Huimao, in the name of Buddhism, established online the website “Milky Way Federation” and, according to the illegal “decress of the organization” drafted, printed and distributed illegal printed materials, spreading superstition theories, hoodwinking others, gathering and controlling many believers. In August he formed the an evil cult organization that harmed society, hindered the enforcement of Chinese law. Under the law, this constitutes creating and organization and using an evil cult organization to violate the law.

In modern times, with the deepening of the scientific research on the macro and micro worlds, scientists have made many amazing discoveries and revealed many secrets of the world and life, such as Einstein’s “relativity”, the conservation law of the transformation of material energy, Heisenberg’s “Uncertainty Principle”, wave-particle duality of light, Schrödinger’s cat, quantum entanglement, hologram, multidimensional space, wormhole theory, “field” theory, superstring theory, big bang theory, parallel universe, Uniform universe theory, as well as brain structure, subconscious research, genetic technology, and artificial intelligence.

Today, “science is king” so people in different fields like to appropriate these scientific discoveries and theories for their own purposes. Philosophers use it them perfect their own philosophical thinking system, literati use them in science fiction novels, artists use them to create science fiction movies and other works, and religious people use them to interpret and demonstrate the truth of religious doctrines, inspire confidence in them, or even to abandon traditional religions and create new religions. “Alien” cults or quasi-cults go the furthest in using these scientific discoveries and theoretical hypotheses to create their own unique interpretations.

The “Awakening” website “follower” count was listed as 835,000.

Since the establishment of the Awakening Subtitling Group, many online spiritual books, articles, and videos from western countries have been downloaded, translated/subtitled and spread on many websites inside China. Over they years, they have become the mainstay for the dissemination of “contemporary metaphysics” in China.

The establishment of the “Alien” cult is inseparable from the “scientific” interpretation and utilization of flying saucers, aliens, and many divine phenomena. There are indeed some scientists in Western society who have endorsed these things, such as the Edgar Mitchell Foundation For Research Into Extraterrestrial and Extraordinary Encounters (FREE) which allegedly conducted the largest, most comprehensive, cross-regional, multilingual, and latest UFO-Alien Contact Survey in history.

This kind of interpretation is not so much “science” as it is “contemporary metaphysics”. The so-called metaphysics is the doctrine of studying deep and profound metaphysics, which is equivalent to today’s metaphysics. During China’s Wei and Jin Dynasties, Chinese above all stressed the study of Laozi, Zhuangzi and Zhouyi (called “The Three Abstruse Ones”).

Scholars have studied the works of the Three Abstruse Ones, threw off the shackles of famous religions, and pursued spiritual freedom (Xiaoyao). The realm is high, and the emphasis is on “virtual” (none). Because it seriously disturbed the country’s governance and even the public order and good customs, later generations often criticized its “clear talk about misrepresenting the country”; while “contemporary metaphysics” combines scientific theories and “hypotheses” with various religions, myths, legends, witchcraft among other creative interpretations. These include all kinds of supernatural supernatural phenomena including flying saucers and alien legends, among which there are many profound philosophies and post-meditation feelings, so all the “strange power chaos gods” in ancient and modern China and foreign countries have come alive seemingly having become reasonable, scientific and even sacred.

“True” and “trustworthy” are extremely confusing. The “Alien”/Awakening cults are well-known and popularized. They are characterized by superficial philosophical thinking, deep attachment and low realm, with a preference for “real” (yes). Susceptible people with religious needs and some netizens are very It is difficult to discern authenticity, it is easy to be deceived, and even get into trouble, and the society is very harmful.

In this regard, the author will focus on revealing the analysis of Ma Xiaoxiao’s bizarre comments.

Warning: Be Careful of the Superstition Cult Venus Presenting Itself as Beneficial to Mental Health

Modern scientific discoveries have indeed helped us to understand the world, understand certain teachings of religion, and many spiritual events in history. However, because human observation of the world relies heavily on the highly restricted brain, senses, and material tools, some scientific discoveries can be confirmed, while others can only be derived using theory, which belongs to the philosophical “hypothesis”. In essence and the ultimate reality of the universe, it is impossible to persevere like a blind man touching an elephant.

Even less likely is it to replace religious doctrine, essential practice, and ultimate concerns. Therefore, as the “Vajra Sutra” [Diamond Sutra] says: “This Reality is Not Reality but it is called Reality” “If the world exits, it is one. Even if a non-unity exists, it is called unity. Subhuti! There is the one, but it cannot be said because people are selfish and caught up in their own affairs. ” (To be continued)

About the Author:

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Chen Xingqiao has the Buddhist monk clerical name of Changzheng, and the Buddhist religious name of Zhiyuan. Born on October 30, 1957 in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, he was originally born in Qiyang County, Hunan Province. He has graduated from Wuhan River Transport College and Lingyan Mountain Branch of China Buddhist College. He has been engaged in Buddhist teaching, journal editing and Buddhist studies for more than 30 years. He was one of the first people to expose the “Falungong” cult in China. In 1996, he wrote a long paper on “Falungong-a kind of extraordinary Buddhism with folk religious characteristics” that systematically exposes and criticizes “Falungong”. “And its Falun Gong”, which has edited several books criticizing “Falungong”, such as “Buddhist “Qigong” and Falun Gong” (China Religious Culture Publishing House published in June 1998), “Contest between Right and Evil-Buddhism Selected Works of Falun Gong (published in December 2000 by the Buddhist Charity and Merit Association of Hebei Province), “Chinese Buddhism Sect Theory (Part of Luzong Part)”, and “Buddhist Folk Origin”.

Chen Xingqiao has served as lecturer of Buddhist College, deputy secretary-general of Provincial and Municipal Buddhist Association, deputy editor-in-chief of “Buddhist Culture” of Chinese Buddhist Culture Research Institute, deputy editor-in-chief of “Fa Yin” magazine of Chinese Buddhist Association, executive director of Chinese Buddhist Association, China Anti-cult Association Executive Director, member of China Health Qigong Association, special researcher of Institute of Religion, Sichuan University, Suzhou

—————————————————-


Research on a “Space Alien” Type of Superstitious Cult (Part 2)


Source: China Anti-Cult Net of: by Chen Xingqiao Release date: [17 May 2019]
Editor’s note: In January of this year, Dr. Liu Boyang published an article “Reporting the “Alien” Cult Organization Using Real Names” on the Internet, listing Pleiades, Raelism, Heaven’s Gate, Galactic Federation and other Chinese and foreign under the banner of UFO and aliens. He concluded that Ma Xiaoxiao, who gave an “I met an alien” lecture series online in recent years mines the same veins as these cults. The website that published “Ma Xiaoxiao’s “Alien” was revealed to be a big human trafficker in Brazil”, and exposed the absurdity of Ma Xiaoxiao’s lectures. Liu Boyang’s article was reprinted or followed up on by the People’s Daily, China Net, China Economic Net, China Youth Online, China Taiwan Net, Global Times, Observer and other websites. This “alien” cult has also attracted the attention of the domestic scientific and technological circles, religious circles and anti-cult circles.

From the perspective of a religious scholar, Mr. Chen Xingqiao, the executive director of the Chinese Buddhist Association and the executive director of the China Anti-Cult Association, comprehensively and in-depth analyzed Ma Xiaoxiao’s remarks about “aliens”. Sooner or later this will become an influence and develop into a cult.” Taking Ma Xiaoxiao’s theory as an entry point, he analyzed the hypnotic, healing, and spiritual works of the “alien” belief system, and compared it with the “Falungong” of some years ago, pointing out some harmful “alien” systems (awakening system ) The trend in people’s thinking is running rampant, endangering the physical and mental health of the people and social stability. “Studies on the “Alien” Superstitious Cult -Taking Ma Xiaoxiao’s “Alien” and “Religious” Remarks as a Sample” is of great value for exposing the “Alien” System (Awakening System) heresy, and is now serialized.

2. A Brief Analysis of Ma Xiaoxiao’s “Alien” and “Religious” Remarks

(1) Ma Xiaoxiao and her affairs

According to an online search, Ma Xiaoxiao is a Chinese woman, in her 30s, who studied in Australia for high school, now lives in Australia, and who introduces herself as a lawyer and single. From the public information, Ma Xiaoxiao is the secretary and legal officer of China Liansu Group’s Sydney office. The company is headquartered in Foshan, Guangdong. “Legal affairs” refers to the staff in charge of dealing with legal affairs within corporate bodies such as enterprises, government agencies and government departments. Australian lawyers are divided into court lawyers and solicitors. Ma Xiaoxiao is, at best, a solicitor, similar to a Chinese paralegal, who can engage in legal services but cannot appear in court.

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In the online introduction about Ma Xiaoxiao, most of her two identities are mentioned-the director and legal adviser of the World Chinese UFO Federation, and the researcher of the UFO information survey of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei UFO Discovery Research Center. She used these two identities to spread “I met an alien” online. But after logging in to the website of the Chinese Social Organization Public Service Platform of the Ministry of Civil Affairs, and querying these two organizations, I came up with no result. In other words, these two organizations are not registered in the Chinese Civil Affairs Department. That means they are “illegal organizations”.

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“The World Chinese UFO Federation” has a website, the website (hrufo.com) with an internet IP address located in Hong Kong. But the technical support of the website is Shanxi Taiyuan Veken Tongcheng Network Technology Co., Ltd. The filing information of the industrial credit and public security departments are not listed on this website. This means that the website is operating illegally in Mainland China.

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Since May 2017, Ma Xiaoxiao has made 11 web lectures “I met an alien”, 6 episodes of “Interstellar Secret Interview” and online Q&A from fans on the media platform such as “Star Academy” and “Star Radio”. Millions of people. It is said that from the first to the third lecture, a total of 150 groups participated in the broadcast, and the audience reached about 35,000 people. Therefore, it has been hailed by the relevant media as “the famous contact of alien civilizations in China” and “the leader of the domestic light industry circle” (Author’s note: light industry: the light worker, refers to the theoretical system of UFO religious groups such as “cosmic human” Believers and missionaries).

Ma Xiaoxiao’s 11 lectures each focused on, including:

• The first lecture discussed the situation of seeing UFO and alien implants, communicating with and contacting alien contacts. 
• The second lecture focuses on alien implants and how to actively communicate with aliens. 
• The third lecture is on fighting multi-dimensional negative forces. 
• The fourth lecture examines ways of fighting against the negative spirits of the Earth. 
• Lecture five mainly talks about how to destroy the illegal soul contract and appeal to the karma court. 
• Lecture six focuses on my alien guide spirits.
• Lecture seven is dedicated to religious issues, emphasizing that the future of the earth will be unified by all religions. 
• Lecture eight discusses how to increase the frequency of body and consciousness.  
• Lecture nine is dedicated to the miraculous deeds of John the God of Brazil. Lecture ten shares methods for contacting and communicate with aliens and invites the audience to buy tickets to participate in the "I met the Aliens International Forum" which will be held in Shanghai and Beijing. 
• The Eleventh lecture mainly introduces the situation of a mysterious Western alien contact closure. 
Photos accompanying seventh session of “I Met Aliens” lectures

Ma Xiaoxiao is not very eloquent. Once could say that she is very long-winded. The text produced by the transcription of the 11 lectures comes to about 150,000 words, which is very difficult to read, so when this article cites examples, it has to be sorted out and abstracted to preserve the original intention. Judging from her speech, she does not have any depth of thought.

Apart from boasting about seeing aliens and gods, she does not seem to have any special abilities (otherwise she does not need to recommend all kinds of spiritual therapy to her listeners). She lacks religious knowledge, but is full of prejudice to traditional religion and its rules and regulations. She is extremely defamatory and blasphemous. She is extremely disdainful of the phenomenon of “respecting men over women” in ancient times, especially traditional religions. Legends believe that there is no doubt that the worship of the ever-changing spiritual culture in the West (mostly borrowed and absorbed from the development of yoga, qigong, and meditation in the east) is also highly respected for hypnosis, yoga, special functions and even witchcraft. Referrals are regarded as necessary means for awakening, ascending, and linking with aliens. The most striking part of his speech was the first and seventh episodes, which revealed many “secret stories” of aliens and religions, and how they met with many aliens and Buddhist and Christian gods, and advertised their being Gods and aliens have given a special mission to make the entire planet “raise” and “awaken” and lead the major religions to “unify all religions”.

Seen in this light, Ma Xiaoxiao’s self-proclaimed titles are a bit false. She is neither a religious person, nor a scientist, but she talks about religion and science on the subject of flying saucers and aliens. She is a representative of the popular abuse of “contemporary metaphysics”. Below, I try to analyze her special experience and strange remarks on the Internet.

(2) An analysis of Ma Xiaoxiao’s “Adventure” and the formation of her abnormal psychology

Ma Xiaoxiao’s 11 lectures were full of rumors, the language was messy, and fallacies were repeated again and agan, which greatly departs from all common sense. Admirers may be obsessed with it, and the “alien”/awakening groups and self-media are referred to extensively, Most listeners may think that she is either mentally problematic or fabricating lies and sinister intentions. So what is the really going on here?

In the first lecture, Ma Xiaoxiao reported that he saw the flying saucer in Brisbane in mid-June 2012: “Then I forgot about this matter and did not take it seriously.” From June to the end of the year, she often I will dream of flying saucers, some dreams are very lucid dreams, I feel the soul out of the body, the skin has alien implants, and then she said “I must really be an alien contactee”.E

Ma Xiaoxiao introduced this closed-door meeting in the 11th lecture: Participants are men, women and children, and all are white except her. The closed meeting was convened by Mariana to carry out relevant academic research for herself, and also provided a channel for aliens to talk to. There were all kinds of participants, and they were curious and excited about each other, a little bit nervous. Among them, some people are persistently seeking “buyers” for their perpetual motion machines; half of them are keen to reveal the cooperation projects between the military and aliens abduction of Western countries, and talk about how they are abducted and trained by aliens.

As Ma Xiaoxiao said that when she sees an alien, what he wants to awaken and ascend is not valued by the host. Everyone is more concerned about the secret projects involving aliens. It is said that government agents are among the participants. The closed-door meeting is held once a month because the host and Mr. M have a fierce quarrel, which caused them to be sullen. The closed-door meeting will be dissolved for half a year. Later, Ma Xiaoxiao also participated in a group meeting composed of three or four people. One of the ladies was ill, so the group meeting was cancelled. This shows that the so-called alien contactors will be bizarre and chaotic when closed.

After that, she began due diligence to do research, interviewed big coffee in the circle, and met more alien contacts. She said: “I want to tell you that we are really not alone on this Earth, and that aliens are real.”

In session one, she also described her first formal contact with “Alien Guidance Spirit”. She said: “After contacting the aliens, I have no ability to see them with my naked eyes.” Afterwards, with the help of a psychic alien contact unmarried couple in Melbourne, I was able to see the aliens. . She said that aliens are pure energy bodies, and they can change into male and female forms at will, depending on how they feel. A blue alien from Sirius, who calls herself Ping, is called by her as her guiding spirit. Ping said that she has many missions to do this reincarnation. I am very happy to contact her through Mariana and hope that she will wake up in the future Can help more people.

Ma Xiaoxiao said: Ping often appeared in front of her in a religious image, such as the image of Buddha at once, or often in the image of that lama. “What I want to tell you is that we all have a higher self, and we are just a part of our own higher self. Like me, I have 28 kinds of avatars. My identity is called Ma Xiaoxiao. Now I am just born on the earth. I have another 27. This kind of avatar is in a different density space, when different alien life, they are learning different courses, including everyone is the same.”

Ma Xiaoxiao said: “When I first met the Pleiadians, they all came to my room one night. Standing next to my bed scared me and woke me up. I couldn’t move at that time. They introduced themselves and said that we came from the Pleiades. I was watching them and stayed because I thought, Wow! They look so tall, men are taller than women, and the most funny thing is when they come Both come together in twos, either four together or six together.”

“I couldn’t say anything at the time, and then I said what were you doing? I remember asking him that way, he didn’t seem to look back, he just kept doing things there, and then he sent me a message, but also Say alas, it’s a general program, you know, it’s just giving you a shot and opening your third eye.”

“I’ve been desperately thinking about what the female alien said to me: The world you live in is an illusion…I will go to work the next day, I will not even think about going to work, I have been thinking about this sentence, always Thinking about that alien.”

“A Pleiades came at night and took me to the balcony… At that time, my house was very close to the observatory in the city center. He pointed his finger at the observatory, and I looked at the observatory, and he opened it all at once. My third eye.”

“One of my feelings at that time was that everything was worth the beauty…I thought it was really a utopian world. They explained to me that this is the fifth-density earth that everyone can experience in the future. I am now 31 years old , I said I don’t know if I can wait until this day, as if everyone is talking on the Internet, and I don’t know when this day will come.”

“The kind of energy wave they sent me can hit me. The feeling of love is really more than the kind of energy I got from my parents when I was younger and older, and they gave me one time. There was too much love, and my tears came down when I collapsed, and then I said okay! Enough is enough!”

“How can I contact an alien family? I want to tell you that you must remember that when 99% of you listen to me, you are very interested in this topic, how much do you have in your subconscious I already know that you have contact with aliens! You do have contact with aliens, not that you want to contact aliens now. In fact, most of you already have contact with aliens. It’s just that your own memory has been sealed up. After listening to what I said earlier, you will carefully think about your experience and you will find out whether you often dream of flying saucers at night, and whether you often The soul will come out when sleeping!”

“I highly recommend that if you really want to communicate with aliens for the first time, you should directly contact the higher self, communicate with the higher self first, and then go to your alien mentor!”

Judging from the contents of her speech and the first lecture given above, I have the following impressions:

1. After seeing the “flying saucer” in mid-June 2012, Ma Xiaoxiao often dreamed of the flying saucer for half a year, and even surprised to find that she had an alien “implant” on her body, showing that she was called a flying saucer and The alien problem is very disturbing and trance, so I have to seek relevant information and help.

2. In February 2013, Ma Xiaoxiao found out that the president of the Sydney UFO Federation Mariana hypnotized and commented on her, and worshipped Mariana and Millwall hypnotists, and was convinced that her spiritual body had been with aliens since the baby. There are many contacts, including flesh on the UFO. From a psychological point of view, after hypnosis, Ma Xiaoxiao’s various subconsciouss, including the so-called “higher self”, are activated (superficial). In addition to the obvious consciousness of coping with reality, she is more immersed in the subconscious surging illusion in.

3. Ma Xiaoxiao recommended to participate in the closed-door meeting of alien contacts in Sydney. Ma Xiaoxiao’s consciousness of pursuing “alien civilization” has been continuously strengthened. She enshrines the so-called positive aliens as gods, thinking that they have guidance and control of humanity. Even the power of earth’s destiny! At the same time, it is believed that there are also negative alien forces of the villains.

Capture from Sydney Today website of article from the “Kaiffeng Network” alledging that the “space alien” that Ma Xiaoxiao venerates is in fact a Brazilian sex trafficker

4. With the help of the Sydney psychics and the so-called “aliens”, Ma Xiaoxiao opened the “third eye”, which not only can see all kinds of aliens, but also can be fleshed into the flying saucer, and was given the ” Sacred” mission. She specifically mentioned her alien guiding spirit, higher self and 28 kinds of avatars. Among them, the alien guiding spirit ping can change from male to female at will, and even often appears as religious images such as Buddha and Lama. She often shows off that she often meets and communicates with Sakyamuni Buddha, Dari Rulai, Maitreya Buddha, Guanyin Bodhisattva, Dizang Bodhisattva, Sakyamuni Bodhisattva, Jesus, and the Creator. In fact, it is her own hallucinations. At this stage, Ma Xiaoxiao’s consciousness activities are completely handed over to her various “guidance spirits” (in fact, a kind of strong subconsciousness within her, similar to the commonly-known appendages, which are at the mercy of them and cannot be their own) and “high “I” (unlike the obvious consciousness full of greed, emotions, and paranoia, is a transcendental stream of consciousness, also known as human divinity or Buddha nature) to control, very hyperactive, the spirit is often in reality and hallucinations Switch between, showing a split personality. Playing with children, “I am the most powerful” (Spiritual Victory Method), will imagine that the real psychology is more than that, or that it presents a “giant infant disease”.

5. Because he believes that he has been recognized by many aliens and gods, he has a special mission, and is touted by many “alien” department/awakening department groups and self-media, providing a platform to support and use. Encouraged, it is estimated that he dabbled in a lot of information about the “alien” system/awakening system. After nearly five years of research, “cultivation”, precipitation, planning, and fabrication, he built his own “alien” ideological “system”. And since May 2017, it has been publicized on the Awakening Department’s self-media platform. She believes that 99% of the listeners have seen aliens just like her, but the memory is sealed up (with such a high probability that the listeners will not try the method again, and they are too sorry for her “prophet”. It can be seen how fooling! Crazy not to say, but also everyone together to be crazy), and some people dare not tell the truth, so she constantly called on alien contacts to speak as bravely as she, persuading everyone to try to “awaken” quickly, To greet the occurrence of the “big event” that aliens have completely transformed the earth.

6. In order to prevent the situation of the audience, she also put forward a number of cautions as a person coming:

“Some alien contacts have that kind of savior mentality or victim mentality and think they are special or something.”

“I hope you can wake up from the expansion of the ego and stop studying the so-called eternal kinetic energy. This technology is actually already available in many countries in the world (I note: this is not the case, perpetual motion is actually impossible. (Pseudo-proposition), without you having to worry about it, your chance to win glory for the country can be used elsewhere.”

“After the past few years, the biggest experience is to walk a large circle. In fact, the most important thing is to land. It is necessary to look at the contact between aliens and earth people in a normal way!”

“Some people will be crazy about this, for example, some alien enthusiasts, I have encountered a man before, he is not doing business, and finally has a casual job, he will quit that job, and go to what The UFO hot zone is a common area, where I wait for the UFO and do not work for a month. I find the UFO every day, and it is not enough to land. My living condition is very chaotic! We should avoid some other experiences due to UFO contact (cause this chaos ). The ultimate goal is how you want to improve yourself. After I contacted the aliens, my biggest improvement is to be a little more vegetarian. I will pay more attention to the water I drink. I will have a better temper and a little more stability than before. It’s more neutral to look at things, not black or white, right or wrong, and not just looking at a superficial phenomenon to comment.”

It can be seen that Ma Xiaoxiao does have a mental problem. She warns the audience that she is also facing her own problem, and she tries to constantly calm the excited mood and integrate the split spirit (the so-called “landing”, she may not be completely mad). At the same time, in order to gain an extraordinary status in the “alien” system circle, and constantly circulate fans, she did not hesitate to fabricate lies and confuse people, but it can be said that the potential social harm is extremely great. In order to suppress and eliminate this social harm, Dr. Liu Boyang wrote Reporting with real names can be said to be of great merit.

(3) A Brief Analysis of Ma Xiaoxiao’s “Alien” Speech

Ma Xiaoxiao claims to have contact with more than 100 alien races, such as Sirius, Pleiades, Perseus, Qita and even Lizards, Little Greys, Mantis, Lizards, etc. These are basically Westerners have been deified and hyped for a long time, and some of them can be seen in science fiction and movies. However, Ma Xiaoxiao is more emotional and specific. She has many descriptions of the alien’s gender, image (including color), personality, hobbies, feelings, abilities, social conditions, and whether they are positive or negative forces. For example, some aliens also have nobles, who smoke and walk to calm down their anger, and some are dentists. She said: “They and humans have some commonalities in communication, for example, they often tell jokes, and based on the communication between civilizations, they can often resonate with you.”

“It will also make simulated movements, which makes people endure.”

“Geocentric people love to watch “Guardians of the Galaxy”; I also know a lot of geocentric people, some are friends and some are spirit guides; many of the geocentric people I have encountered are like animals, such as long elephants like frogs and foxes. some type of.”

“That night, a pair of Pleiadians, a man and a woman, super funny, they laughed there: Although we still have property, they basically belong to the rationing system. We still need to work, play various social roles, and do Contribute. Similar to your communism. After we die, our property, such as the house, will be returned to the society, and will not be left to their children. They don’t have to worry about their children, they are all socially responsible. I used to be in their On the spaceship, the children who have seen them are all concentrated in education and parenting. Parents just go to visit and do not need a lot of energy.”

Faith in a big battle with science! A Sydney woman who calls herself “in spiritual contact with the Buddha, Cosmlogy PhD critixcizes her severely” from PRC publication Global Times Network

“Two of the aliens I saw for the first time were from Sirius. They are blue pure energy bodies. There are no more entities. It has evolved to a point where there is no body.”

“If I were with my friends in the circle, they would be able to see it when I saw it, but for my colleagues, sometimes they walk around in my office and my colleagues just can’t see them.”

“The body structure of aliens is different from ours. The purity of oxygen in each spaceship is very different, so if you go up, you may not be able to adapt.”

“We usually go to the spacecraft to go up with the etheric body, that is, the soul comes out of it and then gets on the spaceship again, which is also a more normal and common way to encourage!”

Among the above-mentioned aliens, Ma Xiaoxiao said that many of them are her guiding spirits, such as: “My guiding Lingqita star”; “I have three mentors of Perseus. They actually come very often, 1 I will come once in 2 months. “Sirius” “Sana Feynman is my main guiding spirit. The guidance to me can be described as all-round, no matter how small, I take very good care of me, and I feel a little maternal.”

She even identified savages as aliens. As she said: “Geeks, our China is also called Bigfoot. They are real, high-altitude aliens! No matter what kind of savage, they actually have special functions and are more sensitive. They can travel through time and space. That’s why many people have difficulty finding savages.”

Ma Xiaoxiao deified the aliens and repeatedly emphasized that the aliens know everything, but it doesn’t have to be said, because it is revealed that the celestial beings must bear karma.

“Every idea in our minds, little thoughts or something, they all know. There is no privacy in the universe. Thinking is energy and can be monitored.”

“What we think in our heads, they all know, including what we are thinking, an idea, they all know, if you haven’t even said it, they all know. You can even truncate and give you another idea. Sometimes, go Shop to buy things, they will give you an inspiration, or suggest, you suddenly think, where to buy a thing, it is better.”

“Aliens have very strong mental powers and strong wills. If you have any difficulties in life, you may wish to ask the Lyra to help them in this regard. In fact, aliens of different races have their own Characteristics and strengths. I’m constantly learning.”

“The alien’s high-tech has reached a very high level. They can weave an energy into an implant, which is actually not detectable by our current conventional medicine.”

“This is an alien implant constructed by energy. As far as I know, in fact the military on earth, the secret government, it actually has equipment that can detect it and can eliminate it. But This technology is not currently available to us, so it is only owned by the military of Western countries, or it is owned by some secret governments of Western countries.”

“If it’s your alien team or your alien guide spirit, he put it in your body, you can adjust your body constitution, you can open your various special functions… Also There is to help him open some recessive genes…”

“There are many special functions in our group, he can help you remove those negative alien implants.”

“People like me are actually very pitiful and have no privacy. What do I want to do during the day, they will come to me at night and say.”

She said that there are also negative forces in aliens. “At present, the highest dimension of negative forces we encounter is in the sixth dimension.” But don’t be afraid. She said that there are karma courts and elders in the alien planet. The law enforcers are responsible for the trial, and the people of the earth can appeal to the karma court to eliminate the so-called illegal soul contract.

“Cause and effect and karma in the universe exist objectively! The creator has also confirmed with me, including aliens, this is not only the religion, the Buddha said, the spiritual master said.”

“His karma court may be the highest council of each race, or this race may have established an independent karma court itself. Sometimes the palace of light is what we call paradise. It has its own ascension. The master comes to deal with some daily affairs. Every one of you light workers, they know the work on the earth every day, and give you some work instructions. At the same time, they are also judges in the karma court. They can also be our bosses or bosses, and sometimes I see them, and I joked with them that way.” (She talked about karma courts many times, which may be related to her practice as a lawyer)

She also “reported” that human genes have been programmed by different aliens: “They mentioned that because humans on earth, at the beginning of evolution, our genes were indeed programmed many, many times and were different All of the aliens have programmed, and you probably all know this. Then genetic programming is not only from a physical level, including your ideology, but also that cultural system.” (In fact, the “alien” cult and Li Hongzhi I like to talk about such topics)

In both the second and the tenth lectures, she introduced how to communicate with aliens, vigorously agitating and ignoring the audience: “You (listeners) are all high spirits and are very great. Being able to come to this earth, each of you Everyone has aliens to guide the spirit. In fact, which kind of aliens you want to link, as long as they are positive, you can call them, including you want to call Guanyin Bodhisattva, Rulai Buddha, etc., you can call, and It’s not that I’m an alien contactor, I’m special, it’s not like this, it’s just that my current functions are turned on, so I can perceive them, and my memory has been liberated, so I can recall Many things before, including sometimes I can see the flying saucer.”

“If you don’t specifically ask for help from aliens, you may not link to aliens. I remember once I was meditating and linking to someone. At that time, my function was not very high. Later, the aliens in the dreamland People came, introduced themselves, took me to play on their spaceship, out of state, and later they said, it was when I was meditating that the frequency was just linked to him. At that time, they were communicating with other people, just right The frequency caught up, so I knew me.”

“Sometimes, when you walk down the street, although you don’t see it, the spaceship is flying all over the sky, you can’t see it, because they are invisible, everyone has their own unique frequency, just like the ID of Apple’s mobile phone, everyone There is an independent frequency, it may see you, analyze you, and decide whether to communicate with you.”

She also did not forget to boast of herself from the aliens: “Once I met an alien, he said that I was super-dimensional… He said that I came from the fourth universe beyond nanospace… It seems to be from The concept from the 1st dimension to the 12th dimension… The super-dimension is that it has exceeded the 12-dimension. It is the 13th, 14th, and 15th dimensions and is pushed back. There are other dimensions that exist in another universe…”

Ma Xiaoxiao also knew that she was talking too bizarrely. In order to win the audience, she made two points to prove that what she said was true. One was physical evidence. Some aliens placed some alien crystals in her crystal column. However, the person who has opened the third eye can see; the second is the witness. She said that everyone in her circle knew that she would not lie. As a lawyer, she should be clear that such so-called material evidence and personal evidence will not be accepted by the courts of any country, but it is quite effective to give those obsessed a reason to believe. “This photo is the crystal column I bought myself. After the Pleiadians entered my room, they put some crystals of their own in this crystal column. You may not see it with your naked eyes, but I encourage you to give me this photo Save it, if you know which functional person, please show me the photos of these functional persons, if there is this third-eye functional person, they can see that there are many small crystals in my crystal, glowing, Staghorn.”

In addition, she also emphasized that there are so many contacts with aliens in the world, and introduced the purpose of her breaking news: “I said in the first episode. In Australia, every year, “body and soul exhibition” is held, that is, those light workers , Meditators, and people who like sexual spirituality will attend. Every time, there are tens of thousands of people, and there are many contacts with aliens.

“You will find that the role you play in this transition period of the earth is probably very important!” “Once you are fully awakened, including the mission you have to take after you have great strength It can change the entire history of mankind.”

“One of my purposes, including one that encourages everyone to do so, is to increase the public’s attention to this topic of aliens, and to encourage major events to happen!”

The “The Event” that she referred to is the core of the “awakening-event-ascension” heresy system, referring to the imminent “major event” of the alien liberation of the earth, which will change the government system and financial system of countries around the world. After the collapse, the “new earth” that was rebuilt afterwards had no debts, everyone had jobs, and entered the “ideal society”:

“The Sirius is called Ping. He told me that this is a new earth. In the future, we will enter the fifth density and the sixth density. By then, the earth will have a great evolution, and we will live on a very perfect earth. ,Big

“The Sirius is called Ping. He told me that this is a new earth. In the future, we will enter the fifth density and the sixth density. By then, the earth will have a great evolution, and we will live on a very perfect earth. Everyone will be happy when they live. The problem of money that we are worried about will no longer exist and live very well. In the future, our financial system will end, and everyone will be provided with everything they want to eat and use.” (Its ideal It’s vulgar too)

She also introduced many methods related to “alien culture” against multi-dimensional negative forces and the earth’s negative spirits, such as meditation every day, saying that I hope light and love can protect me; imagine that I am covered by a mirror; Meditate through crystals and clean yourself; eat more vegetarian food and breathe fresh air; listen to spiritual music; seek the help of various spiritual hypnotists and special function masters to know your past and present lives, eliminate your own illegal soul contract, and improve your own Transparency and frequency, opening your own special function or third eye, etc., while also emphasizing the urgency of ascension:

“I saw Corrigold recently wrote an article on his Facebook, saying that during a recent meeting with the Blue Jays, the Blue Jays told him that they were going to buffer the energy in the solar system. The functioning planet has been evacuated.”

“Maybe in the near future, our earth will be completely exposed to shock waves of cosmic energy. Then some people who often read the information of Cory Good will also know that these very high frequency energy waves will affect every life on the earth. The body has a certain influence.” (It has a taste of the end of the world)

After reading the alien “story” that Ma Xiaoxiao quoted in the above section, I think most readers must be very surprised. If Ma Xiaoxiao is telling the truth, then we not only have aliens on the earth, but also everywhere, nowhere No, we always monitor and affect us. In such a big event, are governments of various countries and mainstream scientific and religious circles really “ignorant”, or are they deliberately hiding? While lamenting that we are blind to aliens, we cannot help but ask the following questions:

1. As we all know, the distance between the planets is very far away, for example, Sirius is a binary system, one of the brightest stars that can be seen by the naked eye in the night sky, and the distance from us is 8.7 light years; Pleiades, also known as The Seven Sisters cluster is about 500 light-years away from Earth; the Perseus galaxy group is composed of more than 1,000 galaxies and is nearly 250 million light-years away from us. How do aliens overcome this astronomical distance and travel back and forth at any time?

Ma Xiaoxiao did not seem to regard this as a problem, perhaps thinking that the aliens were awakened (underdeveloped technology is not important), beyond the three-dimensional space, so that time and distance can be ignored, they are like gods, they can always Shuttles between the stars are familiar to the people of the earth. Only the people of the earth have serious crimes. They must wait for the aliens’ salvation. Of course, the first thing is to have the light workers who are the medium of aliens headed by Ma Xiaoxiao. But the question ensues. After all, the four-dimensional and more-dimensional space is still a hypothetical theoretical concept. Whether or not time and space can be surpassed is not subjectively arbitrarily arbitrarily talked about, not to mention living. In this regard, there is no way for people living in three dimensions to verify or falsify. Liars or lunatics have grasped this point, as long as they bring themselves a halo of “tallness”, endorse them with a few celebrities or scientists, and then use some fashionable scientific terminology to decorate them. Judging from the various aspects of the aliens described by Ma Xiaoxiao, they have not exceeded the three-dimensional or four-dimensional space. Like many quasi-cults and cult leaders who have been disclosed, Ma Xiaoxiao arbitrarily used multidimensional space to pretend to be science, and reversed and confused the normal perception of the world. Not only is it a tarnishment of science, but also has mental control and money fraud Conspiracy to accumulate wealth and develop cults. Yin Jian is not far away. Dr. Liu Boyang’s article reveals much about this.

2. There are many ethnic groups on the earth, and the languages used are different, and they must communicate with each other through a special translation. The language of more than 100 alien races should also be strange. I think Ma Xiaoxiao cannot break through the communication barriers of thousands of languages of many peoples on the earth. So how does she effectively communicate with so many alien races? How do aliens know all languages on earth? It seems that she thought it could be solved by a “telepathy”, but there are many “awakenings” or psychics in ancient and modern Chinese and foreign religions. I have not heard of such a genius. There are too many braggers in the world, but it is really rare to be able to blow like Ma Xiaoxiao. In addition to deifying the aliens and herself and leaving the fans with brain damage, I think that as long as the readers with normal minds, no one would believe their nonsense.

3. Ma Xiaoxiao said that aliens are pure energy bodies, they can be invisible, feel free to come and go as they please, and enter a person’s room and brain, like a god, what kind of material flying saucer is needed? She also said that the flying saucer can only be seen by her and the people in the circle, and she seems to be invisible. She also got into the flying saucer herself. Does this mean that the flying saucer and Ma Xiaoxiao are also pure energy bodies? Are the many ordinary people who have witnessed the flying saucer reported? Energetic? I really don’t want to justify myself!

4. Although there are observations and legends of astronomical stars such as 28 stars and 88 constellations, as well as UFO records in ancient and modern China and foreign countries, linking aliens to UFO is still a matter of nearly a hundred years. There are so many sages, monks, and even psychics in ancient times, why haven’t they seen any records of aliens (even if there are similar records, they are much less than those seen by Ma Xiaoxiao. Perhaps Ma Xiaoxiao put the religious gods, myths and legends of various nationalities in their legends) The characters and even the savages are mixed with aliens, so it’s a matter of course), and it’s not until the contemporary era that a large number of aliens patronize and connect with Ma Xiaoxiao? Is it Ma Xiaoxiao’s fiction, or are they really selected by aliens? I want readers who understand the history of religion and UFO history to find their own judgments.

5. Many of the aliens introduced by Ma Xiaoxiao, including the aliens can realize the image of religious masters at any time, as well as the ideal social scene after the “big event” that she aspires to, are in fact related to her own real life situation and culture. The background is closely related to the degree of obsession with UFO and aliens. In other words, it is related to her own psychological activities and pursuit of purpose. This precisely reflects what she calls “I met an alien”, half of it is due to schizophrenia and half is due to ego expansion.

(4) A brief analysis of Ma Xiaoxiao’s “religious” speech

Ma Xiaoxiao talked specifically about religious issues in the seventh speech. Just as she said that she often saw many aliens, she also said that the Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, Jesus, and the Creator are all related to her:

“Once I was in contact with Giordamo Siddhartha, probably two or three years ago, there was no psychological preparation at the time. Suddenly there was a telepathy, he connected with me and said that I came to you . Remember when I was about to buy a piece of chocolate while I was paying, I said hello hello. I think he is a very humble person. He told me a lot about Kundalini awakening, he said if you want If you clean your chakras, you can connect with me, I can help you clean your chakras. Then I said, oh! Really? So I connect with him sometimes, I think he is really powerful, for cleaning himself The chakra is very helpful. If you want to practice Kundalini’s yoga or something, you can call Qiao Da Mo Si Dado, he is very capable in this respect, he can help you.

Then I want to talk about Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva, which actually has a strong connection with Sirius, Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva, Goddess Isis, and the goddess of the lion head, they are actually the gods of Sirius, Avalokitesvara and Sirius The connection is very strong. In fact, most of us Chinese are born from Sirius. “

“Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva is actually one of my main mentors. I have more contact with him. After contact, I found that the Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva’s personality is very different from what we imagined and seen on the sculpture. In fact, he is a very lively one. character.”

“There is also the Maitreya Buddha, who really likes to laugh. He is a great virtue in the Western Elysium and a ferry. Every time I see Guanyin, the Maitreya Buddha often appears, but recently he came It’s relatively rare. Recently, it’s the Bodhisattva Bodhisattva. The Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara visits often… The Bodhisattva Bodhisattva feels very open-minded and considerate for others. He has a great heart and can bear the whole world. He introduced him When I didn’t say that he was the Bodhisattva King Dzang, he said that he was the Buddha of Light, but I think his image includes its energy field. He is indeed the Bodhisattva Dizang, but he just called himself that, then I said Okay. Then I also met the Ten Hercules in Buddhism. I also have a connection with Sakyamuni.”

She also introduced how she got a larger soul contract and how to get into education, and later converted to a reason for receiving the five precepts. She was invited to host a Buddhist wedding in Nantian Temple. Being challenged by a master, she was given a test. She passed the test, so many Buddhas and gods decided to give her a soul contract and also told her what the soul contract is. I was very touched at the time and said that I would definitely do a very good job and would lead everyone along this path of unification.

“There is a Wollongong in Australia. There is a dojo opened by Master Nebula in that place. It is one of the largest temples in our southern hemisphere. I went to work as a volunteer. It happened that the air was very fresh and the food was very clean. The people are also very nice. I went to play on an outing for a day or two, and it was free to eat and live. But I didn’t believe it in my heart… At that time, there was a master who said that I had been waiting for you for a century. I finally waited for you to come back, and then he told me something personal about me, saying that you are going to be a missionary in your life, and then I said, oh, this thing seems to be not very related to me, I don’t believe in religion very much… …They said, oh, no, no! Religion will definitely be reformed in the future, so we need you light workers to do a reform. What do I say about reform? I was still very resistant, he said, we will Take the way of universal teaching.”

“Remember when I first started to sleep, wow! Come to the Golden Light, a lot of gods, Buddhas and Dade have arrived, and then said, Ma Xiaoxiao, we gave you a test, you have passed the test, he said you are in your Master is so troublesome for you, you are so bumpy on this road, you still decide to come to this Nantian Temple to do this without recklessness, so I will now give You are a soul contract. I will stay afterwards, and I really thank you for giving me such a grand contract.”

As a Chinese in Australia, Ma Xiaoxiao’s religious concepts are mixed between East and West, but judging from the introduction, he is still more influenced by Buddhism. She is not only favored by aliens, but also blessed by many Buddhas and gods in religion, and jointly gives her a “spirit contract”. According to Buddhism, she is given a certificate to confirm and give her a religious reform Status and mission.

Judging from the history of Buddhism and the Biography of High Monks, there are very few records of a blessing of a Buddha and a Bodhisattva, and some are also very pious, diligent and have a high degree of virtue, and generally have more dreams. As for Jesus and the Creator who simultaneously sensed many Buddhas, Bodhisattvas and even Christians, there is no way. In modern times, people have used the way of helping children to sense the upper body of various religious gods, but it usually takes a lot of time. The upper body gods are common. There are three princes and Ji Gong in Taiwan. Fujian has Xuantian God, a thousand-year-old prince, etc., Hong Kong has Qitian Dasheng, Guan Gong, etc., and sometimes there are family members’ souls, lonely spirits and wild ghosts. Buddhism and Taoism do not recognize such practices. “The Master Yinguang Master’s Notes·Recommendation of Liwei Farmer’s Residence I”: “Everything is helped by the helper’s knowledge. It may also be made by the helper. It is not true. Hundreds of thousands of occasions have come to the altar ears. Even the words Buddha and Bodhisattva are all counterfeit.” Another example is contained in “Taishang Tiantan Jade”, Jing Yun: Everything is true to heavenly gods and gods, without the body of the living person, if it is attached to the person. The speaker is definitely a demon outsider, most of them are unjust ghosts. Most of them are land and sects who can make such a blame. Kuang “Nv Qing Tian Lu” Cloud: The evil gods who arbitrarily entrusted with their real names, sent the wok soup hell, or paid the counter-scale general, so that they would die for thousands of lives, and do not give up day and night.

It can be seen that Ma Xiaoxiao arrogantly saw the Buddha, the bodhisattva and the gods, etc., either schizophrenia or demon possession, and maliciously fabricated it to achieve its ulterior purpose. Interestingly, she also made a choice. She did not mention the gods of Judaism, Hinduism, Islam, and Taoism. She may be too strange to them, or helpless to improve her status, or fear of taboos. Was chased!

What makes the religious believers even more puzzled and angry is that after relying on the gods such as the Buddhist Buddha and the Jesus of Christianity to “acquire” a certain sacred status, she turned her face and began to discredit, tarnish, deconstruct the traditional religion and seize the tradition as much as possible. Religious sacred resources and believers and property resources to establish their own definition of the “religion of ten thousand religions” new religion, which is exactly the same as many emerging religions and cults. For example, she devoted considerable space to Jesus she knew, subverting the Christian description of Jesus:

“Jesus did indeed exist on earth. He did reincarnate on earth at that time, and then led everyone to glory, but Jesus Christ did not die at that time. He did not create this Christianity after his death. This is the person behind. The creation of Christianity in his name has nothing to do with Jesus’ own life experience and will.”

“The real birth date of Jesus Christ is on the third week of September…but the fuck is not a virgin. This is a translation problem. Hebrew was supposed to be a young woman for that definition, but they were In the translation into English, the word was translated into a virgin. At that time they translated this way, I think it is to prove that Mary is a very pure woman. In fact, Mary is indeed a very good woman, but she cannot be said to be a virgin, because from Judging from the normal impression of having a child, I think this is also unlikely… Jesus Christ is not as the Bible says, he is not the only child in their family.”

“(Jesus Christ) played with his brother, sister and brother when he was young… He also traveled the world when he was a teenager, that is, he has been to India, Tibet, Europe, and also Africa… Then it met different teachers and taught him different lessons in these places in the Middle East. The ancient Egypt that Jesus Christ went to at that time spent a night in the pyramid, and Kundalini awakened, and then opened His seven chakras have the ability to transcend, of course, this is also related to his own practice. Then he began the missionary journey, he is actually very strong… The Bible says that he has various All kinds of magical special functions, including walking on the water, can change things out of thin air. In fact, these records are all in our human history, such as fetching objects from the sky, and walking on the water in Taoism. In addition to Jesus Christ, the following people can actually do it, only that he has gathered a lot of special functions in one body, the reason is: on the one hand, because of the power of his personal love and light, he is indeed a decent person, On the other hand, because his own physical body has been changed many times in that era, that is to say, there has been a promotion… It can be shown that he no longer belongs to a pure earth person. In that era, his physical body has already changed Being genetically modified is very powerful, can bear and hold more light and love, so if his energy body is placed on the average person, he can’t bear it, and the person will disintegrate, so he was Because he has been genetically modified many times, he has the ability to carry more light and energy in his life…Why does he have these abilities, because he has a historical mission, he must lead mankind to glory. “

Belonging to a pure earth man, at that time, his physical body has been genetically modified very well, can withstand and hold more light and love, so if his energy body is placed on ordinary people, He can’t bear it, people will disintegrate, so he was genetically modified many times at that time, so he has the ability to carry more light and energy in his life…Why do he have these abilities? Because he has a historical mission, he must lead mankind to glory. “

“That Jesus Christ was set up by future generations, including the Buddha in our eastern culture, and also the people behind him set up him to create this Buddhism, because in that era it really needed a religion to make a support ……The descendants actually have many masters and they have the same ability and level, but they may not be as hot as they are.”

“Jesus Christ was indeed on the cross… Three days later, he was rescued by his followers, so he didn’t die on the cross at all…. His wife Mary took special care of him, and then the two of them were considered married.” This is not written in the Bible. In the Bible, his wife Mary is written as a believer, and Mary’s identity is very unpleasant…because that time is a patriarchal age, they don’t like to see women. Energy, that’s why at that time only men could not worship women.”

“Mary is the twin flame of Jesus Christ, and his ability is basically the same as that of Jesus Christ, except that her abilities have been wiped out in history. This is a pity. Because women were not allowed in that era. The power of this is also the embodiment of the old society. After Jesus Christ was saved on the cross, he and Mary went to France we know now… traveled all over the world, went to Tibet, went to India, went to many similar countries, They gave birth to a daughter and then settled in Ireland…”

“I also have a very good friend in Australia. He was an elder brother of Jesus Christ who was reincarnated on earth at that time, but he devoted himself to being a woman in his life.”

Ma Xiaoxiao said unreliable and regardless, but her meaning is still very clear, that is, she is amazing, psychic, understands the religious insider that the world does not know, Jesus Christ is not so God, he never said that he is God He’s only son didn’t even want to establish any Christianity. He and the Buddha are just one of many masters who were established by future generations according to their own needs. She also made up that Jesus had a wife named Mary, and had a daughter, thinking that she was as big as Jesus’ ability, but was buried by future generations because her men were superior to women. This is just as she ridiculously said that in Buddhism, men can become Buddhas and women can only become Bodhisattvas, which precisely reflects Ma Xiaoxiao’s strong feminist ideas.

When Ma Xiaoxiao talked about Buddha and Bodhisattva, although there are many mistakes, it seems that the impression is good (as mentioned before). But to the doctrines and canon of Buddhism and Buddhism in reality, it is extremely derogatory. She believes that religion is bound, most of its classics are dross, and will be eliminated:

“There is a complete distinction between spirituality and religion. For example, religion is bound… There is a dogma in Christianity, saying that no matter how good or good you are, as long as you don’t believe me Jesus Christ, you must It will go to hell. I think this is a consequence of intimidation. Because religion itself has the content of intimidation, it is not very suitable for the spiritual development of our ascension. Everyone needs to practice Buddhism, reading Buddhism or Taoism In particular, the book you are looking at may have only twenty or twenty pages of essence, and the rest is all dross… It is not that the “Fahua Jing” and “Vajra Sutra” are absolute truths. Because truth has always been on the path of evolution…in fact, there is no so-called classic, it is also being eliminated… Don’t be affected by the fear content in religion, and there are some messages similar to superstition, don’t eat coriander, don’t Keep small animals, don’t go to Buddha when there is a holiday…”

“Religion is a bondage to the pursuit of people at a higher level. Spirituality will tell you to explore yourself, to discover it yourself. Religion is about separation from each other… My religion must be better than your religion, Taoism It must be the strongest, Buddhism must be the greatest, Christianity is the only one, what Jesus is the only son of God, etc., this creates a separation from each other.”

She also falsely accused that the six-path samsara was severely tampered with: “We in Buddhism have been talking about six-path samsara, surpassing the six-path samsara, you can be called the Buddha and so on… The six-path samsara in that era is equivalent to what we now call Consciousness and ascension. But in the six samsara, its core ideas have been severely tampered with, which is similar to that of Christianity. They have always said that Jesus Christ once said that I am the only son of God. He also told me It is clear that he never said such a word at all in that era.”

Ma Xiaoxiao also advised people not to go to the Buddha and seek the Bodhisattva, and don’t give money to the monks and nuns:

“If you encounter some difficult points or key points in your life, you feel that to solve the problem, we usually want a destination of faith, then you may choose to go to the temple to worship, I can understand this Psychologically speaking, we do need a faith, but what I tell you is that you can bow down and bow from step to step, from Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, to Tibet, and call it Nanwu Amitabha. Bodhisattva to change your destiny, all this is just a vain!”

“For them, all the money you donate is to monks and nuns. You all know that Taoism and Buddhism have reached the end. The abbots of Shaolin Temple, including donations, all kinds of arbitrary charges, including what I also saw The monk drank a cigarette, and ate big meat in various aspects, etc., I feel that his frequency may not be as high as that of the audience friends! So I advise you to spend it on your own sometimes. To live a better life, love yourself more, buy whatever you want, eat whatever you want, and then pray every day, find your higher self, discuss with him, how to improve Change your own soul contract instead of talking about spending the money in the temple, because you are raising monks and nuns, not to ask the Buddha and Bodhisattva to do things for you. Think about it for yourself. Maitreya Buddha and Avalokitesvara, will you say that if you donate more money to me, I will do something good for you?”

“I ask you not to spend so many hundred dollars to ask those so-called abbots to open the light. You may not know that the temple is also about performance now. What abbot, abbot, depends on how you can learn the market well. , Can lead the performance of the entire temple to do well, and then you will have an improvement, not to say how good his cultivation is. So you go to find an abbot, spent thousands of dollars for your amulet, and read a set of sutras , His own ability, frequency and cultivation may not be as high as yours, so I advise you not to spend money!”

“I ask my higher self, you have to say it often, even ten times! Say that your amulet for ten days will have very powerful energy…. Unless there will be a very few great virtue, he may really be a bit capable, Can help you open a light, but most of the monks and nuns we know, they are far from the awareness and awakening of our current audience friends, so you should pay special attention to this aspect, donate to religion Also be very careful, especially donating to the monastery is better than donating to yourself, to those who really need help in your own street, this is a real life, you can give yourself virtue, you can also help yourself, don’t invest in the temple Meaningless money!”

She thinks people should worship their higher self:

“Because it is not God or Avalokitesvara who can change your destiny, he can’t change my destiny, only me can change my own destiny! If you really want to change your life, you have to improve yourself, and there is another way. It is truly able to control your destiny, your soul contract, and your higher self.”

“If you really want to worship, you should worship your higher self, because your higher self and you can change your soul contract, you know! So when you go to worship those gods and Buddhas, they are actually quite depressed, All they can do is give you more light and love, they really can give you light and love, clean your chakras, etc. The light brilliance improves you and guides you, but he cannot help you change you Soul contract.”

“Ah! My life is so bitter. I went to seek God and Buddha, so that I would have more money, let me not get sick again, let my children be admitted to key universities, etc. I changed my job! This god and Buddha There is no way to help you. You really want these secular things. You really want to connect your higher self, because your connection with your higher self can ensure that you can change your life, your life contract, So I tell you this, I hope you don’t take detours, don’t spend too much time worshiping God and Buddha, and ask them to change your soul contract. The master of your records is your higher self and yourself, maybe you The guiding spirit can also help you. God, Buddha, Avalokitesvara, Darirulai, they can express energy to you, etc., can play the same ability as an alien mentor, but to change your own life, you must go by yourself Connect your higher self to change.”

Lama eating meat was formed by historical and environmental factors, but Ma Xiaoxiao used this to attack Tibetan Buddhism, thinking that those who believe in Tibetan Buddhism in the mainland were deceived:

“You Tibetan believers in the hinterland have been deceived. I still don’t know the situation in the real Tibetan area! I work here every day. The situation in the real Tibetan area is not like your hearsay. In fact, Tibet The district is now very economical. It sells everything in supermarkets, vegetables and fruits. It is exactly the same as the mainland. Those lamas who tell you that the Tibetan areas are very poor. They are too poor to buy vegetables and fruits. The head sheep came to slaughter and eat, and could only drink and eat meat every day, that was all fake. In fact, their lamas themselves like to drink and eat meat, which shocked me when I heard it, and I felt like I was deceived. It turned out that the masters who taught and believed in Buddha were lying to me. After this incident, I began to understand Tibetan Buddhism from various angles, especially the history of Tibetan areas, and I began to study it carefully.”

Ma Xiaoxiao actually does not understand Buddhism. She even accused the ranks of Buddha, Bodhisattva, and Arhat as feudal dross:

“It was indeed a world where men respect women and humble women at that time, so many men who are prosperous are called Buddhas, while women are called Bodhisattvas. They seem to be as high as they are, and there are Arahant or something. In fact, what I have come into contact with includes The frequency includes some feelings. It feels that Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva can be called a Buddha. You can also call Avalokiteshvara or Samantabhadra and Manjushri. There is no need to distinguish between males and females.”

“The three-six-nine-ninth grade is some of the dross of our feudal society, and we have imposed our own consciousness on ourselves, not the will of the Buddha and the bodhisattva we are talking about.”

The ideal of the Chinese is world harmony. In religion, they often futilely integrate Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism. In modern times, the traditional Taoism and other folk religions even practice “five religions in the same hall.” Ma Xiaoxiao also inherited this tradition, advocating the unity of all religions through the topic of aliens (history proves that this can only be a concept, slogan, and it is impossible to achieve), and said that there will be many new experiences in the new world. :

“Religious leaders in the future are very open-minded. They can receive a lot of information. They only believe in one thing, which is the unity of all religions. They say that unity of all religions is the only way out for all religions in the world. If one teaches one, it can only perish. Because on a new earth it cannot allow the rules and doctrines of the religions we now know, as well as some of the disadvantages I mentioned earlier….Simple Generally speaking, all religions are unified. In the end, all religions are only for this core content, that is, to respect our creator, only to pursue thorough truth, light and love, nothing more, other things can be said to be available Nothing, just re-evolving from this core concept, there will be no eighteen layers of hell, there will be no males who respect females, neither males are only Buddhas, females are only Bodhisattvas, nor will they be You have come to the official holiday, you can’t go to worship Buddha, you can’t eat onions, you can’t bring small animals, etc. These strange things will not exist anymore, including the “Vajra Sutra” and “Fahua Sutra” as we know it now. This is also a great help for us in the past for the awareness of that era, but in the new world, I was told that there will be many new experiences!”

Ma Xiaoxiao is particularly resistant to “religion”, and all kinds of smearing make people easily associate Falun Gong. Li Hongzhi often said that traditional religion is outdated, the temple only recognizes money, and the Buddha and Bodhisattva are not spiritual. This is also true of Ma Xiaoxiao, who has repeatedly emphasized the difference between “spiritualism” and religion (traditional religion) of “unification of all religions”. In essence, he wants his audience to return to her new religion as soon as possible:

“Jesus Christ himself said it. I never said that I am the only child of God. These words were all made up by the people behind. In order to cause division in this religion. In the future, they will have both Christianity and Catholicism, including Taoism. Religious leaders appear. These religious leaders are like listeners and friends. You and I have a higher awareness and a higher understanding of some information, so in the process of missionary, we will have a completely different method! I want to tell you that the universal religions are one, of course I can say more, but I think the style I share is simpler, don’t need to be very deep. Universal religion, you only need to remember that the only thing you want to pursue is For the love of the Creator, and the love of yourself, the higher self that connects you, in the final analysis is light and love. In fact, the essence of the unity of all religions is that religion should become spiritual cultivation, rather than spiritual cultivation close to religion, this is a very The big difference is a core difference. And now we Chinese are reversed at this point. We jump into the pit of religion for spiritual cultivation. What we have to do in the future is to lead religion on the way to spiritual cultivation. . I hope you can remember that the path taken by Buddhism and Taoism in the future is very different from what you are learning now, including that the future religious leaders are completely different from what you see now!”

Ma Xiaoxiao did not forget to take “alien” as his platform: “The alien’s suggestion is that if you want a body that ascends and raises your consciousness, you should cultivate spirituality, not a religion. There is a difference between spiritual cultivation and religion, so I want to tell you that the aliens’ point of view is that, first, most of their own races have no religious system. Second, they are also very disgusted or very opposed to the earth. This religious system is because it is a very binding thing. I asked why people have an idol worship, and the religion itself has a gene of idol worship inside. They mentioned that because humans on the earth started During evolution, our genes were indeed programmed many, many times, and by different aliens.”

“I know that some of you may be known as Alishasani. A long time ago, they also had religious beliefs similar to those of the earth, and then through their own evolution, they have been separated from religion under the circumstances of higher civilizations. Believe. What they believe now is to believe in the Creator.”

“Actually, the creator I’m talking about is the source we all know, and it’s the beginning of this one. If you really say what aliens must worship, maybe it’s such a creator, it’s such a one. For them to come It is said that light and love are a supreme pursuit of a person’s spiritual development and pursuit. All he has to do is to return to One, which is a personal belief of them.”

She is very disdainful of the behavior of religious believers in China, emphasizing that the awakened will completely jump out of her original religion:

“As long as he awakens, he decides to take a spiritual path, or to take the path of ascension. More than 90% of people will choose to jump out of religion and pursue pure spiritual practice. I emphasize again, they I will jump out of my original religious framework, that is, I will completely break away from Christianity, or completely break away from Catholicism, and completely enter my spiritual practice. But in China, the situation is reversed. I see that many people have awakened. After such a consciousness to be promoted, but from unbelief or half-belief in Buddhism or Taoism to a thorough jump in…. I think this is a degenerated state, if you wake up, you should jump out of religion itself, you How can you jump into religion?”

“Every religion has a trial situation inside. If you don’t do well, I will judge you. The original sin of Christianity is that everyone is guilty at birth, you want to atone, etc. This is increased by the people behind Go in… Of course, this Buddhism is still a bit deeper. Spirituality is to let you create your own path, but religion is to let you follow the journey of others; religion tells you which god and Buddha you should learn from. Road, spirituality tells you that you have to create your own way and take your own way of ascension. This is a big difference.”

“Spiritual practice is to integrate each other…from history to now, many wars including the Crusades are caused by religion…Religion will also let you have a dependence, once you can’t handle things, you go Look for God, the bodhisattva’s spirituality will make you stand up, and he will let you solve your own problems and rely on yourself.”

She didn’t talk about it herself, and she opposed the audience’s study of religious theories. She believed that as long as one devoted to spiritual practice, or relying on the help of the spiritual master to return to one, the profound philosophies naturally understood:

“To learn theoretical knowledge, what color is empty, empty is color, many people are entangled there every day for this sentence, which is more theoretical. My personal view is that you don’t need to spend too much time studying those who play word games. Something, or the theoretical program, because you can’t understand that thing for twenty or thirty years. What you’re learning is the bones that people chew, tell you what this means, it’s someone else’s Enlightenment, not your own, all you get is someone else’s own insight, a piece of knowledge that tells you. Then you have to pass the spiritual training course, wait for me to give you, help you to increase your frequency, to eliminate Your trauma, after solving these problems, you can actually prompt you to have a higher consciousness and body frequency, and then when you go to see the problem of whether the color is empty or empty, you don’t need someone to tell you what, You will know what this means, because at that time your entire consciousness and mental and physical frequency have been shaken to a completely different level.”

Ma Xiaoxiao’s remarks on religion also pointed out the problems of formalism, rigidity and conservatism, and commercialization and secularization under the influence of market economy in some traditional religious societies. The meaning of “heart is Buddha” is also in line with Western people’s idea of pursuing soul autonomy and hoping to innovate the spiritual world including religion. It caters to the young generation’s psychology of independence, chasing novelty, rebellion, and radicalism. An important factor for living young fans is worth reflecting on in traditional religion, especially in the Buddhist world. However, her remarks and actions are not new, and they are exactly the same as the accusations of traditional Buddhism by many outsiders and evil cults. Their main purpose is to seize as much religious resources and living space as possible, but they do not provide a better solution, and they are often less reliable. Many obsessed people are either swindled by money, mad, or even caught in The abyss that is irreversible.

There are many definitions of religion, and the core content is to believe that there is supernatural power to provide a path and method to solve the ultimate care of people from this shore to the other shore. As far as Buddhism is concerned, its ultimate practice and goal are consciousness and the release of life and death, which can be said to be the highest “spiritual practice.” But for all living beings with very different causes and roots, to achieve this goal, one must start from the basics, learn theory, open wisdom, convert in faith, and regulate behavior (including observing the necessary precepts), There is some purification in the mind (including the practice of meditation). The so-called life by virtue of life is determined by Ding Fahui, and it usually takes many life and robbers to become a Buddha. At the same time, as a member of society, religious people must have the help of good knowledge (teachers or religious clerics) and certain groups (temples, religious groups), and must also abide by the laws of the country and bear certain family and social responsibilities. And Ma Xiaoxiao put aside all this and forcibly opposed religion and spirituality, either ignorance or ulterior motives. Her so-called spirituality is actually a part of religion, but it is very empty. It lacks real and effective methods, and it does not have deep philosophical thinking and wisdom. It is just to repeat the labels and the light and love of the religious community of UFO. It’s just a delusion of pretending to be a ghost.

Ma Xiaoxiao seems to be more exposed to Buddhism, but she does lack basic knowledge of Buddhism. There are a lot of fallacies related to Buddhism in her speech. Here, by the way, correct the errors seen in several quotations:

(1) Six-way reincarnation: Six-way finger 1, heaven and earth (chemical), 2, asura road, 3, humanity, 4, animal road, 5, hungry ghost road, 6, hell road (chemical). The first three paths are called three good paths, and the last three paths are called three evil paths. They represent the six types of rewards brought about by various karma (behavior, language, and thought) called karma. All sentient beings are free from life and death, and they are all reincarnation in these six ways. If the practice achieves the Luohan fruit position, it can be separated from the reincarnation, let alone the Buddha and Buddha. It can be seen that Ma Xiaoxiao’s so-called “transcendence from six reincarnations, you can be called Buddha”. “The six reincarnations of that era are equivalent to what we now call raising awareness and ascension.” It is quite superficial and wrong. “Six Reincarnations” does not mean that others have tampered with it, it is precisely that she “wrongly criticized the Three Kingdoms” for a willful interpretation.

(2) Arhat (no life), Bodhisattva (feeling conscious), and Buddha (perceiver): This is the name that Buddhism has established based on the size of the practitioner’s heart, broken troubles, and degree of enlightenment. Arhat can be divided into four stages The fruit position of the Bodhisattva can be divided into fifty-one stages, and there are strict division and inspection standards between them. In a sense, it can also be said to be the different stages of “ascension”. Buddhism most talks about the equality of sentient beings, and of course includes the equality of men and women, but this is because all sentient beings have a Buddha nature (or the possibility of becoming a Buddha), and it cannot erase the difference in the origin of the law. The fruit position is “lifeless”, where is there any difference between men and women! In Theravada Buddhism, there is indeed a saying that a woman cannot become a Buddha, but it does not mean that she cannot be converted into a male body to practice Buddhahood. In Mahayana Buddhism, there are eight-year-old dragon girls who An example of becoming a Buddha with the merits of the “Fahua Jing”. It can be seen that Ma Xiaoxiao regards the distinction of Buddha, Bodhisattva, and Arahant as male and female inferiority, is feudal dregs, and is quite ignorant. In Buddhism, there is no such thing as saying that “men are only Buddha, women are only Bodhisattva”. Among the five famous Bodhisattvas in Han Buddhism, only Guanyin Bodhisattva presents female phases, while Manjusri Bodhisattva, Samantabhadra Bodhisattva, Dizang Bodhisattva, and Maitreya Bodhisattva are all male phases. Do these bodhisattvas come to see her Become a woman? By the way, the Maitreya Bodhisattva is a bodhisattva who lives in the inner courtyard of Doitian Temple in our wandering world. He will come to the world to become a Buddha after the Buddha Shakyamuni, so it is also called the future Buddha. I wonder where Ma Xiaoxiao’s claim that Maitreya Buddha is a great virtue in the Western bliss world comes from?

In addition, there are no ten strong men in Buddhism, and parsley is not among the restrictions of Buddhist commandments. There are certain unsatisfactory people and things in Buddhist temples (many of which are prejudices, misunderstandings caused by the lack of understanding of Buddhism by society and the wanton smearing of some people), which is in all major religions and all walks of life All exist to varying degrees. Ma Xiaoxiao can not believe in Buddhism or Buddhism, but please don’t pretend to be a master to attract believers and fans like Li Hongzhi, don’t pretend to understand, in order to maliciously discredit Buddhist temples and monks and nuns, and misinterpret and defame the basic teachings of Buddhism. rules!

About the Author

Chen Xingqiao, the law name is Changzheng, and the law name is Zhiyuan. Born on October 30, 1957 in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, he was originally born in Qiyang County, Hunan Province. He has graduated from Wuhan River Transport College and Lingyan Mountain Branch of China Buddhist College. He has been engaged in Buddhist teaching, journal editing and Buddhist studies for more than 30 years. He was one of the first people to expose the “Falungong” cult in China. In 1996, he wrote a long paper on “Falungong-a kind of extraordinary Buddhism with folk religious characteristics” that systematically exposes and criticizes “Falungong”. “And its Falun Gong”, which has edited several books criticizing “Falungong”, such as “Buddhist “Qigong” and Falun Gong” (China Religious Culture Publishing House published in June 1998), “Contest between Right and Evil-Buddhism Selected Works of Falun Gong (published in December 2000 by the Buddhist Charity and Merit Association of Hebei Province), “Chinese Buddhism Sect Theory (Part of Luzong Part)”, and “Buddhist Folk Origin”.

Mr. Chen Xingqiao has served as lecturer of Buddhist College, Deputy Secretary-General of Provincial and Municipal Buddhist Association, Deputy Editor-in-Chief of “Buddhist Culture” of Chinese Buddhist Culture Research Institute, Deputy Editor-in-Chief of Chinese Buddhist Association’s publication “Fa Yin” Magazine, Executive Director of Chinese Buddhist Association, China Anti-Cult Association Executive director, member of China Health Qigong Association, special researcher of Institute of Religion, Sichuan University, special researcher of Suzhou Institute of Buddhist Studies, etc.

“外星”系邪说研究(一)

来源:中国反邪教网      作者:陈星桥     发布日期:[2019年05月16日]     点击次数:122

编者按:今年元月,刘博洋博士在网上发表文章《实名举报“外星”邪教组织》,列举了昴宿星人、雷尔教、天堂之门、银河联邦等中外打着UFO、外星人旗号的邪教,认为近年来通过网络开设系列讲座《我遇到了外星人》的马晓晓,与上述邪教一脉相承。本网发表《马晓晓拜谒的“外星人”竟然是巴西大淫棍人口贩子》,揭露马晓晓讲座的内容荒诞可笑。上述文章被人民日报、中国网、中国经济网、中青在线、中国台湾网、环球时报、观察者等网站转载或跟进报道。“外星人”邪说也引起了国内科技界、宗教界和反邪教界的关注。

中国佛教协会常务理事、中国反邪教协会常务理事陈星桥先生从宗教学者角度,全面深入分析了马晓晓关于“外星人”的言论,认为马晓晓打着科学、宗教旗号,自我神化,蛊惑人心,“一旦影响成势,发展成邪教是迟早的事”。他以马晓晓邪说为切入点,分析了“外星”系催眠、疗愈、灵修产业,并与当年的“法轮功”相比较,指出当前网络上的一些有害的“外星”系(觉醒系)思潮泛滥,危害民众身心健康和社会稳定。《“外星”系邪说研究——以马晓晓“外星”“宗教”言论为样本》对揭露“外星”系(觉醒系)邪说有较大价值,现予以连载。

“外星”系邪说研究——以马晓晓“外星”“宗教”言论为样本

目录

一、UFO、外星人话题与 “当代玄学”

二、略析马晓晓的“外星”“宗教”言论

(一)马晓晓其人其事

(二)试析马晓晓的“奇遇”与其畸形心理的形成

(三)略析马晓晓的“外星”言论

(四)略析马晓晓的“宗教”言论

三、应如何看待UFO、外星人报道及外星系邪教

四、马晓晓现象的根源与危害

引子

2019年1月15日,《中国科普博览》刊发了中国科学院国家天文台在澳大利亚留学的刘博洋博士的一篇文章《“政府向你隐瞒了宇宙的真相……”实名举报“外星”邪教组织》,揭开了各种打着科学研究UFO、外星人旗号,宣扬巫术、灵修、新兴宗教、准邪教、邪教的个人、自媒体和团体的冰山一角,首当其冲的是旅居澳大利亚的华人马晓晓。她在“星空学院直播间”(也称“星空学院千聊直播间”)作过11集《我遇到了外星人》,号称自己能与外星人、释迦牟尼佛、大日如来、弥勒佛、观音菩萨、地藏菩萨、普贤菩萨、耶稣、造物主经常见面沟通,被佛菩萨、诸神和外星人赋予了特殊的使命,要让整个地球人“扬升”“觉醒”,引领各大宗教“万教归一”!刘博洋博士在文中指认马晓晓女士是“觉醒”系邪教/伪科学部分自媒体共认的“教主”,而马晓晓女士写了《本是同根生,相煎何太急——对刘博洋文章的回复》一文予以否认,还向刘博洋博士及《中国科普博览》发了律师函,威胁要将他们告上法庭;“星空电台”发表了《对刘博洋谴责的声明及平台自律倡议》;“觉醒字幕组”主持人阿良写有《如何科学精神看待和研究UFO和地外文明——和刘博洋同学商榷》;美国哈佛大学天体物理学荣誉教授鲁道夫(Rudolph E. Schild)则给刘博洋博士写了封公开信。他们都以“科学”的名义谴责刘博洋,要求他向马晓晓女士赔礼道歉,令人侧目。

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中国科普博览文章截图

与此同时,更多媒体和网友声援刘博洋博士。《环球网》:《涉嫌“外星邪教组织”是咋回事?中国天体物理学博士实名举报!》;“白衣子的博客”:《司马南:打着“外星人”旗号的邪教又来了》;布艺博士:《我给马晓晓和刘博洋拜个年》;《科学无神论》网站:《涂建华:诬告滥诉是邪教的惯用伎俩》《王文忠:说说“外星人”邪主马晓晓那些事儿》《涂建华:外星人邪教圈子的鲁道夫是个伪科学家》;中国反邪教网:《马晓晓律师拜谒的“外星人”竟然是巴西大淫棍人口贩子》,上述文章为众多媒体转发,对马晓晓耸人听闻的“经历”和奇谈怪论进行了无情的揭露和揶揄,传播了正能量。因有众多网民举报,《我遇到了外星人》及微信公众号“星空电台”等自媒体平台因此被国家网信办封闭,马晓晓气势汹汹的法律诉讼偃旗息鼓。

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微信文章截图(已封)

我对UFO、外星人资料略有涉猎,因其扑朔迷离,众说纷纭,莫衷一是,因而兴趣不大。因刘博洋博士的实名举报和马晓晓女士的“遇到了外星人系列主题分享”涉及到邪教和宗教,倒引起了我的极大兴趣,于是查阅了不少相关的资料,这才发现这里面的水很深很浑,各种以UFO、外星人为噱头宣扬灵修、扬升、巫术、新兴宗教乃至邪教的自媒体和社团还真是不少,其中外粉丝数以百万计,马晓晓的“经历”和言论其来有自,其中的确有许多值得我们予以关注和深思的问题。为此笔者拟借刘博洋举报“外星”系邪教组织之契机,主要从宗教、心理学和社会安全的角度,就上述相关问题略呈管见,抛砖引玉,以就教于方家,兼以纪念中国政府取缔法轮功邪教二十周年。

一、UFO、外星人话题与“当代玄学”

人类关于不明飞行物(UFO)的记录不仅很早,而且也很多,但真正进行科学研究UFO的历史不足百年。UFO中最为世人津津乐道的就是“飞碟”,它们多数呈快速旋转的圆盘状,或隐或现,变幻莫测,古人自然会联想到妖魅或灾异,今人则会联想到高科技、外星人等等。

浩渺星空总是给人以无尽的遐想。随着现代科学技术的发展,人们对地外文明的好奇心更是日益强烈。二十世纪以来,关于UFO的报道和研究频见报端,到五十年代达到高峰,各种UFO研究社团纷纷成立,其中就包括关联飞碟的宗教性社团。经历了两次世界大战的人类,对飞碟和外星人是既好奇又恐惧,各种猜测、奇思妙想层出不穷,不少飞碟爱好者认为撒哈拉沙漠壁画上人物的圆形面具、复活节岛和南美的巨石建筑以及金字塔等种种无法解释的史前奇迹都与外星人有关,还有的学者提出人类是外星人的后裔,或人类中一些民族(如玛雅人)是外星人与地球人交配的后裔等种种观点。在美苏两大阵营开展军备竞赛的形势下,围绕UFO、外星人的阴谋论、绑架说也是甚嚣尘上,认为西方政府和军方不仅隐瞒了其真相,还与外星人达成某种协议、参与了其秘密的项目。

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尽管当今科技手段日益先进,哈勃太空望远镜发现了可能是宇宙中测量距离上最遥远的星系,距离地球达130亿光年,但在过去50年的搜寻中,科学家与地外文明的联系一直没有进展,对于众多目击UFO乃至“外星人”的事件,由于大多数缺少足够的证据和合理的解释,相关国家的政府和主流科技界并不认可,或束之高阁。但这些并没有浇灭关注飞碟现象及外星人传说者的热情,坊间各种奇葩传闻不断。与此同时,围绕飞碟、外星人的话题,在欧美形成了一明一暗的两股热潮和两大市场:

一是以飞碟、外星人为题材的文学作品和科幻影视片层出不穷,它们融科技知识、文学艺术和包括宗教在内的各种思想观念、神话传说、生活情感体验于一体,将飞碟、各种外星人入侵地球演绎得活灵活现,极大地丰富了人们的文化生活,形成了颇具特色的影视文化产业。诸如好莱坞《第五元素》《决战猩球》《独立日》1-2部、《星际之门》《超级战舰》《第三类接触》《异形大战铁血战士2》《黑衣人》1-3部、《普罗米修斯》1-2部、《安德的游戏》《洛杉矶之战》《保罗 》《第九区》等外星人科幻大片乃至儿童科幻剧《乐高大电影》,其剧情多数为外星人入侵地球,地球人经过离奇而激烈的战斗,最终“英雄”救世而化险为夷。它们构思奇妙,表现手法丰富,令人叹为观止。因其纯属文学、艺术创作和科学幻想,虽然给看客们带来不小的视觉冲击和头脑风暴,但一般没有人会认幻为真。

二是某些人将飞碟、外星人与一些科学理论、超自然现象、宗教、神话传说、灵异事件、心理学、瑜伽术等联系起来,装神弄鬼,大谈灵修、觉醒、扬升、救世等,自我神化,使大量听闻者为之神魂颠倒,认幻为真,进而创立“外星”系邪教或准邪教,甚至形成了“外星”系催眠、疗愈、灵修产业。刘博洋博士在举报一文中对此有比较详细的论述,他从“UFO传说的兴起”“从都市传说到伪科学,从伪科学到邪教”“‘斯塔’‘昴宿星人’的来龙去脉”“谁在中国宣扬‘觉醒’?”“‘觉醒’与‘扬升’的商业模式”等几个方面作了脉络清晰的梳理,并附有“马晓晓和‘觉醒’系邪教/伪科学自媒体列表”,感兴趣者不妨上网查阅。

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近代以来,随着对宏观和微观世界科学研究的深入,科学家们有了许多惊人的发现,揭示了世界及生命的许多秘密,诸如爱因斯坦的“相对论”、物质能量转化守恒定律、卡尔·海森堡“测不准原理”、光的波粒二象性、薛定谔的猫、量子纠缠、全息影像、多维空间、虫洞理论、“场”理论、超弦理论、大爆炸理论、平行宇宙、大统一宇宙理论,以及大脑构造、潜意识研究、基因技术、人工智能等等。在“科学为王”的今天,各领域的人士对上述科学发现和理论都喜欢予以利用。哲学家用以完善自己的哲学思想体系,文学家用以创作科幻小说,艺术家用以创作科幻影视等作品,宗教家用以诠释、论证宗教教义,启人信心,或扬弃传统宗教,创立新兴宗教。“外星”系邪教或准邪教更将上述科学发现和理论假说拿来穿凿附会地进行演绎,达到登峰造极的程度。

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觉醒字幕组成立以来,从线上到线下翻译引进了西方的许多灵性书籍、文章、视频,多年来成为在国内传播“当代玄学”的主力媒体。

“外星”系邪教的建立,离不开对飞碟、外星人和诸多神异现象的“科学”诠释和利用,西方社会也的确有一些科学家为其站台背书,如埃德加?米切尔博士地外接触研究基金会(首字母缩写为FREE),据称搞了一个迄今史上最大规模、最全面、跨地区、多语种、最新的UFO-外星人接触者调查。这类诠释与其说是“科学”,还不如称之为“当代玄学”。所谓玄学,即是研究幽深玄远问题的学说,相当于今天的形而上学。我国魏晋时期注重《老子》《庄子》和《周易》(称之为“三玄”),士人们以研究三玄、超越名教羁绊、追求精神自由(逍遥)为风尚,其思想深邃,境界高渺,偏重于“虚”(无)。因其严重扰乱了国家治理乃至公序良俗,后世多诟病其“清谈误国”;而“当代玄学”将科学理论和“假说”与各种宗教、神话传说、巫术等相结合,创造性地解释包括飞碟、外星人传说在内的各种超自然的灵异现象,其中不乏高深的哲理和冥想后的感悟,古今中外的一切“怪力乱神”因此都鲜活起来,变得合理、科学甚至神圣而“真实”“可信”,迷惑性极大。“外星”系/觉醒系邪教深谙其道而予以通俗化,表现为哲学思维肤浅,执着深而境界低,偏重于“实”(有),有宗教需求的易感人群和部分网民很难辨别真伪,极易上当受骗,乃至走火入魔,社会危害很大。对此,后面笔者在分析马晓晓的奇谈怪论时将重点予以揭示。

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近代的科学发现,对于我们认识世界、理解宗教的某些教义和历史上的诸多灵异事件,的确有一定的帮助。但由于人类对世界的观察严重依赖局限性极强的大脑、感官和物质性工具,一些科学发现有的可以证实,有的则只能运用理论推导,属于哲学性“假说”,它们对于生命的本质和宇宙的终极实相来说,犹如盲人摸象,是不可以执着的,更不可能取代宗教的教义、必不可少的修行和终极关怀。故《金刚经》说:“所言实相者,即非实相,是名实相。”“若世界实有,则是一合相。如来说一合相,即非一合相,是名一合相。须菩提!一合相者,即是不可说,但凡夫之人,贪著其事。”(待续)

作者简介

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陈星桥。

陈星桥,法名常正,法号智渊。1957年10月30日出生于湖北省武汉市,原籍湖南省祁阳县。先后毕业于武汉河运专科学校和中国佛学院灵岩山分院,从事佛教的教学、期刊编辑和佛学研究工作达30多年。他是我国第一批揭露邪教“法轮功”的人士,1996年撰写了系统揭露、批判“法轮功”的长篇论文《法轮功——一种具有民间宗教特点的附佛外道——评李洪志《转法轮》及其法轮功》,编著了多部批判“法轮功”的书籍,如《佛教“气功”与法轮功》(中国宗教文化出版社1998年6月出版),《正与邪的较量——佛教界揭批法轮功文选》(河北省佛教慈善功德会2000年12月出版),《中国佛教宗派理论(律宗部分)》,《俗语佛源》部分条目。

陈星桥先生历任佛学院讲师、省市佛教协会副秘书长、中国佛教文化研究所《佛教文化》副主编、中国佛教协会机关刊物《法音》杂志副主编、中国佛教协会常务理事、中国反邪教协会常务理事、中国健身气功协会委员、四川大学宗教研究所特约研究员、苏州戒幢佛学研究所特约研究员等职。

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“外星”系邪说研究(二)

来源:中国反邪教网      作者:陈星桥     发布日期:[2019年05月17日]     点击次数:95

编者按:今年元月,刘博洋博士在网上发表文章《实名举报“外星”邪教组织》,列举了昴宿星人、雷尔教、天堂之门、银河联邦等中外打着UFO、外星人旗号的邪教,认为近年来通过网络开设系列讲座《我遇到了外星人》的马晓晓,与上述邪教一脉相承。本网发表《马晓晓拜谒的“外星人”竟然是巴西大淫棍人口贩子》,揭露马晓晓讲座的内容荒诞可笑。上述文章被人民日报、中国网、中国经济网、中青在线、中国台湾网、环球时报、观察者等网站转载或跟进报道。“外星人”邪说也引起了国内科技界、宗教界和反邪教界的关注。

中国佛教协会常务理事、中国反邪教协会常务理事陈星桥先生从宗教学者角度,全面深入分析了马晓晓关于“外星人”的言论,认为马晓晓打着科学、宗教旗号,自我神化,蛊惑人心,“一旦影响成势,发展成邪教是迟早的事”。他以马晓晓邪说为切入点,分析了“外星”系催眠、疗愈、灵修产业,并与当年的“法轮功”相比较,指出当前网络上的一些有害的“外星”系(觉醒系)思潮泛滥,危害民众身心健康和社会稳定。《“外星”系邪说研究——以马晓晓“外星”“宗教”言论为样本》对揭露“外星”系(觉醒系)邪说有较大价值,现予以连载。

二、略析马晓晓的“外星”“宗教”言论

(一)马晓晓其人其事

从网上检索得知,马晓晓系中国女子,30多岁,高中阶段留学澳大利亚,现生活于澳大利亚,自我介绍为律师、单身。从公开信息可知,马晓晓是中国联塑集团驻悉尼办事处的秘书兼法务,该公司总部在广东佛山。“法务”是指在企事业单位、政府部门等法人组织内部专门负责处理法律事务的工作人员。澳大利亚的律师分为出庭律师和事务律师。而马晓晓充其量属于事务律师,类似于中国的律师助理,可以从事法律服务,但不能出庭。

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网上关于马晓晓的介绍中,大都提到她的两个身份——世界华人UFO联合会的理事兼法律顾问、京津冀飞碟探索研究中心飞碟信息调查研究员。她就是以这两个身份在网上传播《我遇到了外星人》。但登录民政部的中国社会组织公共服务平台网站,查询这两个组织,没有任何结果。也就是说,这两个组织并没有在中国民政部门登记注册。

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从网上查到的信息看,“世界华人UFO联合会”主要成员大部分在中国大陆,其活动范围也主要在中国大陆,该组织在国内有多个分会,如山东、山西、新疆等地分会,包括2017年3月前后成立的“京津冀飞碟探索研究中心”。查不到,也就意味着是“非法组织”。

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“世界华人UFO联合会”有个网站,该网站(hrufo.com)IP地址位于香港。但该网站技术支持却是山西太原维科通成网络科技有限公司。在该网站查询不到工信和公安部门的备案信息。也就是说,该网站在中国大陆系非法运营。

马晓晓从2017年5月开始在 “星空学院”“星空电台”等觉醒系自媒体平台先后作了11场网络讲座《我遇见了外星人》,6集《星际揭秘访谈》及在线问答,粉丝达百万之众。据说从第1 场到第3场讲座,总共有150个群参与转播,听众达35000人次左右。因此被相关自媒体称誉为“中国著名外星文明接触者”“国内光工圈领头羊”(笔者注:光工:即光之工作者,指“宇宙人类”等飞碟宗教性团体的理论体系的信仰者和传教者)。

马晓晓的11场讲座各有侧重,其中:

第1场主要讲自己见到飞碟、外星植入物,并与外星人接触者交流及与外星人接触的情况。

第2场主要讲关于外星植入物及怎样主动和外星人交流。

第3场讲如何对抗多维度负面势力。

第4场主要讲如何对抗地球负面灵体。

第5场主要讲如何销毁非法的灵魂契约和申诉业力法庭。

第6场主要讲我的外星人指导灵们。

第7场专门讲宗教问题,强调未来地球将是万教归一。

第8场主要讲如何提升身体和意识频率。

第9场专门介绍巴西上帝之约翰医病之神奇事迹。

第10场主要讲如何与外星人接触和沟通,介绍并号召听众买票参加将在上海和北京举办的“我遇到了外星人国际论坛”。

第11场主要介绍自己参加的一个神秘的西方外星人接触者封闭会的情况。

马晓晓的口才并不好,可以说十分的啰嗦。前后11场讲座转录形成的文字约15万字,读起来非常的费劲,所以本文例举引用时不得不在保留原意的情况下予以梳理、摘要。从她的演讲来看,她并没有什么思想深度,除了自吹能见到外星人和诸神明以外,似乎也没有什么特殊的能力(否则她也用不着向其听众极力推荐各类灵性疗愈师了)。她宗教知识贫乏,对传统宗教及其清规戒律却充满成见,极尽诋毁、亵渎之能事,对古代尤其是传统宗教的“重男轻女”现象极为不屑,对各种飞碟及其外星人的传说深信不疑,对西方日新月异的灵性文化(多半借鉴、吸收东方的瑜伽、气功、禅定发展而成)崇拜有加,对催眠术、瑜伽术、特异功能乃至巫术等也非常推崇,广为推介,视为觉醒、扬升、与外星人链接的必要手段。其演讲最引人注目的是第1 场和第7场,爆料了外星人和宗教的诸多“秘闻”,并讲述其如何与众多外星人及佛教、基督教诸神见面,标榜其被诸神和外星人赋予了特殊的使命,要让整个地球人“扬升”“觉醒”,引领各大宗教“万教归一”。

如此看来,马晓晓自称的那几个头衔有点虚。她既不是宗教家,更不是科学家,却借飞碟、外星人话题大谈宗教、科学,堪称“当代玄学”通俗化滥用的代表。下面我试着就她在网上说的特殊经历与奇葩言论略作分析。

(二)试析马晓晓的“奇遇”与其畸形心理的形成

马晓晓11场讲座有如意马行空,语言凌乱,谬论迭出,大大超出常识。崇拜者可能为之痴迷,“外星”系/觉醒系团体和自媒体则大加利用,而多数听闻者认为她不是精神出了问题,就是编造谎言,用心险恶。那么真实情况究竟如何呢?

在第1场讲座中,马晓晓自述于2012年6月中旬在布里斯本见到飞碟:“然后我就把这个事情给忘了,也没当一回事。”从当年6月到年底,她经常会梦到飞碟,有一些梦是很清醒的梦,感受到灵魂出身体,皮肤有外星人植入物,然后她说“我大概真的是外星人接触者”。

马晓晓自述,2013年2月,她找到悉尼UFO联合会主席马瑞亚娜,就自己的疑惑请她给予催眠,从而知道过去自己的灵体与外星人已有许多接触,包括肉体上到飞碟中。马瑞亚娜告诉她,包括那个米尔沃尔催眠师接触的外星人接触者,在我们地球上,大概做了4000多单,光她就接收过一千多位像她这样的外星人接触者。她对此深信不疑,当时就参加了由马瑞亚娜主持的被认为外星人接触经历比较多、真实感很强的15到18个人的闭门会。

马晓晓在第11场讲座专场介绍了这个闭门会:参加者男女老少都有,除她以外都是白人。封闭会由马瑞亚娜为自己开展相关学术研究,也为外星人接触者提供一个倾诉的管道而召集,参加者各式各样的人都有,彼此好奇而兴奋,有点神经兮兮的。其中,有的人执着地为自己发明的永动机寻求“买家”;有一半的人则热衷于爆料西方国家的军方和外星人绑架合作项目,谈自己如何被外星人绑架、培训等;像马晓晓说自己见到外星人,要觉醒、扬升什么的并不受主持人重视,大家更关注的是涉及外星人的秘密项目;据说与会者中还有政府的卧底。闭门会每月召开一次,因为主持人与M先生发生激烈争吵,搞得乌烟瘴气的,闭门会维持半年就解散了。马晓晓后来还参加了一个由三、四个人组成的小组会,因其中一位女士得神经病了,所以小组会也取消了。由此可见所谓外星人接触者闭门会离奇而混乱。

此后她开始尽职调查做研究,采访圈子内大咖,认识了更多外星人接触者。她说:“我想告诉大家,我们在这个地球上真的是不孤单,而且外星人是真实存在的。”

她在第1 场还讲述了自己与“外星指导灵”的第一次正式接触。她说:“联系上外星人之后,我还没有能力就用肉眼看到她们。”此后在墨尔本的一对通灵的外星人接触者未婚夫妇的帮助下,能见到外星人了。她说,外星人是纯能量体,可随意变男变女等形态,当视他们心情如何。一个来自天狼星的蓝色外星人,自称为ping,被她称为自己的指导灵,ping说她这次投胎有很多使命要做,很高兴通过马瑞亚娜联系上她,并希望她将来觉醒之后可以帮助更多的人。

马晓晓说:ping经常以宗教形象出现在她面前,比如说以佛祖的形象一下子出现,或者经常以那个喇嘛的形象出现。“我想告诉大家的是,我们都有一个高我,而我们只是自己高我的一部分,像我有28种分身,我这个身份叫做马晓晓,现在仅仅是在地球上投胎,我还有另外27种分身在不同的密度空间,当不同的外星生命,都在学习不同的课程,包括大家都是一样的。”

马晓晓说:“我刚开始认识昴宿星人的时候是一天晚上,他们全部到我房间里面来,站在我那个床旁边吓了我一跳,把我给叫醒了,我当时身体就不能动。他们介绍自己说我们来自昴宿星,我当时看他们就呆了,因为我想,哇塞!他们长得怎么这么高,男的要比女的高,然后最搞笑的是他们来的时候通常都是两个两个一起来,要么四个一起来,要么六个一起来。”

“我当时声音都喊不出,然后我说你在干嘛?记得我当时是这么问他,他好像也没回头,就一直在那里搞东西,然后他就给我发了一个信息过来,还说唉呀就是一般程序啊,你懂的呀,就是给你打一针,开启你第三只眼。”

“我一直在拼命想那个女外星人跟我说的话:你活的这个世界是一场虚幻……第二天我就上班,我就整个人没心思上班,一直在想这句话,一直在想那个外星人。”

“晚上就来了一个昴宿星人,把我带到阳台上……当时我家离市中心那个天文台很近,他就手指了指这个天文台,我就往这个天文台那里看过去,一下子他开了我的这个第三只眼。”

“当时我的一个感觉就是一切都是值得的美……觉得这真的是一个乌托邦的世界。他们跟我解释说这是第五密度的地球,将来大家都可以经历到。我现在是31岁,我说我不知道能不能等到这一天,好像大家网上都在说,也不知道这一天什么时候来。”

“他们给我发过来的那种能量波可以打到身上,那种爱的感觉,真的是超乎我从小到大从我爸妈全部加起来得到爱的那种能量,有一次他们给我发的爱太多,我当时崩溃得眼泪都流下来了,然后我说好了好了!够了够了!”

“怎么样可以跟外星人家庭联系,我想跟你们说,你们一定要记住,其实99%的你们在听我这个分享的时候,就说明对这个话题很感兴趣,你们潜意识里多多少少已经知道你们跟外星人有接触!你们和外星人的确是有接触的,不是说你们现在想去和外星人接触,实际上你们大多数的人都已经和外星人有接触了,只是你自己的这段记忆被封存了,听了我前面讲的内容,你再仔细和自己的经历连在一起想一想,你会发觉你是不是经常晚上梦到飞碟,你是不是经常睡觉的时候会灵魂出体!”

“我强烈推荐,大家如果真的第一次想和外星人沟通的话,应该直接联系高我,先和高我沟通,然后再去找你的外星人导师!”

从她的演讲及以上例举的第1场讲座的部分内容来看,给我有以下几点印象:

1、马晓晓从2012年6月中旬见到“飞碟”之后,在长达半年的时间经常梦见飞碟,甚至惊异地发现自己身上有外星人“植入物”,可见她被所谓的飞碟和外星人问题困扰得很严重,精神恍惚,不得不寻求相关资讯和帮助。

2、2013年2月,马晓晓找到悉尼UFO联合会主席马瑞亚娜为她催眠、解说后,对马瑞亚娜、米尔沃尔催眠师崇拜有加,并深信自己的灵体从婴儿开始就与外星人有许多接触,包括肉体上到飞碟中。从心理学来看,经催眠之后,马晓晓的包括所谓“高我”在内的各种潜意识被激活(表面化),除了应付现实的显意识之外,她更多地沉浸于潜意识汹涌的幻觉之中。

3、马晓晓经推荐参加了悉尼外星人接触者闭门会议,马晓晓追寻“外星文明”的意识被不断强化,她将所谓正向的外星人奉若神明,认为他们具有指导、控制人类乃至地球命运的力量!同时认为也存在反派的负面外星人势力。

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4、在悉尼通灵人和所谓“外星人”的帮助下,马晓晓开启了“第三只眼”,不仅可见到各色外星人,还可肉体上到飞碟之中,并被赋予了“神圣”的使命。她特别提到自己的外星人指导灵、高我以及28种分身,其中外星人指导灵ping可随意变男变女,乃至经常以佛祖、喇嘛等宗教形象出现。她常炫耀自己与释迦牟尼佛、大日如来、弥勒佛、观音菩萨、地藏菩萨、普贤菩萨、耶稣、造物主经常见面沟通,实际上正是她自己的幻觉所致。到了这个阶段,马晓晓的意识活动完全交给了自己的各种“指导灵”(实际上是她内在的一类比较强势的潜意识,类似俗称的附体,被它们摆布而不能自已)和“高我”(不同于充满贪欲、情绪、偏执的显意识,是一种具有超越性的意识流,又被称之为人的神性或佛性)来支配,异常亢奋,精神时常在现实与幻觉之间切换,呈人格分裂状态。与儿童过家家,“我最厉害”(精神胜利法),将想像当真实的心理有过之而无不及,或者说呈现出一种“巨婴症”。

5、由于认定自己得到众多外星人、诸神明的认同,负有特殊的使命,而且被众多“外星”系/觉醒系团体和自媒体吹捧,提供平台予以支持、利用,马晓晓为此深受鼓舞,估计涉猎了不少“外星”系/觉醒系资讯,经过近五年的调研、“修灵”、沉淀、谋划,编造,构建起自己的“外星”系思想“体系”,并从2017年5月开始在觉醒系自媒体平台公开宣扬。她认为99%的听众都如她一样曾见过外星人,只是记忆被封存了(这么高的概率,听众再不以身试法,就太对不起她这位“先知”了。可见其多么能忽悠!自己疯了不说,还要众人一起疯狂),还有一些人则不敢说出真相,于是她不断呼吁外星人接触者要像她一样勇敢地说出来,劝大家设法迅速“觉醒”起来,迎接外星人彻底改造地球的“大事件”发生。

6、为了防止听众出现状况,她还以过来人的姿态提出若干告诫:

“有些外星人接触者都有那种救世主心态或者受害人的心态,觉得自己很特别或者怎么的。”

“我希望你们能够从小我的膨胀当中清醒一下,不要再去研究那些所谓的永恒动能。这个科技其实世界上很多国家早就有了(笔者注:事实并非如此,永动机其实是个不可能实现的伪命题),不用你们去特别操心,你们为国争光的机会可以用在别的地方。”

“经历了这几年下来,最大的体验就是走了一大圈,其实最主要的还是落地,要很平常化地去看待外星人和地球人接触!”

“还有些人会为此很疯狂,比如说有些外星人发烧友,以前我也碰到过有个男的,他不务正业,好不容易有了一份闲职,他会辞去那份工作,跑到什么飞碟热区,就是常见区,在那里守候飞碟,一个月不工作,就天天找飞碟,也不够落地,自己生活状况非常的乱!我们应该避免因为飞碟接触包括其他的一些经历(造成这种混乱)。最终目的是你要如何提升自己,像我接触了外星人之后,我最大的改善就是吃素多一点了,我会更加关注自己喝的水。我会脾气性格比以前好一点,稳重一点,看待事物会比较中性一点,不会非黑即白,非是即错,也不会光看一个表面现象去评论。”

可见,马晓晓的确精神出了问题,她告诫听众的恰恰也是她自己面临的问题,而且她试图不断地平抑亢奋的心情、整合分裂的精神(即所谓“落地”,她可能因此没有完全发疯)。同时,为了在“外星”系”圈子中获得不凡的地位,不断圈粉,她不惜编造谎言,蛊惑人心,可说潜在的社会危害极大。为了抑制和消除这种社会危害,刘博洋博士撰文予以实名举报,可说是功德无量。

(三)略析马晓晓的“外星”言论

马晓晓号称和100多个外星种族有过联系,诸如天狼星人、昴宿星人、英仙座星人、奇塔星人乃至蜥蜴人、小灰人、螳螂人、蜥蜴人等等,这些基本都是被西方人神化、炒作多时的外星人,有的在科幻小说和电影中可看到有关他们的描述。不过马晓晓描述得更为感性、具体,她对外星人的性别、形象(包括颜色)、性格、爱好、感情、能力、社会状况以及属于正面或负面势力都有不少描述。如说有的外星人也有贵族、会抽烟、散步,以平复愤怒的情绪,有的还是牙医。她说:“他们和人类在沟通上有一些共性,例如经常讲笑话,基于文明相通的地方,经常能和你产生共鸣。”

“还会做出模拟的动作,让人忍俊不禁。”

“地心人爱看《银河守护者》;我也认识很多地心人,有些是朋友,有些是指导灵;我所碰到的地心人,很多都像动物,比如长的象青蛙、狐狸之类的。”

“那天晚上就来了一对昴宿星人,一男一女,超逗,他们就在那里笑:我们虽然还有财产,但是基本属于配给制,自己还是需要去劳动,扮演各种社会角色,做出贡献。类似你们的共产主义。我们死后财产,比如房子啥的,都会返还给社会,不会留给自己的子女。他们也不必担心自己的小孩,都是社会负责。我曾经在他们的飞船上,看过他们的小孩,都集中在一起教育和抚养,父母只是去探望下,并不需要很多精力。”

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“我第一次所看到的外星人有两个,都是天狼星来的。他们是蓝色的纯能量体,已经没有实体了,它已经进化到没有肉体的一个程度了。”

“如果我和我圈内朋友在一起,我看到的时候他们也能够看到,但是对于我同事来说,有时候他们在我办公室走来走去,我同事就是看不到。”

“外星人它本身的身体结构和我们不一样,每个飞船里边它的氧气纯度都很不一样,所以说你肉身如果上去,不一定能够适应得了。”

“我们通常上飞船是以太体上去,就是灵魂出窍然后再上飞船的,这也是一个比较受鼓励的正常的普遍的方法!”

在上述外星人中,马晓晓说有许多是她的指导灵,如说:“我的指导灵奇塔星人”;“我有三个英仙座的导师。他们其实是不太经常来的,1、2个月会来一次。”天狼星“莎娜费曼是我的主要指导灵,对我的指导,可谓是全方位,事无巨细,对我非常照顾,有点母爱的感觉。”

她甚至将野人也认定为外星人。如她说:“野人,我们中国也叫做大脚怪,是真实存在的,是高纬度的外星人!不管是哪种野人,他们其实都有特异功能,比较敏感,他们可以穿越时空,这就是为什么很多人很难找到野人。”

马晓晓神化外星人,一再强调外星人什么都清楚,但不一定说,因为透露天机,要承担业力。

“我们脑海里每一个想法,小思虑什么的,他们全部都知道。在宇宙当中不存在隐私的。思维都是能量,是可以被监控到的。”

“我们在脑子里想的,他们都知道,包括我们在构思什么,一个思路,他们都知道,你甚至还没说的话,他们都知道了。甚至可以截断,给你另外一个思路。有时候,去商店买东西,他们会给你一个灵感,或者提议,你突然想到,去哪里哪里买一个东西,比较好。”

“外星人的精神力非常强大,意志强大。如果你们有什么人生的困难,不妨求求天琴人他们,在这方面可以给你很大帮助。其实不同种族的外星人,都有各自的特点和特长。我也在不断学习。”

“外星人的高科技已经达到了一个非常高的程度,他们可以把一个能量编织成一个植入物,它其实是不可以被我们目前的常规医学给探测到的。”

“这是一个能量构起的外星人植入物,据我所知,其实地球上的那些军方啊秘密政府啊,它其实是有设备可以探测到,而且可以把它给消除的。但这种科技目前并没有给我们,所以说仅仅是在西方国家的军方拥有,要么就是一些西方国家的秘密政府拥有。”

“如果是你的外星人的团队或者是你的外星人指导灵,他给你放到身体里的话,可以调节你的身体体质,可以开启你的各种各样的特异功能……还有就是帮他打开一些隐性的基因……”

“我们群里面有好多个特异功能者,他可以帮大家移除那些负面的外星人植入物。”

“像我这个人其实也蛮可怜,也没什么隐私,我白天想什么做什么,他们晚上都会来找我说。”

她说外星人中也有负面势力,“目前来看,我们碰到的最高维度的负面势力就在第六维度。”不过不用害怕,她说外星人星球中有业力法庭,有长老、执法者负责审判,地球人可以到业力法庭去申诉,以消除所谓非法的灵魂契约。

“宇宙当中因果和业力是客观存在的!造物主也和我确认过,包括外星人,这个不光是宗教、佛家所说的,灵性大师所说的。”

“他这个业力法庭既可以是每一个种族的最高议会来担任,也可能是这个种族自己设立了一个独立的业力法庭。有时候光之殿堂就是我们说的天堂啦,它自己有扬升大师来处理一些日常的事务,你们每一个光之工作者,每天在地球上的工作他们都是知道的,给你一些工作指导,同一时间他们也是坐业力法庭的法官啊,说的粗俗一点,他们也可以作为我们的老板或者上司什么的,有些时候我见到他们,我跟他们开玩笑也是这么说的。”(她多处谈到业力法庭,可能与她从事律师业务有关)

她还“爆料”说人类的基因被不同的外星人编程过:“他们就提到,因为地球上的人类,一开始在进化的时候,我们基因的确是被编程过好多好多次,被不同的外星人都编程过,这个你们大概都是知道的。那么基因编程不光是从一个物理层面,包括你的思想意识,还有那个文化体系。”(其实,“外星”系邪教和李洪志都喜欢谈这类话题)

她在第2场和第10场讲座中都介绍了如何与外星人沟通,极力鼓动、忽悠听众:“你们(听众)都是高灵,都很伟大。能够来到这个地球上,你们每一个人都有外星人指导灵的。其实你想链接哪一种外星人,只要是正向的,都可以呼唤他们,包括你们想叫观音菩萨、如来佛祖等,你都可以去呼唤,并不是说我作为一个外星人接触者,我很特别,不是这样的,只是说我现在的功能被开启了,所以我可以感知到他们,而且我记忆已经被解放了一部分,所以我可以回忆起以前很多事,包括有时候飞碟来了我都可以看得到。”

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“如果你不特别请求外星人的帮助,也未必不会和外星人链接上,记得有一次我在冥想,链接某个人,那时候,我的功能还不是很高,后来梦境里面外星人来了,自我介绍,带我去他们的飞船上玩,出体的状态,后来他们说,是我在冥想的时候,频率正好链接上他的了。当时,他们正在和其它人沟通,正好频率搭上了,于是就认识了我。”

“有时候,你走到街上,虽然没看见,但是飞船是满天飞的,你看不到,因为它们是隐形的,每个人都有自己独特的频率,就像苹果手机ID一样,每个人都有一个独立的频率,它可能会看见、分析你,决定是不是和你沟通。”

她也不忘借外星人之口自我吹嘘:“有一次我碰到个外星人,他说我是超维度的……他说我是来自于第四宇宙超越纳米空间……好像是从第1维开始到第12维这么一个概念……超维度,就是它已经超过12维了,它是13、14、15维就往后面推,有其他的维度,存在于另外一个宇宙……”

马晓晓也知道自己讲的太过离奇,为了取信听众,她提出两点可以证明她所说是真实的,一是物证,有外星人给她的水晶柱中安放了一些外星人的水晶,不过得开启了第三只眼的人才能看见;二是人证,她说自己圈子中的人都知道她不会说谎。作为律师,她应该清楚,这样的所谓物证、人证,拿到任何国家的法院都是不会被采信的,不过给那些痴迷者一个相信的理由还是蛮有效的。“这个照片就是我自己买的这个水晶柱,昴宿星人进我房间之后,在我这个水晶柱里边又放了一些他们自己的水晶,你们肉眼可能看不见,但是我鼓励你们把我这个照片给存下来,如果你们认识哪个功能人,把我照片给这些功能人自己去看,如果有这个第三只眼功能人的话,他们可以看到我水晶里边还有很多小的那个水晶,发光的,鹿角形的。”

此外她还强调世界上与外星人接触者多如牛毛,并介绍了自己爆料的目的:“我在第1集就说过。在澳洲,每一年都会召开“身心灵展览”,就是那些光工、冥想者和喜欢性灵学的人会去参加,每次都有上万人,其中有和外星人接触者,多如牛毛。”

“你会发觉其实你在这个地球的转型期所扮演的这个角色很可能是非常重要的!”“一旦你彻底觉醒,包括你已经有了很大的力量之后,你所要承担的那一份使命是可以改变着整个人类历史的。”

“我这么做的一个目的,包括鼓励大家这么做的一个目的呢,是为了提高大众对于这个外星人话题的关注度,并且可以促使大事件发生!”

她所说的大“事件”(The Event)是“觉醒-事件-扬升”邪说体系的核心,指即将发生一次外星人解放地球的“大事件”,使世界各国政府体制更迭、金融体系崩溃,随后重建的“新地球”人人没有债务、人人都有工作,进入“理想社会”:

“那个天狼星人叫做Ping,他跟我说这是新地球,将来我们会进入第五密度、第六密度,到时候地球会有个很大的进化,我们将会生活在一个非常完美的地球上,大家活的都会很开心,我们所担忧的金钱这个问题不会再存在,生活得很宽裕,将来我们这个金融体系会结束,到时候大家所要吃的和用的都会得到提供。”(其理想也够俗的了)

她还介绍了许多与“外星文化”相关的对抗多维度负面势力和地球负面灵体的方法,诸如每天默念一下,说我希望光和爱能够保护我;观想自己被反光镜罩着;通过水晶来冥想,清理自己;多吃素,多呼吸新鲜空气;听灵性音乐;寻求各种灵性催眠师和特异功能大师的帮助,以知道自己的前世今生,消除自己的非法灵魂契约,提高自身的通透性和频率,开启自己的特异功能或第三只眼,等等,同时还强调扬升的紧迫性:

“我看到柯瑞古德最近在他的脸书上写了一篇文章,说最近他与蓝鸟人的一次会议中,蓝鸟人就告诉他,他们准备在太阳系内把起到能量缓冲作用的星球给撤离了。”

“可能在不久的将来,我们地球将会彻底暴露在宇宙能量的冲击波中。那么有些经常看科瑞古德信息的人也会知道,这些非常高频率的能量波会对地球上的每个生命体都产生一定的影响。”(颇有末日预告的味道)

看过以上部分摘引的马晓晓讲述的外星人“故事”,我想大多数读者一定十分惊诧,如果马晓晓说的是真实的话,那么我们地球上不仅有外星人,而且无处不在,无所不能,时刻监控、影响着我们人类。这样天大的事,各国政府及主流科学界、宗教界是真的“无知”,还是刻意的隐瞒什么?我们在感叹自己是个外星人盲的同时,又不能不提出如下一些疑问:

1、众所周知,星球之间的距离是非常遥远的,例如天狼星为双星系统,是夜空中肉眼能看到的最明亮的星星之一,与我们的距离为8.7光年;昴宿星,又称七姊妹星团,距离地球约500光年;英仙座星系群由超过1,000颗星系组成,距离我们近2.5亿光年远。外星人是如何克服这种天文数的距离随时往返的?

马晓晓们似乎没有把这当个问题,或许认为外星人都觉醒了(科技发不发达已不重要),已超越三维空间,以至于时间和距离都可忽略不计,他们如神明一般,可随时在星际间穿梭往返,对地球人了如指掌,只有地球人罪业深重,必须等待外星人的拯救,当然首先是要唯马晓晓为首的作为外星人媒介的光工们马首是瞻。但问题随之而来,四维乃至更多维空间的说法毕竟还是一个假说性理论概念,时间和空间是否可超越、如何超越,都不是凭主观想像可随意乱说的,何况予以生活化。对此,生活在三维中的人谁也没有办法去证真或证伪。骗子或疯子正是抓住了这一点,只要给自己带上“高大上”的光环,拿几个名人或什么科学家来背书,再用一些时髦的科学术语来妆点,怎么信口开河都会有人相信。从马晓晓描述的外星人各方面情况来看,他们并没有超越三维或四维空间范围。如同许多已披露的准邪教、邪教教主所做的那样,马晓晓们大肆拿多维空间说事,冒充科学,颠倒淆乱世人的正常认知,不仅是对科学的玷污,且有实施精神控制、骗钱敛财、发展邪教之嫌。殷鉴不远,刘博洋博士一文对此多有揭示。

2、地球上民族甚多,所用语言各不相同,彼此必须通过专门的翻译才能有效沟通。100多个外星种族语言应该也是千奇百怪,我想马晓晓突破不了地球上众多民族的上千种语言构成的沟通障碍,那么她是如何与那么多外星人种族有效沟通的?外星人又是如何通晓地球上各种语言的?似乎她以为凭着一句“心灵感应”就可解决,然而古今中外各宗教“觉醒”或通灵者甚多,还没有听说有这样的天才。世界上吹牛者太多,但像马晓晓这么能吹的还真少见。她除了神化外星人和自己,让粉丝们脑残之外,我看只要头脑正常的读者,没有人会相信其胡言乱语。

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3、马晓晓说外星人是纯能量体,能隐身,随意念来去自如,进入人的房间和大脑,如神一般,那还需要什么物质性的飞碟呢?又说飞碟只有她和圈子中的人能看到,似乎也能隐身,她自己还上到飞碟里,这是否表明飞碟和马晓晓也是纯能量体,那报道的众多目睹飞碟的普通人是否都是高能者?真是胡编都不想如何自圆其说!

4、古今中外虽有二十八星宿、八十八星座等天文星象的观察与传说,以及UFO的记录,但将外星人与UFO联系起来还是近百年的事。古代圣贤、高僧大德乃至通灵者甚多,为什么没有见到外星人的记录(即使有类似记录也比马晓晓见到的少得多。或许马晓晓们将宗教诸神、各民族神话传说中的人物乃至野人都混同外星人了,那自当别论),而直到当代才有大量外星人光顾,与马晓晓们联系上?是马晓晓们的虚构,还是她们真的被外星人选中?我想了解宗教历史和UFO历史的读者都不难作出自己的判断。

5、马晓晓介绍的外星人的许多情况,包括外星人可以随时变现宗教大师等形象,以及她所憧憬的“大事件”后的理想社会场景,其实都与她自己的现实生活境遇、文化背景和其对UFO、外星人问题痴迷程度密切相关,换句话说,即与她本身的心理活动、目的追求有关。这恰恰反映出她所谓的“我遇见了外星人”,一半是精神分裂所致,一半是小我膨胀所致。

(四)略析马晓晓的“宗教”言论

马晓晓在第7场演讲中专门谈宗教问题。如同她说自己经常见到众多外星人一样,还说诸佛菩萨、耶稣、造物主都与她有联系:

“有一次我接触到的是乔达摩悉达多,大概是在两三年以前,当时就根本没有心理准备。突然之间就有个心灵感应,他跟我连接,说我就是来找你。记得我正好要买块巧克力正在付钱的时候,我说你好你好。我觉得他是一个很谦卑的人。他跟我说的是很多关于昆达里尼大觉醒,他说如果你想清理你的脉轮的话,可以跟我连接,我可以帮助你清理你的脉轮。然后我说,噢!是吗?所以我跟他有时候连接一下,我觉得他的确能量强,对于清理自己的脉轮是非常有帮助的。如果要练昆达里尼的瑜伽什么的,你们可以叫乔达摩悉达多,他这方面是挺有能力的,他可以帮你们。

然后我想讲一下观世音菩萨,它其实和天狼星有着很强的一个连接,观世音菩萨、艾希斯女神,还有那个狮头人身像的女神,他们其实都是那个天狼星的神,观世音和天狼星的连接很强,我们中国人其实大多数都是天狼星投胎过来的。”

“观世音菩萨其实是我一个主要的像导师一样,我跟他联系比较多一点。接触下来,发觉观世音菩萨的性格跟我们想象的和雕塑上看到的很不一样,其实他是很活泼的一个性格。”

“还有那个弥勒佛祖,的确是很喜欢笑,他是西方极乐世界的一个大德,也是渡人的,我每次看到观世音的时候,弥勒佛也经常会出现,但最近一段时间他来的比较少,最近来得比较多的是地藏王菩萨,观世音菩萨倒是经常来……地藏王菩萨给我感觉很虚怀若谷,很为别人考虑,心很大,就是能够承载整个世界。他介绍他自己的时候不说他是地藏王菩萨,说他是道光佛,但是我看他的形象包括它的能量场,他的确就是地藏王菩萨,但是他就是这么叫自己的,那我就说那好吧。然后我还认识了佛教当中的十大力士。我跟普贤菩萨也有联系。”

她还介绍了自己怎么拿到一个比较大的灵魂契约、怎么会入教,后来还皈依受五戒的一个原因。她应邀主持一场南天寺的佛教婚礼,受到一个师父的刁难,等于给了她一个测试,她考核通过了,于是众多佛、神决定给她一个灵魂契约,还告诉她灵魂契约是什么,她当时非常的感动,表示自己一定会做得很好,一定会带领大家走这条万教归一的道路。

“在我们澳洲有个卧龙岗,那个地方有一个星云法师开的道场,是我们南半球最大的一个寺庙。我就去当个义工,正好那里空气也挺清新的,吃的菜都挺干净的,人也挺好的,我去当一个郊游一两天玩一玩,都是免费吃住。但是我打心里是不相信的……那时候有个师父,他说我整整等了你一个世纪,我终于等到你回来了,然后他就跟我讲了一些我私人的事情,说你这辈子要去传教,然后我当时说,唉呀这个东西好像跟我不是很有关,我不是很相信宗教……他们说,噢,不不不!宗教将来是一定会改革的,所以我们需要你们这些光工去做一个改革。那我说改革什么东西呢?我当时还是蛮抵触,他说,我们将来会走万教归一的路。”

“记得我刚开始睡的时候,哇!来道金光,好多的神、佛和大德都到了,然后还说,马晓晓,我们给了你一个测试,你考过了,他说你在你的师父是如此刁难你的情况下,你在这个路上是如此的坎坷的情况下,你在你自己掏腰包的情况下,你还是决定不依不饶地来到这个南天寺做这个事情,所以我现在给你一个灵魂契约。我后来就留下,我说真的是很感谢你们给我这么宏大的一个契约。”

作为在澳大利亚的华人,马晓晓的宗教观念是东西方混杂的,但从介绍的情况来看,还是受佛教的影响大一些。她不仅受到外星人的亲睐,还受到宗教中众多佛、神的加持,共同给她一个“灵魂契约”,按佛教的话说,就是给了她一个授记,印证和赋予她进行革新宗教的地位和使命。

从佛教史和《高僧传》来看,极少有某一佛、菩萨现身加持的记载,有的话也是要非常的虔诚、精进和有很高的德行,一般梦到的情况多一些。至于同时感应得众多佛、菩萨乃至基督教的耶稣和造物主,万无可能。近代以来民间倒有采用乩童扶乩的方式感应各宗教神明上身的说法,但通常颇费周章,常见上身的神明,在台湾有三太子、济公等,广东有天后圣母、观音菩萨、三山国王等,福建有玄天上帝、某府千岁王爷等,香港有齐天大圣、关公等,有时也有家属的灵魂、孤魂野鬼等。而佛教、道教对这类做法并不予认可。《印光大师文钞·复李慰农居士书一》:“扶乩一事,皆灵鬼依托扶者之智识而为。亦或多由扶者自行造作而成者。且非全无真仙,殆百千次偶一临坛耳。至言佛菩萨则全是假冒。”又如《太上天坛玉格》载,经云:一切上真天仙神将,不附生人之体,若辄附人语者,决是邪魔外道,不正之鬼,多是土地及司命能作此怪,行法之士当审察之。况《女青天律》云: 诸邪神妄托上真名字者,送下镬汤地狱,或付逆鳞将军,令其万死千生,不舍昼夜。

可见马晓晓妄言见到佛菩萨和众神等,不是精神分裂,就是邪魔附体,为达到其不可告人之目的而恶意编造。有趣的是,她编造也是有所选择的,对于犹太教、印度教、伊斯兰教、道教诸神只字未提,可能是她对他们太过陌生,或者无助于提高自己的地位,或者怕犯忌讳被追杀!

更令宗教信徒不解和气愤的是,她依托佛教的佛菩萨和基督教的耶稣等众神“获得”某种神圣的地位之后,转脸即开始抹黑、挞伐、解构传统宗教,尽可能地夺取传统宗教的神圣性资源及信众和财物资源,来建立自己定义的“万教归一”的新宗教,这与许多新兴宗教和邪教的套路如出一辙。例如她用相当多的篇幅谈到她所知道的耶稣,颠覆了基督教对耶稣的描述:

“耶稣的的确确在地球上是存在过的,他当时的确投胎到地球上来,然后引领大家走向光辉,但是耶稣基督他当时并没有死,他死去之后并没有创造这个基督教,这是后面的人以他的名义创造出基督教的,和耶稣自己本身的人生经历和意愿是不相干的。”

“耶稣基督真实的出生日期是在9月份的第三个礼拜……但是他妈的确不是处女,这是翻译上的问题,希伯来语当时对于那个定义应该是一个年轻的女性,但是他们在翻译成英语当中就把这个词翻译成处女了。当时他们这么翻译,我觉得是为了证明玛丽是个很纯洁的女性,其实玛丽的确是个很好的女性,但是并不能够说她是处女,因为从人生小孩这个正常印象来看,我觉得这也不太可能……耶稣基督并不是像圣经上说的那样,他其实不是他们家里唯一的一个孩子。”

“(耶稣基督)年轻的时候跟他哥哥姐姐和那个弟弟一起玩……在他十几岁的时候也周游了世界,就是他去过印度,也去过西藏,也去过欧洲,也去过非洲……然后它在中东这些地方都认识了不同的老师,教他不同的课。耶稣基督那个时候去的古埃及,在那个金字塔里边住过一夜,就有昆达里尼觉醒,之后就是打开他的七脉轮,就有了超反的能力,当然这和他自己的修行也是有关系。然后他就开始了传教的路程,他其实能力很强……《圣经》上面写他有各种各样的神奇的那个特异功能,包括在水上走,可以凭空变出东西,其实这些记录在我们人类历史上都是有的,比如说隔空取物,道教当中的在水上走这些特异功能,除了耶稣基督之外,后面的人其实也是能够做得到,只是说他聚集了好多的特异功能于一身,原因是:一方面是因为他个人爱和光的力量,他的确是一个得道的人,另外一方面是由于他自身的物理身体,已经在那个年代被更改了很多遍,就是说一直有一个提升……可以表明他已经不属于一个纯的地球人,在那个年代,他的物理身体已经被基因改造很厉害了,可以承受和把握得住更多的光和爱,所以他的那个能量体如果放在一般的人身上,他是扛不住的,人会解体,所以他那个时候是因为被基因改造很多次,所以他是有能力可以承载更多的光和能量在他的生命体里面……为什么他有这些能力呢,因为他是有历史使命的,他必须带领人类走向光辉。”

“那个耶稣基督是后人把它树立起来了,包括我们东方文化当中的佛祖,也是后面的人把他给树立起来,创造了这个佛教,因为在那个年代的的确确需要一个宗教来做一个支撑……后人其实有很多的大师和他们有相同的能耐和水平,只是可能没有他们这么火罢了。”

“耶稣基督的确是上了十字架……三天之后被他的信徒救下来,所以他根本就没有死在十字架上面。……他的老婆玛丽特别照顾他,然后他们两个人也算是结婚了。《圣经》当中都没有这么写,《圣经》当中把他的老婆玛丽写成他的一个信徒,而且把玛丽的身份写得非常的难听……因为那个年代是父系的时代,他们不喜欢看到女性的能量,这就是为什么当时只能够崇拜男性不能够崇拜女性。”

“玛丽是耶稣基督的双生火焰,他的能耐和耶稣基督基本上是一样的,只是在历史上她的能力各方面都被磨灭,这是个很遗憾的事情。因为那个年代是不能够允许有女性的力量,这也是旧社会的体现。耶稣基督在十字架上被救下来之后,和玛丽去了我们现在知道的法国……周游全世界,去了西藏,去了印度,去了好多类似的国家,他们生了一个女儿,然后就在爱尔兰定居下来……”

“我还有个很要好的朋友在澳洲,他是耶稣基督当时轮回在地球上的一个哥哥,但他这一辈子投身是一个女性。”

马晓晓说的靠不靠谱且不论,但她的意思还是很清楚的,即她很了不起,能通灵,了解世人不知道的宗教内幕,耶稣基督没有那么神,他从没有说过自己是上帝的唯一儿子,甚至并没有要创立什么基督教,他与佛祖都只是众多大师的一个,是后人根据自己的需要把他们树立起来的。她还编造耶稣有个老婆叫玛丽,还生了一个女儿,认为她与耶稣的本事一样大,但因为过去男尊女卑,而被后人给埋没了。这正如她荒谬地说佛教中男的可成为佛,女的只能成为菩萨,恰恰反映了马晓晓强烈的女权思想。

马晓晓在谈到佛菩萨时,虽然也是谬误很多,但似乎印象还不错(如前所引)。而对佛教的教义教规和现实中的佛教,却是极尽诋毁之能事。她认为宗教带有束缚性,其经典多数都是糟粕,会被淘汰的:

“灵性和宗教是有彻底的区分的。比如说宗教是带有束缚性的……基督教里面就有一个教条,说我不管你有多么好多么的善,只要你不相信我耶稣基督,就一定会下地狱。我觉得这就是一种恐吓的后果。因为宗教本身带有恐吓的那个内容,所以对于我们扬升的灵性发展并不是很适合。大家在修佛、看佛教或者道教书的时候要特别注意,你所看的一本书或许对你来说只有二十几页的精华,剩下的都是糟粕……并不是说《法华经》《金刚经》说的就是绝对的真理,因为真理一直是在进化的路上……其实没有所谓的经典,它也是在被淘汰当中……不要被宗教里边那些恐惧的内容所影响,还有一些类似于迷信的信息,不要吃香菜啦,不要养小动物啊,还有什么来例假的时候不要去拜佛……”

“宗教对于人在一个更高层次上的追求是一个束缚。灵性会告诉你自己去探索,你自己去发现它。宗教讲究的是彼此的分离……我的宗教一定比你的宗教好,道教一定是最强的,佛教一定是最伟大的,基督教是唯一的,什么耶稣是上帝唯一的儿子等等,这个就产生了彼此的分离。”

她还诬称六道轮回思想被严重篡改:“我们佛教当中一直在说六道轮回,超脱于六道轮回,你就可以称为佛祖等等……那个年代的六道轮回,相当于我们现在所说的提高意识和扬升。但是六道轮回当中,它的核心思想已经被篡改得很严重,这就类似于那个基督教,他们一直说耶稣基督曾经说过,我是上帝唯一的儿子。他也跟我说的很清楚,他从来在那个年代完全没有说过这么一句话。”

马晓晓还劝人们不要去拜佛求菩萨,不要捐钱给僧尼:

“如果你在你人生当中碰到了一些厄难点或者关键点,你觉得要去解决问题,我们通常是想要一个信仰的归宿,那你们可能会选择去那个寺庙里面去拜,这个我是可以理解。从心理层面上来说,我们的确需要一个信仰,但是我告诉你们的是,你可以行跪礼,从整个什么北京、上海、广州,一步一磕头一直磕到西藏,一直叫南无阿弥陀佛,求菩萨来改变你的命运,这一切仅仅是一场枉然!”

“对他们来说,你所捐的钱都是给和尚和尼姑,你们都知道道教、佛教已经到了末代。少林寺的方丈那些事情,包括捐款,各种各样的乱收费,包括我还看到和尚叼了一根烟,还有各方面的吃大肉等等,给我感觉他的频率可能都没有观众朋友们的频率高!所以我劝你们有些时候在花钱上面还不如用在自己的身上,让自己活得更加好一点,多爱你自己一点,想买什么衣服就买,想吃什么就吃什么,然后呢天天祷告一下,找你的高我,跟他商量一下,该怎么样子提高自己和改自己的灵魂契约,而不是说花这些钱在寺庙里面,因为你这是在养和尚和尼姑,并不是说去求佛菩萨给你办事,你自己想想看,真正的大德像弥勒佛、观世音,会说你多给我捐点钱我就帮你办好事吗?”

“我请你们不要花那么几百块钱去求那些所谓的方丈开光,你们或许不知道,现在寺庙当中也是讲业绩的。当什么住持啊方丈啊,是看你如何能够把市场学给搞好,能够带领整个寺庙的业绩做好,然后你会有个提升,并不是说他的修为有多少好。因此你去找一个方丈,花了几千块钱给你的护身符,念一套经,他自己本身的能力、频率和修为还真的可能没你的频率高,所以我劝你们钱不要乱花!”

“我请求我的高我,你要经常说,连说十遍!说十天你这个护身符会有非常强大的能量。……除非会有极少数大德,他或许还真的是有点本事,能够帮你开个光,但是绝大多数我们所知道的那些和尚和尼姑,他们远没有达到我们现在的听众朋友们这些觉知和觉醒,所以你们那这方面要特别的注意,在宗教上面捐款也要很注意,尤其捐给寺院还不如捐给自己,捐给你自己街道里边那些真正需要帮助的人,这是个实在活,可以给你自己积德,也可以帮助你自己,不要在寺庙里面投没有意义的钱!”

她认为人们应该去拜自己的高我:

“因为能够改变你命运的其实不是神、观世音,他没办法改变我命运,只有我自己能够改变我自己命运!你如果真的要改你的人生,就是要提高你自己,另外还有一个办法就是真正能够掌握你的命运,你的灵魂契约,还有你的高我。”

“你真要去拜的话应该去拜你的高我,因为你的高我和你才能够改你的灵魂契约,知道吗!所以你去拜那些神、佛的,他们其实也挺郁闷的,他们能够做到的就是给你更多的光和爱,他们的确是能够给你发光发爱,清理你的脉轮等等。轻盈的光辉提高你、指引你,但是他不能够帮你改你的灵魂契约。”

“唉!我的人生好苦啊,我去求神求佛,让我更加有钱,让我不再生病,让我的小孩考进重点大学等等,我换工作什么的!这个神和佛没办法帮你,你要真要求这些世俗的东西,你真的是要去连接你的高我,因为你的高我和你的连接才能够确保你可以改你的人生,你的人生契约,所以我告诉你们这一点,希望你们少走弯路,别花太多的心思去拜神和佛,求他们改你的灵魂契约。你的记录的主宰者是你的高我和你自己,或许你的指导灵也可以帮助你。神、佛、观世音、大日如来,他们可以给你抒发能量等等,可以起到像外星人导师一样的能力,但是改你自己的命,你必须自己去连接你的高我去改。”

喇嘛吃肉是历史和环境因素形成的,马晓晓却借此攻击藏传佛教,认为内地信奉藏传佛教的人都被骗了:

“你们这些内地的藏传佛教信徒啊都被骗了,真实藏区的情况我还不清楚吗!我天天在这边工作,真实的藏区的情况根本不像你们道听途说的那个样子。其实藏区现在经济很好,超市里面什么都有的卖,蔬菜水果都有,跟内地是一模一样的,那些跟你们说藏区的喇嘛们特别穷,穷得没有钱去买蔬菜水果吃,只能拉头羊过来宰着吃,只能天天喝酒吃肉,那都是假的。事实上他们喇嘛本身就喜欢喝酒吃肉,让我当时听到就非常震惊,我当时就觉得唉呀我被骗了,原来我学佛信佛的这些法师们都在骗我。从这个事情之后,我就开始从多个角度去了解藏传佛教,尤其是藏区的历史,我就开始好好去研究了。”

马晓晓其实并不懂佛教,她甚至诬称佛祖、菩萨、阿罗汉等级之分是封建糟粕:

“那个时候的确是男尊女卑的世界,所以男性很多得道的都叫做佛,而女性的呢都叫做菩萨,显得水平好像没他们高那样,还有阿罗汉什么的。其实我所接触下来包括对他们的频率包括一些感觉,觉得观世音菩萨完完全全是可以被称为一个佛祖,你们也可以叫观世音佛祖或者普贤佛祖、文殊佛祖,没有必要去区分男性是佛,女性是菩萨。”

“这个三六九等之分是我们封建社会的一些糟粕,是我们自己把自己的意识体强加进去的,并不是佛祖和我们所说的那个菩萨本身的一个意愿。”

中国人的理想是世界大同,在宗教上也往往一厢情愿地把儒释道融合于一体,近代一贯道等民间宗教更是搞“五教同堂”。马晓晓也继承了这一传统,借外星人话题提倡万教归一(历史证明这只能是一种理念、口号,是不可能实现的),并说在新世界会有很多新的经出来:

“将来的宗教领袖是非常的开明,他们可以接受到很多的信息,他们只相信一样东西,就是万教归一。他们说万教归一是天下所有宗教的唯一出路,如果任何宗教不能接受万教归一的话,它就只能灭亡了。因为在一个新地球上它是不能够允许存在我们现在所认知的宗教的那些条条框框和教条,还有一些我前面说的那些弊端。……简单的来说,万教归一,所有的宗教最后只为这一个核心的内容,那就是尊重我们的造物主,只追求彻底的真理,光和爱,仅此而已,其他的东西可以说是可有可无,就是从这一个核心观念上面重新演化下去,也不会有什么十八层地狱,也不会有什么男尊女卑,也不会什么男的只是佛,女的只是菩萨,也不会是什么你来例假了不能够去拜佛,你不能够吃洋葱,你不能够带小动物等等,这些很奇葩的东西都不会再有,包括我们现在所知的《金刚经》《法华经》,这也是过去对于那个年代来说,对我们有一个觉知上面的很大帮助,但在新世界,我被告知会有很多新的经出来!”

马晓晓对“宗教”特别抵触,种种抹黑,让人很容易联想到法轮功,李洪志就常说传统宗教已经过时了,寺庙只认钱,佛菩萨都不灵了。马晓晓也是这样,还反复强调 “万教归一”之 “灵修”与宗教(传统的宗教)的区别,实质上就是想让其听众们尽快归投到她所定义的新宗教中来:

“耶稣基督他自己都说了,我从来就没有说过我是上帝唯一的孩子,这话都是后面的人编出来的,为了造成这个宗教当中的分裂。将来他们基督教和天主教包括道教都会有宗教领袖出现,这些宗教领袖就像听众朋友们,你和我这种有更高的觉知,对一些信息有更高的认识,所以在传教的过程当中,我们会有完全不同的方法!这就是我想告诉你们的万教归一,当然我可以说得更多,但是我觉得我分享的风格就是浅显一点,不用讲得很高深。万教归一,你们只要记住唯一要追求的就是对于造物主的爱,还有爱你自己,连接你的高我,说到底就是光和爱。其实万教归一的本质就是宗教要变成修灵,而不是修灵靠近宗教,这是一个很大的区别,是一个最核心的区别。而我们现在中国人在这一点是反过来的,我们为了修灵而跳入宗教的坑,我们将来要做的事情是引领宗教往修灵的路上去。我希望你们能够记住,将来的佛教和道教走的道路和你们现在所学的那些是有一个非常大不同性,包括将来的宗教领袖和你现在看到的是完全不一样的! ”

马晓晓也不忘拿“外星人”为自己站台:“外星人的建议就是,如果你想要一个扬升和提高你的意识体,你就应该去修灵,而不是去修一个宗教。修灵和宗教是有区别的,所以我想告诉你们外星人的观点是,第一,他们自己的种族大多数来说没有宗教体系。第二,他们也是非常的反感或者说很反对地球上的这个宗教体系,因为这是很束缚人心的东西。我就问到为什么人会有一个偶像崇拜,宗教本身就带一点偶像崇拜的那个基因在里边。他们就提到因为地球上的人类一开始在进化的时候,我们基因的确是被编程过好多好多次,被不同的外星人都编程过。”

“我知道你们有一些人可能是知道叫做艾莎莎尼外星人,在很久以前他们也是有类似于地球人的宗教信仰,然后通过自己的演化,到现在高等文明的情况下,他们已经脱离宗教信仰了。他们现在所信仰的东西就是相信造物主。”

“其实我所说的这个造物主就是我们都知道的本源,就是这个一的开始。如果你们真的说外星人一定要崇拜什么的话,或许也就是这么一个造物主,就是这么一个一。对于他们来说,光和爱是一种个人的灵性发展和追求的一个至高的追求,要做的就是回归于一的本身,这是他们的一种个人的信仰。”

她对中国的宗教信徒的行为很不屑,强调觉醒者会彻底跳出自己原本的宗教:

“只要他一旦觉醒了,决定走一个灵修的道路,或者要走扬升的道路,90%以上的人,他们会选择跳出宗教本身去纯粹的追求灵性上的修行。我再强调一遍,他们会跳出自己原本的宗教的框架,就是彻底的脱离基督教,或者彻底的脱离天主教,彻底的进入自身的灵性修行。但是在中国呢情况是反过来的,我看到好多人觉醒了之后,就是有这么一个要扬升的意识之后,却从不信或者半信佛教或者道教的变为彻底的往里边跳。……我觉得这是一种退化的状态,你如果觉醒了应该是跳出宗教本身,你怎么会还往宗教里面跳?”

“每个宗教都带有审判的情形在里边。你做的不好我就审判你。那个基督教的原罪,就是每个人出生都是有罪的,你要赎罪等等,这个都是后面的人增加进去的……当然这点佛教讲的还是更加深邃一点。灵性是让你自己创造自己的道路,但是宗教呢是让你跟随别人的旅程;宗教告诉你应该跟哪个神和佛去学走他的路,灵性是告诉你,你要创造自己的路,走自己的扬升的路,这是一个很大的区别。”

“灵性的修行是整合彼此……从历史到现在来看,很多的战争包括十字军东征都是由于宗教引起的……宗教还会让你有个依靠,一旦你事情处理不了,你就去找神啊,菩萨的灵性会让你站起来,他会让你自己去解决自己的问题,靠自己。”

她自己浅薄不说,还反对听众学习宗教理论,认为只要一根筋地灵修,或依靠灵修大师的帮助回归于一,深奥的哲理自然都懂了:

“学理论性的知识,什么色即是空,空即是色,有很多人就为了这句话天天在那里纠结,就是比较理论化。我个人的观点是,你们没有必要花太多的时间去钻研那些玩文字游戏的东西,或者是理论的那套程序,因为你钻研二三十年都搞不透那套东西,你所学习的都是人家所啃下来的骨头,告诉你这个是什么意思,这是别人的感悟,而不是你自己的,你所得到的只是别人自己的感悟,告诉你的一个知识。那么你要通过修灵的课程,等会我给你们的,帮助你去提高自己的频率,去消除你的创伤,把这些问题解决之后,你才能够很实际性的提示你有更高的意识和身体频率,然后当你再去看色即是空还是空即是色这个问题的时候,你无需别人来告诉你什么,你自己就会知道这到底是什么意思,因为那个时候你整个人的意识和身心频率已经摇身到一个彻底不同的一个等级了。”

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马晓晓上述关于宗教的言论,也的确指出了部分传统宗教社团存在的形式主义、僵化保守、以及受市场经济影响而商业化、世俗化的问题,颇有效仿禅宗破除偶像崇拜、命自我立、“心即是佛”的意味,也蛮符合西方人追求灵魂自主、希望对精神世界包括宗教予以革新的想法,迎合了年轻一代特立独行、追逐新奇、叛逆、激进的心理,这应是她蒙住青年粉丝的一个重要因素,值得传统宗教尤其是佛教界的反思。不过,她这些言论和作为并不新鲜,与许多附佛外道和邪教对传统佛教的指责如出一辙。他们的主要目的就是要尽可能多地夺取宗教资源和生存空间,却并没有能提供一个更好的解决方案,往往更不靠谱,许多痴迷者不是被骗钱骗色,就是丧心病狂,乃至陷入万劫不复的深渊。

宗教的定义很多,其中最核心的内容就是相信有超自然的力量,提供解决人们如何由此岸到彼岸的终极关怀的路径和方法。就以佛教来说,其终极修行和目标就是觉悟,解脱生死缠缚,可说是最高的“灵修”。但对于现实因缘和根基千差万别的众生来说,要达到这个目标,还得从基础修起,要学习理论,开启智慧,信仰上有所皈依,行为上有所规范(包括遵守必要的戒律),意念上有所净化(包括修习禅定),所谓依戒生定,由定发慧,一般要经历多生多劫的修行才能成佛。同时,宗教徒作为一个社会成员,必须有善知识(老师或宗教神职人员)和一定团体(寺庙、教团)的帮助,还必须遵守国家的法律,承担一定的家庭和社会责任。而马晓晓抛开这一切,强行将宗教与灵修区隔对立起来,不是无知,就是别有用心。她所谓的灵修,实际上也是宗教的一部分,不过很空洞,既缺乏真实有效的方法,更没有深邃的哲学思维和智慧,只是重复飞碟宗教性团体的那些光呀爱呀造物主呀的标签与装神弄鬼的痴心妄想而已。

马晓晓似乎接触佛教多一些,但她的确缺乏基本的佛教常识,在其言论中涉及佛教的谬误不少,在这里顺便纠正几个引文中见到的错误:

(一)六道轮回:六道指1、天人道(化生),2、阿修罗道,3、人道,4、畜牲道,5、饿鬼道,6、地狱道(化生)。前三道称为三善道,后三道称为三恶道,表示因造作善恶各种业(行为、语言、思想皆称为业)而带来的六类果报。众生没有解脱生死之前,无不在这六道中轮回。修行成就了罗汉果位就可脱离轮回,成就了菩萨、佛的果位更不用说。可见,马晓晓所谓“超脱于六道轮回,你就可以称为佛祖”“那个年代的六道轮回,相当于我们现在所说的提高意识和扬升”是相当肤浅和错误的。“六道轮回”的意思不是别人有篡改,恰恰是她“歪批三国”进行了任性的解读。

(二)罗汉(无生)、菩萨(觉有情)、佛(觉者):这是佛教依据修行者的发心大小、断烦恼和觉悟程度所安立的名称,其中罗汉可分为四个阶段的果位,而菩萨可分为五十一个阶段的果位差别,它们之间是有严格的划分、检验标准的。从某种意义上也可说是心识“扬升”的不同阶段吧。佛教最讲众生平等,当然也包括男女平等,但这是从众生皆有佛性(或说成佛的可能性)上讲的,并不能抹杀缘起法中的事相差别,真修到了罗汉以上果位,都“无生”了,哪里还有什么男女差别之相!在小乘佛教中,的确有以女人身不能成佛之说,但不意味着她来生不能转成男身修行成佛,而大乘佛教的《法华经》中,有八岁之龙女由于受持《法华经》之功德而即身成佛之例。可见,马晓晓将佛、菩萨、阿罗汉之分视为男尊女卑,是封建糟粕,是相当无知的。佛教中更无所谓“男的只是佛,女的只是菩萨”之说。在汉传佛教著名的五大菩萨中,只有观音菩萨示现的是女相,而文殊菩萨、普贤菩萨、地藏菩萨、弥勒菩萨示现的都是男相,难道这些菩萨去见她时都变成女性了?顺带说明一下,弥勒菩萨是我们娑婆世界居于兜率天宫内院的一位菩萨,将继释迦牟尼佛之后来到人间成佛,故又称未来佛。不知马晓晓所谓弥勒佛祖是西方极乐世界的一个大德的说法从何处得来?

另外,佛教中没有十大力士之说,香菜也不在佛教戒律限制之列。至于佛教寺庙中有某些不尽如人意的人和事(其中许多属于社会人士对佛教缺乏了解造成的成见、误解,以及某些人的肆意抹黑),这在各大宗教和各行各业中都不同程度地存在。马晓晓们可以不信佛教,不懂佛教,但请不要像李洪志那样,为吸引信徒和粉丝,冒充大师,不懂装懂,以偏概全地恶意抹黑佛教寺庙和僧尼,曲解、诋毁佛教的基本教义教规!

陈星桥。陈星桥,法名常正,法号智渊。1957年10月30日出生于湖北省武汉市,原籍湖南省祁阳县。先后毕业于武汉河运专科学校和中国佛学院灵岩山分院,从事佛教的教学、期刊编辑和佛学研究工作达30多年。他是我国第一批揭露邪教“法轮功”的人士,1996年撰写了系统揭露、批判“法轮功”的长篇论文《法轮功——一种具有民间宗教特点的附佛外道——评李洪志《转法轮》及其法轮功》,编著了多部批判“法轮功”的书籍,如《佛教“气功”与法轮功》(中国宗教文化出版社1998年6月出版),《正与邪的较量——佛教界揭批法轮功文选》(河北省佛教慈善功德会2000年12月出版),《中国佛教宗派理论(律宗部分)》,《俗语佛源》部分条目。

陈星桥先生历任佛学院讲师、省市佛教协会副秘书长、中国佛教文化研究所《佛教文化》副主编、中国佛教协会机关刊物《法音》杂志副主编、中国佛教协会常务理事、中国反邪教协会常务理事、中国健身气功协会委员、四川大学宗教研究所特约研究员、苏州戒幢佛学研究所特约研究员等职。

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Jiangsu Party School Prof: Looking at the “Belt and Road” Initiative from the Perspective of Global Governance with Chinese Characteristics

I often enjoy reading Chinese people writing for other Chinese people about China’s hopes, dreams, successes and challenges. It gives an internal view of China albeit one constrained by what people are allowed to or can get away with writing. Some of the phrasing in this article even has the indirect reference to obvious reference typical of some propaganda screeds such as “certain individual countries” where the context is obvious the references is to say India or the United States. Professor Niu’s article gives and outline of the decades-long evolution in China’s attitude and stance towards the outside world bringing neatly together mutual influences of the internal and the external.

Here Professor Niu Weigan of the Jiangsu Province Provincial Communist Party Committee’s Party School examines the development of PRC views on global governance and China’s changing role in the world.

During my ten years working in China as a U.S. diplomat I had several conversations with people who either had given lectures to Party cadres or had taught at the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee’s Party School in Beijing or at one of the party school/think tanks runs by one of the Chinese Communist Party provincial committees. One university prof, an expert on minority affairs, told me that he could have taught his Party students much that they needed to know about the actual state of minorities and policy problems but he couldn’t sent the Party didn’t want him too and he would simply fired if he did. At lunch with a just-retired Party school professor, the prof confided in me “My real job at the Party school was to monitor the thinking of the other professors for the Communist Party!” A former Party school prof I knew wouldn’t bend and was fired. He ran a very interesting blog collecting many articles on media for several years until the Party forced it to be shut down. Another Party School prof told me that he was very concerned Xi Jinping was taking China in a very bad direction, crushing the hopes that some had had that China could become a real democracy some day.

Party schools have some very talented academics. The restrictions on them vary from place to place and from era. My impression is that post-1989 the pressure for ideological conformity, although always present, was least in the last few years of Party Secretary Jiang Zemin but then gradually got tighter under Party Secrtaries Hu Jintao (with ups and downs around sensitive anniversaries and events sort of like a wave tending on average to reflect more and more tightness) and much tighter under Party Secretary Xi Jinping. Party school publications give indications of which items stand high on the Party’s action agenda and its level of anxiety. For example 2005 book by Chinese Communist Party Central Party School vice director Zhou Tianyong  周天勇 Reform of the Chinese Political Structure with its canny title — talking about reform of political structures is less sensitive than talk about reform of the political system. One of my friends told me that his two week assignment to study Secretary Hu Jintao’s writings and thinking at a fancy hotel outside Chengdu was crashingly boring. Like all human institutions, Party Schools also have funny stories. Some higher level officials at the Central Party School brought along their personal secretaries to do their homework, according to a 1999 article I spied in a provincial newspaper.

The Wilson International Center hosted Professor Niu Weigan during 2014 – 2015. The Woodrow Wilson International Center is a US government funded scholarly think tank that supports visiting scholars and holds seminars that bring together US and foreign scholars to discuss political and historical issues related to many foreign countries and areas. Among the Wilson Center’s ongoing efforts is the COLD WAR INTERNATIONAL HISTORY PROJECT and the KISSINGER INSTITUTE ON CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES. My personal favorite is the Cold War History Digital Archive that include translations of historical materials relating to many countries including conversations PRC leaders such as Mao and Zhou had with foreign visitors as well as diplomatic cables to and from Beijing to Chinese embassies abroad.

To this translation I have added some links and broke up some sentences and paragraphs that seemed overly long and exhausting in English. The original Chinese text appears below the English translation.

One of the benefit of deep dives I do in Chinese articles on this translation blog is where it leads me. I particularly appreciated the 2017 overview by Dr. YU Hong(余 虹) of the East Asian Institute of the National University of Singapore “Motivation behind China’s ‘One Belt, One Road’ Initiatives and Establishment of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank” fortunately now available online courtesy of the Journal of Contemporary China .

I am indebted to Professor Jon Taylor of the University of Texas at San Antonio for noting this and other PRC scholarly articles on Chinese governance on his twitter feed at https://twitter.com/ProfJonTaylor

Looking at the “Belt and Road” Initiative from the Perspective of Global Governance with Chinese Characteristics

June 29, 2020

Source: “Ningxia Social Science” 2020 No. 3

Summary: The “Belt and Road” initiative marks the start of the latest stage in the evolution of global governance with Chinese characteristics and opens new avenues for China to participate in global governance. The evolutionary pathway of the global governance concept with Chinese characteristics moved from being regulated (learning) → borrowing norms (internalization) → revising and innovating norms (feedback and creation) → implementing new norms (demonstration) passed through several distinct stages: China passivity as it participated in the adaptation phase of global governance, the feedback-based revision from the passive to the active and the adjustment phase of the innovation norms, then to the stage of initiating, advocating for and putting into practice new norms. In this third stage, according to the overall trend of political, economic and cultural development at home and abroad, China has been integrating China’s interests with global values ( shared human values). China proposed and has been implementing the “Belt and Road” initiative, which reflect the current status and requirements of the global governance concept with Chinese characteristics as they are refracted by changing trends in the current global governance landscape. Implementation will involve both involves the shoals of hidden risks as well as the confrontation of new challenges.

Keywords: Chinese characteristics; global governance concept; “Belt and Road” initiative; Cold War thinking

About the author: Niu Weigan is a researcher at the Jiangsu Party Construction Theory and Practice Innovation Institute of the Jiangsu Provincial Party School.

In sum, the global governance with Chinese characteristics concept means that as Chinese society as developed, especially since the beginning of the policy of reform and opening up, China has gradually come to place increasing importance on global values and globalism in line with its own national conditions as well as developing its own thinking on how to integrate and safeguard Chinese interests in global affairs. China’s response to implementation principles in addressing global affairs along with values and ways of thinking about strategic mechanisms reflect China’s understanding of the nature and principles of global governance.

Specifically, the global governance concept with Chinese characteristics takes into account both realistic concerns about national interests and idealistic concerns for the well-being of the entire world. These include three aspects of integration at the domestic and international levels.

First of all, China’s emphasis on national interests does not come at the expense of world peace and development but are in line with the direction of general human progress. That is, China’s national interests are based on global values and so are conducive to world peace and development.

Secondly, global governance as advocated by China is inclusive, harmonious coexistence. It is relative, equal, fair and equitable and does not demand exclusivity and is not discriminatory. Therefore it is in the interests of all parties to global governance, including China.

Third, the global governance concept with Chinese characteristics focuses on the long-term, establishing a pattern for dealing with the present and planning for the future, addressing the contradictions and problems between national interests and global values (or interests).

National interests and global interests are in a dialectical relationship of the unity of opposites. The two sometimes conflict in specific time and space, but in the long run, global interests often benefit national interests. On the contrary, sacrificing global interests ultimately harms national interests. The implementation of the “Belt and Road” initiative for China’s participation in global governance in the new era highlights the developmental stages in the evolution of global governance concept with Chinese characteristics.

   1. The basic trajectory of the evolution of global governance with Chinese characteristics

The “Belt and Road” initiative reflects the major turning point in the evolution of the global governance concept with Chinese characteristics. The maturity and optimization of the global governance concept with Chinese characteristics provides a theoretical premise and guidelines for the further development of the “Belt and Road” and its implementation. The two support each other and jointly serve the great renaissance that sustainable development is bringing and provides public goods in the form of peace, stability and development.

The evolution process of the view of global governance with Chinese characteristics has gone through the following stages:

The view of global governance with Chinese characteristics was formed in the process of building Chinese society and was not achieved overnight. There is a basic evolutionary path of “being regulated (learning) → borrowing norms (internalization) → revising and innovating norms (feedback and creation) → practicing new norms (demonstrations)” during its formation and gradual improvement.

  (1) China’s adaptation phase in global governance (relatively passive)

In the late 1970s, China completely ended its one-sided diplomatic strategy that focused on the third world, abandoned the ideological diplomacy and implemented an independent non-aligned foreign policy, and began a stage of gradual and deep participation in global governance. At this stage, the first two nodes (basic path) of China’s participation in the global governance process are “regulated (learned) → borrowed from norms (internalized)”, and are generally in a passive situation.

In fact, China jumped out of the confrontation between the two camps of the Cold War and the two markets, and began to learn from the beneficial rules, experience and methods of globalization, and gradually integrated into the global governance system. However, this period is basically at the beginning stage of the transformation and upgrading of China’s economic system and political system. China’s participation in global governance meant conducting foreign exchanges in political, economic and cultural aspects in accordance with the prevailing rules and mechanisms of global governance, so China began its policy of reform and opening up. During 1980s, there a catch phrase arose “get on the same track as the rest of the world”. That phrase stayed popular for nearly 20 years although there were some people advocating that “the rest of the world should get on the same track as China” although that view never became mainstream. Comparing “getting on the same track as the rest of the world” and “the rest of the world getting on the same track as China” also reflects to a certain extent how China’s role on the global governance stage was more passively adaptive and a less proactive one.

“Getting on the same track as the rest of the world” also required China to a certain extent revise its relevant norms and mechanisms in accordance with recognized international rules and international mechanisms, and incorporate international law and international practices under global values (interests) into China’s internal and foreign affairs system. Of course, these adjustments were made in line with China’s own needs at different stages of its national development so as to make suitable step-by-step progress.

   (2) The adjustment phase of China’s participation in global governance-reference to norms (internalization) → revision and innovation of norms (feedback and creation of new norms)

When China’s participation in global governance reaches a level that is basically adapted to internationally accepted indicators and norms and mechanisms, the passive course of international reform of China’s social, economic, political, and cultural culture will come to an end. This process involves not China’s own development but also the process of China, as a major actor on the world stage, making appropriate contributions to world governance. However, the main focus at this stage is China “learning” from the international community in order to make its own internal adjustments and to improve itself. Then, as China continues to provide public goods while accepting corresponding responsibilities for the international community, it also by a feedback process, helps the international community revise and improve the lagging or outdated norms, mechanisms, and systems for the global governance system.

This is because, on the one hand, the global governance rules, mechanisms and other categories will have corresponding institutional lags compared with the progress of international political, economic and cultural practices; on the other hand, as China’s reform and opening up has developed in depth so too have China’s international economic status and political role changed. This process also requires the global governance system to take into account the implications that objective changes in international actors like China have for mechanism building and system innovation.

   (3) The stage of China’s active participation in global governance -revision and innovation of norms (feedback and creation) → practice of new norms (demonstration)

As China became the world’s second largest economy, and the problems facing more and increasingly complex problems confront global governance. This will require China to assume more and more international responsibilities. Problems in the global governance system that have prevented it from moving ahead and innovating itself with the times have not only prevented new international actors such as China from effectively participating in global governance but its declining effectiveness has also brought much criticism from the international community. With the relative decline of their economies, established global governance leaders such as the United States have gradually paid more attention to their own national (interests) values, going their own way or even abandoning global values, governance rules and mechanisms.

This has placed global governance pattern at a crossroads. China has taken into consideration the value of global governance and its own values of reform and opening up, and proposed values of “a community of common destiny”, a cooperative and win-win initiative to build a harmonious world, and overall national security requirements striving to contribute Chinese wisdom and solutions to global governance. To this end, China not only provides a series of material public goods to the international community, but also in response to difficulties arising from the United States withdraws from global governance platforms such as the Paris Agreement on Global Climate Governance, the United Nations Human Rights Council, and the Universal Postal Union. China has gone to work to carry out its pledges to work to address these problems.

More importantly, the United States and other Western powers not only driving global governance in reverse, but also through their Asia-Pacific “re-balancing” strategy, their Asia-Pacific stability plan, and Indo-Pacific strategy they deliberately surrounding and constraining China. The Western powers are opposing globalization in many ways and putting their own national interests ahead of the world governance system. This affects the healthy operation of global governance, hinders the reform of the global governance system, and increasingly posing challenges to China’s own core interests. It was in this context that China launched its grand “Belt and Road” initiative to participate in global governance.

   2. The “Belt and Road” initiative is a concrete reflection of the new stage of the development of a global governance concept with Chinese characteristics

The policy of participating in global governance that China has followed ever since reform and opening began is a comprehensive global governance plan based on China’s own national conditions and the specific situation of globalization. It not only reflects the reasonable needs arising from the development of Chinese society but is also conforms to the global value of constructing a community of common destiny.

The “Belt and Road” initiative embodies China’s practice of global governance from the domestic and international perspectives in the new era.

As an important actor in global governance today, although China’s social progress and well-being stem from the great practice of economic and political civilization construction in China, China’s development is not only about the prosperity of its own country, but also the sustainability of all mankind, fairness and righteousness. Comrade Xi Jinping has repeatedly emphasized when addressing international affair that China’s development must build a harmonious world and address shared human values. This ideology guides China’s national construction as a top-level design principle. This agenda tightly integrates China’s own top-level development strategies for national governance with the development of global governance and global values.

   First of all, responding to global economic and political security challenges is the world goal of the “Belt and Road” initiative

Since China joined the WTO, the intensity and speed of reform and opening up have been further increased, especially after responding to the 2008 global financial crisis. As China has rapidly become the world’s second largest economy, the breadth and depth of its participation in global governance has been unprecedentedly expanded and deepened. Along with it, China’s corresponding global responsibility for governance and the maintenance of its own national interests have also increased. Thus overall planning and coordination of the overall development strategy to address both the domestic and international overall situation are on the agenda.

After the global financial crisis in 2008, the United States and other Western powers believed that China’s large amount of foreign exchange reserves accumulated by diligence and thrift was an important cause of international financial turmoil. Based on the original political and economic alliance, they created the trans-Pacific partnership agreement. (TPP), the Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement (TTIP), and the two-ocean economic alliance centered on deepening both the economic and military functions of its alliances.

During the presidency of U.S. President Obama, in order to maintain its dominance of the international economic system, the power to formulate and revise international economic rules and their discourse system based on the establishment of the two-ocean economic alliance, and the implementation of the “re-balancing” strategy in the Asia-Pacific region. This has become a potential threat to world security and peaceful development as well as a direct threat to China’s economic and political security.

Since the end of 2016, Europe and the United States have sought to reverse the tide of globalization. Neo-conservative forces came to power in the United States in 2017 with the beginning the Trump Administration: the U.S. withdrew from the Paris Agreement, adopting trade protectionism, launched the Asia-Pacific stability plan and the Indo-Pacific strategy (clearly replacing the “re-balancing” strategy), Brexit and the far-right forces of European countries such as France, Germany, and Italy ran rampant, during a period also characterized by the proliferation of international terrorism, the Middle East chaos and refugee issues, the United States, Japan, and India, Australia and other countries to jointly sought to constrain China in the Asia-Pacific region and elsewhere.

Therefore to meet these challenges and for long-term development, China, taking into account global values and national interests, designed a medium- and long-term domestic and foreign practice framework – the “Belt and Road” initiative to participate in global governance.

  Secondly, China made use of its excellent material resources to provide public goods for global governance to fulfill China’s major power responsibilities and the commitments it had made.

In practice, the “Belt and Road” initiative follows the logic of the global governance concept with Chinese characteristics and for China’s participation in international affairs. This reflects China’s role as a big country. In the process of the formation of the global governance concept with contemporary Chinese characteristics, people gradually changed and revised the outdated concept of global governance from before the era reform and opening up and accommodated themselves to reasonable factors in global governance that are conducive to the long-term development of China, and formed China’s own community of human destiny. The concept has gradually become more scientific and reasonable arrangements have been made for China’s timely participation in global governance.

Responding to the uneven social development in the world; the shortage of funds in the less developed countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America; low levels of science and technology; inadequate management experience; and backward infrastructure, as well as sluggish economic development; the wide gap between the rich and the poor and widespread poverty; fierce social conflicts; and the emergence of national and regional security issues, China made initiatives to promote good neighborly relations and prosperous neighbor relations and then in 2013, President Xi Jinping proposed the “Belt and Road” initiative.

The “Belt and Road” initiative follows the land and sea routes of China’s ancient ancient silk trade, radiating outward to neighboring countries and regions. China had a central place as the central distribution point and starting point of the ancient silk roads. The Silk Road started with the development of trade with cities in the interior of ancient China. The routes radiates west and southwest, passes through Central Asia and the Middle East to reach the European region, and merged with the ancient Silk Road on the sea. The ancient Silk Road generally started from the southeast coast of China, passed through Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Gulf region, East Africa, and North Africa, and reached the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea region into Europe.

However, today’s “Belt and Road” on the Silk Road and the Maritime Silk Road, building on the foundations of the ancient Silk Road, extends to the South Pacific, to Central and Western Africa, Western Europe, and even to the Americas and to the Atlantic, including the Americas and Africa. Focusing on the core of “economic cooperation to promote economic development and social prosperity of countries and regions along the Belt and Road”, the “Belt and Road” initiative should also promote information connectivity, cultural integration, and people-to-people relations among citizens of the member states in order to maintain regional peace, global security and stability In the end, it will promote social progress and improve people’s living standards in the countries and regions along the route.

As the initiating country of the “Belt and Road”, China also provides support for the implementation of the “Belt and Road” initiative – not only providing capital and technology, management experience and methods, but also to provide corresponding supporting personnel training and cultural exchange services. More importantly, the implementation of the “Belt and Road” initiative is not a one-man show. China has attracted participants from many developed countries. It has been connected with a series of development strategies proposed by these countries under different names, and has carried out investment and project finance, scientific and technological cooperation and security collaboration. This marks China’s change from a passive to a proactive participant in global governance. China has finally reached the stage when China makes preparations, many countries participate harmoniously, and it is a win-win for everyone.

Again, the “Belt and Road” initiative is an important sign that China’s participation in global governance has shifted from passive to active.

The most obvious sign of that the “Belt and Road” initiative is a global governance plan that China independently developed and advocated. It is based on China’s economic and political considerations rather than, as in previous Chinese efforts, joining in an existing international or regional cooperation framework in which it needed to adjust itself to the needs of others. Conceptually, the “Belt and Road” initiative upholds the “Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence” that China has proposed and upheld ever since reform and opening began. China is committed to building a new international political and economic order, a harmonious world that seeks common ground while reserving differences, and a community of shared future for mankind that is fair, just, and win-win.

China advocates flexibly correcting the irrational aspects of the current global governance structure. In terms of strategy, China’s advantages—capacity, capital, technology, market, and human resources—are used to make up for the shortcomings and shortcomings of the countries and regions involved. At the same time, it attracts developed countries to join in, and jointly promotes the implementation of the “Belt and Road” initiative for mutual advantage. It builds on bilateral or multilateral collaborative advancement, comprehensive cooperation methods drawn from many fields and at many different levels, and designs specific regional cooperation schemes according to the characteristics of different countries and regions.

Already implemented are the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (“Asia Investment Bank”), the Yaji Railway, the Mongolian Railway, the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, and bridges, railways and other infrastructure for Southeast Asian countries such as Cambodia, Myanmar and Thailand. Construction assistance. At the same time, it also provided supporting personnel training and financial support for education, medical care, economic management and culture in relevant countries and regions. Whether it is the construction of the Yaji Railway, the Mongolian Railway, the China-Pakistan Railway and the China-Myanmar Railway, and even the network information engineering, they are all built in accordance with China’s construction standards and managed in accordance with Chinese operating standards. What best reflects China’s experience and China’s effectiveness is that the implementation of these specific projects has greatly increased the speed and level of economic development of the countries involved, and alleviated poverty and improved living standards of the people of those countries people.

In short, the formulation and implementation of the “Belt and Road” initiative is based on Chinese elements, and is based on the concept of seeking common ground while reserving differences in the realm of “harmony and difference” and “common development” in China’s excellent traditional culture. The underdeveloped regions have created a cross-regional bilateral and multilateral cooperation platform that alleviates backwardness and poverty and builds harmonious relations. This reflects the major shift from “relatively passive” to “active” in China’s participation in global governance and its shift from “study and learning from the experiences of others” to “creating and building”.

   3. Characteristics of the “Belt and Road” initiative

   (1) The “Belt and Road” initiative reflects China’s participation in global governance, which has evolved from a piecemeal approach to a system of organizations

   The staged practice of China’s participation in global governance basically shows a process of evolution from addressing bits and pieces, to addressing segments and then finally to systems as a whole. This is closely related to the growth of China’s comprehensive national strength and its ability to participate in global governance.

During the ice age of the Cold War, China participated in global governance, but it was not of a global nature. It focused on opposing US imperialism and later participating in global governance as an opponent to Soviet revisionism. This was not looking for points of agreement and reserving differences but one limited by ideological horizons and to a certain extent stressed what China opposed. With the implementation of reform and opening-up policy, China abandoned ideological diplomacy. Its practice of global affairs has become increasingly synergistic as it cooperates with both developing and developed countries. However, after all, the first ten to twenty years of China’s reform and opening-up practice was a period of gradually moving towards the threshold of a well-off life by getting rid of poverty and backwardness and achieving basic sufficiency in feeding and clothing its people.

During the first ten years of this process, China itself could not guarantee the basic satisfaction of the material life of the whole people. Even in many places within China itself, there have always been some people who were hungry and cold. This situation restricts China from continually providing public goods to the world on a large scale. In emergencies, it did sporadically participate in global governance, such as by providing physical relief and limited funding to certain regions or countries around the world. It was not until the mid-to-late 1990s that China gradually participated in UN peacekeeping operations. This appears to be the pattern of China’s diplomatic practice and was in fact closely related to China’s overall strength.

After 2010, China not only participated in naval escort duties in the Gulf of Aden, but also adapted to meet the needs of the “Belt and Road” initiative. China built a military support base in Djibouti, built Gwadar port in Pakistan, expanded ports in Sri Lanka, and rented berths and built infrastructure in Darwin, Australia, cooperated with Greece to repair and lease its port of Piraeus. These are just the tip of the iceberg of the “Belt and Road” initiative in terms of infrastructure, helping relevant countries to build railways, bidding for cooperation to dig canals, bidding for the construction of railways and ports in some countries in Southeast Asia and South Asia, and cooperating in the development and utilization of mineral resources. There are a large number of loan assistance projects, investment and financing projects, cultural exchange projects, tourism cooperation projects, medical assistance programs and so forth for the laying of oil and gas pipelines to China. The “Belt and Road” initiative demonstrates that China has provided more and higher quality public goods to global governance more systematically and on a larger scale than ever before.

   (2) The “Belt and Road” initiative is a creative practice that embraces China’s interests and global values

The world is composed of various countries and regions. China is a member of the international family. Therefore, in theory global values should not be opposed to China’s interests, but should be compatible with them. The “Belt and Road” initiative is a model for the convergence of global values and national interests.

The overall process and trend of modernization in the modern era are gradually moving away from ignorance and savagery towards civilization and civilization. This process is becoming more complicated due to changes in bilateral and multilateral relations in the international community. Problems of particular countries and regions have become more globalized by the day. These include the manufacture and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, global climate change and environmental degradation, the escalation of new transnational viruses and large-scale spread of epidemics, and the increasing proliferation of international terrorist atrocities. The development of human civilization faces severe challenges and serious threats to the very existence of the Earth. Since the 21st century, China, as a major global governance actor, has found it increasingly difficult to address issues by itself given the globalization of domestic issues and increasing internationalization of domestic issues. China must consider global values in response to global problems so as to advance the development of global civilization in order to achieve the goals of a long-term good protection of the international environment in order to promote China’s own sustainable development.

The design and practice of the “Belt and Road” initiative is aimed squarely at the challenges facing global peace and development and the sustainable development of Chinese society. It explores measures to provide for a bright future for the development of all humankind. It not only conforms to the consensus international appeal of multi-polar global governance, but also to the development of the diplomatic concept of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence since China’s reform and opening up, and advances the concept of a community of shared future for humankind to and creating a specific plan for building a harmonious world.

Therefore, the “Belt and Road” initiative demonstrates the grand vision of how the new generation of China’s collective leadership comprehensively considers both China’s interests and global values. It focuses on the issues and challenges facing the world as a whole – the progress of human civilization – , and advancing China towards the “Chinese Dream” of a Great Chinese Renaissance. It looks ahead to global sustainable development, planning China’s global governance plan, highlighting China’s ideal of global harmonious coexistence and shared prosperity, thereby innovating China’s ideas about global governance. The key point is: the overall benign evolution of human civilization and the improvement of global well-being, and China’s pursuit of self-long-term development depend upon one another and are organically integrated.

   (3) The “Belt and Road” initiative reflects the changing trend of the current global governance pattern from China’s role

The so-called global governance pattern refers to a structure in which a relatively stable relationship between global governance entities exists in a certain time and space. It is a combination of the forces of the various actors involved in global governance undergoing a series of continual changes and differentiation. Over time, quantitative changes in the forces of original actors brings qualitative changes that are novel and stable for a relatively long period. This power structure means constructing a relatively stable relationship structure and postures among the actors. The disintegration of a global governance pattern must be due to the change in the balance of power between actors, which has caused their stable structure or balance of power to be broken and unable to maintain the status quo. The pattern of global governance is in absolute change and relative stability. Such changes are often manifested through specific global governance practices.

On the economic front, after the 2008 international financial crisis, the global governance landscape has undergone major changes. The G-7 led by the United States has changed its role in the global governance landscape due to its relative decline in power; the BRICS countries led by China and Russia have begun to increase their importance in the global governance structure. In the nearly ten years since the establishment of the G20 in 1997, it was almost difficult to function according to the G20’s main function declared by the Western powers at the time of installation. It was not until 2009 in response to the global financial crisis. The G20 mechanism was officially launched to hold a summit, and the global economic governance structure has undergone tremendous changes. But even so, the United States is still unwilling to let go of the dominance of global economic governance.

The United States not only leads and maintains the Group of Eight (which became the G-7 after March 2014), but also acts as the most powerful actor and leader of global governance At the same time, the United States began to take active measures to try to maintain its leadership role, thus launching TPP, TTIP, attempting to transform or hollow out the original global governance economic order such as the World Trade Organization, and launched a “re-balancing” strategy in the Asia-Pacific region. To contain emerging powers, control and use allies, and strive to maintain and expand the unipolar hegemony of the United States in the global governance landscape for a long time.

Although Trump emphasized that the United States prioritized making America stronger again, the United States withdrew from the TPP and withdrew from the Paris Agreement. It has not formally terminated the TTIP negotiations, and implemented a stronger economic diplomacy strategy for China, showing that the US national interests are paramount among these signs of reverse globalization.

These all reflect the turbulence and changes in the global governance landscape since the 2008 international financial crisis. As the most powerful global governance agent, the strength of the United States is changing in stages. The G20 emerging global governance actors represented by China have strengthened while the advanced economy group headed by the United States has relatively declined in the global economic governance structure, although they still strive to maintain their leading position.

In terms of military security, in the direction of Europe, the United States was the dominant player in the security affairs of South-Eastern Europe in the 1990s. With the coming of the 21st century, this has gradually transformed into a continual tug-of-war with Russia when the Ukrainian crisis began. The situation since the Crimean Peninsula was merged into the national territory shows that Russia has gradually reversed the passivity characteristic of it in the last decade of the 20th century. In the Middle East, from the disintegration of the Soviet Union to the outbreak of the US subprime mortgage crisis, the United States was basically the absolute “boss” of Middle East affairs, which be seen best by considering a series of major Middle East events such as the Afghanistan War and the Iraq War. The United States is nowhere as exclusive in its practice of unilateral governance than it is in the Middle East. The USA has gotten its way to a considerable extent. In the 1990s, other global governance multipolarization forces such as China and Russia were basically unable to get their way on the same major events of that period.

But after the 2008 international financial crisis, the United States on the one hand pulled back strategically from the Middle East, and on the other hand, it struggled to cope with Russia’s entry into the Middle East and competition with the United States, especially on the Syrian issue. America has become more passive on Middle East affairs situation.

In the Asia-Pacific direction, the United States changed from the “return to Asia-Pacific” and Asia-Pacific “re-balancing” that strategically contain China to the Trump administration’s Asia-Pacific “stability plan” and Indo-Pacific strategy. Turning to creating a US-Japan-India quasi-alliance to deter China, it secretly encouraged India to cross the border in territorial disputes to challenge the red line of China’s core interests, and at the same time use the Taiwan independence forces, Sino-Japanese territorial disputes, and the Korean nuclear issue to contain China.

These all reflect to a certain extent that the hegemonic role of the United States in global security governance has changed in an unsatisfactory manner. The power of the United States in the contemporary global security governance structure is relatively declining, while the rise of Chinese power is in a relatively rising.

Amid these realities of global governance, China put forward the “Belt and Road” initiative. The first thing that bears the brunt is the vigilance blockage of the United States and some of its allies. Because the “Belt and Road” initiative objectively hedges the United States’ Asia-Pacific “re-balancing”, the Asia-Pacific “stability plan” and the Indo-Pacific strategy to a certain extent; the United States was not only unwilling to join the “Belt and Road” initiative and the Asian Investment Bank, but also lobbied to prevent its allies from joining.

The “Belt and Road” initiative, however, has not only received positive responses and applications from developing countries, but since the United Kingdom joined the Asian Investment Bank, many US allies have also joined and prepared to apply for membership. In April 2019, Italy ignored the obstruction of the United States and officially became the first country in the Group of Seven to participate in the “Belt and Road” initiative. This shows that China, as an important force in the global governance structure, could not be deliberately blocked by the United States due to its practical power and influence.

More obviously, when the Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation was held in Beijing in 2017, the United States, Japan, and South Korea, embarrassed finally decided to come. At the last moment, the three countries announced to send representatives to the summit. At the second meeting in March 2014, the number of participating countries and international organizations, heads of state and government participating was even greater than at the first meeting and the topics and cooperation agreements signed are more extensive and in-depth.

The “Belt and Road” initiative and its practices represent the forces that demand the change to a multi-polar global governance structure in the global governance structure. In order to change the irrational state of global governance, China strives to create an appropriate platform for coordinated global governance and one that reflects the growth and decline of the relative strengths of the parties involved. The “Belt and Road” initiative highlights China’s role in the evolution of today’s global governance landscape: it requires the establishment of a multi-polar global governance order and leads the development of the global governance landscape in a democratic, just, rational, and fair direction.

This means that there will be competition and conflict with the forces and practices that insist upon a unipolar global governance pattern. This highlights the contemporary global governance pattern (see the figure below) – a situation of contention between three tendencies: those who want a unipolar system with a dominant global governance structure; a multi-polarization trend, that is, the establishment of a democratic, fair, just, and reasonable win-win global governance structure; and intermediate forces that flit between the two sides for the sake of momentary advantages, for a time strengthening the one and weakening the other. Comparing the forces that require a multi-polarized trend with the forces that want a single-pole system, the former is more looser, its rules and mechanisms are weaker and it is in greater danger of falling apart.

The “Belt and Road” initiative and its practice show that China’s role in the global governance landscape is proactive and has changed fundamentally from its earlier passive stance as we can see in the tug-of-war situation among these three competing forces. In this regard, we cannot simply determine that the global governance pattern has become a multi-polar trend since the collapse of the bipolar pattern of the Cold War, nor can we simply and vaguely assume that the contemporary global governance pattern is a multi-polar pattern or a uni-polar pattern. The change of China’s role in the stage of global governance objectively reflect the characteristics of the evolution of the global governance pattern. The “Belt and Road” initiative has witnessed China’s active contribution to the rationalization of the global governance landscape.

   (4) China’s participation in the global governance practice of the “Belt and Road” initiative faces complex international risks and challenges

The implementation of the “Belt and Road” initiative, due to tariff issues, race, ethnic and religious issues, different social systems and resource endowments, historical burdens, debt conditions, etc., inevitably presents multiple and complex risks. In addition, it also faces the constraints and challenges created by contemporary hegemonic countries and their alliances, although the implementation of the “Belt and Road” initiative has been widely recognized and supported by more and more global governance actors.

In China, the “Belt and Road” initiative is a great initiative to deal with many problems during the transformation of China’s reform and opening up society. Among them, to promote domestic social development, it is necessary to solve existing problems. In this process, new problems are likely to arise. The “Belt and Road” is a long-term and ambitious project to advance the the “Chinese Dream” of a great Chinese renaissance. It must face and resolve China’s wealth gap, urban-rural gap, official corruption, rule of law reform, economic growth, separatism and terrorist forces, other troublemakers, including old problems and new contradictions.

In foreign countries, nearly all of the global governance actors gain from participating in the “Belt and Road” initiative either profiting from it themselves and from the promoting the development of their own society. Cooperation for mutual benefit is the main thing bringing them together. There exist many conflicts of interest between the participants and China. They need to take advantage of the opportunity that the China Belt and Road Initiative offers but also fear that China’s strength and the implementation of the “Belt and Road” initiative may become an “invisible invasion” harm their national interests. University of California, Los Angeles scholar Mia M. Bennett believes that Russia is an important part of China’s “Belt and Road” initiative and investment from China is becoming more attractive to Russia. This makes Russia a logical implementation site of the “Belt and Road” project. These “Belt and Road” projects are built on the Sino-Russian energy cooperation and the long-standing transportation infrastructure partnership between the two countries. China has played an investor role in these cooperative projects, but the two countries are wary of each other. This has gone on for a long time, having peaked during the Cold War, can make project implementation challenging.

In particular, Chinese investments under the “Belt and Road” initiative have not only not been very profitable but also because of the social instability in most target countries or regions, the safety of funds and personnel injected by China is always at risk as for example in certain countries in Southeast Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. Social turmoil caused by terrorist activities often endangers the safety of Chinese investment projects and Chinese personnel and facilities. The most challenging aspect of this is that certain hegemonic powers as part of their global governance strategy implement a policy of encircling and constraining China. They cause trouble to China both indirectly and directly by exerting pressure on China and policy and covert support to separatist forces within China. Other competitors are intent on isolating and impeding China including some developed countries in the East against China, misapprehending that the “Belt and Road” Initiative China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and other measures poses a threat to them, thereby assisting hegemonic countries. And so it helps the hegemonists and their Asia-Pacific allies to constrain China. In Asia and Africa they are implementing a Spice Road strategy, establishing the African Development Bank, and has adopted a “Look to the East” strategy”. Not only are these initiatives aimed for a head-on collisions with China’s “Belt and Road” initiative, Hedging China’s “Belt and Road” initiative and practice also threatens the safety of people and property China has placed in the countries along the “Belt and Road”.

Not only have negative factors emerged in some of China’s international relations, but there have also been doubts, concerns and suspicions of the “Belt and Road” surfacing in academic circles. Some British scholars believe that China’s “Belt and Road” initiative is changing geopolitics, highlighting China’s leading role, and targeting the interests of expanding in Central Asia, Southeast Asia, and Europe, thereby suppressing and excluding the leading power of other major powers. Other scholars hold negative or critical views on the “Belt and Road” initiative. YU Hong of the East Asia Institute of the National University of Singapore believes that the “Belt and Road” initiative reflects the trend that China no longer”conceals its strength and bides its time” and is actually now moving in the opposite direction and aims to reshape the world. Jonathan Holslag of the University of Brussels believes that the “Belt and Road” initiative takes the name of win-win, but it is ambitiously looking forward to opening the door of other countries and regions to economics and trade thereby boosting China’s market and investment in countries along the route. This market share has steadily increased, posing a challenge to Europe. This also shows that the “Belt and Road” initiative and its practice have caused various complaints and view in the international arena that are worry about it, oppose it, and even resist it.

The negative voices and problems caused by the implementation of the “Belt and Road” initiative are not isolated voices. They are caused by the ever increasing intimacy in relations among the actors in the global governance system as domestic issues become globalized and global issues become domestic issues as the information frontier among countries gradually disappears. On the economic level, Western powers and their allies exert pressure on China’s trade and finance, which jeopardizes China’s economic stability and industrial development; on the security level, the separatist and terrorist forces within China collaborate with foreign forces against China, Western powers and their so-called friends in the East use the Dalai [Lama] clique, Xinjiang independence, Taiwan independence and Hong Kong independence to create nuisances and prevent China from making progress on national reunification. At the level of cultural and value exchanges between China and foreign countries, the “conflict” between different civilizations is an objective fact. China in implementing the “Belt and Road” initiative not only exports and imports tangible products, but China’s practice also collides with the cultural concepts and value choices of relevant countries and regions along the route. If these “non-homogeneous” relations between these cultures are not handled properly, conflicts and even conflicts may arise, which in turn may hinder the implementation of the “Belt and Road” initiative, affect China’s image, and even harm China’s interests and cultural security.

   (5) The “Belt and Road” initiative reflects the three-dimensional integration of the Chinese concept of global governance, China’s overall national security requirements, and the community of human destiny concept

The “Belt and Road” initiative integrates the concept of the community of shared human destiny, overall national security requirements and the global governance concept with Chinese characteristics. The “Belt and Road” initiative has in practice implemented the concept of global governance with Chinese characteristics and the concept of a community of human destiny. In mid-January 2017, General Secretary Xi Jinping said in a speech at the United Nations Headquarters in Geneva: “Let peace be passed down from generation to generation, let the momentum of development continue, and let the light of civilization shine. It is the expectation of the people of all countries, but also a responsibility that the politicians of our generation should shoulder. The Chinese plan is to build a community of human destiny and achieve win-win sharing.” In response to the wave of counter-globalization in Western countries in recent years, “The concept of a community of human destiny proposed by President Xi Jinping has passed on to the international community. A clear signal: Economic globalization is in the common interest of mankind and cannot be turned back because of the opposition of a few countries and groups; cooperation and win-win and common development are the basic direction of global governance reform.” The concept of the community of human destiny focuses on the coexistence of human beings on the same planet. All countries are in the same world. When seeking their own interests, they must take into account the concerns of other countries. While pursuing their own prosperity should promote the common development of other countries. The concept of the community of human destiny is based on global values, emphasizing the interdependence of different actors in global governance and building a harmonious world, that is, a stable and sustainable and balanced development of the economy and the environment, a politically diverse and culturally diverse progress, and a world of mutual trust – creating a pattern for multipolar global governance.

The gradual rise of China is bound to result in China becoming a global power in the full sense of the word so the conditions for China’s sustainable development are not only about conditions within china but also depend upon global political stability, economic development, and optimization of the natural environment, and security. The primary focus of the concept of the community of human destiny is the sustainability of a secure human existence and a secure environment in which to develop. This is of course also the most important concern for China’s overall national security requirements. The “Belt and Road” initiative and its implementation aim to connect and integrate China’s development security and survival security with global sustainable development and human survival security. It is also an opportunity to transform China’s development opportunities into global development opportunities and to improve China’s security. This is closely linked to global security governance.

The “Belt and Road” initiative applies the humanistic principles of Chinese classical culture such as “while poor focus on improving one’s livelihood; once rich be concerned about the well-being of the entire world.” and “when calculating one’s profits while calculate as well how others will benefit as well” and “all in the world are brothers”. In the strategic thinking of seeking China’s well-being while also benefiting the people of other countries, this naturally means that China’s security and global security depend upon one another. This involves China’s participation and promotion of global governance, along a fairer and more rational path of “inclusive development, sharing of power and responsibility”. At the same time, it also relies on the fairness requirements of global governance to make China to reform its own structures that impede the development of China’s own productivity.

Logically speaking, if a country realizes that the destiny of mankind is the same, then its national security and global security are bound to be closely related. When thinking about the accumulation of national interests over a long historical period, it is inevitable to pay attention to global values and common humanity. The sustainable growth of well-being. In practice, China has responded sporadically or partially to the SARS and Ebola epidemic, aided the tsunami in Southeast Asia, etc., to participate in the global climate Paris agreement, etc., until building and advancing the implementation of a grand long-term strategy-“One Belt One Road” “The initiative reflects the concrete practice of the global governance concept with Chinese characteristics and has gradually entered a new stage of higher-level organizational system and systematization.

The “Belt and Road” initiative is an important symbol of the changing role of China in global governance in the new era, and an accurate reflection of the new stage in the evolution of the global governance outlook with Chinese characteristics. China’s promotion of social development and progress in the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation is not based on the neighborly approach, but on the premise of win-win cooperation between various actors in global governance. Therefore, the “Belt and Road” initiative is to strive for the joint construction, progress, sharing and common prosperity of all parties involved, and to seek a new pattern of global governance of tolerance, equality, democracy, harmony and cooperation.

   4. Conclusion

The “Belt and Road” initiative embodies the concept of a community of human destiny proposed by China in the new era to various actors involved in global governance to help solve global problems and promote global welfare. Looking at the relationship between the evolution of the global governance concept with Chinese characteristics and the “Belt and Road” initiative, we see that it is nearly entirely based on the “Chinese dream” concept that aims to safeguard China’s core interests and seek national prosperity, achieve the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, and strives to build a harmonious global environment. The “Belt and Road” initiative, as an important program through which China seeks to promote improved global governance, maintaining world peace and stability, and help cope with many global problems bred by the global gap between rich and poor, the spread of terrorism, and the deterioration the environment. China’s security is closely linked to global security and promotes the common prosperity of the world and the coordinated progress of human civilizations. The “Belt and Road” initiative takes into account China’s interests and global values, and promotes the well-being of developing countries including China from a long-term perspective, and is conducive to the economic development and social progress of developed countries as well.

The “Belt and Road” initiative and the vision of a global governance concept with Chinese characteristics are extremely beautiful but putting them into practice will not be easy. Difficulties in implementing the “Belt and Road” initiative are normalized. The potential dangers and practical challenges are both inevitable and complicated. Overcome these difficulties and dealing with various risks and challenges involved will constantly test the global governance wisdom of the designers and practitioners of the Belt and Road Initiative.

About the Author

Name: Niu Weigan


中国特色全球治理观视域下的“一带一路”倡议及其特点

2020年06月29日 来源:《宁夏社会科学》2020年第3期

作者:钮维敢

    内容摘要:“一带一路”倡议是中国特色全球治理观演化进入最新阶段所提出的新构想,也是中国参与全球治理开辟新路径的新举措。中国特色全球治理观演化的路径即“被规范(学习)→借鉴规范(内化)→修订与创新规范(反馈与创立)→践行新规范(示范)”经历了几个阶段:较被动的中国参与全球治理的适应阶段,由被动向主动转变的反馈式修订与创新规范的调整阶段,示范性地倡导与践行新规范的主动作为阶段。在第三个阶段,中国根据国内外政治经济文化发展总体态势,将中国利益与全球价值(人类共同价值)相融合,提出并实践“一带一路”倡议,反映了中国特色全球治理观的现状与要求,折射出当今全球治理格局的变动趋势,其实践中也潜藏着风险、面临着挑战。

    关键词:中国特色;全球治理观; “一带一路”倡议;冷战思维

    作者简介:钮维敢,江苏省委党校江苏党的建设理论与实践创新研究院研究员。

  总体上说,中国特色全球治理观,是随着社会发展特别是自改革开放以来,中国依据本国国情逐步重视全球价值及全球主义,并将其与维护中国利益相兼顾、相融合来看待全球事务,应对全球问题的实践原则、战略机制的价值取向和思维方法,是中国对全球治理本质和规律的认识。具体而言,中国特色全球治理观兼顾了现实主义的国别关注与理想主义的全球关怀,包含国内国际两个层次且彼此一体化的三个方面。首先,中国所强调的国家利益不是以损害世界和平与发展为代价,而是与人类福祉递增同向而行的,即中国所主张的国家利益是依据全球价值,有利于世界和平与发展的。其次,中国所倡导的全球治理是包容的、和谐共生的,各行为体应量力而行地共担治理责任和共享治理成果的,是相对的、平等的和公正公平的,而不是绝对的、排他性的,更不是歧视性的,因而就自然地涵盖了包括中国在内的全球治理主体的各方利益。再次,中国特色全球治理观是着眼长远、规范当下、设计未来而处理国别利益与全球价值(或利益)间的矛盾和问题。国别利益与全球利益是对立统一的关系,二者在具体的时间与空间内有时会发生冲突,但是从较长历史时期看,全球利益常常是有利于国别利益的。反之,牺牲全球利益,最终将损及国别利益。新时代中国参与全球治理的“一带一路”倡议实践,凸显了中国特色全球治理观演进过程中的阶段性特征。

  一、中国特色全球治理观演进的基本轨迹

  “一带一路”倡议体现了中国特色全球治理观演进过程中的重大转折。中国特色全球治理观的成熟与优化,为形成“一带一路”倡议及其实践提供了理论前提与方向指南,两者彼此支撑,共同服务于可持续发展的伟大复兴事业,为世界和平、稳定与发展提供公共产品。

  中国特色全球治理观演进过程经历了以下几个阶段。

  中国特色全球治理观是在中国社会建设的实践中形成的,不是一蹴而就的。它的形成与逐步完善过程存在着一个“被规范(学习)→借鉴规范(内化)→修订与创新规范(反馈与创立)→践行新规范(示范)”的基本演进路径。

  (一)中国参与全球治理中的适应阶段(较为被动)

  20世纪70年代末,中国彻底结束一边倒向第三世界为主的外交战略,放弃了注重意识形态外交而实行独立自主的不结盟外交政策,开启了逐步深入地参与全球治理阶段。这个阶段,中国参与全球治理的整个过程的(基本路径)前两个节点“被规范(学习)→借鉴规范(内化)”,总体上处于被动局面。

  实际上,中国从冷战的两个阵营和两个市场的对立中跳出来,开始借鉴全球化的有益规则、经验与方法,逐渐融入到全球治理体系中去。但这个时期基本上处于中国经济体制与政治体制转型升级的肇始阶段,参与全球治理的中国,必须要按照全球治理的通行规则与机制去进行政治经济文化等方面的对外交流,以至于中国改革开放到20世纪80年代前后还出现了一个热词“与国际接轨”概念,且一直流行了近20年,尽管其间也有人主张全球应“与中国接轨”(1),但这种主张始终不是主流。比较“与国际接轨”与“与中国接轨”,也能一定程度地反映中国在全球治理舞台上的角色被动的适应性较大、主动的引领性较小。

  “与国际接轨”也一定程度地要求中国依据公认的国际规则、国际机制来修订自己的相关规范和机制,将全球价值(利益)下的国际法、国际惯例等因素融入到中国内政外交的制度中去,当然,这是根据不同时期中国自身发展水平的国家建设之需来进行自身调整——适度渐进而为的。

  (二)中国参与全球治理的调整阶段——借鉴规范(内化)→修订与创新规范(反馈与创立)

  当中国参与全球治理达到基本适应国际通行指标与规范及机制的程度时,中国社会经济政治文化的国际化改革的被动历程行将结束。这个过程不仅仅是中国自身发展,也是作为世界主要行为体为全球治理作出相应奉献的过程,只不过这个进程的重点是从国际社会“学习”来调整和完善自身而已。接着,中国在持续为国际社会提供相应责任的公共产品时,也反馈式地促进、帮助国际社会修订和完善全球治理体系中已滞后或过时的规范、机制与体制。这是因为,一方面,全球治理规则、机制等范畴随着国际政治经济文化实践的进步会出现相应的制度性滞后;另一方面,中国的改革开放深入发展,国际经济地位与政治角色的变化,也需要全球治理体系在机制建设与制度创新上能兼顾到中国这样的国际行为体的客观变化。

  (三)中国参与全球治理中的主动作为阶段——修订与创新规范(反馈与创立)→践行新规范(示范)

  随着中国成为世界第二大经济体,以及全球所面临的问题日益增多和日益复杂化,全球治理要求中国承担越来越多的国际责任。但全球治理体系在与时俱进与革新中出现的种种问题,既阻碍了像中国这样的新兴国际行为体有效参与全球治理,又因自身问题而治理效率低下,不断遭到国际社会诟病。美国等老牌的全球治理引领者,随着经济的相对衰落而逐渐更多地关注国家(利益)价值,背离甚至抛弃全球治理规则和机制的全球价值,致使全球治理格局处于调整的十字路口。中国融合性地兼顾了全球治理的价值定位与改革开放的自我价值标准,提出了全球价值取向的命运共同体理念、合作共赢的构建和谐世界的倡议和总体国家安全要求,力图对全球治理贡献中国智慧和方案。为此,中国不但向国际社会提供了一系列物质公共产品,而且,在美国退出诸如全球气候治理《巴黎协定》、联合国人权理事会、万国邮政联盟等全球治理平台的前提下,中国迎难而上地践行自己的承诺。

  更为重要的是,美国等西方大国在全球治理上不仅开倒车,还构建亚太“再平衡”战略、亚太稳定计划、印太战略,来蓄意围堵和遏制中国。西方大国的逆全球化活动逐渐猖獗、国家利益至上主义泛滥,冲击着全球治理的良性运行,阻碍全球治理体系改革,也日益对中国核心利益构成挑战。在这样的背景下,中国推出了参与全球治理的“一带一路”宏大方案。

  二、“一带一路”倡议是中国特色全球治理观发展新阶段的具体反映

  中国改革开放以来参与全球治理的政策,是根据自己国情和全球化动态的具体情况而提出的综合性全球治理方案,既反映了中国社会发展的合理诉求,也符合构建人类命运共同体理念的全球价值追求。

  “一带一路”倡议体现了新时期中国从国内国际两个大局来践行自己的全球治理观。

  作为当今全球治理的重要行为体,虽然中国社会进步及所创造的福祉源于本国经济文明与政治文明建设的伟大实践,但是中国的发展不是只顾本国繁荣富强的,还要关切全人类的可持续发展及公平正义。习近平同志多次在国际场合强调中国的发展要构建和谐世界,关注人类共同价值,这是作为顶层设计的中国国家建设指导思想——将治国理政紧密结合全球发展的大趋势并定位于全球价值。

  首先,应对全球经济政治安全挑战,是“一带一路”倡议的世界目标

  自中国加入WTO之后,改革开放力度与速度进一步加大,尤其是在应对2008年全球金融危机后,随着中国迅速跃升为全球第二大经济体,在参与全球治理方面的广度空前扩大与深度不断递增时,中国相应地在全球担负治理义务与维护本国利益的责任也同时增大与加重,因而统筹规划并协调好国内国际两个大局的总体发展战略也提上了日程。

  而2008年全球金融危机之后,美国等西方大国认为中国的勤俭节约所积累的大量外汇储备是国际金融动荡的重要原因,它们在原有的政治经济同盟基础上,又单独打造以跨太平洋伙伴关系协定(TPP)、跨大西洋贸易与投资伙伴关系协定(TTIP)为中心的两洋经济同盟,即实行同盟的经济职能与军事职能专门化。美国奥巴马总统时期,以打造两洋经济同盟为依托来掌控国际经济体系的主导权,国际经济规则的制定权、修订权及其话语体系,而且在亚太地区推行“再平衡”战略,既成为世界安全与和平发展的重大隐患,也直接威胁到中国经济政治安全(1)。2016年岁末以来,欧美逆全球化浪潮泛滥,美国新保守主义势力在2017年粉墨登场,开始了特朗普执政时期:退出《巴黎协定》、采取贸易保护主义、推出亚太稳定计划和印太战略(表面上代替“再平衡”战略),英国脱欧及法、德、意等欧洲国家极右势力猖獗,其间混杂着国际恐怖主义泛滥扩大化,中东乱局和难民问题,美国、日本、印度、澳大利亚等国联合在亚太地区遏制中国,等等。

  因此,从应对挑战和谋求长远发展着眼,中国要兼顾全球价值与本国利益,设计出内政外交的中长期实践框架——“一带一路”倡议来参与全球治理。

  其次,用中国的优势资源向全球治理提供公共产品,践行中国所承担的大国责任及承诺

  在实践上,“一带一路”倡议是沿着中国特色全球治理观逻辑而参与国际事务的,体现了中国的大国担当。在当代中国特色全球治理观的形成过程中,逐渐改变、修订了改革开放之前人们对全球治理的过时观念,容纳了全球治理中有利于中国长远发展的合理因素,形成了中国自己的人类命运共同体理念,对中国适时参与全球治理作出了越来越科学的合理安排。

  针对国际间社会发展不平衡,亚非拉地区欠发达国家资金短缺、科学技术水平低和管理经验不足、基础设施落后,以及由这些问题带来的经济发展迟滞、贫富差距大、人民贫穷、社会矛盾激烈、国家和地区安全问题层出不穷等,中国在提出睦邻富邻的倡议后,2013年习近平主席又提出“一带一路”倡议。它沿着中国对外古丝绸贸易陆上通道和海上通道,以中国一些重要的古丝绸贸易集散地为中心和起始点,向外对周边国家和地区进行辐射。其中,古陆上丝绸之路,主要是以中国古代内陆的一些对外经贸发达城市为起点,向西和西南辐射,途经中亚、中东到达欧洲地区,并与海上古丝绸之路汇合;海上古丝绸之路,大致从中国东南沿海起始,途经东南亚、南亚、海湾地区、东非、北非,到达地中海、黑海地区进入欧洲。但当今陆上丝绸之路与海上丝绸之路的“一带一路”,则在古丝绸之路的基础上向南太平洋地区延伸,向非洲中西部、西欧拓展,甚至延伸到美洲及大西洋两岸,囊括了美洲大陆及非洲大陆。围绕以“经济合作来带动沿线国家和地区经济发展和社会繁荣”这个核心,“一带一路”倡议也要促进相关成员国间信息联通、文化交融、民心相通,以便维护地区和平、全球安全与稳定,最终促使沿线国家和地区社会进步、人民生活水平提高。

  中国作为“一带一路”首倡国,更是实施“一带一路”倡议的支撑力量——不仅提供资金和技术、管理经验与方法,而且还要提供相应的配套人员培训及文化交流服务。更为重要的是,“一带一路”倡议的实践不是独角戏,中国已经吸引了众多发达国家参与其中,与这些国家提出的一系列不同名称的发展战略相互对接,进行投融资、科技合作和安全协作,最终达到中国搭台、多国唱戏、大家共赢。

  再次,“一带一路”倡议是中国参与全球治理由被动阶段向主动阶段转变的重要标志

  最明显的标志是,“一带一路”倡议是中国首倡并自主设计的较为具体的全球治理方案。它的基底是中国经济政治元素,而不是像以往中国申请加入已有的国际或地区合作框架,需要调整自己去适应他者。在理念上,“一带一路”倡议秉持着改革开放以来“和平共处五项原则”,致力于建设国际政治经济新秩序,构建求同存异的和谐世界、公平公正合作共赢的人类命运共同体等一系列的中国主张,来柔性修正现有全球治理格局的不合理部分。在策略上,利用中国的优势——产能、资金、技术、市场和人力资源等,来弥补相关国家和地区的不足与短板,同时吸纳发达国家加入其中,共同推动“一带一路”倡议实践并共享红利。在措施上,采取双边或多边协同推进、多领域多层次全方位合作的方法,根据不同国家、不同地区的特点设计出具体区块协作方案。已经付诸实践的是亚洲基础设施投资银行(简称“亚投行”)、亚吉铁路、蒙内铁路、中巴经济走廊,以及对柬埔寨、缅甸、泰国等东南亚国家的桥梁、铁路等基础设施的建设援助。同时,还对相关国家和地区进行了教育、医疗、经济管理及文化的配套人才培训及资金支援。最为典型的是,无论是亚吉铁路、蒙内铁路,还是中巴铁路及中缅铁路建设,甚至在网络信息工程方面,都是按照中国的建设标准而施工,按照中国的营运规范而管理。而最能体现中国经验与中国效能的是,这些具体项目的落地,极大地提高了当事国的经济发展速度与水平,改变着当地的贫穷落后面貌,提高了当地人民的生活水平。

  总之,“一带一路”倡议的制定与实施,以中国元素为基调,按照中国优秀传统文化中“和而不同”与“共同发展”境界的求同存异理念,为沿线的中国周邻及亚非拉等不发达地区打造出一个改变贫穷落后面貌、构建和谐关系的跨区域双边和多边合作平台,反映了中国参与全球治理由“较为被动”向“积极主动”的重大转变,体现了由“学习与借鉴”到“产出与创建”的中国全球治理观的新发展。

  三、“一带一路”倡议的特点

  (一)“一带一路”倡议反映中国参与全球治理,由较为偶发的零散性朝着成建制的体系性方向演进

  中国参与全球治理的阶段性实践,基本上呈现从零散性到区块化再到体系性的衍化过程,这与中国综合国力增长而提升了参与全球治理的能力息息相关。

  在冷战的坚冰期,中国参与过全球治理,但不是全球性质的,而是反美帝,后来又是反苏修的参与全球治理;不是求同存异的全球性协作,而是以意识形态划界限的、具有一定的对抗性。随着改革开放政策的实施,中国摒弃意识形态外交,参与全球事务的实践在全球的协同性逐渐加强,既与发展中国家合作,也与发达国家合作。但是,毕竟中国在改革开放实践的头10—20年,是由摆脱贫穷落后实现温饱而逐步迈向小康生活门槛的阶段。这个过程中的前10年,中国自己都难以保证全民物质生活得到基本满足,甚至很多地方还长期存在饥寒交迫的现象,这种状况制约着中国大规模地对全球持续提供公共产品,只能是零星的应急性的参与全球治理,比如对全球某些地区或国家提供救灾实物与有限资助。到20世纪90年代中后期,中国才逐渐参与联合国维和行动,这表面上是中国的外交实践,实际上与中国的综合实力提升密切相关。到了2010年之后,我们不仅参与亚丁湾护航,而且适应“一带一路”倡议实践,中国在吉布提修建军事保障基地,在巴基斯坦兴建瓜德尔港、在斯里兰卡扩建港口、在澳大利亚达尔文港口租借泊位及修建基础设施,且与希腊合作对其比雷埃夫斯港进行修缮并租借。这些只是“一带一路”倡议在基础设施方面的冰山一角,帮助相关国家兴建铁路,招标合作开凿运河,招标建设东南亚及南亚一些国家铁路及港口并合作开发与利用,合作进行矿产资源的开采及通往中国的油气管道铺设,还有大量的贷款援助项目、投融资项目、文化交流项目、旅游合作项目、医疗援助计划,等等。“一带一路”倡议展现出中国比以往任何时候都更加系统地、规模更大地对全球治理提供数量更多且质量更高的公共产品。

  (二)“一带一路”倡议是包容中国利益与全球价值的创造性实践

  全球是由各个国家和地区所组成,中国是国际大家庭中的一员,因此在理论上的全球价值与中国利益不应该是对立的,而应该是一致的。“一带一路”倡议是全球价值与国别利益汇合点的典范之作。

  近现代全球化总体进程及趋势是从愚昧、野蛮逐步趋于日益开化和文明,但这一过程因国际社会中双边、多边国际关系的多变而越来越复杂化,很多国别性、地区性问题也越来越衍生为全球性问题,而且日增日重。诸如大规模毁灭性武器的发明与实用化扩散、全球气候与环境恶化、跨国新型病毒升级变异和疫情大规模蔓延、国际恐怖主义暴行日益泛滥等,人类文明发展面临严峻的挑战,甚至严重地威胁着地球的存续。21世纪以来,中国作为置身于其中的重大全球治理行为体,在全球问题国内化、国内问题国际化程度日益加深的现实中,已经越来越难以独善其身。中国不得不从全球性认知路径的价值选择方法来考虑与应对全球问题、来推进全球文明进程,以便能够获得较长期的良好国际环境保障,促进中国可持续发展。

  “一带一路”倡议的设计与实践,针对全球和平与发展面临的挑战与中国社会的可持续发展问题,探索应对之策,来谋划全人类发展的美好未来。它既符合多极化全球治理的共识性国际诉求,也发展了中国改革开放以来的和平共处五项原则的外交理念,将构建和谐世界的人类命运共同体理念推进到具体实践的层面。因此,“一带一路”倡议展示了中国新一代领导集体综合考虑中国利益和全球价值的宏大视域——将人类文明进步所涉领域作为整体来聚焦全球面临的问题与挑战,结合中国推进实现伟大复兴“中国梦”的进程,前瞻全球可持续发展,规划中国的全球治理方案,彰显中国的全球和谐共处共荣理想,从而创新了中国的全球治理观。其中的关键点是:将人类文明的整体良性演进及全球福祉提升,与中国谋求自我长远发展互为条件、有机融合。

  (三)“一带一路”倡议从中国的角色折射出当前全球治理格局的变化态势

  所谓全球治理格局,是指在一定时空中存在一种相对稳定的全球治理主体间关系的结构。它是参与全球治理的各种行为体力量经过一系列不断消长变化与分化组合,使得原有的行为体力量结构从量变发展到质变,从而形成一种在较长时期内相对稳定的较新的行为体力量结构,即构建出相对稳定的行为体间关系结构及态势。一种全球治理格局的解体,必然是由于行为体间力量对比发生变化,致使其稳定的结构或均势被打破而无法维持现状所造成的。全球治理格局是处于绝对变化和相对稳定中的,这种变化往往通过具体的全球治理实践来展现。

  在经济方面,2008年国际金融危机之后,全球治理格局发生重大变化。美国领衔的七国集团因为自身实力相对下降,在全球治理格局中的角色开始发生变化;中俄领衔的金砖国家在全球治理结构中的重要性开始提升。二十国集团(简称G20)从1997年设置以后的将近10年,几乎难以按照设置时西方大国所宣称的G20将代替八国集团的主要功能来发挥作用,直到2009年为了应对全球金融危机,才正式启用G20机制召开峰会,全球经济治理结构发生了巨大变化。但即便如此,美国仍然不甘心放手全球经济治理的主导权,美国不仅领导和维持了八国集团(2014年3月之后又变为七国集团),而且作为全球治理的最强大行为体和主导者,美国开始主动采取措施,力图保住领导角色,从而推出了TPP、TTIP,企图改造或以此空心化世界贸易组织等原有全球治理的经济秩序,并在亚太地区推出了“再平衡”战略来遏制新兴大国,管控并利用盟国,力图长久维持与扩大美国在全球治理格局中的单极霸权。尽管特朗普执政后强调美国优先、让美国再次强大,美国退出TPP和退出《巴黎协定》,但仍未正式终止TTIP谈判,并对中国实行更强硬的经济外交策略,展现出美国国家利益至上的逆全球化苗头。这些都反映了2008年国际金融危机以来全球治理格局的动荡与变化。美国作为最强大的全球治理行为体,自身实力在发生着阶段性质变。以中国为代表的G20新兴全球治理行为体的力量增强,以美国为首的发达经济体集团在全球经济治理结构中实力相对下降,但仍竭力要保持其独大的领导地位。

  在军事安全方面,在欧洲方向上,20世纪90年代美国在东南欧安全事务上一家独大,到21世纪以来逐渐转变为在乌克兰危机中与俄罗斯呈现难分伯仲的拉锯战,而且俄罗斯将克里米亚半岛纳入国家版图以来的态势,表明了俄罗斯已逐步扭转其在20世纪最后十年内的被动局面。在中东方向上,从苏联解体到美国次贷危机爆发,美国基本上是中东重大事务中的绝对“大当家的”,这在阿富汗战争、伊拉克战争等一系列重大中东事件中能够得到较为有力的体现——美国在对中东地区的单边治理实践上,具有排他性且达到了很高的意志实现度。1990年代中俄等其他全球治理多极化力量在同期的同一重大事件中,基本上是难以实现自己的原初意志的。但2008年国际金融危机之后,美国一方面从中东进行战略收缩,一方面对俄罗斯进军中东的对美竞争出现了疲于应付势态,尤其在叙利亚问题上——出现了美国在中东事务中的被动局面。在亚太方向上,美国将从战略围堵中国的“重返亚太”和亚太“再平衡”,转变为特朗普政府的亚太“稳定计划”及印太战略,从操控“南海仲裁”失败又转为营造美日印准同盟来威慑中国,暗自怂恿印度在领土纠纷上越界冒险挑战中国核心利益的红线,同时利用台独势力、中日领土争端、朝核问题等牵制中国。这些都一定程度上体现了美国在全球安全治理中的霸权角色发生了力不从心的变化趋势——当代全球安全治理结构中的美国力量相对衰落,而中国力量崛起,处于相对上升状态。

  在上述全球治理的现实中,中国提出“一带一路”倡议,首当其冲的是美国及其部分盟国的警惕性阻滞。因为“一带一路”倡议在客观上一定程度地对冲着美国的亚太“再平衡”、亚太“稳定计划”和印太战略;美国起初不但自己不愿意加入“一带一路”倡议及亚投行,还游说阻止其盟国加入。然而“一带一路”倡议不但得到广大发展中国家的积极响应和申请加入,还随着英国加入亚投行,众多美国盟国也纷纷加入和准备申请加入,2019年4月意大利不顾美国阻挠,正式成为七国集团中首个参与“一带一路”的国家。说明中国作为全球治理结构的重要力量,其实践力、影响力已经难以被美国刻意阻挡得住了。更明显的是,2017年,北京举行“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛时,美日韩在最后时刻,羞答答却很不情愿的赶上了末班车——最后时刻该三国宣布派代表参加峰会;2019年第二届论坛的参会国家和国际组织、参会的国家元首和政府首脑,人数都比第一届更多,议题和签署的合作协议更多更广泛更深入。“一带一路”倡议及其实践,代表了全球治理结构变动中要求建立多极化全球治理格局的力量,为争取改变不合理的全球治理状态,努力打造一个协调治理全球的平台,也相应地反映了原有治理主体间的实力消长所衍生的角色转变势态。“一带一路”倡议凸显当今全球治理格局演化中的中国角色:要求建立多极化的全球治理秩序,引领全球治理格局朝着民主、公正、合理、公平的方向发展。这与要求建立单极化全球治理格局的力量及其实践构成竞争与矛盾,从而凸显当代全球治理格局(见下图)处于两种趋势三支力量角逐的势态:要求单极化趋势的力量,即要求建立一家独霸的全球治理格局;要求多极化趋势的力量,即希望建立民主、公平、公正、合理的共赢的全球治理格局;中间游移力量,即不定期从要求多极化趋势的力量或从要求单极化趋势的力量中分化出来的力量,常常“唯利是图、相机而动”地游移到前两种趋势力量的某一方,并加入其中,从而削弱另一方。将要求多极化趋势的力量与要求单极化趋势的力量相比较,前者松散性较强、规则与机制性较弱,容易被分化瓦解。

  “一带一路”倡议及其实践表明,中国在全球治理格局中的角色是积极主动的,已经基本改变了被动局面,显示了阶段性两种趋势——多极化趋势与单极化趋势并存,三支力量角逐的拉锯战势态。对此,我们不能简单判定冷战两极格局瓦解以来全球治理格局是多极化趋势明显,也不能简单地、模糊地认定当代全球治理格局就是多极格局或就是单极格局。中国参与全球治理的阶段性角色变迁,较为客观地反映了全球治理格局演化的阶段性特征。“一带一路”倡议见证着中国对全球治理格局合理化演进正在积极地作出举足轻重的贡献。

  (四)中国参与全球治理实践中的“一带一路”倡议面临着复杂的国际风险与挑战

  “一带一路”倡议实践,由于关税问题,种族、民族及宗教问题,不同的社会制度与资源禀赋,历史包袱、债务状况,等等,不可避免地出现多元而复杂的风险。此外,它还面临着当代霸权国家及其同盟所构建的种种羁绊和挑战,尽管“一带一路”倡议的实施得到越来越多的全球治理行为体的广泛认同与支持。

  在国内,“一带一路”倡议是应对中国改革开放社会转型期间诸多问题的伟大创举。其中,要促进国内社会发展,就必须解决已有问题。在这个过程中还容易产生新的问题。“一带一路”是推进实现“中国梦”伟大复兴进程的长期宏大工程,它要面对并解决中国的贫富差距、城乡差距、官员腐败、法治改革、经济增长、分裂分离主义及恐怖主义势力滋扰等一系列老问题和新矛盾。

  在国外,参与“一带一路”倡议的全球治理行为体,几乎都是为了从中获得经济效益和促进本国社会发展——由利而合作是主要的聚拢因素。其中不乏有参与者与中国存在种种矛盾,它们需要搭上“一带一路”倡议的中国顺风车获取一己之利,却害怕中国的强大及实施“一带一路”倡议可能“隐形入侵”损及本国利益。加利福尼亚大学洛杉矶分校学者米娅·班尼特(Mia M.Bennett)认为,俄罗斯是中国“一带一路”倡议的重要组成部分,来自中国的投资对俄罗斯愈发有吸引力,这就使得俄罗斯顺理成章地成为“一带一路”工程的实施地。这些“一带一路”工程项目建立在中俄能源合作和两国长久以来的交通基础设施合作伙伴关系之上,中国在这些合作中充当了投资者的角色,但两国彼此之间存有的戒心由来已久并在冷战时期达到顶峰,这可能会使项目的实施充满挑战。尤其是“一带一路”倡议的中国投资,不仅利润小,还因大多数对象国或地区社会不稳定,使得中国注入的资金和人员安全时刻面临着风险,如东南亚某些国家、中亚及中东的恐怖主义活动带来的社会动荡不定,都经常危害着中国投资项目及中方人员和设施的安全。最具有挑战性的是个别霸权国作为全球治理的强大力量,其亚太战略对中国实行围追堵截和遏制,一边间接地给中国制造麻烦,一边直接对中国施加压力,并对中国国内的分裂分离主义势力给予策应与暗中支持。加上其他竞争性行为体对华采取孤立和牵制措施,特别是东方个别非发达的大国,始终主观歪曲地认为“一带一路”倡议的中巴经济走廊等举措对其构成威胁,从而协助霸权国及其亚太重要同盟遏制中国,并在亚洲、非洲等地分别实施“香料之路”战略、开设非洲开发银行、采取“东向战略”,这些与中国的“一带一路”倡议迎面相撞,不仅对冲着中国的“一带一路”倡议实践,还威胁到中国在“一带一路”沿线地区投放的人员与财产安全。

  不仅负面因素出现在一些国际关系的实践中,而且在学术圈内也产生了担忧、否定,至少是对“一带一路”怀疑的思潮。有英国学者认为,中国的“一带一路”倡议是在改变着地缘政治,突出中国的主导作用,瞄准了在中亚、东南亚以及向欧洲扩展的利益,从而压制和排挤其他大国的主导权。另一些学者对“一带一路”倡议持否定或批评的观点,新加坡国立大学东亚研究所洪宇(Hong Yu)认为,“一带一路”倡议反映了中国不再韬光养晦,而是一反被塑造的态势,却要改变世界,表现为要在塑造世界格局中主动出击势头。布鲁塞尔大学的乔纳森·霍斯拉格(Jonathan Holslag)认为,“一带一路”倡议以共赢为名头,却野心勃勃地期望打开其他国家和地区经贸大门,已经使得中国在沿线国家的市场和投资份额稳步增加,对欧洲造成挑战。这也表明,“一带一路”倡议及其实践,在国际上引发了担忧、反对甚至抵制的种种杂音和思想。

  “一带一路”倡议实施中引发的负面声音与问题不是孤立的,这是由当代全球治理的行为体间联系日益紧密而导致的全球问题国内化和国内问题全球化、信息边疆逐步消失所造成的。经济层面上,西方大国及其盟国在对华贸易及金融方面施压,危害中国经济稳定与产业发展;在安全层面,中国内部的分裂分离主义势力及恐怖主义势力与国外仇华力量相互勾结,西方大国及其所谓东方友国利用达赖集团、疆独、台独及港独等滋扰和阻止中国推进统一大业的进程;在文化及价值观的中外交流层面,不同文明之间的“冲突”是客观存在的,实施“一带一路”倡议的中国,输出和引进的不仅仅是有形的产品,中国的实践会与沿线相关国家及地区的文化理念及价值选择导向发生碰撞。如果对这些文化间“非同质”关系处理不当,会产生矛盾甚至冲突,反过来可能会阻碍“一带一路”倡议的实践、影响中国形象,甚至会损及中国利益和文化安全。

  (五)“一带一路”倡议反映了中国特色全球治理观、中国的国家总体安全要求及人类命运共同体理念三维一体特征

  “一带一路”倡议将人类命运共同体理念、国家总体安全要求与中国特色全球治理观三者融为一体。“一带一路”倡议在实践上落实着中国特色全球治理观与人类命运共同体理念。2017年1月中旬,习近平总书记在日内瓦的联合国总部演讲时说:“让和平的薪火代代相传,让发展的动力源源不断,让文明的光芒熠熠生辉,是各国人民的期待,也是我们这一代政治家应有的担当。中国方案是:构建人类命运共同体,实现共赢共享。”针对近年来西方国家的逆全球化浪潮,“习近平主席提出的人类命运共同体理念向国际社会传递了一个清晰信号:经济全球化符合人类的共同利益,不能因为少数国家和群体的反对而走回头路;合作共赢、共同发展是全球治理改革的基本方向”。人类命运共同体理念着眼于人类共生于同一个星球上,各国同处于同一个世界中,在谋求本国利益时要兼顾到他国的关切,追求本国繁荣应促进他国共同发展。人类命运共同体理念正是从全球价值出发,强调全球治理不同行为体的相互依存关系而应该构建和谐世界,即经济与环境稳定且可持续均衡发展,政治多元化和文化多样化进步、互信的全球安全——营造全球治理多极化格局。

  逐渐崛起的中国,必将成为完整意义上的全球性大国,那么中国可持续发展的条件,就不仅仅局限在国内,更加需要全球政治稳定、经济发展、自然环境优化等全人类生活与存续的安全条件。人类命运共同体理念关注的首要重点是生存安全与发展安全的可持续性,这当然也是中国总体国家安全要求的最重大关切。而“一带一路”倡议及其实践,正是将中国的发展安全和生存安全与全球可持续发展、与人类生存安全进行对接与融合,是将中国发展机遇转变为全球发展的机遇,将中国安全与全球安全治理紧密连接起来。“一带一路”倡议是将中华传承至今的经典文化如“穷则独善其身、达则兼济天下”、“计利当计天下利”与“四海之内皆兄弟”这些“天下”人文情怀,应用到谋求中国福祉同时也造福其他国家人民的战略思维中,这理所当然地也要求中国安全与全球安全互为条件。这是中国参与和推动全球治理,沿着更加公平合理的“包容发展、权责共担”路径行进,同时也借重全球治理的公正性要求,来倒逼中国去改革掉阻碍生产力发展的上层建筑的“滞后”部分。

  从逻辑上说,一个国家如果认识到人类的命运同舟与共,那么它的国家安全与全球安全就必然息息相关了,其思考较长历史阶段的国家利益积增,就必然要关注全球价值和人类共同福祉的可持续增长。从实践上讲,中国从零散的偶发的或局部的应对非典与埃博拉疫情、援助东南亚大海啸……到参与全球气候巴黎协定等,直至构建和推进实施宏大的长远战略——“一带一路”倡议,体现了中国特色全球治理观的具体实践逐步进入到更加高级的成建制的、体系化的新阶段。

  “一带一路”倡议是新时代中国参与全球治理的角色变化的重要标志,是对中国特色全球治理观演进新阶段的现实反映。中国推进中华民族伟大复兴中的社会发展与进步,不是采取以邻为壑的方法,而是以全球治理中各行为体的合作共赢作为前提的。因此,“一带一路”倡议是力争各参与方共建、共进、共享与共荣,共谋一个包容、平等、民主、和谐与合作的全球治理新格局。

  四、结语

  “一带一路”倡议从解决问题与谋求福祉上体现了新时代中国向各参与全球治理的行为体提出的人类命运共同体理念。纵观中国特色全球治理观的演化进程与“一带一路”倡议的关系,几乎都是围绕着维护中国核心利益、谋求国家富强来实现中华民族伟大复兴的“中国梦”这个核心,努力构建一个和谐的全球环境;“一带一路”倡议作为中国倡导全球治理的重要方案,就是要维护世界和平与稳定、有利于应对全球贫富差距所滋生诸多全球问题、恐怖主义蔓延、人类生存环境恶化等,将中国安全与全球安全紧密相连,促进世界共同繁荣与人类不同文明协同进步。“一带一路”倡议兼顾了中国利益与全球价值,从长远的宏大视域来增进包括中国在内的发展中国家福祉,并有利于发达国家的经济发展与社会进步。

  “一带一路”倡议与中国特色全球治理观的愿景是极其美好的,但其实践不会是一帆风顺的。在实施“一带一路”倡议过程中的困难是常态化的,潜在的危险与现实挑战不仅是难以避免的,更是错综复杂的。如何克服这些困难、应对各种风险与挑战,也时刻考验着“一带一路”倡议设计者们与实践者们的全球治理智慧。(注释略)作者简介

姓名:钮维敢

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Tiananmen Parents: Farewell Letter to My Son (June 6, 1989)

Farewell Letter to My Son (June 6, 1989)

by Ding Zilin and Jiang Peikun

Ding Zilin in 2014 via WIkipedia


Lianlian, our dearest treasure:

Father and Mother don’t have the strength to give you a send-off. We will wait at home for your return. Your elder brother will see you off on our behalf and then bring you home after a few days. Soon our entire family will be re-united. Then we will always be at your side to keep you company!

Now you have taken off ahead of us and are alone by yourself. Please take good care of yourself. Watch what you eat and drink and the change of weather. We have sent along your exercise band and badminton racket that you use everyday ( to be cremated with you). Be sure to continue working out. You are only seventeen years old. With persistent exercise you will most definitely grow up to be a healthy, handsome young man. Also, your elder brother found your favorite five zhu old coin. Bring it along with you and bring it out to enjoy when you are alone and feeling lonely. We’ve also sent you a copy of our family photo. Just look at the photo whenever you miss us. Give your father and mother lots of kisses. Don’t be shy.

Lianlian! Our good son Lianlian, you gave your life bravely for our country and our nation. I will always remember the words you parted: “The important thing is not to act but to participate!” Father and Mother understand you completely. You weren’t thinking of accomplishing some mighty deed. At the most dangerous moment for the Chinese nation, you were determined to fight, along with those brave big brothers and big sisters, to the very end. You will always be together with us. You are our pride as parents and the pride of your elder brother and elder sister, and the pride of all the members of the Jiang and Ding families. You lived a rich life during your seventeen years in the human world. All your words and actions will be engraved in the minds by your future nieces and nephews as a good example.

Lianlian! Our good son, you matured early intellectually. That was because of the era in which our disaster-plagued nation lives. You did not shed your blood in vain. The young life you sacrificed for our nation will awaken the consciences of many people. This dark age will finally end one day. That bright day is ahead of us. We will grit our teeth and endure until that day comes. You were among the first fighters killed on June 3. People will remember that day. Although we cannot now give you a wreath of flowers and hold a formal memorial ceremony, all the people of good conscience throughout the world are grieving for you.

Lianlian! From now on, on June 2 and June 3, our family will prepare your favorite birthday cake and soy-braised pork, beer, and other things you love to eat.

Lianlian! Close your eyes and calmly get on your way. May Heaven bless you, our good child. Just wait. Later Father and Mother will be with you forever. Every day Mother will come to kiss your forehead and stroke your hair.

Lianlian! No matter how big you have gotten, whenever you go out by yourself, Mother is always admonishing you and pouring her heart out to you. Please don’t get upset that Mother talks too much. If you think of us, please come often into our dreams. Let father and child and mother and child be re-united in our dreams!

My dear child! Don’t worry. For your sake, Father and Mother will always rely on one another. Don’t worry about us. Your elder brother and elder sister will take care of us and take on all your filial duties.

Lianlian! Take good care of yourself! Mother can’t protect you any longer. You will need to look out for yourself.

Your most beloved Mother and Father

The night of June 6, 1989

Chinese text:

给儿子的送别信(1989.6.6)

连连,我们最亲爱的宝贝:

爸爸和妈妈没有力气来为你送行,我们在家里等着你归来,由哥哥替我们去送你,过几天再接你回家。我们全家团聚的日子很快就会到来。我们将永远带你在身边,陪伴着你!

现在你先走一步,独自上路,千万要保重,注意饮食和冷暖。我们把你每天用的拉力器和羽毛球拍给你带上(按:一起火化),你要坚持好好锻炼身体。你还只有十七岁,经过锻炼一定会长成一个健美的小伙子的。还有,哥哥找出了你最喜爱的五铢钱,你也带上吧,一个人寂寞时就拿出来把玩。我们还给你带上一张与我们大家的合影,你想念我们时就多看看,多亲亲爸爸和妈妈,别不好意思。

连连啊!我们的好儿子,你是为了我们的国家和民族去英勇献身的。我永远记住你诀别时的那句话:“重要的不在行动,而在参与!”爸爸和妈妈完全理解你,你不想做出什么壮举,你只想在民族最危险的时候去与那些大哥哥、大姐姐勇士们共存亡。你永远永远与我们在一起,你是我们作父母、当哥哥姐姐的骄傲,也是蒋氏、丁氏家庭所有成员的骄傲。你来到人间这十七年是过的那么充实,你的言行,一切的一切,以后你的侄子、侄女或外甥们都会铭记在心,以你为榜样的。

连连啊!我们的好儿子,你在思想上过于早熟了,这是我们多灾多难的民族所处的这个时代所造成的。你的鲜血不会白流,你为民族献出的年轻生命将会唤起更多人的觉醒。黑暗终将结束,光明就在前面。我们咬着牙坚持着等待着这一天的到来。你是“六三”这一天第一批倒下的勇士,人们将记住这一天。尽管我们现在不能给你扎花圈,开追悼会,但全世界有良知的人们都在为你哀悼。

连连啊!从今以后每年六月二日和六月三日家里都会为你准备你最爱吃的生日蛋糕和红烧肉、啤酒等。

连连!闭上眼睛安心地上路吧,苍天会保佑你这好孩子的。你等着吧,以后爸爸和妈妈将会永远和你在一起的。妈妈会每天来亲你的面颊和抚摸你的头发的。

连连啊!不管你长得多高,你一个人上路,妈妈总有说不完的话要吩咐,要向你倾诉,你不要嫌妈妈啰嗦。你要是想我们,就常回到我们梦中来吧,让我们父子、母子在梦中团聚吧!

好孩子!你放心吧,为了你,爸爸妈妈日夜会相依为命,你不必为我们担心,哥哥姐姐都会照顾我们,替你尽孝的。

连连啊!你万万多保重!妈妈没能保护住你,你自己千万多当心。

你的最心爱的妈妈爸爸

一九八九年六月六日夜。


Farewell Letter to My Husband

by Ding Zilin

I haven’t seen you for a long time, my friends.

On September 27, 2015 (the day of the Mid-Autumn Festival in the lunar year), my husband Jiang Peikun suddenly had a heart attack and took his leave from this life. That sudden blow sent me down into an abyss. His funeral arrangements were simple, strictly in accordance with the will that we had jointly drafted in 2013. If I died first, he would make funeral arrangements according to the will. If he died first, I would do the same for him.

I don’t know how to use a computer or type. Nor can I use e-mail, microblogs, or electronic messaging. For a long time, I have depended upon Jiang for my contact with the outside world. Now that he has gone, I not only have the pain of losing a family member but have also lost this important connection with the outside world.

During these past twenty years, Jiang and I were under strict surveillance by the authorities. In order not to cause trouble to anybody, after he died, I canceled the broadband Internet service he had set up in Beijing, in a Beijing suburb and Wuxi. I locked up the computer and IPAD that he had loved so much.

Therefore I haven’t seen any of the emails and instant messages that relatives and friends have sent me over the past year, much less been able to reply to them. I can only ask here that you forgive my discourtesy and helplessness and convey to you my heartfelt thanks.

In light of my situation and my declining health, ever since Jiang died I had to reluctantly ask the Tiananmen Mother’s Group for a long leave of absence. During this long leave of absence, I will not be able to take part in any of the group’s activities. From now on, if friends need any help, they should contact directly the Mother’s Group service team.

That the Tiananmen Mother’s Group has been able to come to existence naturally and to continue down to this day in this country, fearless in the face of oppression from the authorities, has been thanks to, in addition to the hard work of the mothers themselves, the love and mutual support it has gotten from friends in both China and abroad. Please accept, my friends, my heartfelt thanks for all this.

My body is weak but my mind is still clear and my memory is adequate. As long as I still have a breath, I will not stop my efforts, nor will I relinquish the three requests of the Mother’s Group for a fair resolution of June 4 and my insistence on the principle of independence for the Mother’s Group.

May the spirits of our dear ones in Heaven protect the Tiananmen Mother’s Group!

Ding Zilin, September 27, 2016

Chinese text:

给丈夫的送別信

丁子霖

久违了,朋友们。

2015年9月27日(也即农历中秋节那一天)14时53分,我的丈夫蒋培坤突发心梗,与世长辞。这突如其来的厄运一下子将我坠入深渊。蒋的后事已严格按照2013年我俩共同拟定的遗嘱——丧事从简办理。我先走,他照办;他先走,我照办。

我不会用电脑、不会打字、不会使用电邮、微博、微信。长期以来,我与外界的联系都依靠蒋。他这一走,使我在痛失亲人的同时,也失去了这根与外界联系的重要纽带。

这20多年来,我与蒋都处在当局有关部门的严密监控之下。为了不连累他人,他走后,我取消了他生前在京、锡三地所使用的宽带,并把他心爱的电脑与IPAD都收藏和封存起来。

因此这一年来,亲友们给我发来的所有邮件、微信,我都没有看到,更谈不上回复了。我只得在此恳请大家原谅与理解我的无礼与无奈,并向大家衷心道一声谢谢。

鉴于我的处境与身体的每况愈下,我在蒋离世后,不得不向天安门母亲群体的服务团队请了长假。在本人请假期间,无法参与群体的各项事务。今后,朋友们如有需要,请直接与母亲群体的服务团队联系。

在这片国土上,天安门母亲群体得以自然形成,并不畏强权的高压,能坚持到今天,除了母亲们自身的努力之外,离不开海内外友人们的关爱与相助,在此,请朋友们接受我衷心的感谢。

我虽体力不济,但头脑清楚,记忆力也尚可。只要一息尚存,就不会停止努力,就不会放弃天安门母亲群体关于公正解决六四的三项诉求以及坚持群体独立性原则。

愿我们亲人的在天之灵护佑天安门母亲群体!

丁子霖写于2016年9月27日

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Tiananmen Parents on the Loss of their Son

Ding Zilin, organizer of the Tiananmen Mothers’ Group and her husband, Jiang Peikun, wrote this account of the loss of their son in the Tiananmen Massacres.

Website of the Tiananmen Mothers, an organization founded by Ding Zilin and her husband Jiang Peikun, is devoted to collecting materials and testimony about the June 4th Massacres around Tiananmen Square. You can get an idea of the riches of this Chinese language website by clicking though its URL on Google Translate: https://translate.google.com/translate?sl=zh-CN&tl=en&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.tiananmenmother.org%2F

How Disaster Befell Jiang Jielian

by Ding Zilin and Jiang Peikun

Jiang Jielian, a 5 foot 11 inch tall handsome young man, was a sophomore in the section four of the middle school attached to Remin University of China. He was born on June 2, 1972 in Beijing. Martial law troops shot him to death in Muxidi at a little past 11 p.m. on the evening of June 3, 1989. He had turned 17 only a day before he was killed.

Jiang Jielian was born into an educated family. From his earliest years he was taught to love his country and to dedicated his life to serving it. His father, Jiang Peikun was the director and professor at the Institute of Aesthetics at Renmin University of China. His mother Ding Zilin was an associate professor in the same institute. We two had taught at university ever since we were young. Ding Zilin’s second paternal uncle, widely known in both China and abroad as one of the founders of geology in China, was the outstanding scientist Ding Wenjiang. Ding Wenjiang’s famous words “Always be prepared to sacrifice transient personal good for the eternal good of the entire humanity” were the family precepts that we taught our children.

Jiang Jielian was our youngest son. He had an elder brother and an elder sister but he was our only child from our second marriage. He grew up surrounded by the love of his parents and his brother and sister but was naturally generous, treating everyone kindly. He was also quite intelligent and talented. From elementary school all the way to high school he was nearly always at the top of his class in both character, scholarship and physical health as well. He always had among the best grades in his class. In the April 1989 mid term examination, the last examination he ever took, he got a score of 570 out of a total possible score of 600 – an average of 95 percent for each test – in the six subjects he tested in. He ranked third in his entire class of over 300 students. In May, because of his excellent grades, his school selected him to participate in the city Physics Olympiad. He hadn’t told us about this but did review his class material anxiously preparing for the Olympiad test. The three days before he was killed he had studied until two or three o’clock in the morning.

Jiang Jielian had a clear goal set for himself. He never hid that his heart was set on going to Peking University. The middle school of Renmin University of China was one of the key middle schools in Beijing. The middle school every year sent twenty of its top students to Peking University, Tsinghua University, The University of Science and Technology, Renmin University of China and other top schools without needing to take the entrance examination. With his usual good grades he could have his top choice of schools. He told me candidly, “I want to go to Peking University. Peking University is the cradle of democracy. I want to go to any of the science departments at Peking University.”

He followed the 1989 democracy movement from almost the very start. He showed great interest in personally participating. On April 15, 1989 when Hu Yaobang died, the first big character poster about it hung up on the Renmin University of China campus drew his interest. He often went to Renmin University and Peking University campuses to read the big character posters and to hear talks that students gave. On May 17 when the student hunger strike in Tiananmen Square reached its climax, he and several classmates actively organized Renmin University middle school students to participate in the million man march to support the hunger strike students in Tiananmen. That day after class ended at 4 p.m., over a thousand bicycles left the middle school. Each bicycle carried another student on the back. An army of over two thousand students rode from Renmin University Middle School to Fuxingmen and then formed ranks to march to Tiananmen, circle once around the Square and then back to Fuxingmen and home. Jiang Jielian’s bicycle was in the front ranks with a classmate riding on the back holding up high the middle school flag. When the long line of students marched from Fuxingmen to Tiananmen, he still marched at the first row of Remin University Middle School students. Together with another student they held a large banner supporting the university students’ action for justice. On the flag was written, “If you should fall, we keep up the fight!” (A female classmate who took part in that demonstration took a precious historical photograph of this scene. When she heard that Jiang Jielian had been murdered, she gave us the negative of the photograph.) He loved the red headband he wore on his forehead in the demonstration that day and so his family members put that red headband around his head at his funeral and when he was cremated.

After martial law was declared, he was even more anxious about the safety of the fasting students. Twice he went out by himself late at night without telling us. Once he went with the student disciplinary patrol team from the east gate of People’s University to Tiananmen Square. At dawn he rode the first bus alone back to school to go to class. The other time, he took advantage of us both being soundly asleep late at night to quietly sneak away on his bicycle to Liuliqiao to join with the crowd blocking military vehicles.

This time he also returned at dawn and as soon as he came in the door he told us excitedly that the PLA soldiers had indeed been tricked. He was very proud that he had become friends with a young PLA soldier. He told the soldier why the university students were fasting. The soldier whispered to him that they didn’t know why they had come. They had all be given 90 RMB traveling expenses. They were ordered not to read the newspapers or listen to broadcasts on the way over. Now they were surrounded and didn’t have anything to eat or drink. That evening Jiang Jielian gave the bread and soda that people in the crowd had given him to that young soldier to slake his hunger and used the only money he had on him – two RMB – to buy two pancakes from a vendor’s stall to fill his hungry stomach. When the hunger strike ended and turned into a sit-down strike, many students went back to school. Seeing that classes were about to be resumed, Jiang Jielian didn’t go out to support the students after that. After school he burrowed into his books to prepare for the Physics Olympiad.

June 3 was a weekend day. Jiang Jielian had been working hard on physics competition problems for three straight nights and was feeling exhausted. He wanted to take a good rest when all of a sudden everything changed that night. He was especially anxious when he saw on television the declaration of a state of emergency by the martial law troops. He kept asking his parents, “What can we do? What can we do? There are still so many students in Tiananmen.” His mother answered, “There is nothing we can do. The only thing that could help would be for all of Beijing to mobilize to protect the students in Tiananmen but there is no way to do that now. Now it is too dangerous to go outside. You mustn’t go there again.”

He insisted on going and criticized his mother for her cowardice. His father too, urged him not to go out, saying “If something should happen to you, your mother and I will be alone for the next halves of our lives.” He immediately answered, “If all fathers and mothers were as selfish as you, wouldn’t that be the end of the Chinese state and nation?” His father told him to stay at home and for his mother to watch him while he went out to look at what was going on. Mother locked the door after he went out and stayed at home with their son. But he was restless and still determined to go out. Mother spent two whole hours trying hard to convince him to stay. And argued with his mother for two hours.

He pinned his mother’s school emblem on his chest (he had lent his own Renmin University middle school emblem to a classmate and had lost his student ID at the demonstration), put two RMB and some coins into his wallet and comforted his mother, “I’ll go take a look, I’ll be back soon. If you are worried, when I get there (Tiananmen) I’ll call home right away from a pay phone.” He patted the school emblem on his chest as he said, “Now that I have this, they can’t say that I am just a scoundrel. The martial law troops won’t hurt me.” His mother still didn’t want to let him go. She advised, “You are just a middle school student. You aren’t of any use there.” On hearing this he said sternly, “The important thing is not ‘action’ but ‘participation’.” When he finished, his kissed his mother’s cheek gently and said “Farewell.” Then he tore away from his mother and dashed into the toilet, latched the door and went out the window.

Jiang Jielian left home at about 10:30 p.m. on the evening of June 3rd. At the east gate of Renmin University he encountered another student name Zhou and the two rode southwards on their bicycles. According to what that student who narrowly escaped death on that early morning of June 4 said, when the two of them got to Muxidi Bridge they saw a big crowd of people. When martial law troops started a dense strafing gunfire the two kids thought it was rubber bullets. The two hid north of the north entrance of the Muxidi subway, behind the long flower bed south of the tall building at No. 29 Fuxingmenwai Avenue.

A bullet hit Jiang Jielian in the back, went through his chest at an angle, and came out of his front collar. A bullet grazed the heel of his classmate’s foot. He heard Jiang Jielian say softly, “I may have been hit. You hurry ahead!” He squatted down and then fainted on the ground. Bright red blood soaked through his cream color T shirt. The people around him risked their lives to move him to the doorway on the north side of No. 29. Seeing that he was seriously wounded, they got a three wheeled cart and took him to the hospital for emergency treatment. Then, fearing that the cart was too slow, they put him into a small cab that they stopped along the way. Two people whose names we never found out put the already unconscious Jiang Jielian into the car and went with him to the hospital.

Jiang Jielian didn’t return that night and we couldn’t find him anywhere. We stood watch at the east gate of Renmin University. At a little past 6 a.m. on the morning of June 4, the classmate who had gone out with him came with his father to give us the news. As the cab had been full that classmate had been unable to go to the hospital with him so he only knew that the cab left the complex of buildings and drove north and didn’t know to which hospital he had been taken.

On the evening of June 4, the Beijing Children’s Hospital notified Renmin University of China authorities and asked them to send someone to identify and pick up the body. It turned out that the kind people in the crowd had taken Jiang Jielian to Children’s Hospital in Fuxingmenwai. He was among the first group of casualties sent for emergency treatment at the hospital. The hospital set up a provisional operating room but Jiang Jielian had stopped breathing before he got to the operating table. He was among the first to die in the city-wide slaughter. The hospital noticed the red school emblem on his chest and mistook him for a young teacher or administrative staff person at Renmin University and so they notified the school that evening. The emergency room physician said that he died with a peaceful and calm expression on his face. The university was able to determine by checking the badge serial number that it was Jiang Jielian whom they had been searching for.

At dawn on June 5, the university sent someone with Jiang Jielian’s elder brother in a car to the city Children’s Hospital. They took his remains to the Zhongguancun Hospital near Renmin University and put it in the freezer there. Then his elder brother and maternal uncle cleaned the bloodstains from his body and put on him the white shirt, soccer shoes, and the red and white Renmin University middle school sophomore students uniform that he used to love to wear. They put the red cloth headband that he was so proud of around his raven black hair as a sign that he had shed blood and given his life. At about 4 p.m. on June 5, over twenty people including Jiang Jielian’s parents, elder brother and sister, close relatives and friends and teachers went to that ten-odd square meter small room in the Zhongguancun Hospital to bid their last farewells. There were no flower wreaths, there was no funeral music, only sobbing and the wailing of his parents.

On the morning of June 7, the remains of Jiang Jielian, accompanied by many of his teachers from the Remin University middle school, and elder brother and sister, brother-in-law and others went down winding country roads to the Babaoshan Crematorium in the western suburbs of Beijing. With the dead on arrival at the hospital certificate from the Beijing Children’s Hospital the crematorium accepted his remains for cremation. Before the cremation, the people who had accompanied him to Babaoshan held a simple memorial ceremony, presenting wreaths of flowers and memorial banners. On one of them was written Being Patriotic is Glorious and signed by all the teachers and students of his middle school. The banner was draped over his body. A farewell letter from his mother (see appendix) was placed on his chest. On his head he still wore his red headband. Cremated together with him was the badminton racket he loved, the exercise band he worked out with every day, and the comb he had used to comb his thick, raven black hair. The crematorium personnel were sympathetic and understanding so they accepted everything.

When Jiang Jielian’s body was discovered at Beijing Children’s Hospital on the night of June 4, Renmin University immediately notified the authorities, via State Education Commission and the Beijing Municipal Communist Party Committee, layer after layer all the way to the General Office of the Communist Party Central Committee. From that day onwards, during those days, in the Chinese authorities’ internal distribution only daily report of the number of university students killed there was always at the end mentioning of the death of a middle school student who was the child of faculty members of Renmin University. That was Jiang Jielian. That is, he was the only middle school student officially acknowledged in writing to have been killed in the internal report of the Chinese authorities (although in fact he was not the only middle school student killed). Moreover, Beijing Daily on July 23, 1989 in its criticism of the Voice of Beijing broadcast station mentioned without naming the name that a junior from the Renmin University middle school had been killed (in fact it was sophomore) who had, seduced by the loudspeakers of the broadcast station, rushed out on the streets the night of June 3rd never to return home. This was yet another reference to Jiang Jielian.

Although openly published newspapers and internal distribution only brief reports mentioned the death of Jiang Jielian, ever since his cremation no level of the Chinese authorities or individual ever looked into his death much less contact his family in any way. The only exception was during the 1990 census when personnel from the Renmin University Census Office visited our home to verify and understand how Jiang Jielian had died.

After Jiang Jielian’s body was cremated, his ashes were secretly stored in his elder brother’s group dormitory for more than three months. On September 11, 1989, one hundred days after his murder, his parents took his ashes home and put them in an upright camphor wood cabinet in the form of a memorial tablet that his father had made. They put into the cabinet the things that he had loved while a student. On the face of the cabinet his father carved this memorial inscription:

During your short seventeen years

You lived your life like a real man

You died too like a real man

Your nobility and integrity

Will forever be etched in the everlasting memory of history.

You father and mother who will love you forever

September 11, 1989

June 15, 1991 in Beijing

Chinese text:

蔣捷連蒙難記

丁子霖 蔣培坤

蔣捷連是個個頭一米八二的英俊少年,中國人民大學附屬中學高二年級四班學生。他一九七二年六月二日出生於北京,一九八九年六月三日夜十一點多被戒嚴部隊槍殺於北京木樨地。遇難的前一天,他剛過十七周歲生日。

蔣捷連出生在一個知識份子家庭,從小便接受愛國獻身的良好家庭教育。父親蔣培坤是中國人民大學美學研究所所長、教授;母親丁子霖同為該所副教授。我們倆從青年時代起便一直在大學教書。其母的二伯父即是馳名中外的中國地質事業的創始人之一、卓越的科學家丁文江。丁文江的銘言——“為全種萬世而犧牲個體於一時”,已成為我們家庭教育後代的家訓。

蔣捷連在家裏是幼子,上有兄姐各一人,但實際上他是我們倆再婚後共同生的獨子。他自幼便在父母兄姐的寵愛下長大,但生性寬厚,能仁愛待人,且天資聰穎,從小學到高二,幾乎年年都是品學兼優的三好學生,成績一直名列前茅。在一九八九年四月間的期中考試中——也是他一生中參加的最後一次考試,六門課,總分六百分,他得五百七十分,平均每門九十五分,在全年級三百多人中名列第三。由於成績優異,五月間被學校選中,擬參加市奧林匹克物理選拔賽。此事他瞞著家人,只是在課後復習,緊張地做準備。遇害前三天,他連續開夜車直至深夜兩、三點才睡。

對於未來,蔣捷連的目標十分明確,他毫不掩飾自己對北大的嚮往與仰慕。人大附中是北京市一所著名的重點中學,每年應屆高中畢業生中的前二十名可以免試保送至北大、清華、科大、人大等著名高等學府。按他一貫的成績,可以自己選擇保送的學校。他曾坦誠地向我們表示,“我要上北大,北大是民主的搖籃,我願上北大的任何一個理科系。”

八九民運,幾乎從一開始,他就十分關切。一種強烈的參與意識在他身上明顯地凸現出來。一九八九年四月十五日胡耀邦去世,人大校園裏貼出第一批大字報便引起他的關注,他經常往來於人大、北大間看大字報,聽學生們講演。五月十七日天安門前大學生絕食進入高潮,他與班上數名同學積極組織人大附中學生參與了當天首都百萬人聲援天安門前大學生的遊行隊伍。這天下午四點以後,一放學,人大附中便出動了一千餘輛自行車,每輛車的後架上又都坐著一位同學,兩千多人的隊伍浩浩蕩蕩從人大附中騎到復興門,接著又列隊步行至天安門,繞廣場一周,再從原地返回。蔣捷連的自行車走在隊伍的最前面,車子後架上坐著高舉校旗的同學。隊伍從復興門向天安門行進時,他仍然走在人大附中隊伍的最前列,與另一位同學高舉聲援大學生正義行動的大橫幅,上面寫著:“你們倒下,還有我們!”(當時參加遊行的一位女同學拍下了這個珍貴的歷史鏡頭,她獲悉蔣捷連遇害,便把底片送給了我們)。他十分珍愛那天遊行時紮在額頭上的那根紅布條,所以後來向他遺體告別以及火化時,家人替他紮上了這根紅布帶。

戒嚴令發佈後,他更是放心不下絕食學生的安危。曾有兩次,他都背著我們深夜獨自外出,一次在人大東大門口隨大學生糾察隊去了天安門廣場,淩晨自己乘頭班公車趕回學校上課;另一次,也是深夜乘我們熟睡之際,悄悄騎自行車去六裏橋參加群眾堵截軍車的行列,這一次也是次日清晨才回的家,一進家門便興奮地告訴我們:果然解放軍戰士是受了蒙騙。他為自己與一小戰士交上了朋友而非常得意,他向戰士講述大學生絕食的緣由,戰士則悄悄告訴他:也不知幹啥來了,反正每人給九十元出差補助,一路上也不讓看報、聽廣播——現在被就地圍困得沒吃沒喝的。那一夜,蔣捷連把群眾給他吃的麵包、汽水都送給了那位小戰士,而他自己則用身上僅存的兩元錢,從個體攤販手裏買了兩套煎餅果子果腹充饑。直至學生停止絕食,轉為靜坐,大批學生返校,眼看複課在望,蔣捷連才不再外出聲援,課餘又埋頭於緊張的物理競賽的準備之中。

六月三日正是週末,蔣捷連連熬了三夜趕做物理競賽題,十分疲乏,本想好好休息,未料到了晚上形勢陡變。尤其當他看到電視裏戒嚴部隊的緊急通告,更是焦慮萬分,他一個勁兒地追問父母:“怎麼辦?怎麼辦呢?天安門廣場上還有那麼多學生哪!”母親回答:“沒有辦法。唯有北京全城市民傾城出動去保護天安門廣場上的學生,但現在已無法做到。外面太危險,你不要再外出了。”他執意非去不可,並批評母親怯懦。父親也勸阻他說:“你若出了事,我與你母親後半輩子只能形影相弔地過日子了。”他立即答道:“天下的父母都像你們這樣自私,國家和民族不就完了嗎?”父親還是把他留在家裏,讓其母親看住他,自己外出觀察形勢發展。母親把大門鎖上,陪他在家,但他坐立不安,非要出去不可,母親苦苦拉勸了兩個來小時。他把母親的紅校徽別在自己胸前(自己的人大附中校徽借給了同學,學生證則在遊行時丟失),又在小錢包裏裝了兩元錢和一些硬幣,安慰母親說:“我去看看,馬上就回來,你要是不放心,我一到(天安門)便去公共電話亭給家裏打電話。”邊說邊拍拍胸前的紅校徽說:“有了這,就不會說我是‘痞子’了,戒嚴部隊不會傷害我的。”母親還是不讓他走,並勸道:“你一個中學生,去了也沒有用。”他聽後立即正色作答:“重要的不在‘行動’,而在於‘參與’!”說畢,輕輕親吻了母親的面頰,說了一聲:“訣別吧!”便掙脫母親,沖進廁所,插上門栓,越窗而去。

蔣捷連離家的時候六月三日夜十點半左右,他在人民大學東大門口遇見一位同班周姓同學,兩人相伴騎車南行。據六月四日淩晨死裏逃生的那位同學講,兩人騎車至木樨地橋頭便見人如潮湧,待戒嚴部隊機槍子彈密集掃射過來時,這兩個孩子還以為是橡皮子彈呢。兩人躲在木樨地地鐵路北出口處以北,複外大街二十九號高層樓以南的那個長花壇後面,子彈射中蔣捷連的後背,斜穿透胸膛,從前領處出去,那位同去的同學的腳跟處則被子彈擦破了點皮。他聽蔣捷連還輕輕地對他說了一句:“我可能中彈了!你快先走吧!”說罷便蹲了下來,隨即昏倒在地,殷紅的鮮血浸透了他那件乳黃色的T恤衫。周圍群眾在彈雨中冒著生命危險把他抬到二十九號樓北側門洞下,看他傷勢嚴重,立即找來了一輛平板三輪車,把他運往醫院搶救,後又嫌車走得太慢,沿途截住一輛出租小汽車,由兩位至今不知姓氏的民眾,把昏迷不醒的蔣捷連抬上汽車,開往醫院。

蔣捷連徹夜未歸,也無處可以尋找,我們倆只得守候在人民大學東門口。六月四日清晨六點多鐘,同去的那位同班同學由其父陪同來到我們家報信。由於當時計程車內已坐有乘客,那位同學擠不進去,未能隨同前往醫院,所以只知小汽車穿過樓群往北開去,也不知去了哪家醫院。

六月四日夜晚,市兒童醫院通知中國人民大學校方去認領屍體。原來是好心的民眾把蔣捷連送往了地處復興門外的北京市兒童醫院,他是第一批被送往這家醫院搶救的傷患。醫院裏臨時搭起了手術臺,然而,蔣捷連在上手術臺前已停止了呼吸,他是Ji北京屠城中的第一批遇難者。院方根據他胸前別的是人民大學的紅校徽,誤以為他是人大的青年教工,所以在當晚便通知了校方。據院方搶救大夫說,死者面容安詳平靜,神態自若。校方根據校徽號碼毫無困難地確定他便是正在尋找中的蔣捷連。

六月五日清晨,人大校方派人與蔣捷連哥哥專車同往市兒童醫院,把他的遺體接到人民大學附近的中關村醫院,存放在該院的冰櫃內,並由他的哥哥及堂舅親自為他擦拭身上的血跡,換上生前常穿的心愛的白襯衫、足球鞋以及紅白相間的人大附中高二年級校服,那頭濃密的烏髮周圍則系上了那根他引以為自豪的紅布條——他為之獻出熱血和生命的標誌。六月五日下午四點左右,蔣捷連的父母、兄姐、親友、師長等二十來人在中關村醫院那間十幾平方米的小屋裏向他的遺體做了最後的告別。那裏沒有花圈,沒有哀樂,只有一片抽泣聲和父母的哀號。

六月七日的清晨,蔣捷連的遺體在人大附中多位老師以及他的兄長、姐夫等人的護送下,繞道鄉間小路,運到西郊八寶山火葬場,憑著市兒童醫院開具的“來院前已死亡”的證明,火葬場接受了遺體的火化。火化前,送行的人們在八寶山火葬場就地舉行了簡單的儀式,獻上了花圈和挽聯,挽聯上寫著:“愛國光榮”,落款為人大附中全體師生。這幅挽聯覆蓋在他的遺體上面,他貼胸安放了一封母親寫的送行信(見附錄),額頭上仍然保留著那根紅布帶子。隨同火化的,還有他最心愛的羽毛球拍和每天都要用的健身拉力器,以及梳理他那濃密烏髮的發刷。出於同情和理解,火葬場的工作人員接受下了全部東西。

六月四日夜間,蔣捷連的遺體在市兒童醫院一被發現,人民大學校方就立即通過國家教委和北京市委,層層上報,直至中共中央辦公廳。從那天起,在那些日子裏,中國當局內部情況簡報中每天通報大學生死亡人數時,尾端總掛有人大附中一名高中生、人大教工子弟,此人便是蔣捷連,也就是,他是中國當局在內部正式承認的並見諸文字的唯一的一名中學生(其實死亡的中學生又何止他一人)。不僅如此,一九八九年七月二十三日《北京日報》在批判“北京之音”廣播台的文章中又不點名的提到人大附中有個高三學生(實為高二)受廣播台高音喇叭的蠱惑於六月三日夜間沖上街頭再也沒有回家……,此處說的仍然是蔣捷連。

儘管公開報紙、內部簡報多次提到蔣捷連身亡的事,但自從火化以後,除了於一九九零年人口普查時,人大校內人口普查辦公室曾有人來家中核查瞭解蔣捷連死亡經過外,中國當局方面就再無任何一級組織或任何個人出面問過此事,更談不上與家屬有過任何接觸或聯繫了。

蔣捷連遺體火化後,骨灰在其兄長的集體宿舍內秘密存放了三個來月,一九八九年九月十一日,當他遇難百日之際,父母將其骨灰迎回家中,安置于其父親自製作的一個紀念碑式的樟木豎櫃內。櫃內同時存放他生前求學時期的心愛之物。櫃的正面其父親自刻下了如下碑文:

這短暫的十七年

你像真正的人那樣活著

又像真正的人那樣死去

你將以人性的高貴與完整

刻印在歷史的永恆記憶裏

——永遠愛你的爸爸媽媽,一九八九•九•十一

1991年6月15日完稿於北京

Posted in History 历史, Politics 政治, Society 社会 | Leave a comment

List of the Names of Forty-nine People Wounded and Disabled in the Tiananmen Massacre

Herer is a translation of a list of 49 people wounded and disabled in the Tiananmen Massacre as they tried to flee charging Chinese soldiers in complaince with an order to evacuate Tiananmen Square. As some have rightly pointed out, the Tiananmen Massacre did not take place in Tiananmen itself. Perhaps it is even worse that these people were slaughtered while complying with an order to leave.

This list circulated on Chinese language websites for over a decade before being translated, apparently for the first time, in Liao Yiwu’s Bullets and Opium.

Bullets and Opium is a book of interviews with participants in the 1989 demonstrations in Beijing and Chengdu. Liao Yiwu’s interviews follow the participants from the demonstrations, through the Chinese justice system, through years of prison and torture, and finally to their emergence, after years of isolation, into a much more prosperous China where many people at worse want to forget the whole thing and at best are frightened to talk about a politically taboo topic.

List of the Names of Forty-nine People Wounded and Disabled in the Massacre (1989 – 2011)

Collector: Tiananmen Mothers’ Group Provider: Ding Zilin, Jiang Peikun

(Continuing severe repression by the Chinese government and the lingering fears of the people interviewed has created many obstacles to visits and interviews by the Tiananmen Mothers Group. Many of the injured and disabled are unwilling to reveal their personal information. We ask that readers from different social backgrounds understand this.)

1. Fang Zheng, male, 22 years old when he was injured, student in the Biomechanics Department of the Beijing Sports College.

At about 6 a.m. on the morning of June 4, 1989, he followed the long line of student demonstrators retreating from Tiananmen Square. When they passed through the Liubukou intersection, a martial law troops tank suddenly changed direction from the street and went straight onto the sidewalk to roll over the line of students. The frightened students scattered immediately but the tank kept chasing them and fired off a series of poison gas bombs. A female student from his school beside him fainted and he saw that she was about to be flattened by the tank charging toward them so he took her up in his arms and quickly dodged to the side. She was saved but he was caught in the tank tread and was dragged along for a considerable distance. He screamed in anguish and by instinct somehow managed to struggle free the top half of his body but his two legs were torn off him by the tank tread and carried off.

After emergency treatment at the hospital, he was finally revived. He stubbornly lived on. With the help of “Humanitarian China” he now lives in San Francisco in the United States.

2. Su Wenkui, male, 22 years old when he was injured, student at the China Youth College of Political Studies.

At about 6 a.m. on June 4, 1989, he followed the long line of student demonstrators retreating from Tiananmen Square. When they passed through the Liubukou intersection, he, too, fainted from the fumes pouring off the poison gas bomb and was seriously injured by the same tank that took Fang Zheng’s legs away and shot. Emergency treatment at the hospital pulled him through but he was lamed for life.

3. Liu Gang, male, 36 years old when he was injured, business manager at the Beijing Machinery Import and Export Company.

On the night of June 3, 1989, a bullet hit him in the spine above his front chest, leaving him a high paraplegic. Many years have passed his mind remains clear but he has lost all functions of his limbs, leaving him in a situation where life seemed worse than death. His work unit pays his continuing medical maintenance expenses.

4. Song Qiujian, male, 17 years old when he was injured, a student at a certain middle school.

During the day of June 7, 1989, while riding his bicycle to school near the Beijing Train Station, he encountered a martial law tank. Flaunting their strength, the soldiers ordered “Everyone lie down” and then strafed both sides of the street with gunfire. Amidst flying dirt and sand several innocent people were hit by gunfire and lay bleeding on the ground. When the tanks roared by, people finally dare get up and help the five people who had been injured. They put them in a three wheel cart and sent them to the hospital for emergency treatment. Song was one of them. He was hit by a cluster bomb, a kind of bullet forbidden by international treaty! The bullet broke apart when it hit his skin with the main part of the bullet continuing to drill into his liver and bruise his backbone. After emergency treatment at Peking Union Medical College Hospital he was left with permanent disability.. Today he still walks with a limp.

5. Tian X, male, injured at sixteen years of age, a junior in the middle school attached to Renmin University of China.

During the daylight hours of June 4, 1989, Tian rode with his classmates on their bicycles through the Nanchizi area of Wangfujing when they ran into wild shooting from undisciplined soldiers. A bullet came flying by and he instinctively turned his head to the side. His life was spared but the bullet made a groove in his forehead. He was sent to Peking Union Medical College Hospital for treatment. Tian became mentally ill because he had been severely frightened. He was hospitalized at the Department of Neurology of the Peking University Third Hospital where he underwent very expensive therapy. Afterwards he could not return to school and now can only do simple work.

6. Chu Manqing, female, injured at twenty years of age, student in the Geology Department of Peking University.

During the night of June 3, 1989, she took part in the medical team. A martial law troops armored car rammed into her and crushed her leg bone while she was helping a person wounded by gunshot near Tiananmen. After round-the-clock hospital treatment, stainless steel rods were used to stabilize her legs. After a long period of great suffering, she gradually healed in both mind and body. After she graduated she went overseas for advanced study.

7. Wang Yan, male, injured at the age of twenty, employee at the Ministry of Aerospace and Aeronautical Industry 502 Institute.

During the early morning of June 4, 1989, at a location still unknown to this day, a bullet disabled him. In 1993, because he could no longer stand the physical torture, he swallowed over 70 sleeping pills to try to kill himself. Fortunately he was found immediately by his family and was rescued. For many years after leaving the hospital he had to remain under the care of his aging parents.

8. Chen Ning, male, injured at the age of 30, employed at the Cadre Training School in the China Geology Management Institute.

During the night of June 3, 1989, while behind the flower bed of Muxidi Residential Building No. 29, both of his knees were shattered by stray bullets. During his emergency treatment at Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, he had two operations. After two years he was finally able to walk a little. Unexpectedly, he was given a delayed settling of accounts. Chen was investigated by his work unit, he was suspended from both work and classes, and was also punished according to Communist Party discipline.

9. Li Lanfu, female, injured at the age of 30, office director at the Great Wall Group Corporation.

During the night of June 3, 1989, she suffered the same tragic fate as Chen Ning at the same place and time. She was shot in both legs but her bones and muscles were not injured. However she needed skin grafts over a large area of her legs.

10. Wang Tianjun, male, wounded at the age of 28, occupation unknown.

During the daylight hours of June 4, 1989, Wang was shot in the left arm near Wangfujing, severing his motor nerves. After emergency treatment at Peking Union Medical College Hospital, he was transferred to Beijing Jishuitan Hospital where his left arm was amputated.

11. Yu Zhihan, male, wounded at the age of 30, employed at the Policy Research Department of the State Environmental Protection Bureau.

During the evening of June 3, 1989, Yu was hit by a bullet when he was in Muxidi, injuring his hipbone and leaving him lame. He couldn’t stand the investigation and harassment that his work unit subjected him to, Yu soon resigned from his position and went to the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone to work.

12. Xu Yangcheng, male, injured at the age of 40, employment unknown, already left work at the time of his injury.

During the night of June 3, 1989, Xu was hit in the leg with a bullet. The wound resulted in poliomyelitis, requiring hours of bathing in a medicinal tank everyday. For years he was not able to free himself of pain and poverty. He depends on the meager incomes of his mother and wife to barely get by.

13. Li Keqin, male, injured at the age of twenty, trainee on contract at the photography section of the Journalism Department of Renmin University of China.

During the night of June 3, 1989, he was hit by two bullets at an unknown location. He suffered from those wounds for many years but now he has completely recovered.

14. Kong Lixin, male, age at time of wounding unknown. Teacher in the Mechanical Engineering Department of the Beijing Institute of Technology.

During the night of June 3, 1989, Kong was shot in the calf in Muxidi. After treatment, he was left with a frightening half foot-long scar.

15. Chen Jun, male, nineteen years old at the time of his injury. Personal information unknown.

During the early morning of June 4, 1989, near the State Council National Economic Committee, he was shot in the left leg. After emergency treatment he completely recovered.

16. Wang Kuanbao, male, injured at the age of 19, PhD student at the Beijing Steel and Iron Institute.

At about 6 a.m. on the morning of June 4, 1989, Wang retreated from Tiananmen with the student demonstrators. When they passed through Liubukou, he met another PhD student who was also pushing a bicycle. Just as they were walking along talking, a tank suddenly swerved and charged toward them. The two were not able to get out of the way and were knocked over. After much desperate struggles,Wang’s pelvis was crushed, flesh and blood turned into the consistency of mud but he survived. His companion, however, was killed on the spot.

17. Cheng Chunzheng, male, injured at the age of 20, student at the Taiyuan College of Finance and Economics, Shanxi.

On the night of June 3, 1989, Chen was shot in the thigh while in Xidan and was sent to the Beijing Jishuitan Hospital for emergency treatment. His school refused to pay his medical bills so he was stuck in the hospital for eleven months. Soon afterwards his school expelled him.

18. Liu Baodong, male, injured at the age of 20, student in the Chinese Literature Department at the Baoding Teachers College in Hebei Province.

During the night of June 3, 1989, while in the Nanchizi district, he was seriously wounded by a gunshot to the base of his thigh by strafing gunfire from martial law troops. Liu was sent to Beijing Jishuitan Hospital. With great difficulty the medical personnel were able to save his leg. His school refused to pay his medical bills so he was stuck in the hospital for ten months. Soon afterwards his school expelled him.

19. Qi Zhiyong, male, injured at the age of 33, originally a sixth level expert oil lubrication worker at the Beijing Urban Construction Sixth Company, later quit to become an independent entrepreneur.

At 1:20 a.m. on the morning of June 4, 1989, while in Xirongxian Hutong in the Xidan district, he ran into the slaughter by the martial law troops. Ji was shot in both legs. After treatment at Xuanwu Hospital in Beijing, his left leg was amputated and become a handicapped person who could only move on crutches. Since Ji was willing to stand up and give interviews to western journalists and accuse the Communist Party of murder, the police repeatedly detained him and put him under house arrest.

20. Unwilling to disclose name, male, injured at the age of twelve, elementary school pupil, Beijing resident.

At about 3 p.m. on the afternoon of June 6, 1989, after getting out of school, while passing by the entrance to the Muxidi Subway station, he encountered strafing gunfire from martial law troops. He dropped to the ground at the sound of gunfire. He was hit in the lower abdomen and left arm. The undisciplined troops yelled and ordered the crowd not to go near him. He lay there for half an hour while bleeding profusely. After the tank left, people rushed him to the Fuxing Hospital for emergency treatment that saved his life. His spleen and a kidney were removed and a rib was damaged. He was handicapped from then on.

21. Unwilling to disclose name, male, physician, from Yanbian City in Jilin Province.

Before June 4, 1989, he had come to Beijing for internship at the Beijing Obstetrics Gynecology Hospital. Because he had participated in patriotic street demonstrations, from June 4, 1989, he was confined to the Zhongshan Park for over twenty days. He was beaten several times leaving him disabled in his right arm and no longer able to work as a physician. Later he returned to hometown. His current circumstances are not known.

22. Not willing to disclose name, male, twenty years old at time of injury, university student from Jinhua in Zhejiang.

After June 4, 1989, he was arrested and confined for several months at the Qincheng Prison in Beijing. In his despair he developed a mental illness.

23. Unwilling to disclose name, male, twenty years old at the time of injury, employee, Beijing resident.

During the night of June 6, 1989, he went out with several people including Wang Zhengsheng and An Ji when he suddenly ran into the slaughter by martial law troops. He was shot but just barely managed to survive. He had two operations during his six month hospital stay. He still has lingering fears from that day.

24. Unwilling to disclose name and age, male, employee, Beijing resident.

During the night of June 6, 1989, he went out with several people including Wang Zhengsheng and An Ji when he suddenly ran into the slaughter by martial law troops. Although shot in the abdomen, he, like the previous person, managed to survive. He spent a month in the hospital and was free of aftereffects.

25. Unwilling to disclose name, female, eighteen years old at time of injury, student at a vocational school.

During the night of June 3, while in the Wukesong district of Beijing, she encountered strafing fire from martial law troops. She was hit in the right arm by a dumdum bullet banned under international treaty. Flesh and blood flew everywhere. She got emergency treatment at Military Hospital 304. She was left handicapped which prevented her from being assigned a job after graduation.

26. Unwilling to disclose name, male, over twenty years old at time of injury, individual entrepreneur, Beijing resident.

During the early morning of June 4, 1989, he was shot in the thigh by random bullet at an unknown location. After an operation, he was basically cured. Five years late, the old wound erupted again. He couldn’t afford medical care so he just muddled along one day at a time.

27. Unwilling to disclose name, male, over twenty years old at time of injury, university student, resident of Wuhan City.

During the early morning of June 4, 1989, he was shot in the calf at an unknown location. He had two operations but still hadn’t returned to normal. At the end of 1993, he had still another major operation but still can’t do heavy work.

28. Unwilling to disclose name, male, 32 years old at the time of injury, laboratory technician, Beijing resident.

On the early morning of June 4, 1989, near the Xidan district, he was shot by a dumdum bullet banned by international treaty. His right leg was broken and his sciatic nerve was blown apart. Emergency treatment saved his life but he developed osteomyelitis. He was treated for it for several years at many hospitals but never cured. After six operations, a steel re-inforcing support was put into place but walking is still difficult.

29. Unwilling to disclose name, male, about twenty year old at the time of his injury, university student, resident of Fuzhou.

During the daylight hours of June 5, 1989, he was strolling near the main gate of Beijing Broadcasting School, hysterical strafing fire from a martial law tank crew hit him in the buttocks. He was restored to health but became lame.

30. Unwilling to disclose name and age, male, employee, Beijing resident.

During the early morning of June 4, 1989, about 500 meters north of Muxidi Bridge, he was shot in the right ankle. After treatment, he was completely cured.

31. Unwilling to disclose name, male, 34 years old at the time of injury, sales manager, Beijing resident.

During the early morning of June 4, 1989, near the Liubukou intersection, he encountered the slaughter by martial law troops. Many people were shot to death. When he was helping an injured person, he was shot in the thigh resulting in a comminuted fracture. After emergency treatment, osteomyelitis developed. He consulted many physicians and spent two years in the hospital. Now he wears a steel brace on his leg. Moving takes strenuous effort.

32. Unwilling to disclose name, male, 28 years old at the time of injury, driver at certain company, Beijing resident.

At 2 AM on the early morning of June 4, 1989, near Xidan, a bullet passed through him from the back near his vertebrae, injuring his liver and lungs. He was treated at the Beijing Xuanwu hospital for two weeks. After he got out, he developed a secondary infection and had to be re-admitted. His work unit refused to pay his medical expenses and so the large medical bill nearly bankrupted his family.

33. Unwilling to disclose name, male, 45 years old at the time of the injury, individual entrepreneur, Beijing resident.

During the early morning of June 4, 1989, at Fuchengmen he encountered a slaughter by martial law troops. Two bullets hit him, one in each leg. One bullet shattered the knee cap on his right leg leaving him handicapped for life. As he was being rushed to the Beijing Xuanwu hospital, dying beside him in the ambulance was a twenty year old young man hit in the left chest by a bullet.

34. Unwilling to disclose name and age, female, university student.

During the early morning of June 4, 1989, the explosion of a smoke shell injured her right leg. She was sent to the Beijing Xuanwu Hospital. She was treated for a long while but her leg did not heal.

35. Unwilling to disclose name, male, 32 years old at the time of injury, employee, Beijing resident.

During the night of June 3, 1989, he was attacked by martial law troops near Liubukou. During waves and waves gunfire he had just followed the tide of retreating demonstrators into a small alley when he was unfortunately hit by a bullet on the top right of his head, instantly fracturing his skull. He was immediately sent to Peking University Third Hospital for treatment where he remained for more than half a year. He underwent many major operations. Surprisingly, he survived in the end and his thinking was normal. He was paralyzed in half his body, however. He could not lift his left arm and he could only move his left leg with great difficulty.

36. Unwilling to disclose name, male, 39 years old at the time of injury, journalist, Beijing resident.

At about 11 PM on the night of June 3, 1989, near the Military Museum, he ran into a slaughter. He was hit in the lower abdomen by internationally banned dumdum bullets, severing his intestines and damaging his liver. Some people took him to the Fuxing Hospital for emergency treatment. The hospital was in chaos and medical personnel, seeing his mess of blood and torn flesh, thought that he was already dead and so had him tossed directly into the pile of dead bodies. Later, someone walking by heard him moaning, and so he was dug and pulled out of the pile of the dead and sent to the Haidian Hospital for emergency treatment. After three major operations, he was able to leave the hospital completely cured of his wounds at the end of 1990. However he was the object of repeated police interrogations and investigations after his release.

37. Unwilling to disclose name, male, 27 years old at the time of injury, unemployed.

During the early morning hours of June 4, 1989, he was shot in the pelvis when was at an unknown location. Emergency treatment at the Xuanwu Hospital saved his life. The bullet was never removed from his body.

38. Male, unwilling to disclose any personal information.

On June 4, 1989, he was shot at an unknown location. The details are not known.

39. Unwilling to disclose name and age, male, deputy editor-in-chief, Beijing resident.

During the early morning of June 4, 1989, he was shot at an unknown location. He was treated for a long time but not cured of his wounds. His work unit investigated him. Although he was not dismissed, he has never been given any position of responsibility.

40. Unwilling to disclose name, male, over 20 years old at the time of injury, employee, Beijing resident.

During the early morning of June 4, 1989, he was injured at an unknown location. His right arm was amputated and so he is handicapped for life.

41. Unwilling to disclose name, male, over 20 years old at the time of injury, university student, Beijing resident.

During the early morning hours of June 4, 1989, he along with the student demonstrators retreated from Tiananmen. When he was passing by Liubukou, he was run over by a wildly-driven tank. He had fractures in his chest but survived after being given emergency treatment.

42. Unwilling to disclose name, male, over 20 years old at the time of injury, university student, Beijing resident.

During the early morning hours of June 4, 1989, he along with the student demonstrators retreated from Tiananmen. When he was passing by Liubukou, he was seriously injured after being run over by a wildly-driven tank. He survived after being given emergency treatment.

43. Unwilling to disclose name, male, over 20 years old at the time of injury, university student, Beijing resident.

During the early morning hours of June 4, 1989, he ran into a massacre near Tiananmen. He was shot in the abdomen but survived after being given emergency treatment.

44. Unwilling to disclose name and age, male, university student, Beijing resident.

During the early morning hours of June 4, 1989, he along with the student demonstrators retreated from Tiananmen. When he was passing by Liubukou, he was run over by a wildly-driven tank but survived after being given emergency treatment.

45. Unwilling to disclose name, male, 18 years old at time of injury, technician, Beijing resident.

During the early morning of June 4, 1989, at an unknown location he was shot in the leg. His wounds were not cured despite a long treatment. Details not available.

46. Unwilling to disclose name and age, male, Tianjin resident.

During the early morning of June 4, 1989, at an unknown location, he was beaten and one of his legs was broken. Details not available.

47. Unwilling to disclose name, male, 15 years old at time of injury, middle school student, Beijing resident.

During the early morning of June 4, 1989, at an unknown location, he was shot in the leg. Despite lenghty treatment, his wound was not cured. Details not available.

48. Unwilling to disclose name, male, 21 year at the time of injury, worker, Beijing resident.

During the early morning of June 4, 1989, he ran into a slaughter on the road south of the reviewing stand to the west of Tiananmen. As he followed the fleeing crowd he was hit by a bullet that entered him at the front of his right shoulder blade and exited through his upper right arm, resulting in a comminuted and open fracture. Later he was sent to a big van in the center of the square for emergency treatment. When he arrived, there were already about 40 plus injured people inside it. Some were already dead while others were just barely breathing. They had all been shot in the area around Tiananmen Square.

The driver started to drive east but ran into wave after wave of fierce strafing fire. The driver was forced to wave a white shirt as he maneuvered the steering wheel while yelling, “This vehicle is transporting injured people, please hold your fire!”

The bullet-peppered ambulance finally reached Peking Medical College School Hospital. Most of the wounded were already dead but amazingly, he survived. He spent over a month in the hospital and underwent several operations. All his wounds were cured and he could once again see the light of day.

49. Unwilling to reveal name, male, 30 years old at the time of injury, worker.

During the early morning hours of June 4, 1989, he ran into a massacre near the Kentucky Fried Chicken Restaurant in Qianmen. Unfortunately, he was shot, leaving several bullet holes in his left leg.

Chinese text:

49位大屠殺傷殘者名單

(1989–2011)

搜集者:天安門母親群體

提供者:丁子霖 蔣培坤

(由於中國政府的持續高壓和被訪者的心有餘悸,天安門母親群體在走訪調查過程中,經歷了重重阻礙,不少傷殘者不愿透露具體的個人信息,請不同社會背景的讀者們體諒)

1,方政,男,22歲受傷,北京體育學院生物力學系學生。 1989年6月4號清晨約6點,他隨示威學生長隊,從天安門廣場撤離,途經六部口時,戒嚴部隊坦克竟突然從街面轉向,徑直拐上自行車道,碾軋學生隊伍。大伙兒惊散,坦克卻窮追不捨,還接二連三發射毒气彈。他身邊一同校女生中毒昏倒,眼看要被衝過來的坦克壓扁,他急忙抱住她,朝旁邊閃避。女生得救了,他卻被絞入履帶,被拖出好長一段路。他慘嚎著,憑藉求生本能掙扎著,上半身終於擺脫了,可雙腿卻被履帶活生生撕掉,帶走了。 經醫院搶救,他終於甦醒。他頑強地生存下來,經“人道中國”援助,目前居住在美國舊金山。

2,蘇文魁,男,22歲受傷,中國青年政治學院 學生。 1989年6月4日清晨約6點,隨示威學生長隊從天安門廣場撤出,途徑六部口,他也被毒氣彈熏昏,也被帶走方政雙腿的那輛坦克軋成重傷,並中槍。經搶救死而復生,卻終身瘸腿。

3,劉剛,男,36歲受傷,北京市機械進出口公司業務經理。 1989年6月3號夜間,在木樨地他,被槍彈擊中前胸以上脊椎,造成高位截癱。多年過去了,他的神志尚清醒,四肢功能卻全部喪失,處於生不如死的狀態。他的醫療維持費用由單位負擔著。

4,宋秋劍,男,17歲受傷,某中專學生。

1989年6月7號白天,他騎自行車上學途中,在北京站一帶,遭遇戒嚴部隊坦克。耀武揚威的士兵喝令往來行人“統統趴下”,接著朝路兩邊瘋狂掃射,砂土飛濺中,數名無辜者中彈,血流遍地。當戰車呼嘯而過,群眾才敢露面,扶起五位傷員,用三輪車拉到醫院搶救。他是其中之一。他中的竟然是國際禁用的子母彈!子彈刮過皮膚,母彈則鑽入肝部,擦傷脊柱。由協和醫院救治後,留下終身殘疾。至今仍一腿枴瘸。

5,田某,男,16歲受傷,中國人民大學附中初三學生。 1989年6月4號白天,他與同學騎車出行,途徑王府井南池子一帶,遭失去約束的亂兵掃射。一顆子彈飛來,他本能地偏一下頭,撿了一命,額際卻留下一條槽。經協和醫院救治,因驚嚇過度,導致精神失常,入住北醫三院神經科治療,花費掉巨額醫療費。終於失學在家,現在只能做些簡單的工作。

6,楚曼青,女,20歲受傷,北京大學地質系學生。 1989年6月3號夜間,她參加救護隊,在天安門廣場附近救助遭槍擊倒地的傷員時,被戒嚴部隊裝甲車衝撞,軋傷腿骨,送醫院晝夜搶救,以不銹鋼材料固定肢體。接著是長期的非人煎熬,身心才慢慢癒合。畢業後出國深造。

7,王巖,男,20多歲受傷,航天部五零二所職工。 1989年6月4號淩晨,他在至今不詳的地點,中彈致殘。1993年,因不堪肉體折磨,曾一次性吞服70多片安眠藥自殺,幸而被家人及時發現,搶救脫險。出院後,多年仍需要年邁父母的陪伴照顧。

8,陳寧,男,30歲受傷,中國地質管理學院幹部學院。 1989年6月3號夜間,在木樨地居民樓第二十九幢的花壇後,他被流彈擊碎雙膝。經北京市積水潭醫院搶救,做了兩次手術,兩年後才稍微恢復步行能力。不料遭遇“秋後算帳”,被所在單位清查,停職停課,還給予黨紀處分。

9,李蘭夫,女,30歲受傷,長城集團公司辦公室主任。 1989年6月3號夜間,與陳寧在同時同地,同墜噩夢。雙腿中彈,幸未傷及筋骨。但留下大面積植皮。

10,王天軍,男,28歲受傷,職業不詳。

1989年6月4號白天,在王府井附近,他的左臂遭槍擊,運動神經斷裂,送協和醫院搶救後,轉積水潭醫院截肢。左臂已殘。

11,於之翰,男,30歲受傷,國家環保局政策研究室。 1989年6月3號夜間,他在木樨地中彈,傷及胯骨,導致瘸腿。因不堪其單位的清查迫害,不久即辭職,赴特區深圳工作。

12,徐陽成,男,40歲受傷,職業不詳,受傷前已離職。 1989年6月3號夜間,在木樨地,他的腿部中彈,後遺骨髓炎,必須每天在藥桶中浸泡數小時。多年無法擺脫病痛和生活窘境,靠妻子和母親的微薄收入維持基本溫飽。

13,李克勤,男,二十歲受傷,中國人民大學新聞系代培攝影班學員。 1989年6月3日夜間,在不明地點,身中兩彈,傷痛多年,現已治愈。

14,孔立新,男,受傷時年齡不詳。北京理工大學機械工程系教師。 1989年6月3號夜間,在木樨地,他被一顆子彈擊中小腿,經救治,留下半尺多長的駭人傷疤。

15,陳軍,男,19歲受傷。個人情況不詳。

1989年6月4日淩晨,在國務院經濟委員會附近,左腿中槍,經救治痊癒。

16,王寬保,男,19歲受傷,北京鋼鐵學院博士研究生。 1989年6月4號清晨約6點,他隨示威學生隊伍從天安門廣場撤離,途徑六部口時,與另一位推著自行車的博士研究生相遇,正邊交談邊走路,一輛坦克卻突然拐彎撞來,兩人躲閃不及,被雙雙軋倒。經拼力掙扎,他的股盆粉 ,血漿如泥,卻撿得一命;而他的同伴當即死於非命。

17,程純正,男,20歲受傷,山西省太原財經學院學生。 1989年6月3號夜間,在西單一帶,他被子彈擊中大腿,送北京市積水潭醫院救治。由於母校拒付醫療費,他被困在醫院近11個月。稍後,又被開除學籍。

18,劉保東,男,20歲受傷,河北省保定師範專科學校中文系學生。 1989年6月3號夜間,在南池子一帶,在戒嚴部隊的掃射中,他被擊中大腿根,傷勢嚴重,送北京市積水潭醫院,醫護人員竭盡全力才保住他的腿。由於母校拒付醫療費,他被困醫院十個月。稍後,被開除學籍。

19,齊志勇,男,33歲受傷,原北京市城建六公司六级油工,後離職,成為个体戶。 1989年6月4號淩晨1點20分,在西單西絨線衚衕,遭遇戒嚴部隊殺戮,兩條大腿同時中槍。經北京市宣武醫院救治,左腿鋸掉,成為挾雙拐活動的殘疾人。因公開站出來,接受西方記者採訪,控訴共產黨殺人,而一再遭到警察的抓捕和軟禁。

20,不愿透露姓名,男,12歲受傷,小學生,北京人。 1989年6月6號下午3點鐘左右,他放學回家,經過木樨地地鐵口,遭遇戒嚴部隊坦克上的機槍掃射,他應聲倒地,被擊中小腹和左胳膊。亂兵大吼大叫,喝令群眾戒不得靠近。他躺地上半個多小時,血流如注。戰車遠去後,大伙兒急送復興醫院,挽救一命。可他的脾臟和一個腎臟卻被摘除,肋骨也挫傷,從此殘廢了。

21,不愿透露姓名和年齡,男,醫生,吉林省延邊市人。 1989年6月4號前,來北京市婦產醫院實習,因投入愛國的街頭政治,從6月4號起,被關押在中山公園20餘天,遭到多次毆打,右手致殘,再也無法做醫生。他後來回到老家,近況不詳。

22,不愿透露姓名,男,20歲受傷,大學生,浙江金華人。 1989年6月4號後,被抓捕,關押在北京市秦城監獄數月,因絕望,精神失常。

23,不愿透露姓名,男,20歲受傷,職員,北京人。 1989年6月6號夜間,與弟弟王爭勝和安基等人出行,突然遭遇戒嚴部隊殺戮。他雖中彈,卻死裏逃生。住院半年,做了兩次手術,至今心有餘悸。

24,不愿透露姓名和年齡,男,職員,北京人。 1989年6月6號夜間,與王爭勝和安基等人出行,突然遭遇戒嚴部隊殺戮。他雖腹部中槍,也同上一位一樣,死裏逃生。住院一個月,沒留後遺癥。

25,不愿透露姓名,女,18歲受傷,中專生。 1989年6月3號夜間,在北京五棵松一帶,在戒嚴部隊的掃射中,他被國際禁用的達姆彈擊中右臂,血肉橫飛。經304醫院救治。落下殘疾,因此畢業分配受到阻礙。

26,不愿透露姓名,男,20餘歲受傷,個體戶,北京人。 1989年6月4號淩晨,在不明地點,大腿被亂槍射中,經過手術,基本痊癒。可5年後舊傷復發,無錢醫治,拖一天算一天。

27,不愿透露姓名,男,20餘受傷,大學生,武漢市人。 1989年6月4號淩晨,在不明地點,小腿中槍,做過兩次手術,一直沒複原。1993年年底再次大手術,至今不能幹重活兒。

28,不愿透露姓名,男,32歲受傷,實驗員,北京人。 1989年6月4號淩晨,在北京西單附近,被國際禁用的達姆彈擊中,右腿骨折,坐骨神經炸裂,經搶救活命,卻後遺骨髓炎。經多所醫院治療,數年不愈。先後手術6次,安裝了鋼筋支架,仍然行動不便。

29,不愿透露姓名,男,約20歲受傷,大學生,福州人。 1989年6月5號白天,他在北京市廣播學校大門口遛達,被戒嚴部隊坦克歇斯底里的掃射命中屁股,己治愈,卻變成了瘸子。

30,不愿透露姓名和年齡,男,職員,北京人。 1989年6月4號淩晨,在木樨地橋北500米左右,他的右腳踝中彈,經救治痊癒。

31,不愿透露姓名,男,34歲受傷,銷售部經理,北京人。 1989年6月4號淩晨,在六部口附近,遭遇戒嚴部隊殺戮,大量群眾倒斃。他在搶救傷員時,大腿中槍,粉碎性骨折。經救治,後遺骨髓炎。多方求醫,先後住院兩年,現在腿部安裝鋼架,行動非常吃力。

32,不愿透露姓名,男,28歲受傷,某公司汽車司機,北京人。 1989年6月4號淩晨2時,在西單附近,一顆子彈從他的後背脊椎旁穿過,傷及肝和肺,經北京市宣武醫院救治半月,出院,不料二度感染,二度入院。因單位拒絕報銷,巨額醫療費幾乎讓他傾家盪產。

33,不愿透露姓名,男,45歲受傷,個體戶,北京人。 1989年6月4號淩晨,在阜成門遭遇戒嚴部隊殺戮,他被兩顆子彈分別擊中兩腿,右腿膝蓋被粉碎,造成終身殘疾。在送往北京市宣武醫院途中,同車有個20歲左右的男青年,左胸中彈,夭折在他的旁邊。

34,不愿透露姓名和年齡,女,大學生。

1989年6月4號淩晨,在不明地點,她的右腿被煙幕彈炸傷,送北京市宣武醫院,卻久治不愈。

35,不愿透露姓名,男,32歲受傷,職員,北京人。 1989年6月3號夜間,在六部口附近,被戒嚴部隊襲擊,在一陣陣掃射中,他隨逃命的大流,剛從街面鑽入胡同口,卻不幸被亂槍擊中右邊頭頂,腦蓋骨頓時粉碎。當即送北醫三院搶救,住院大半年,大手術無數次,居然活過來,思維也正常。但半身不遂,左臂不能擡起,左腿邁步吃力。

36,不愿透露姓名,男,39歲受傷,記者,北京人。 1989年6月3號午夜11點左右,在軍事博物館附近,遭遇殺戮,他的小腹被國際禁用的達姆彈命中,腸子斷裂,肝擦傷,被民眾送往復興醫院搶救。當時一派忙亂,醫護人員見他血肉模糊,以為已經死掉,就直接扔屍體堆裏。後來有人路過,聽見呻吟,才重新扒拉出來,轉送海澱醫院搶救。先後動了3次大手術,於1990年底傷癒出院。卻一再遭到警察盤問和清查。

37,不愿透露姓名,男,27歲受傷,失業人員。 1989年6月4號淩晨,他在不明地點,骨盆中彈。送北京市宣武醫院救治,起死回生,彈頭至今沒有取出。

38,男,不愿透露任何個人資料。

1989年6月4號,在不明地點中彈,細節不詳。

39,不愿透露姓名和年齡,男,副總編輯,北京人。 1989年6月4號淩晨,他在不明地點中槍,久治不愈。還被本單位清查,雖未撤職,但已無職權。

40,不愿透露姓名,男,20餘歲受傷,職員,北京人。 1989年6月4號淩晨,他在不明地點受傷,右臂截肢,終身殘疾。

41,不愿透露姓名,男,20餘歲受傷,大學生,北京人。 1989年6月4號淩晨,他隨示威學生長隊從天安門廣場撤出,路過六部口,被狂奔的坦克碾軋,胸部骨折,經搶救存活。

42,不愿透露姓名,男,20餘歲受傷,大學生,北京人。 1989年6月4號淩晨,他隨示威學生長隊從天安門廣場撤出,路過六部口,被狂奔的坦克碾成重傷,經搶救存活。

43,不愿透露姓名,男,20餘歲受傷,大學生,北京人。 1989年6月4號淩晨,在天安門附近遭遇殺戮,他的腹部中槍,經搶救存活。

44,不愿透露姓名和年齡,男,大學生,北京人。 1989年6月4號淩晨,他隨示威學生長隊從天安門廣場撤出,路過六部口,被狂奔的坦克碾成重傷,經搶救存活。

45,不愿透露姓名,男,18歲受傷,技術工人,北京人。 1989年6月4號淩晨,在不明地點,腿部中槍,久治不愈。細節不詳。

46,不愿透露姓名和年齡,男,天津人。

1989年6月4號淩晨,在不明地點中槍,一條腿被打斷。細節不詳。

47,不愿透露姓名,男,15歲受傷,中學生,北京人。 1989年6月4號淩晨,在不明地點,一條腿中槍,曾經久治不愈,細節不詳。

48,不愿透露姓名,男,21歲受傷,工人,北京人。 1989年6月4號淩晨,在天安門西觀禮臺南面馬路上遭遇殺戮,他隨大流逃命,被一顆流彈命中,從右肩胛骨前方進入,右上臂外側穿出,造成粉碎性合併開放性骨折。稍後被送入廣場中心一大轎車搶救,車內約有40多名傷員,有的已死,有的奄奄一息,都是在廣場周圍中槍的。

司機駕車東行,卻遭遇一陣又一陣猛烈掃射,於是,司機邊轉動方向盤,邊揮舞一件白襯衫,連聲大喊:“這是運傷員的車,請不要開槍!”

渾身彈洞的救護車終於抵達北京市協和醫院。大多數傷員已經殆亡,他居然奇跡般存活下來。住院一個多月,手術數次,傷癒,重見天日。

49,不愿透露姓名,男,30歲受傷,工人。 1989年6月4號淩晨,在前門肯德基快餐店附近遭遇殺戮,不幸中槍,左腿留下多個彈孔。

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